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Toddler development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029106/iatrogenic-cushing-syndrome-in-a-child-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-erroneous-compounding-of-hydrocortisone
#1
Julia E Barillas, Daniel Eichner, Ryan Van Wagoner, Phyllis W Speiser
Context: Patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) require lifelong treatment with glucocorticoids. In growing children the drug of choice is hydrocortisone. Commercially available hydrocortisone tablets do not conform to very low doses prescribed to infants and toddlers, and compounded hydrocortisone is often dispensed to meet therapeutic needs. However, safety, efficacy and uniformity of compounded products are not tested. We report a case of Cushing syndrome in a child with CAH who was inadvertently receiving excessive hydrocortisone in compounded form...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023666/nutritional-intervention-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome-in-infants-with-suspected-cerebral-palsy-the-dolphin-infant-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Morag J Andrew, Jeremy R Parr, Christine Montague-Johnson, Karen Laler, Cathy Qi, Bonny Baker, Peter B Sullivan
AIM: To investigate whether docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), choline, and uridine-5-monophosphate (UMP) supplementation improves neurodevelopmental outcome in infants with suspected cerebral palsy (CP) versus a comparison group of children. METHOD: Infants aged 1 to 18 months with suspected CP were recruited from UK child development centres. Participants received daily treatment or control supplementation for 2 years (double-blind randomized control design). Stratification was by age, sex, predominant pattern of motor involvement (four limbs or other), and visual impairment (or not)...
October 12, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018582/effect-of-low-dose-versus-higher-dose-antenatal-iron-supplementation-on-child-health-outcomes-at-36-months-of-age-in-viet-nam-longitudinal-follow-up-of-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Sarah Hanieh, Tran T Ha, Julie A Simpson, Sabine Braat, Tran T Thuy, Thach D Tran, Janet King, Tran Tuan, Jane Fisher, Beverley-Ann Biggs
INTRODUCTION: Intermittent iron-folic acid supplementation (IFA) is currently recommended for pregnant women in populations where anaemia prevalence among pregnant women is <20% or if daily iron is not acceptable. The effect of providing lower doses of antenatal elemental iron through intermittent regimes on longer-term health outcomes in childhood is unclear. METHODS: A prospective cohort study conducted between May 2012 and May 2014 in Viet Nam among children of 36 months of age, born to women previously enrolled in a cluster randomised controlled trial of antenatal micronutrient supplementation (daily IFA (60 mg elemental iron) vs twice-weekly IFA (60 mg elemental iron) vs twice-weekly multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplementation (60 mg elemental iron))...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991358/an-expanded-view-of-joint-attention-skill-engagement-and-language-in-typical-development-and-autism
#4
Lauren B Adamson, Roger Bakeman, Katharine Suma, Diana L Robins
This study provides an expanded view of joint attention and its relation to expressive language development. A total of 144 toddlers (40 typically developing, 58 with autism spectrum disorder [ASD], 46 with developmental delay [DD]) participated at 24 and 31 months. Toddlers who screened positive for ASD risk, especially those subsequently diagnosed with ASD, had poorer joint attention skills, joint engagement during parent-toddler interaction, and expressive language. Findings highlight the dynamic relation between joint attention and language development...
October 9, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990427/chew-on-this-not-all-first-finger-foods-are-created-equal
#5
Nicol Awadalla, Tammy Pham, Ruth Milanaik
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends when to start first finger foods (FFFs) and what types of foods to start with, but it is unclear whether products marketed as FFF comply with these recommendations. We evaluated FFF products for compliance with AAP recommendations and product safety using 41 adult product testers, who were asked to dissolve each product in their mouth. Product characteristics, comments pertaining to product safety, and time to dissolve each product were recorded. Only 2 products met all AAP criteria, and safety concerns were raised for an additional 2 products...
October 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981980/conditional-reprogramming-of-pediatric-airway-epithelial-cells-a-new-human-model-to-investigate-early-life-respiratory-disorders
#6
Seth Wolf, Geovanny F Perez, Lana Mukharesh, Nataliza Isaza, Diego Preciado, Robert J Freishtat, Dinesh Pillai, Mary C Rose, Gustavo Nino
BACKGROUND: Airway epithelial cells (AEC) are quite difficult to access in newborns and infants. It is critically important to develop robust life-extended models to conduct translational studies in this age group. We propose the use of a recently described cell-culture technology (conditionally reprogrammed cells - CRC) to generate continuous primary cell cultures from nasal and bronchial AEC of young children. METHODS: We collected nasal and/or bronchial AEC from a total of 23 subjects of different ages including newborns/infants/toddlers (0-2 years; N=9), school age children (4-11 years; N=6), and a group of adolescent/adult donors (N=8)...
October 5, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975039/creative-music-therapy-to-promote-brain-structure-function-and-neurobehavioral-outcomes-in-preterm-infants-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial-protocol
#7
Friederike Barbara Haslbeck, Hans-Ulrich Bucher, Dirk Bassler, Cornelia Hagmann
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is associated with increased risk of neurological impairment and deficits in cognition, motor function, and behavioral problems. Limited studies indicate that multi-sensory experiences support brain development in preterm infants. Music appears to promote neurobiological processes and neuronal learning in the human brain. Creative music therapy (CMT) is an individualized, interactive therapeutic approach based on the theory and methods of Nordoff and Robbins...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964316/speech-processor-data-logging-helps-in-predicting-early-linguistic-outcomes-in-implanted-children
#8
Letizia Guerzoni, Domenico Cuda
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the value of listening-data logged in the speech processor on the prediction of the early auditory and linguistic skills in children who received a cochlear implant in their first 2 years of life. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational non-randomized study. METHODS: Ten children with profound congenital sensorineural hearing loss were included in the study. The mean age at CI activation was 16.9 months (SD ± 7.2; range 10-24)...
October 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958374/contemporary-issues-in-anaphylaxis-and-the-evolution-of-epinephrine-autoinjectors-what-will-the-future-bring
#9
Paul A Greenberger, Dana V Wallace, Phillip L Lieberman, Sean M Gregory
BACKGROUND: Food allergy and anaphylaxis appear to be increasing in the United States, especially in young children, and preparedness is paramount to successful emergency management in the community. Although the treatment of choice for anaphylaxis is epinephrine delivered by autoinjection, some devices are challenged by less user-friendly designs or pose the risk of injury, especially in young patients. Human factors engineering has played a larger role in the development of more recent epinephrine autoinjector technologies and will continue to play a role in the evolution and future design of epinephrine autoinjectors...
October 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956653/word-initial-rhotic-clusters-in-spanish-speaking-preschoolers-in-chile-and-granada-spain
#10
Denisse Perez, Pilar Vivar, Barbara May Bernhardt, Elvira Mendoza, Carmen Ávila, Gloria Carballo, Dolores Fresneda, Juana Muñoz, Patricio Vergara
The current paper describes Spanish acquisition of rhotic onset clusters. Data are also provided on related singleton taps/trills and /l/ as a singleton and in clusters. Participants included 9 typically developing (TD) toddlers and 30 TD preschoolers in Chile, and 30 TD preschoolers and 29 with protracted phonological development (PPD) in Granada, Spain. Results showed age and developmental group effects. Preservation of cluster timing units preceded segmental accuracy, especially in stressed syllables. Tap clusters versus singleton trills were variable in order of mastery, some children mastering clusters first, and others, the trill...
September 28, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950223/infant-motor-and-cognitive-abilities-and-subsequent-executive-function
#11
Meng Wu, Xi Liang, Shan Lu, Zhengyan Wang
INTRODUCTION: Although executive function (EF) is widely considered crucial to several aspects of life, the mechanisms underlying EF development remain largely unexplored, especially for infants. From a behavioral or neurodevelopmental perspective, motor and general cognitive abilities are linked with EF. EF development is a multistage process that starts with sensorimotor interactive behaviors, which become basic cognitive abilities and, in turn, mature EF. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine how infant motor and general cognitive abilities are linked with their EF at 3 years of age...
September 23, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946862/long-term-outcome-in-survivors-of-neonatal-tetanus-following-specialist-intensive-care-in-vietnam
#12
Huynh T Trieu, Nguyen Thi Kim Anh, Huynh Ngoc Thien Vuong, T T M Dao, Nguyen Thi Xuan Hoa, Vo Ngoc Cat Tuong, Pham Tam Dinh, Bridget Wills, Phan Tu Qui, Le Van Tan, Lam Minh Yen, Saraswathy Sabanathan, Catherine Louise Thwaites
BACKGROUND: Neonatal tetanus continues to occur in many resource-limited settings but there are few data regarding long-term neurological outcome from the disease, especially in settings with critical care facilities. METHODS: We assessed long-term outcome following neonatal tetanus in infants treated in a pediatric intensive care unit in southern Vietnam. Neurological and neurodevelopmental testing was performed in 17 survivors of neonatal tetanus and 18 control children from the same communities using tools previously validated in Vietnamese children...
September 25, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940500/extensive-orf-infection-in-a-toddler-with-associated-id-reaction
#13
Ellen S Haddock, Carol E Cheng, John S Bradley, Christopher H Hsu, Hui Zhao, Whitni B Davidson, Victoria R Barrio
Orf is a zoonotic parapoxvirus typically transmitted to humans by a bite from goats or sheep. We present an unusual case of multiple orf lesions on the fingers of a 13-month-old child who was bitten by a goat and subsequently developed progressive swelling, blistering, and necrotic papulonodules of the hand followed by an additional diffuse, pruritic, papular rash. A primary diagnosis of orf infection was confirmed using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the diffuse eruption was clinically consistent with an id reaction...
September 21, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936803/independent-contributions-of-early-positive-parenting-and-mother-son-coercion-on-emerging-social-development
#14
Berna Akcinar, Daniel S Shaw
In the current study, we explored associations between parent-child coercion and positive parenting in the toddler period in relation to children's social-behavioral development during the school-age period. The data were drawn from the Pitt Mother & Child Project, a sample of 310 low-income, ethnically diverse boys. Drawing on tenets of both attachment and social learning theory, it was hypothesized that coercive mother-son interaction would lead to reductions in positive maternal parenting in the toddler period, and that both positive parenting and mother-son coercion in the toddler period would contribute to children's conduct problems at school entry and lower social skills and peer rejection in middle childhood...
September 21, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931055/serum-copeptin-and-neuron-specific-enolase-are-markers-of-neonatal-distress-and-long-term-neurodevelopmental-outcome
#15
Dorottya Kelen, Csilla Andorka, Miklós Szabó, Aleksander Alafuzoff, Kai Kaila, Milla Summanen
The objective of this study was to evaluate the early changes in serial serum levels of copeptin and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in neonates diagnosed with birth asphyxia, and to determine whether these biomarkers measured in the first 168 hours after birth are predictive of long-term neurodevelopmental outcome. Copeptin and NSE levels were measured from serum samples collected 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 168 hours after birth from 75 term neonates diagnosed with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and treated with therapeutic hypothermia for 72 hours...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928195/reach-study-protocol-of-a-randomised-trial-of-rehabilitation-very-early-in-congenital-hemiplegia
#16
Roslyn N Boyd, Jenny Ziviani, Leanne Sakzewski, Iona Novak, Nadia Badawi, Kerstin Pannek, Catherine Elliott, Susan Greaves, Andrea Guzzetta, Koa Whittingham, Jane Valentine, Cathy Morgan, Margaret Wallen, Ann-Christin Eliasson, Lisa Findlay, Robert Ware, Simona Fiori, Stephen Rose
OBJECTIVES: Congenital hemiplegia is the most common form of cerebral palsy (CP). Children with unilateral CP show signs of upper limb asymmetry by 8 months corrected age (ca) but are frequently not referred to therapy until after 12 months ca. This study compares the efficacy of infant-friendly modified constraint-induced movement therapy (Baby mCIMT) to infant friendly bimanual therapy (Baby BIM) on upper limb, cognitive and neuroplasticity outcomes in a multisite randomised comparison trial...
September 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925580/nutrition-hygiene-and-stimulation-education-to-improve-growth-cognitive-language-and-motor-development-among-infants-in-uganda-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#17
Grace K M Muhoozi, Prudence Atukunda, Lien M Diep, Robert Mwadime, Archileo N Kaaya, Anne B Skaare, Tiril Willumsen, Ane C Westerberg, Per O Iversen
Stunting is associated with impaired cognitive and motor function. The effect of an education intervention including nutrition, stimulation, sanitation, and hygiene on child growth and cognitive/language/motor development, delivered to impoverished mothers in Uganda, was assessed. In a community-based, open cluster-randomized trial, 511 mother/children dyads aged 6-8 months were enrolled to an intervention (n = 263) or control (n = 248) group. The primary outcome was change in length-for-age z-score at age 20-24 months...
September 19, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924555/early-changes-in-brain-structure-correlate-with-language-outcomes-in-children-with-neonatal-encephalopathy
#18
Kevin A Shapiro, Hosung Kim, Maria Luisa Mandelli, Elizabeth E Rogers, Dawn Gano, Donna M Ferriero, A James Barkovich, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Hannah C Glass, Duan Xu
Global patterns of brain injury correlate with motor, cognitive, and language outcomes in survivors of neonatal encephalopathy (NE). However, it is still unclear whether local changes in brain structure predict specific deficits. We therefore examined whether differences in brain structure at 6 months of age are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in this population. We enrolled 32 children with NE, performed structural brain MR imaging at 6 months, and assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes at 30 months...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919924/comparison-of-parent-report-and-direct-assessment-of-child-skills-in-toddlers
#19
Lauren E Miller, Kayla A Perkins, Yael G Dai, Deborah A Fein
BACKGROUND: There are unique challenges associated with measuring development in early childhood. Two primary sources of information are used: parent report and direct assessment. Each approach has strengths and weaknesses, particularly when used to identify and diagnose developmental delays. The present study aimed to evaluate consistency between parent report and direct assessment of child skills in toddlers with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) across receptive language, expressive language, and fine motor domains...
September 2017: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919088/resilience-in-mathematics-after-early-brain-injury-the-roles-of-parental-input-and-early-plasticity
#20
Dana E Glenn, Özlem Ece Demir-Lira, Dominic J Gibson, Eliza L Congdon, Susan C Levine
Children with early focal unilateral brain injury show remarkable plasticity in language development. However, little is known about how early brain injury influences mathematical learning. Here, we examine early number understanding, comparing cardinal number knowledge of typically developing children (TD) and children with pre- and perinatal lesions (BI) between 42 and 50 months of age. We also examine how this knowledge relates to the number words children hear from their primary caregivers early in life...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
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