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Toddler development

Anne M Plomgaard, Thomas Alderliesten, Frank van Bel, Manon Benders, Olivier Claris, Malaika Cordeiro, Eugene Dempsey, Monica Fumagalli, Christian Gluud, Simon Hyttel-Sorensen, Petra Lemmers, Adelina Pellicer, Gerhard Pichler, Gorm Greisen
AIM: Cerebral hypoxia has been associated with neurodevelopmental impairment. We studied whether reducing cerebral hypoxia in extremely preterm infants during the first 72 hours of life affected neurological outcomes at two years of corrected age. METHODS: In 2012-2013 the phase II randomised Safeguarding the Brains of our Smallest Children trial compared visible cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) monitoring in an intervention group and blinded NIRS monitoring in a control group...
June 16, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Emma F Jacquier, Denise M Deming, Alison L Eldridge
BACKGROUND: Compare at-home and away-from-home snacking patterns of US infants and young children. METHODS: A secondary analysis was conducted using nationwide, cross-sectional dietary survey data from the US Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008. The sample included infants (6-11.9 months, n = 505), toddlers (12-23.9 months, n = 925), preschool children (24-47.9 months, n = 1461). Weighted population descriptive statistics (means and standard errors) were calculated using SAS...
June 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Camilla Buch Kjølbye, Thomas Bo Drivsholm, Ruth Kirk Ertmann, Kirsten Lykke, Rasmus Køster Rasmussen
INTRODUCTION: There is no evidence on how motor function is best evaluated in children in a low-risk setting. The method used in the Danish Preventive Child Health Examination Programme (DPCHEP) in general practise has not been validated. The objective of this review was to identify existing motor function tests for 0-2-year-old children that were validated for use in the background population and which are suitable for use in the DPCHEP. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines...
June 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Emily B Welker, Emma F Jacquier, Diane J Catellier, Andrea S Anater, Mary T Story
Background: Healthy food consumption patterns in early childhood support optimal growth and development and promote lifelong health. Objective: The objective of the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2016 is to provide updated information on food consumption patterns of children aged 0 to <4 y. This article focuses on several key aspects of the food consumption patterns of 2- and 3-y-olds and how those patterns differ between racial/ethnic groups. Methods: The FITS 2016 is a cross-sectional study in caregivers of children aged 0 to <4 y living in the United States...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Kirsten A Dalrymple, Marie D Manner, Katherine A Harmelink, Elayne P Teska, Jed T Elison
The quantitative assessment of eye tracking data quality is critical for ensuring accuracy and precision of gaze position measurements. However, researchers often report the eye tracker's optimal manufacturer's specifications rather than empirical data about the accuracy and precision of the eye tracking data being presented. Indeed, a recent report indicates that less than half of eye tracking researchers surveyed take the eye tracker's accuracy into account when determining areas of interest for analysis, an oversight that could impact the validity of reported results and conclusions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Janani Prabhakar, Elliott G Johnson, Christine Wu Nordahl, Simona Ghetti
Nonhuman research has implicated developmental processes within the hippocampus in the emergence and early development of episodic memory, but methodological challenges have hindered assessments of this possibility in humans. Here, we delivered a previously learned song and a novel song to 2-year-old toddlers during natural nocturnal sleep and, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, found that hippocampal activation was stronger for the learned song compared with the novel song. This was true regardless of whether the song was presented intact or backwards...
June 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Anna B Johnson, Shanna B Mliner, Carrie E Depasquale, Michael Troy, Megan R Gunnar
Poverty is associated with poor physical and emotional development. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is argued to be one of the pathways through which poverty acts on these outcomes. While studies of school-aged children have found some evidence for this, there is little evidence for this hypothesis early in development. This may be, in part, because for very young children, the security of their attachment relationships with parents moderates the impact of poverty on HPA axis functioning...
May 22, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Ana María Mora, Leonel Córdoba, Juan Camilo Cano, David Hernandez-Bonilla, Larissa Pardo, Lourdes Schnaas, Donald R Smith, José A Menezes-Filho, Donna Mergler, Christian H Lindh, Brenda Eskenazi, Berna van Wendel de Joode
BACKGROUND: Although growing evidence suggests that early-life excess manganese (Mn) impairs neurodevelopment, data on the neurodevelopmental effects of mancozeb, a fungicide containing Mn, and its main metabolite ethylenethiourea (ETU) are limited. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether prenatal mancozeb exposure and excess Mn were associated with neurodevelopment in 355 1-y-old infants living near banana plantations with frequent aerial mancozeb spraying in Costa Rica...
May 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Emis Akbari, Noam Binnoon-Erez, Michelle Rodrigues, Alessandro Ricci, Juliane Schneider, Sheri Madigan, Jennifer Jenkins
AIM: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between KMC and infant/toddler biopsychosocial outcomes. METHOD: PubMed, MEDLINE (OvidSP), MEDLINE in Process (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), PsycINFO (OvidSP), and AMED (OvidSP) were searched. Observational studies and randomized control trials through October 2015 that investigated the association between KMC intervention and infant/toddler biopsychosocial outcomes were included. Studies with <10 participants, those using skin-to-skin only during painful procedures or only on the day of birth, and those that did not report quantitative outcomes were excluded...
May 26, 2018: Early Human Development
Salim E Olia, Peter D Wearden, Timothy M Maul, Venkat Shankarraman, Ergin Kocyildirim, Shaun T Snyder, Patrick M Callahan, Marina V Kameneva, William R Wagner, Harvey S Borovetz, James F Antaki
OBJECTIVES: The PediaFlow (HeartWare International, Inc, Framingham, Mass) is a miniature, implantable, rotodynamic, fully magnetically levitated, continuous-flow pediatric ventricular assist device. The fourth-generation PediaFlow was evaluated in vitro and in vivo to characterize performance and biocompatibility. METHODS: Supported by 2 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute contract initiatives to address the limited options available for pediatric patients with congenital or acquired cardiac disease, the PediaFlow was developed with the intent to provide chronic cardiac support for infants as small as 3 kg...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Jacqueline F Gould, John Colombo, Carmel T Collins, Maria Makrides, Erandi Hewawasam, Lisa G Smithers
INTRODUCTION: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the frontal lobes (responsible for higher-order cognitive skills) of the fetal brain during the last trimester of pregnancy. Infants born preterm miss some of this in utero provision of DHA, and have an increased risk of suboptimal neurodevelopment. It is thought that supplementing infants born preterm with DHA may improve developmental outcomes. The aim of this follow-up is to determine whether DHA supplementation in infants born preterm can improve areas of the brain associated with frontal lobe function, namely attention and distractibility...
May 26, 2018: BMJ Open
Hannah Knafo, Anne Murphy, Howard Steele, Miriam Steele
This paper describes the treatment of a mother and child who demonstrated disorganized attachment behaviors in their interactions with one another. The mother, who was diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder, felt incapable of managing her aggressive toddler and his emotional needs. The dyad was referred for therapy due to concerns about his developmental progress, evident delays having been mainly attributed to the problems observed within the parent-child relationship. The primary intervention applied to working with the dyad was the Group Attachment-Based Intervention (GABI©), developed by Anne Murphy in collaboration with Miriam Steele and Howard Steele...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Stanzi le Roux, Kirsten Donald, Kirsty Brittain, Tamsin K Phillips, Allison Zerbe, Kelly K Nguyen, Andrea Strandvik, Max Kroon, Elaine J Abrams, Landon Myer
OBJECTIVES: To assess neurodevelopment of breastfed HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and breastfed HIV-unexposed (HU) children in the context of universal maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART). DESIGN: Prospective study with antenatal enrolment and follow-up of breastfeeding HEU and HU mother-infant pairs through 12-18 months postpartum. SETTING: Peri-urban community, Cape Town, South Africa. SUBJECTS: HEU (n = 215) and HU (n = 306) children...
May 22, 2018: AIDS
Sanne L C Veldman, Rachel A Jones, Rute Santos, Eduarda Sousa-Sá, Anthony D Okely
OBJECTIVES: Gross motor skills (GMS) are a vital component of a child's development. Monitoring levels and correlates of GMS is important to ensure appropriate strategies are put in place to promote these skills in young children. The aim of this study was to describe the current level of GMS development of children aged 11-29months and how these levels differ by age, sex, BMI and socio-economic status. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: This study involved children from 30 childcare services in NSW, Australia...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Yi Esther Su, Letitia R Naigles, Lin-Yan Su
Data from children with ASD who are learning Indo-European languages indicate that (a) they vary hugely in their expressive language skills and (b) their pragmatic/socially-based language is more impaired than their structural language. We investigate whether similar patterns of language development exist for Mandarin-exposed children with ASD. Parent report data of the Putonghua Communicative Development Inventory-Toddler Form were collected from 160 17-83-month-old children with ASD. These children with ASD demonstrated similar levels of variability as Western children with ASD...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Peter S Kaplan, Ryan M Asherin, Jo M Vogeli, Shiva M Fekri, Kathryn E Scheyer, Kevin D Everhart
Face preferences for speakers of infant-directed and adult-directed speech (IDS and ADS) were investigated in 4- to 13.5-month-old infants of depressed and non-depressed mothers. Following 1-min of exposure to an ID or AD speaker (order counterbalanced), infants had an immediate paired-comparison test with a still, silent image of the familiarized versus a novel face. In the test phase, ID face preference ratios were significantly lower in infants of depressed than non-depressed mothers. Infants' ID face preference ratios, but not AD face preference ratios, correlated with their percentile scores on the cognitive ( Cog ) scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant & Toddler Development (3rd Edition; BSID III), assessed concurrently...
May 2018: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
Steven D Imrisek, Katerina Castaño, Kristin Bernard
Toddlers in foster care have typically experienced histories of maltreatment and disruptions in relationships with primary caregivers. As a result, they are at increased risk for developing disorganized attachment and showing emotional, behavioral, and physiological dysregulation. Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up for Toddlers in Foster Care (ABC-T) was developed to address the needs of these vulnerable children by supporting foster parents in responding with nurturance to children's distress, following children's lead, and helping children calm when they are becoming overwhelmed or dysregulated...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
JaYoung Kim, In Young Sung, Eun Jae Ko, Minji Jung
Objective: To investigate the neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with developmental disorder according to visual evoked potential (VEP) results. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed children who visited our Department of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine with a chief complaint of developmental disability from January 2001 to July 2015. Of the 549 medical records reviewed, 322 children younger than 42 months who underwent both Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development second edition (BSID-II) and VEP studies were enrolled...
April 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Lucia Billeci, Alessandro Tonacci, Antonio Narzisi, Zaira Manigrasso, Maurizio Varanini, Francesca Fulceri, Caterina Lattarulo, Sara Calderoni, Filippo Muratori
Background: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders featuring early impairments in social domain, with autonomic nervous system (ANS) unbalance possibly representing a useful marker for such disturbances. Impairments in joint attention (JA) are one of the earliest markers of social deficits in ASD. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of using wearable technologies for characterizing the ANS response in ASD toddlers during the presentation of JA stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Christi L Hess, Sara M Misurelli, Ruth Y Litovsky
This study evaluated spatial release from masking (SRM) in 2- to 3-year-old children who are deaf and were implanted with bilateral cochlear implants (BiCIs), and in age-matched normal-hearing (NH) toddlers. Here, we examined whether early activation of bilateral hearing has the potential to promote SRM that is similar to age-matched NH children. Listeners were 13 NH toddlers and 13 toddlers with BiCIs, ages 27 to 36 months. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured for target speech in front (0°) and for competitors that were either Colocated in front (0°) or Separated toward the right (+90°)...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
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