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Toddler development

Quan Wang, Daniel J Campbell, Suzanne L Macari, Katarzyna Chawarska, Frederick Shic
Background: Multiple eye-tracking studies have highlighted the "atypical" nature of social attention in autism. However, it is unclear how "atypical" or "typical" should be quantified. Methods: We developed a method for identifying moments when members of a group looked at similar places (High-Cohesion Time Frames; HCTFs). We defined typicality as the proximity of gaze points to typically developing (TD) gaze points during TD HCTFs...
2018: Molecular Autism
Brenda Eskenazi, Sookee An, Stephen A Rauch, Eric S Coker, Angelina Maphula, Muvhulawa Obida, Madelein Crause, Katherine R Kogut, Riana Bornman, Jonathan Chevrier
BACKGROUND: Although indoor residual spraying (IRS) with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and pyrethroids effectively controls malaria, it potentially increases human exposure to these insecticides. Previous studies suggest that prenatal exposure to these insecticides may impact human neurodevelopment. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate the effects of maternal insecticide exposure and neurodevelopment of toddlers living in a malaria-endemic region currently using IRS...
April 6, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Renate Strehlau, Tamryn van Aswegen, Joanne Potterton
OBJECTIVE: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest prevalence of children at risk of not achieving their developmental potential, attributable largely to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic coupled with negative environmental factors. Childhood developmental stimulation programmes can mitigate adverse outcomes. METHODS: Neonates testing HIV positive at birth will be initiated on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and receive an age-appropriate stimulation program, updated at 3 monthly intervals through the first year of life...
April 6, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Cherie C Green, Cheryl Dissanayake, Danuta Z Loesch, Minh Bui, Josephine Barbaro
Recent findings suggest that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are larger in size for head circumference (HC), height, and weight compared to typically developing (TD) children; however, little is known about their rate of growth, especially in height and weight. The current study aimed to: (a) confirm and extend upon previous findings of early generalized overgrowth in ASD; and (b) determine if there were any differences in the rate of growth between infants and toddlers with ASD compared to their TD peers...
April 6, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Ivette Cejas, Christine M Mitchell, Michael Hoffman, Alexandra L Quittner
OBJECTIVES: To make longitudinal comparisons of intelligence quotient (IQ) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) and typical hearing peers from early in development to the school-age period. Children with additional comorbidities and CIs were also evaluated. To estimate the impact of socioeconomic status and oral language on school-age cognitive performance. DESIGN: This longitudinal study evaluated nonverbal IQ in a multicenter, national sample of 147 children with CIs and 75 typically hearing peers...
April 5, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Isadora Argou-Cardozo, Fares Zeidán-Chuliá
Nowadays, there seems to be a consensus about the multifactorial nature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature provides hypotheses dealing with numerous environmental factors and genes accounting for the apparently higher prevalence of this condition. Researchers have shown evidence regarding the impact of gut bacteria on neurological outcomes, altering behavior and potentially affecting the onset and/or severity of psychiatric disorders. Pesticides and agrotoxics are also included among this long list of ASD-related environmental stressors...
April 4, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
M P Huang, H B Sheng, Y Ren, Y Li, Z W Huang, H Wu
Objective: To explore the effects of bimodal intervention on the development of auditory and speech ability in the infants with unilateral cochlear implantation(CI). Methods: Total 35 bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss infants with unilateral CI, aged 0.7 to 2.8 years old, were selected. The subjects were divided into two groups: the group with unilateral CI(cochlear implant alone, n = 15), and the bimodal group with CI and contralateral fitting hearing aid( n = 20). Their auditory and speech abilities were estimated at the different time points after switch-on(the 0th, 0...
March 7, 2018: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Isabel Benavente-Fernández, Enrique Rodríguez-Zafra, Jesús León-Martínez, Gema Jiménez-Gómez, Estefanía Ruiz-González, Rosalía Campuzano Fernández-Colina, Alfonso M Lechuga-Sancho, Simón P Lubián-López
Purpose To establish cross-sectional and longitudinal reference values for cerebellar size in preterm infants with normal neuroimaging findings and normal 2-year neurodevelopmental outcome by using cranial ultrasonography (US). Materials and Methods This prospective study consecutively enrolled preterm infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit from June 2011 to June 2014 with a birth weight of less than or equal to 1500 g and/or gestational age (GA) of less than or equal to 32 weeks. They underwent weekly cranial US from birth to term-equivalent age and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at term-equivalent age...
April 3, 2018: Radiology
Kyung Sook Lee, Yee Jin Shin, Hee Jeong Yoo, Gui Jong Lee, Jeong Ryu, Oweol Son, Sook Whan Cho
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the development of socializing and emotional expressions through vocalizations and joint attention (JA) behaviors in Korean-speaking children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), compared to those with developmental delay (DD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Video samples were collected from 28 toddlers with ASD and 18 age-matched toddlers with DD, and vocalizations were each coded in detail for the purpose of this retrospective research...
May 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
Daniel Bierstone, Nienke Wagenaar, Dawn L Gano, Ting Guo, Gregory Georgio, Floris Groenendaal, Linda S de Vries, Jojy Varghese, Hannah C Glass, Catherine Chung, Jefferson Terry, Maarten Rijpert, Ruth E Grunau, Anne Synnes, A James Barkovich, Donna M Ferriero, Manon Benders, Vann Chau, Steven P Miller
Importance: Understanding the role of chorioamnionitis, a major factor leading to preterm birth, in the pathogenesis of neonatal brain injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes may help in identifying potentially modifiable perinatal variables affecting brain health and outcomes among children born preterm. Objective: To evaluate whether histologic chorioamnionitis among neonates born very preterm is associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and punctate white matter injury (WMI) or with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes during early childhood...
April 2, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Natasha Marrus, Stefanie Kennon-McGill, Brooke Harris, Yi Zhang, Anne L Glowinski, John N Constantino
Reciprocal social behavior (RSB), an early-emerging capacity to engage in social contingency-which is foundational for both social learning and social competency-is hypothesized to be disrupted in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The ability to quantify the full range of RSB during the toddler period, when core symptoms of ASD often arise, is pivotal for evaluating early risk for ASD, characterizing social development, and tracking response to early interventions. However, important parameters of variation in RSB-especially prior to the development of verbal language-can be nuanced and difficult to characterize using questionnaire-based methods...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Lin Zhang, Kailong Li, Chengqi Zhang, Xianlong Qi, Ning Zheng, Guangbin Wang
Language regression is observed in a subset of toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as initial symptom. However, such a phenomenon has not been fully explored, partly due to the lack of definite diagnostic evaluation methods and criteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen toddlers with ASD exhibiting language regression and fourteen age-matched typically developing (TD) controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). DTI parameters including fractional anisotropy (FA), average fiber length (AFL), tract volume (TV) and number of voxels (NV) were analyzed by Neuro 3D in Siemens syngo workstation...
2018: Open Medicine (Warsaw, Poland)
E Mazarico, E Llurba, L Cabero, O Sánchez, A Valls, A Martin-Ancel, D Cardenas, M D Gómez Roig
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between brain injury biomarkers in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) infants (S100B and neuron-specific enolase (NSE)) and neurodevelopment at 2 years of age. METHODS: This prospective case-control study was a cooperative effort among Spanish Maternal and Child Health Network (Retic SAMID) hospitals. At inclusion, biometry for estimated fetal weight and feto-placental Doppler variables were measured for each infant...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Kim Angeles Gärtner, Verena Clara Vetter, Michaela Schäferling, Gitta Reuner, Silke Hertel
BACKGROUND: Preterm children have an increased risk regarding self-regulation development. Given the strong link between parenting behaviour (i.e., scaffolding and sensitivity) and children's self-regulation, parental training presents a promising way to counteract the negative consequences of preterm birth. AIMS: We explored the effectiveness of parental training by comparing a basic scaffolding training and a combined scaffolding/sensitivity training to an active treatment-control group (stress management)...
March 30, 2018: British Journal of Educational Psychology
Rudzani Muloiwa, Nicole Wolter, Ezekiel Mupere, Tina Tan, A J Chitkara, Kevin D Forsyth, Carl-Heinz Wirsing von König, Gregory Hussey
Pertussis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in infants and young children, and despite the availability of vaccines and pertinent national and international guidelines. The disease burden is more severe in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), especially in the African continent. Pertussis is more prevalent among young infants in Africa. Poor or no pertussis surveillance, lack of disease awareness, diagnostic limitations, and competing health priorities are considered key contributory factors for this high pertussis burden in Africa...
March 27, 2018: Vaccine
Marijn van Dijk, Wilma Lipke
Early feeding problems occur frequently across the population, but have a higher incidence in children with Down syndrome (DS). Early identification can possibly be improved with the help of a valid screening instrument based on caregiver reports. In a previous study, we investigated the concurrent validity of the Dutch version of the Montreal Children's Hospital Feeding Scale (MCH-FS, SEP in Dutch) in a sample of typically developing toddlers, and we found a correlation between the score on the instrument and observed behavior during a regular meal...
March 27, 2018: Appetite
Ted M T van Hinsbergh, Roy G Elbers, Marceline A M van Furth, Charlie C C Obihara
BACKGROUND: A paucity of studies investigated the association between human parechovirus (HPeV) central nervous system (CNS) infection and motor and neurocognitive development of children. This study describes the gross-motor function (GMF) in young children during 24 months after HPeV-CNS-infection compared with children in whom no pathogen was detected. METHODS: GMF of children was assessed with alberta infant motor scale, bayley scales of infant and toddler development or movement assessment battery for children...
March 27, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Kathleen Campbell, Kimberly Lh Carpenter, Jordan Hashemi, Steven Espinosa, Samuel Marsan, Jana Schaich Borg, Zhuoqing Chang, Qiang Qiu, Saritha Vermeer, Elizabeth Adler, Mariano Tepper, Helen L Egger, Jeffery P Baker, Guillermo Sapiro, Geraldine Dawson
To demonstrate the capability of computer vision analysis to detect atypical orienting and attention behaviors in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder. One hundered and four toddlers of 16-31 months old (mean = 22) participated in this study. Twenty-two of the toddlers had autism spectrum disorder and 82 had typical development or developmental delay. Toddlers watched video stimuli on a tablet while the built-in camera recorded their head movement. Computer vision analysis measured participants' attention and orienting in response to name calls...
March 1, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Tiina E Mäkelä, Mikko J Peltola, Pirkko Nieminen, E Juulia Paavonen, Outi Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Tiina Paunio, Anneli Kylliäinen
Fragmented sleep is common in infancy. Although night awakening is known to decrease with age, in some infants night awakening is more persistent and continues into older ages. However, the influence of fragmented sleep on development is poorly known. In the present study, the longitudinal relationship between fragmented sleep and psychomotor development (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development [Bayley-III]; Bayley, 2009) was investigated in infants with (≥3 night awakenings, n = 81) and without fragmented sleep (≤1 night awakening, n = 70) within the CHILD-SLEEP birth cohort at 8 and 24 months of age...
March 29, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Anna Haste, Ashley J Adamson, Elaine McColl, Vera Araujo-Soares, Ruth Bell
OBJECTIVE: This paper highlights recruitment and retention problems identified during a pilot randomised controlled trial and process evaluation. The pilot trial aimed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a web-delivered weight loss intervention for postnatal women and associated trial protocol. RESULTS: General practice database searches revealed low rates of eligible postnatal women per practice. 16 (10%) of the 168 identified women were recruited and randomised, seven to the intervention and nine to the control...
March 27, 2018: BMC Research Notes
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