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Toddler development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822898/beyond-dichotomies-m-others-structuring-and-the-development-of-toddlers-prosocial-behavior-across-cultures
#1
REVIEW
Joscha Kärtner
Basic elements of prosociality-(pro)social cognition, motivation, and prosocial behavior-emerge during the first and second year of life. These elements are rooted in biological predispositions and the developmental system is complemented by caregivers' structuring. By structuring, (m)others integrate toddlers' unrefined (pro)social sentiments and behavioral inclinations into coherent patterns and align toddlers' experience and behavior with the population's cultural model. These cultural models specify target states for appropriate affective, motivational and behavioral responses regarding toddlers' prosociality and these target states, in turn, inform (m)others' appraisal and guide their structuring...
August 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818590/emerging-and-legacy-flame-retardants-in-indoor-dust-from-east-china
#2
Changfeng Peng, Hongli Tan, Ying Guo, Yan Wu, Da Chen
To understand human exposure to dust-associated flame retardants in the biggest metropolitan area (city of Shanghai) of East China, our study determined a suite of legacy and emerging flame retardants in dust from dwellings, cars, and university computer labs. The results exhibited a consistent dominance of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) over polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other alternative flame retardants (AFRs) regardless of microenvironments. In addition to OPFRs, some alternative flame retardants, such as decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), 2-ethylhexyltetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB), bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromobenzoate (BEH-TEBP), and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), were also frequently detected...
August 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816916/developmental-screening-in-pediatric-sickle-cell-disease-disease-related-risk-and-screening-outcomes-in-4-year-olds
#3
Jeffrey Schatz, Alyssa Schlenz, Laura Reinman, Kelsey Smith, Carla W Roberts
OBJECTIVE: Studies of early child development in sickle cell disease (SCD) have found modest associations between disease-related risks and developmental status in infants and toddlers, but such associations are evident by early elementary school. We screened 4-year-old children with SCD using 2 screening strategies to assess if biomedical risk factors for neurologic disease are related to developmental screening outcomes at this intermediate age. METHODS: Seventy-seven 4-year-old children with SCD (M = 4...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814122/flibanserin-toxicity-in-a-toddler-following-ingestion
#4
Nicholas Granzella, Betty C Chen, Geoffrey S Baird, Matthew Valento
INTRODUCTION: Flibanserin is a medication recently approved by the FDA for treatment of generalized hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in premenopausal women. Its mechanism of action is not fully understood but is thought to modulate serotonin receptors and increase levels of norepinephrine and dopamine. While much is known about toxicity of other drugs which affect these systems, there is little information about toxicity of flibanserin at this time. CASE: We present a case of a 2-year-old boy who ingested an estimated 600 mg of his mother's flibanserin...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813555/analysis-of-item-level-bias-in-the-bayley-iii-language-subscales-the-validity-and-utility-of-standardized-language-assessment-in-a-multilingual-setting
#5
Shaun K Y Goh, Elaine K H Tham, Iliana Magiati, Litwee Sim, Shamini Sanmugam, Anqi Qiu, Mary L Daniel, Birit F P Broekman, Anne Rifkin-Graboi
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to improve standardized language assessments among bilingual toddlers by investigating and removing the effects of bias due to unfamiliarity with cultural norms or a distributed language system. Method: The Expressive and Receptive Bayley-III language scales were adapted for use in a multilingual country (Singapore). Differential item functioning (DIF) was applied to data from 459 two-year-olds without atypical language development...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813263/children-s-physiological-responses-to-childcare
#6
REVIEW
Harriet J Vermeer, Marleen G Groeneveld
This review focuses on children's physiological responses to out-of-home childcare. The finding that children's cortisol levels are higher at childcare than at home has been well-replicated. Here we summarize recent evidence examining possible correlates of elevated cortisol levels. Reviewed studies suggest that childcare quality matters, whereas group sizes and type of care do not. As for child characteristics, elevated cortisol at childcare is more pronounced in toddlers than in infants, and in inhibited and aggressive children...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804749/morphine-versus-methadone-treatment-for-neonatal-withdrawal-and-impact-on-early-infant-development
#7
Sharon Burke, Anna Malia Beckwith
Objective. Compare developmental outcomes in infants treated with morphine versus methadone. Method. Retrospective chart review of newborns identified through use of ICD-9 code for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Thirty-six infants were evaluated-17 treated with methadone and 19 treated with morphine. Assessment was completed following treatment using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition (Bayley-III). Scores in Cognitive, Language, and Motor domains were compared. Results. Comparison of scores between morphine- and methadone-treated groups revealed differences in mean Cognitive Composite (91...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803559/rethinking-the-idea-of-late-autism-spectrum-disorder-onset
#8
Elizabeth C Bacon, Eric Courchesne, Cynthia Carter Barnes, Debra Cha, Sunny Pence, Laura Schreibman, Aubyn C Stahmer, Karen Pierce
A common theory of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom onset includes toddlers who do not display symptoms until well after age 2, which are termed late-onset ASD cases. Objectives were to analyze differences in clinical phenotype between toddlers identified as ASD at initial evaluations (early diagnosed) versus those initially considered nonspectrum, then later identified as ASD (late diagnosed). Two hundred seventy-three toddlers recruited from the general population based on a failed developmental screening form or parent or physician concerns were followed longitudinally from 12 months and identified as early- and late-diagnosed cases of ASD, language delayed, or typically developing...
August 14, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799855/surgical-management-of-cervical-spine-deformity-in-chondrodysplasia-punctata
#9
Nobuhito Morota, Satoshi Ihara, Hideki Ogiwara, Goichiro Tamura
OBJECTIVE Chondrodysplasia punctata (CDP), a rare skeletal dysplasia, can lead to cervical spine instability and deformity. However, an optimal neurosurgical intervention has yet to be established. Thus, a retrospective study was conducted to assess the efficacy of various surgical interventions for children with CDP. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed 9 cases of CDP in which cervical decompression with or without posterior fusion was performed between April 2007 and May 2016. Patient demographics, preoperative clinical conditions, radiographic findings, surgical procedures, and the postoperative course were analyzed in detail...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796794/factors-associated-with-stunting-in-healthy-children-aged-5-years-and-less-living-in-bangui-rca
#10
Pascale Vonaesch, Laura Tondeur, Sébastien Breurec, Petula Bata, Liem Binh Luong Nguyen, Thierry Frank, Alain Farra, Clotaire Rafaï, Tamara Giles-Vernick, Jean Chrysostome Gody, Ionela Gouandjika-Vasilache, Philippe Sansonetti, Muriel Vray
Stunting remains a major public health concern worldwide. Although its global prevalence is slowly decreasing, the actual number of affected children is still rising in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the Central African Republic (CAR), about one third of all children below the age of five are stunted. Stunting is correlated with many long-term consequences, including poor cognitive development and a higher rate of morbidity and mortality, making stunting a major contributor to poverty. In CAR, little is known about the factors that contribute to stunting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792608/an-exploration-of-co-parenting-in-the-context-of-caring-for-a-child-prenatally-diagnosed-and-born-with-a-complex-health-condition
#11
Anne Chevalier Mckechnie, Jamie Rogstad, Katherine M Martin, Karen F Pridham
AIM: To describe co-parenting communication in couples in the context of caregiving for children prenatally diagnosed and born with complex health conditions. BACKGROUND: Fetal diagnosis of complex health conditions such as heart, central nervous system, or abdominal anomalies are confirmed more often than ever before. Following diagnosis, parents face challenges beginning before birth. The quality of co-parenting, when two individuals relate to each other as parents and share parental responsibilities, can have an impact on child health and development...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790973/malignant-cerebellar-edema-subsequent-to-accidental-prescription-opioid-intoxication-in-children
#12
Daniel Duran, Robert D Messina, Lauren A Beslow, Julio D Montejo, Jason K Karimy, Charuta Gavankar Furey, Alison D Sheridan, Gordon Sze, Yanki Yarman, Michael L DiLuna, Kristopher T Kahle
We present two recent cases of toddlers who developed malignant cerebellar edema subsequent to accidental ingestion of prescription opioids. Both children presented acute neurological decline, hydrocephalus, and tonsillar herniation requiring emergent ventricular drain placement, suboccipital craniectomy, and partial cerebellectomy. Together with several other reports, these cases suggest the existence of an uncommon yet severe syndrome of acute opioid-induced malignant cerebellar edema. We hypothesize that the condition results from a combination of primary opioid receptor-mediated changes in neuronal metabolism that are exacerbated by secondary hypoxic insult...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783524/input-matters-speed-of-word-recognition-in-2-year-olds-exposed-to-multiple-accents
#13
Helen Buckler, Sara Oczak-Arsic, Nazia Siddiqui, Elizabeth K Johnson
Although studies investigating language abilities in young children exposed to more than one language have become common, there is still surprisingly little research examining language development in children exposed to more than one accent. Here, we report two looking-while-listening experiments examining the impact of routine home exposure to multiple accents on 2-year-olds' word recognition abilities. In Experiment 1, we found that monolingual English-learning 24-month-olds who routinely receive exposure to both Canadian English and a non-native variant of English are less efficient in their recognition of familiar words spoken in Canadian English than monolingual English-learning 24-month-olds who hear only Canadian English at home...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782396/the-comparison-of-intelligence-levels-of-children-born-to-kidney-or-liver-transplant-women-with-children-of-healthy-mothers
#14
Bozena Kociszewska-Najman, Monika Szpotanska-Sikorska, Natalia Mazanowska, Miroslaw Wielgos, Bronislawa Pietrzak
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy after transplantation is associated with high risk of complications and prenatal exposure to immunosuppressants. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the intellectual development of children born to women after organ transplantation. AIMS: A comparison of intelligence levels in 78 children of kidney or liver transplant women of 78 children born to healthy mothers. The assessment of intellectual level in children was conducted by psychologists and evaluated using age-adjusted intelligence tests (Psyche Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale, Terman-Merril Intelligence Scale or the Scales of Raven's Progressive Matrices)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781857/it-is-not-always-child-abuse-multiple-fractures-due-to-hypophosphatemic-rickets-associated-with-elemental-formula-use
#15
Kamal Abulebda, Samer Abu-Sultaneh, Riad Lutfi
Rickets is not a disease of the past. We described a toddler who developed hypophosphatemic rickets associated with the use of elemental formula. This case highlights the importance of frequent monitoring of mineral metabolism in children receiving elemental formula and considering rickets in the workup of child abuse.
August 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774192/cortical-functional-connectivity-evident-after-birth-and-behavioral-inhibition-at-age-2
#16
Chad M Sylvester, Christopher D Smyser, Tara Smyser, Jeanette Kenley, Joseph J Ackerman, Joshua S Shimony, Steve E Petersen, Cynthia E Rogers
OBJECTIVE: The infant temperament behavioral inhibition is a potent risk factor for development of an anxiety disorder. It is difficult to predict risk for behavioral inhibition at birth, however, and the neural underpinnings are poorly understood. The authors hypothesized that neonatal functional connectivity of the ventral attention network is related to behavioral inhibition at age 2 years beyond sociodemographic and familial factors. This hypothesis is supported by the ventral attention network's role in attention to novelty, a key feature of behavioral inhibition...
August 4, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768627/genetic-risk-stratification-to-reduce-inhibitor-development-in-the-early-treatment-of-hemophilia-a-a-sippet-analysis
#17
Frits R Rosendaal, Roberta Palla, Isabella Garagiola, Pier M Mannucci, Flora Peyvandi
A recent randomized trial, the Survey of Inhibitors in Plasma-Product Exposed Toddlers (SIPPET), showed a higher risk of inhibitor development with recombinant (rFVIII) than plasma-derived concentrates (pdFVIII). We investigated whether risk stratification by F8 mutation identifies patients who do not suffer this deleterious effect of rFVIII. Among 235 randomized patients with severe hemophilia A, previously untreated with FVIII concentrate, 197 with null mutations were classified as high risk, and 38 with non-null mutations as low risk...
August 2, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762159/accurate-autism-screening-at-the-18-month-well-child-visit-requires-different-strategies-than-at-24-months
#18
Raymond Sturner, Barbara Howard, Paul Bergmann, Tanya Morrel, Rebecca Landa, Kejuana Walton, Danielle Marks
Accuracy of autism screening using M-CHAT plus the follow-up interview (M-CHAT/F) for children screened positive at 18-months was compared to screening at 24-months. Formal ASD testing was criterion for a community sample of M-CHAT positive children (n = 98), positive predictive value (PPV) was 0.40 for the M-CHAT and 0.58 for the M-CHAT/F. MCHAT/F PPV was 0.69 among children 20+ months compared to 0.36 for <20 months. Multivariate analyses incorporating data from the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory, M-CHAT and M-CHAT/F results, and M-CHAT items suggest language variables carry greatest relative importance in contributing to an age-based algorithm with potential to improve PPV for toddlers <20 months to the same level as observed in older toddlers...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756432/talking-to-toddlers-drawing-on-mothers-perceptions-of-using-wearable-and-mobile-technology-in-the-home
#19
Dawn Choo, Shani Dettman, Richard Dowell, Robert Cowan
BACKGROUND: Mother-child interactions often give rise to opportunities for early language learning in the context of everyday life. Persuasive technology has the potential to influence maternal language behaviours in the home and promote mothers' active engagement in the development of their children's communication skills. AIM: This paper explored maternal perceptions regarding the use of a language tracking wearable (Language Environment Analysis; LENA) device and a parent education smartphone application in an 8-week trial with their young children...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751299/personalized-web-based-advice-in-combination-with-well-child-visits-to-prevent-overweight-in-young-children-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Amy van Grieken, Eline Vlasblom, Lu Wang, Maaike Beltman, Magda M Boere-Boonekamp, Monique P L'Hoir, Hein Raat
BACKGROUND: Overweight is a major health issue, and parent-targeted interventions to promote healthy development in children are needed. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate E-health4Uth Healthy Toddler, an intervention that educates parents of children aged 18 to 24 months regarding health-related behaviors, as compared with usual care. The effect of this intervention on the following primary outcomes was evaluated when the children were 36 months of age: health-related behaviors (breakfast daily, activity and outside play, sweetened beverage consumption, television (TV) viewing and computer time), body mass index (BMI), and the prevalence of overweight and obesity...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
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