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Toddler development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212508/examining-cross-cultural-differences-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-multinational-comparison-from-greece-italy-japan-poland-and-the-united-states
#1
J L Matson, M Matheis, C O Burns, G Esposito, P Venuti, E Pisula, A Misiak, E Kalyva, V Tsakiris, Y Kamio, M Ishitobi, R L Goldin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by social and communication impairments as well as restricted, repetitive behavior patterns. Despite the fact that ASD is reported worldwide, very little research exists examining ASD characteristics on a multinational scale. Cross-cultural comparisons are especially important for ASD, since cultural differences may impact the perception of symptoms. Identifying behaviors that are similarly reported as problematic across cultures as well as identifying behaviors in which there is cultural variation could aid in the development and refinement of more universally effective measures...
February 14, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211134/effect-of-age-on-the-performance-of-bispectral-and-entropy-indices-during-sevoflurane-pediatric-anesthesia-a-pharmacometric-study
#2
Alberto Sciusco, Joseph F Standing, Yucheng Sheng, Pasquale Raimondo, Gilda Cinnella, Michele Dambrosio
BACKGROUND: Bispectral index (BIS) and entropy monitors have been proposed for use in children, but research has not supported their validity for infants. However, effective monitoring of young children may be even more important than for adults, to aid appropriate anesthetic dosing and reduce the chance of adverse consequences. This prospective study aimed to investigate the relationships between age and the predictive performance of BIS and entropy monitors in measuring the anesthetic drug effects within a pediatric surgery setting...
February 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203335/is-the-bayley-scales-of-infant-and-toddler-developmental-screening-test-valid-and-reliable-for-persian-speaking-children
#3
Farin Soleimani, Nadia Azari, Roshanak Vameghi, Firoozeh Sajedi, Soheila Shahshahani, Hossein Karimi, Adis Kraskian, Amin Shahrokhi, Robab Teymouri, Masoud Gharib
BACKGROUND: Advances in perinatal and neonatal care have substantially improved the survival of at-risk infants over the past two decades. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Bayley Scales of infant and toddler developmental Screening test in Persian-speaking children. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional prospective study of 403 children aged 1 - 42-months. The Bayley scales screening instrument, which consists of five domains (cognitive, receptive, and expressive communication and fine and gross motor items), was used to measure infants' and toddlers' development...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202133/toddlers-later-diagnosed-with-autism-exhibit-multiple-structural-abnormalities-in-temporal-corpus-callosum-fibers
#4
Noa Fingher, Ilan Dinstein, Michal Ben-Shachar, Shlomi Haar, Anders M Dale, Lisa Eyler, Karen Pierce, Eric Courchesne
Interhemispheric functional connectivity abnormalities are often reported in autism and it is thus not surprising that structural defects of the corpus callosum (CC) are consistently found using both traditional MRI and DTI techniques. Past DTI studies however, have subdivided the CC into 2 or 3 segments without regard for where fibers may project to within the cortex, thus placing limitations on our ability to understand the nature, timing and neurobehavioral impact of early CC abnormalities in autism. Leveraging a unique cohort of 97 toddlers (68 autism; 29 typical) we utilized a novel technique that identified seven CC tracts according to their cortical projections...
January 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199207/assessing-the-potential-function-of-adar1-in-virus-associated-sepsis
#5
Yugang Zhuang, Hu Peng, Yuanzhuo Chen, Shuqin Zhou, Yanqing Chen
Sepsis syndrome is a common and frequently fatal clinical condition. It is defined by the presence of both infection and an uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response. It represents a major, although largely unappreciated, healthcare problem worldwide. It is especially problematic in infants and toddlers who show markedly increased susceptibility to severe infections caused by various pathogens, including viruses. Viruses are important causative agents of sepsis. Host adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) catalyzes adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) editing of RNA transcripts, thus changing viral RNAs and exerting antiviral and proviral effects...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188114/a-semi-quantitative-food-frequency-questionnaire-validated-in-hispanic-infants-and%C3%A2-toddlers-aged-0-to-24-months
#6
Cristina Palacios, Sona Rivas-Tumanyan, Eduardo J Santiago-Rodríguez, Olga Sinigaglia, Elaine M Ríos, Maribel Campos, Beatriz Diaz, Walter Willett
BACKGROUND: There are limited validated food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) for infants and toddlers, most of which were evaluated in Europe or Oceania, and the ones available for use in the United States have important limitations. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the validity of an FFQ developed for infants and toddlers. DESIGN: A semi-quantitative FFQ was developed that included 52 food items, their sources, and portion sizes. The FFQ inquired about diets over the previous 7 days...
February 7, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181053/developing-autism-screening-criteria-for-the-brief-infant-toddler-social-emotional-assessment-bitsea
#7
Ivy Giserman Kiss, Melanie S Feldman, R Christopher Sheldrick, Alice S Carter
There is a critical need for evidence-based, broadband behavioral, and ASD screening measures for use in pediatric and early educational settings to ensure that young children at risk for developing social-emotional disorders and/or ASD are provided with early intervention services to optimize long-term outcomes. The BITSEA is a 42-item screener designed to identify social-emotional/behavioral problems and delays/deficits in social-emotional competence among 11-48-month-olds; 19 items describe behaviors consistent with ASD...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176639/personalized-medicine-in-the-paediatric-population-the-balance-between-pharmacogenetics-progress-and-bioethics
#8
Stefania Schiavone, Margherita Neri, Cristoforo Pomara, Irene Riezzo, Luigia Trabace, Emanuela Turillazzi
Personalized medicine (PM) is becoming increasingly important in contemporary clinical and research scenarios. In the context of PM, pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics are aimed at the genetic personalization of drug response. Extrinsic and intrinsic factors may explain inter-individual variability in drug response. Among such factors, age seems to specifically intervene to modulate drug response since normal developmental changes may influence the exposure-response relation. Consequently, the potential benefit of pharmacogenomics (PGx) in the paediatric population is considerable...
February 7, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168801/maternal-stress-during-pregnancy-and-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-children-during-the-first-two-years-of-life
#9
Kinga Polanska, Anna Krol, Dorota Merecz-Kot, Joanna Jurewicz, Teresa Makowiec-Dabrowska, Flavia Chiarotti, Gemma Calamandrei, Wojciech Hanke
AIM: A growing body of literature documents associations between maternal stress in pregnancy and child development, but findings across studies are often inconsistent. The aim of this study was to estimate the association between exposure to different kinds of prenatal stress and child psychomotor development. METHODS: The study population consisted of 372 mother-child pairs from Polish Mother and Child Cohort. The analysis was restricted to the women who worked at least 1 month during pregnancy period...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159619/prenatal-maternal-stress-in-relation-to-the-effects-of-prenatal-lead-exposure-on-toddler-cognitive-development
#10
Leilei Zhou, Jian Xu, Jinsong Zhang, Chonghuai Yan, Yanfen Lin, Yinan Jia, Wenjing Hu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of maternal lead exposure during pregnancy on toddler cognitive development and the potential effect modification by maternal stress. METHODS: We conducted a prospective birth-cohort study in Shanghai from 2010 to 2012 and investigated 225 mother-infant pairs. The mothers were recruited in mid-to-late pregnancy and children were followed up until 24-36 months old. A self-administered Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale (SCL-90-R) was used to assess maternal emotional stress during pregnancy...
January 31, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158522/parent-report-measures-of-infant-and-toddler-social-emotional-development-a-systematic-review
#11
Maiken Pontoppidan, Nete K Niss, Jan H Pejtersen, Megan M Julian, Mette S Væver
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152144/association-between-moderate-and-late-preterm-birth-and-neurodevelopment-and-social-emotional-development-at-age-2-years
#12
Jeanie L Cheong, Lex W Doyle, Alice C Burnett, Katherine J Lee, Jennifer M Walsh, Cody R Potter, Karli Treyvaud, Deanne K Thompson, Joy E Olsen, Peter J Anderson, Alicia J Spittle
Importance: Moderate and late preterm (MLPT) births comprise most preterm infants. Therefore, long-term developmental concerns in this population potentially have a large public health influence. While there are increasing reports of developmental problems in MLPT children, detail is lacking on the precise domains that are affected. Objective: To compare neurodevelopment and social-emotional development between MLPT infants and term-born control infants at age 2 years...
February 6, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142062/in-any-way-shape-or-form-toddlers-understanding-of-shapes
#13
Joanna Zambrzycka, Donna Kotsopoulos, Joanne Lee, Samantha Makosz
Using the intermodal preferential looking paradigm, two-year-old children's ability to discriminate valid (typical and atypical) squares, rectangles, triangles, and circles from invalid distractors was examined. The cognitive and environmental factors that might predict this ability were also investigated. Two-year-old children (N=33) were able to discriminate squares, triangles, and circles, but not rectangles. No significant cognitive or environmental predictors of this ability were found. The results suggest that the ability to shape discriminate at age two is under considerable development and that other factors may be responsible for children's ability to discriminate shapes...
January 28, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141712/significant-sleep-dysregulation-in-a-toddler-with-developmental-delay
#14
Martin T Stein, Judith Owens, Myles Abbott
Derrick's parents made an appointment with a new pediatrician for a second opinion about disordered sleep. Now 22-months old, he was evaluated at 18 months of age for developmental delay when he was found to have "a regulatory disorder associated with delays in language and motor development, hypotonia and significant sleep problems." The parents are now most concerned about his sleeping pattern. Prolonged sleep onset and frequent night awaking occur each night since 6-months of age. These problems are more severe in the past few months when he awakes screaming and cannot be settled...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138832/brief-report-the-development-of-compliance-in-toddlers-at-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Naomi V Ekas, Nicole M McDonald, Megan M Pruitt, Daniel S Messinger
Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) report concerns with child compliance. The development of compliance in 24-, 30-, and 36-month-old high-risk children with ASD outcomes (n = 21), high-risk children without ASD (n = 49), and low-risk children (n = 41) was examined. The High-Risk/ASD group showed greater passive noncompliance at 24-months than the non-ASD groups and a smaller increase in compliance than the High-Risk/No ASD group. The High-Risk/ASD group also showed a smaller decline in active noncompliance than the Low-Risk group...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134627/association-of-food-insecurity-with-children-s-behavioral-emotional-and-academic-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#16
Priya Shankar, Rainjade Chung, Deborah A Frank
OBJECTIVE: Food Insecurity (FI) occurs in 21% of families with children and adolescents in the United States, but the potential developmental and behavioral implications of this prevalent social determinant of health have not been comprehensively elucidated. This systematic review aims to examine the association between FI and childhood developmental and behavioral outcomes in western industrialized countries. METHOD: This review provides a critical summary of 23 peer reviewed articles from developed countries on the associations between FI and adverse childhood developmental behavioral outcomes including early cognitive development, academic performance, inattention, externalizing behaviors, and depression in 4 groups-infants and toddlers, preschoolers, school age, and adolescents...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132903/apela-exhibits-isoform-and-headgroup-dependent-modulation-of-micelle-binding-peptide-conformation-and-dynamics
#17
Shuya K Huang, Kyungsoo Shin, Muzaddid Sarker, Jan K Rainey
Apela (also referred to as ELABELA and toddler) is a peptide hormone that activates the apelin receptor (AR or APJ) to regulate cardiovascular system development and function. Here, we report the first biophysical characterization of three apela isoforms, apela-54, -32, and -11, alongside a monomeric C1S-apela-11 mutant, using circular dichroism (CD) spectropolarimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The behaviour of apela-54 is consistent with a preprotein containing a hydrophobic, N-terminal signal peptide...
January 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129455/the-role-of-generic-language-in-the-early-development-of-social-categorization
#18
Marjorie Rhodes, Sarah-Jane Leslie, Lydia Bianchi, Lisa Chalik
Classifying people into categories not only helps humans simplify a complex social world but also contributes to stereotyping and discrimination. This research examines how social categorization develops by testing how language imbues with meaning otherwise arbitrary differences between people. Experimental studies (N = 129) with 2-year-olds showed that generic language-language that refers to abstract kinds-guides the development of social categorization. Toddlers learned a new category after hearing generic language about individuals who shared an arbitrary perceptual feature but not after hearing matched specific language, simple labels, or plural (but nongeneric) language about the same set of individuals...
January 27, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128992/the-multisensory-nature-of-verbal-discourse-in-parent-toddler-interactions
#19
Sumarga H Suanda, Linda B Smith, Chen Yu
Toddlers learn object names in sensory rich contexts. Many argue that this multisensory experience facilitates learning. Here, we examine how toddlers' multisensory experience is linked to another aspect of their experience associated with better learning: the temporally extended nature of verbal discourse. We observed parent-toddler dyads as they played with, and as parents talked about, a set of objects. Analyses revealed links between the multisensory and extended nature of speech, highlighting inter-connections and redundancies in the environment...
January 27, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127778/maternal-depression-and-intimate-partner-violence-exposure-longitudinal-analyses-of-the-development-of-aggressive-behavior-in-an-at-risk-sample
#20
Megan R Holmes, Susan Yoon, Kristen A Berg
A substantial body of literature has documented the negative effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on a wide range of children's developmental outcomes. However, whether a child's exposure to IPV leads to increased adjustment difficulties is likely to depend on a variety of factors, including the caregiver's mental health and the developmental time period when IPV exposure occurs. The present study seeks to improve our understanding of the long-term effects of IPV exposure and maternal depression on the development of children's overt aggressive behavior...
January 27, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
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