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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445768/extreme-environment-effects-on-cognitive-functions-a-longitudinal-study-in-high-altitude-in-antarctica
#1
Irén Barkaszi, Endre Takács, István Czigler, László Balázs
This paper focuses on the impact of long-term Antarctic conditions on cognitive processes. Behavioral responses and event-related potentials were recorded during an auditory distraction task and an attention network paradigm. Participants were members of the over-wintering crew at Concordia Antarctic Research Station. Due to the reduced partial pressure of oxygen this environment caused moderate hypoxia. Beyond the hypoxia, the fluctuation of sunshine duration, isolation and confinement were the main stress factors of this environment...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27065004/involuntary-capture-and-voluntary-reorienting-of-attention-decline-in-middle-aged-and-old-participants
#2
Kenia S Correa-Jaraba, Susana Cid-Fernández, Mónica Lindín, Fernando Díaz
The main aim of this study was to examine the effects of aging on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) associated with the automatic detection of unattended infrequent deviant and novel auditory stimuli (Mismatch Negativity, MMN) and with the orienting to these stimuli (P3a component), as well as the effects on ERPs associated with reorienting to relevant visual stimuli (Reorienting Negativity, RON). Participants were divided into three age groups: (1) Young: 21-29 years old; (2) Middle-aged: 51-64 years old; and (3) Old: 65-84 years old...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26672164/-active-and-passive-discrimination-of-moving-sounds-event-related-responses-of-human-brain
#3
L B Shestopalova, E A Petropavlovskaia, S Ph Vaitulevich, N I Nikitin
The current study investigates auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) and mismatch negativity (MMN) during active and passive discrimination of stationary and moving sound stimuli presented according to the oddball paradigm. Standard stimuli represented stationary midline sounds. Deviant stimuli simulated sound source location shifts (to the left/right from head midline) produced by linear or stepwise changes of interaural time delay (ITD). The event-related responses were evaluated by peak amplitudes of N1 waves and mean amplitudes of MMN, P3a, P3b and reorienting negativity (RON) components...
September 2015: Rossiĭskii Fiziologicheskiĭ Zhurnal Imeni I.M. Sechenova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26615528/the-ultra-slow-nat2-6a-haplotype-is-associated-with-reduced-higher-cognitive-functions-in-an-elderly-study-group
#4
Silvia Selinski, Stephan Getzmann, Patrick D Gajewski, Meinolf Blaszkewicz, Jan G Hengstler, Michael Falkenstein, Klaus Golka
N-Acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) genotype is associated with age-related declines in basic sensory hearing functions. However, the possible modulatory role of NAT2 for higher cognitive functions has not yet been studied. We tested auditory goal-directed behavior and attentional control in 120 NAT2 genotyped subjects (63-88 years), using an auditory distraction paradigm in which participants responded to the duration of long and short tone stimuli. We studied involuntary shifts in attention to task-irrelevant deviant stimuli and applied event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine which cognitive subprocesses are affected by NAT2 status on a neurophysiological level...
December 2015: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25447300/erp-correlates-of-auditory-goal-directed-behavior-of-younger-and-older-adults-in-a-dynamic-speech-perception-task
#5
Stephan Getzmann, Michael Falkenstein, Edmund Wascher
The ability to understand speech under adverse listening conditions deteriorates with age. In addition to genuine hearing deficits, age-related declines in attentional and inhibitory control are assumed to contribute to these difficulties. Here, the impact of task-irrelevant distractors on speech perception was studied in 28 younger and 24 older participants in a simulated "cocktail party" scenario. In a two-alternative forced-choice word discrimination task, the participants responded to a rapid succession of short speech stimuli ("on" and "off") that was presented at a frequent standard location or at a rare deviant location in silence or with a concurrent distractor speaker...
February 1, 2015: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25379456/cortical-substrates-and-functional-correlates-of-auditory-deviance-processing-deficits-in-schizophrenia
#6
Anthony J Rissling, Makoto Miyakoshi, Catherine A Sugar, David L Braff, Scott Makeig, Gregory A Light
Although sensory processing abnormalities contribute to widespread cognitive and psychosocial impairments in schizophrenia (SZ) patients, scalp-channel measures of averaged event-related potentials (ERPs) mix contributions from distinct cortical source-area generators, diluting the functional relevance of channel-based ERP measures. SZ patients (n = 42) and non-psychiatric comparison subjects (n = 47) participated in a passive auditory duration oddball paradigm, eliciting a triphasic (Deviant-Standard) tone ERP difference complex, here termed the auditory deviance response (ADR), comprised of a mid-frontal mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a positivity, and re-orienting negativity (RON) peak sequence...
2014: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23874278/the-role-of-auditory-transient-and-deviance-processing-in-distraction-of-task-performance-a-combined-behavioral-and-event-related-brain-potential-study
#7
Stefan Berti
Distraction of goal-oriented performance by a sudden change in the auditory environment is an everyday life experience. Different types of changes can be distracting, including a sudden onset of a transient sound and a slight deviation of otherwise regular auditory background stimulation. With regard to deviance detection, it is assumed that slight changes in a continuous sequence of auditory stimuli are detected by a predictive coding mechanisms and it has been demonstrated that this mechanism is capable of distracting ongoing task performance...
2013: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23159833/age-dependent-changes-of-distractibility-and-reorienting-of-attention-revisited-an-event-related-potential-study
#8
Stefan Berti, Martin Grunwald, Erich Schröger
Adults of three age groups (18-27, 39-45, and 59-66 years) performed an auditory duration discrimination task with short (200 ms) or long (400 ms) sinusoidal tones. Performance was highly accurate and reaction times were on the same level in all groups, indicating no differences in auditory duration processing. Task irrelevant rare changes of the frequency of the stimuli were introduced to check whether the subjects, firstly, were distracted by changes in the environment while focusing on the task relevant information (indicated by prolonged responses), and, secondly, could re-focus on the relevant task after distraction...
January 23, 2013: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22608970/disentangling-early-sensory-information-processing-deficits-in-schizophrenia
#9
Anthony J Rissling, David L Braff, Neal R Swerdlow, Gerhard Hellemann, Yuri Rassovsky, Joyce Sprock, Marlena Pela, Gregory A Light
OBJECTIVE: The disentangling of early sensory information processing deficits and examination of their relationships to demographic and clinical factors are important steps for the validation of potential biomarkers and/or endophenotypes of schizophrenia. The aims of the present study were to characterize commonly used sensory event-related potential deficits, to determine whether they are (1) distinct from one another and (2) independently associated with important clinical characteristics...
October 2012: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21740622/automatic-sensory-information-processing-abnormalities-across-the-illness-course-of-schizophrenia
#10
C Jahshan, K S Cadenhead, A J Rissling, K Kirihara, D L Braff, G A Light
BACKGROUND: Deficits in automatic sensory discrimination, as indexed by a reduction in the mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a event-related potential amplitudes, are well documented in chronic schizophrenia. However, MMN and P3a have not been sufficiently studied early in the course of psychotic illness. The present study aimed to investigate MMN, P3a and reorienting negativity (RON) across the course of schizophrenia. METHOD: MMN, P3a, and RON were assessed in 118 subjects across four groups: (1) individuals at risk for psychosis (n=26); (2) recent-onset patients (n=31); (3) chronic patients (n=33); and (4) normal controls (n=28) using a duration-deviant auditory oddball paradigm...
January 2012: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21443924/involuntary-attention-impairment-in-early-parkinson-s-disease-an-event-related-potential-study
#11
Rodolfo Solís-Vivanco, Josefina Ricardo-Garcell, Mario Rodríguez-Camacho, Roberto A Prado-Alcalá, Ulises Rodríguez, Mayela Rodríguez-Violante, Yaneth Rodríguez-Agudelo
Dopaminergic nigro-striatal depletion interferes with the detection of novel stimuli. This suggests that Parkinson's disease (PD) may generate from the initial stages a failure in involuntary attention (IA), which can be studied through the distraction potential, composed by the mismatch negativity (MMN), the P3a and the reorientation negativity (RON). This study analyzed IA using event-related potentials (ERPs) in patients with early PD with and without dopaminergic replacement therapy. Twenty-five medicated, and 17 non-medicated patients with early PD were studied, as well as 20 healthy control subjects...
May 16, 2011: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21382437/temporal-regularity-effects-on-pre-attentive-and-attentive-processing-of-deviance
#12
Michael Schwartze, Kathrin Rothermich, Maren Schmidt-Kassow, Sonja A Kotz
Temporal regularity allows predicting the temporal locus of future information thereby potentially facilitating cognitive processing. We applied event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate how temporal regularity impacts pre-attentive and attentive processing of deviance in the auditory modality. Participants listened to sequences of sinusoidal tones differing exclusively in pitch. The inter-stimulus interval (ISI) in these sequences was manipulated to convey either isochronous or random temporal structure...
April 2011: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20929535/the-modulation-of-auditory-novelty-processing-by-working-memory-load-in-school-age-children-and-adults-a-combined-behavioral-and-event-related-potential-study
#13
Philipp Ruhnau, Nicole Wetzel, Andreas Widmann, Erich Schröger
BACKGROUND: We investigated the processing of task-irrelevant and unexpected novel sounds and its modulation by working-memory load in children aged 9-10 and in adults. Environmental sounds (novels) were embedded amongst frequently presented standard sounds in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm. Each sound was followed by a visual target. In two conditions, participants evaluated the position of a visual stimulus (0-back, low load) or compared the position of the current stimulus with the one two trials before (2-back, high load)...
2010: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20580694/to-switch-or-not-to-switch-brain-potential-indices-of-attentional-control-after-task-relevant-and-task-irrelevant-changes-of-stimulus-features
#14
Cordula Hölig, Stefan Berti
Attention is controlled by the interplay of sensory input and top-down processes. We compared attentional control processes during task switching and reorientation after distraction. The primary task was to discriminate laterally and centrally presented tones; these stimuli were composed of a frequent standard or an infrequent deviant pitch. In the distraction condition, pitch was irrelevant and could be ignored. In the switch condition, pitch changes were relevant: whenever a deviant tone was presented, participants had to discriminate its pitch and not its direction...
July 23, 2010: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18987205/increased-cognitive-functioning-in-symptomatic-huntington-s-disease-as-revealed-by-behavioral-and-event-related-potential-indices-of-auditory-sensory-memory-and-attention
#15
Christian Beste, Carsten Saft, Onur Güntürkün, Michael Falkenstein
Cognitive functions are thought to deteriorate globally in late stages of various neurodegenerative disorders. Here we describe that this general assumption is not justified and fails in Huntington's disease (HD). Presymptomatic gene mutation carriers (pHDs) and healthy controls performed worse compared with symptomatic HDs in an auditory signal detection task. During task performance, behavioral data and event-related potentials (ERPs) [i.e., MMN (mismatch negativity), P3a, and RON (reorienting negativity)] were recorded...
November 5, 2008: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18468765/do-n1-mmn-p3a-and-ron-form-a-strongly-coupled-chain-reflecting-the-three-stages-of-auditory-distraction
#16
János Horváth, István Winkler, Alexandra Bendixen
Distraction triggered by unexpected events is generally described in a serial model comprising (1) automatic detection of unexpected task-irrelevant events, (2) orienting towards the event, and (3) recovery from distraction. Processes taking place at the three stages are assumed to be reflected by the N1 and mismatch negativity (MMN); the P3a; and the reorienting negativity (RON) event-related potentials (ERPs), respectively. We investigated whether the processes indexed by these components form a strongly coupled chain, each co-varying with the preceding one...
October 2008: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18284343/when-loading-working-memory-reduces-distraction-behavioral-and-electrophysiological-evidence-from-an-auditory-visual-distraction-paradigm
#17
Iria SanMiguel, María-José Corral, Carles Escera
The sensitivity of involuntary attention to top-down modulation was tested using an auditory-visual distraction task and a working memory (WM) load manipulation in subjects performing a simple visual classification task while ignoring contingent auditory stimulation. The sounds were repetitive standard tones (80%) and environmental novel sounds (20%). Distraction caused by the novel sounds was compared across a 1-back WM condition and a no-memory control condition, both involving the comparison of two digits...
July 2008: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17241142/behavioral-and-event-related-potential-distraction-effects-with-regularly-occurring-auditory-deviants
#18
Sylvia Jankowiak, Stefan Berti
When auditory stimulation contains infrequent task-irrelevant changes (deviants), behavioral responses to task-relevant aspects of the stimulation are prolonged. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) show that deviants elicit mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a, and reorienting negativity (RON). Here, we examine whether distraction effects can also be elicited within fixed auditory sequences with deviant probabilities of 0.25, 0.33, and 0.5. Deviants varied either in pitch, loudness, or sound source location. In all conditions MMN and P3a were elicited, suggesting that an automatic detection of and an attentional allocation to the change occurred...
January 2007: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16926109/the-development-of-involuntary-and-voluntary-attention-from-childhood-to-adulthood-a-combined-behavioral-and-event-related-potential-study
#19
Nicole Wetzel, Andreas Widmann, Stefan Berti, Erich Schröger
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated auditory involuntary and voluntary attention in children aged 6-8, 10-12 and young adults. The strength of distracting stimuli (20% and 5% pitch changes) and the amount of allocation of attention were varied. METHODS: In an auditory distraction paradigm event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral data were measured from subjects either performing a sound duration discrimination task or watching a silent video. RESULTS: Pitch changed sounds caused prolonged reaction times and decreased hit rates in all age groups...
October 2006: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16356637/examining-task-dependencies-of-different-attentional-processes-as-reflected-in-the-p3a-and-reorienting-negativity-components-of-the-human-event-related-brain-potential
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Lutz Munka, Stefan Berti
Unexpected changes in task-irrelevant auditory stimuli are capable to distract processing of task-relevant visual information. This effect is accompanied by the elicitation of event-related potential (ERP) components associated with attentional orientation, i.e. P3a and reorienting negativity (RON). In the present study we varied the demands of a visual task in order to test whether the RON component -- as an index of attentional reorientation after distraction -- is confined to a semantic task requiring working memory...
April 3, 2006: Neuroscience Letters
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