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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319676/examination-of-associations-between-chaos-in-the-home-environment-serum-cortisol-level-and-dietary-fat-intake-among-parents-of-preschool-age-children
#1
Laura Margaret MacRae, Gerarda Darlington, Jess Haines, David W L Ma
This research investigated associations between home environment chaos, fat intake, and morning serum cortisol level in 44 parents of preschool-age children. Chaos was measured using the Confusion, Hubbub, and Order Scale, and fat intake was quantified using the Block fat screener. Linear regression analyses demonstrated that chaos and cortisol were both associated with fat intake (β^ = 0.53, p= 0.001;β^ = 0.03, p= 0.0002), and there was a non-significant association between chaos and cortisol.
March 20, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318338/latent-class-profiles-of-anxiety-symptom-trajectories-from-preschool-through-school-age
#2
Sarah J Kertz, Chad Sylvester, Rebecca Tillman, Joan L Luby
Anxiety typically arises early in childhood and decreases during school age. However, little is known about the earlier developmental course of anxiety in preschool, especially in at risk children, posing a clinically important problem. Given that anxiety in youth has a chronic course for some and also predicts later development of other mental health problems, it is important to identify factors early in development that may predict chronic anxiety symptoms. At-risk children (oversampled for depression) and caregivers completed 6 assessment waves beginning at preschool age (between 3-5...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318290/parenting-stress-mediates-the-association-between-negative-affectivity-and-harsh-parenting-a-longitudinal-dyadic-analysis
#3
Yunying Le, Steffany J Fredman, Mark E Feinberg
The current study examined parenting stress (disaggregated into personal distress and child rearing stress) at 12 months postpartum as a mediator of the longitudinal association between parental negative affectivity at 6 months postpartum and harsh parenting at 3 years postpartum for first-time parents with a child transitioning from late toddlerhood to the early preschool years. Analyses were conducted using Mediation for Actor Partner Interdependence Modeling in a sample of 164 couples who participated in a randomized controlled trial of a universal, couple-based transition to parenthood program...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318288/familial-risk-and-sibling-mentalization-links-with-preschoolers-internalizing-problems
#4
Michelle Rodrigues, Noam Binnoon-Erez, Heather Prime, Michal Perlman, Jennifer M Jenkins
The current study explored whether older sibling mentalization moderated the relationship between familial risk for internalizing symptoms and the development of future internalizing problems in the younger siblings, referred to as target children. Data were collected on 397 older siblings at Time 1 (T1) when target children were newborn and their older siblings were on average 2.61 years old (SD = .75). Target children were on average 1.60 years old at Time 2 (T2). Internalizing problems were assessed via mother and partner reports...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317113/temperamental-markers-in-toddlers-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Suzanne L Macari, Judah Koller, Daniel J Campbell, Katarzyna Chawarska
BACKGROUND: Although temperament has been recognized as an important contributor to childhood psychopathology, its role in emergent autism spectrum phenotypes is not well understood. This study examined whether toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display temperamental vulnerabilities compared to toddlers with other developmental challenges, whether these characteristics are distinct from core autism symptoms, if they are stable over time, and if they contribute to social outcomes in preschool...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315589/the-multidimensional-card-selection-task-a-new-way-to-measure-concurrent-cognitive-flexibility-in-preschoolers
#6
Gal Podjarny, Deepthi Kamawar, Katherine Andrews
Most executive function research examining preschoolers' cognitive flexibility, the ability to think about something in more than one way, has focused on preschoolers' facility for sequentially switching their attention from one dimension to another (e.g., sorting bivalent cards first by color and then by shape). We know very little about preschoolers' ability to coordinate more than one dimension simultaneously (concurrent cognitive flexibility). Here we report on a new task, the Multidimensional Card Selection Task, which was designed to measure children's ability to consider two dimensions, and then three dimensions, concurrently (e...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306483/preschool-fantasy-reality-discrimination-influences-of-trait-and-primed-fearfulness
#7
Aleksandra V Petkova, Kathleen M Cain
Distinguishing between fantasy and reality is an important developmental milestone, achieved in the preschool years, that has been linked to children's cognitive capabilities and emotional knowledge. The authors examined the influence of both trait and prime fearfulness on preschoolers' ability to differentiate between fantastic and real situations. Forty 3-5-year-old preschoolers were administered a fearfulness assessment, a standard theory-of-mind task, and a fantasy-reality discrimination task (with or without a fear prime)...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303697/review-of-the-studies-on-nutrition-in-polish-preschool-children-part-2-meals-prepared-at-preschool
#8
Sylwia Merkiel-Pawłowska, Wojciech Chalcarz
This article is the second part of the review of the studies on nutrition in Polish preschool children. In the first part, studies on preschool menus assessment were presented and summarised, whereas this article reviews the studies on the assessment of foods and meals prepared at preschool. The aim of this review was to present and summarise the results of the studies on the assessment of meals prepared for children at preschool based on the reports from the preschool food storeroom, the studies on chemical analysis of sample meals served at preschools and the studies on comparison of the results of chemical analysis to the results obtained by calculations obtained from computer programmes...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303094/child-robot-interactions-for-second-language-tutoring-to-preschool-children
#9
Paul Vogt, Mirjam de Haas, Chiara de Jong, Peta Baxter, Emiel Krahmer
In this digital age social robots will increasingly be used for educational purposes, such as second language tutoring. In this perspective article, we propose a number of design features to develop a child-friendly social robot that can effectively support children in second language learning, and we discuss some technical challenges for developing these. The features we propose include choices to develop the robot such that it can act as a peer to motivate the child during second language learning and build trust at the same time, while still being more knowledgeable than the child and scaffolding that knowledge in adult-like manner...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301822/elevated-lead-levels-and-changes-in-blood-morphology-and-erythrocyte-cr1-in-preschool-children-from-an-e-waste-area
#10
Yifeng Dai, Xia Huo, Yu Zhang, Tian Yang, Minghui Li, Xijin Xu
Improper dismantling and combustion of electronic waste (e-waste) may release persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals that possess potential risk for human health. Lead (Pb) is carried through the circulatory system by erythrocytes and is known to alter the functions of hematopoietic and immune systems. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Pb exposure on blood morphology and erythrocyte complement receptor 1 (CR1) levels as related to immunologic function in preschool children. We recruited 484 preschool children, 2- to 6-years of age, among whom 332 children were from Guiyu, a typical and primitive e-waste processing area, and 152 children from Haojiang (reference area)...
March 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301102/neural-correlates-of-language-variability-in-preschool-aged-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Letitia R Naigles, Ryan Johnson, Ann Mastergeorge, Sally Ozonoff, Sally J Rogers, David G Amaral, Christine Wu Nordahl
Children with autism vary widely in their language abilities, yet the neural correlates of this language variability remain unclear, especially early in development. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to examine diffusivity measures along the length of 18 major fiber tracts in 104 preschool-aged boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The boys were assigned to subgroups according to their level of language development (Low: no/low language, Middle: small vocabulary, High: large vocabulary and grammar), based on their raw scores on the expressive language (EL) and receptive language (RL) sections of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL)...
March 16, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300961/vocabulary-of-preschool-children-with-typical-language-development-and-socioeducational-variables
#12
Thaís Cristina da Freiria Moretti, Rita Cristina Sadako Kuroishi, Patrícia Pupin Mandrá
Purpose: To investigate the correlation between age, socioeconomic status (SES), and performance on emissive and receptive vocabulary tests in children with typical language development. Methods: The study sample was composed of 60 preschool children of both genders, aged 3 years to 5 years 11 months, with typical language development divided into three groups: G I (mean age=3 years 6 months), G II (mean age=4 years 4 months) and G III (mean age=5 years 9 months)...
March 9, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298482/movement-disorder-associated-with-foreign-body-ingestion
#13
Olugbenga Akingbola, Dinesh Singh, Uwe Blecker
We present a case of recurrent bouts of irritability with arching, head extension, and lethargy in a previously healthy 10-month-old girl admitted to the PICU for acute onset of a movement disorder. The patient's vital signs and physical examination were unremarkable but recurrent bouts of abnormal movements persisted for the first 10 hours of admission in the PICU. Possible diagnoses, such as meningitis, status epilepticus, space occupying lesions, and toxic ingestions, were ruled out because of negative cerebrospinal fluid analysis, normal EEG, and negative results of other ancillary tests...
March 15, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297001/screening-bilingual-preschoolers-for-language-difficulties-utility-of-teacher-and-parent-reports
#14
Emmanuel Peng Kiat Pua, Mary Lay Choo Lee, Susan J Rickard Liow
Purpose: The utility of parent and teacher reports for screening 3 types of bilingual preschoolers (English-first language [L1]/Mandarin-second language[L2], Mandarin-L1/English-L2, or Malay-L1/English-L2) for language difficulty was investigated in Singapore with reference to measures of reliability, validity, sensitivity, and specificity in an English-medium kindergarten setting. Method: The index tests were teachers' ratings of the English language ability of 5-year-olds (N = 85) on the Bilingual Language Assessment Battery (BLAB): Preschool Teacher Report (Pua, Lee, & Rickard Liow, 2013) and parents' ratings of their child's home language ability (N = 78 English-L1, Mandarin-L1, or Malay-L1) on the BLAB: Preschool Parent Report (Pua, Lee, & Rickard Liow, 2013)...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296896/relationship-between-pickiness-and-subsequent-development-in-body-mass-index-and-diet-intake-in-obesity-prone-normal-weight-preschool-children
#15
Jeanett Friis Rohde, Mina Nicole Händel, Maria Stougaard, Nanna Julie Olsen, Maria Trærup, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Berit Lilienthal Heitmann
BACKGROUND: Most children have periods in their life where they reject familiar as well as non-familiar food items and this is often referred to as pickiness. The consequences of pickiness may be malnutrition and, if prolonged, potentially lower body weight. However, studies investigating the consequence of pickiness on subsequent changes in diet intake and weight are limited. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether pickiness influences body mass index as well as diet intake over subsequent 15 months among obesity prone normal weight children aged 2-6 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295263/preschoolers-genetic-physiological-and-behavioral-sensitivity-factors-moderate-links-between-parenting-stress-and-child-internalizing-externalizing-and-sleep-problems
#16
Molly Davis, Kristel Thomassin, Joanie Bilms, Cynthia Suveg, Anne Shaffer, Steven R H Beach
This study examined three potential moderators of the relations between maternal parenting stress and preschoolers' adjustment problems: a genetic polymorphism-the short allele of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR, ss/sl allele) gene, a physiological indicator-children's baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and a behavioral indicator-mothers' reports of children's negative emotionality. A total of 108 mothers (Mage  = 30.68 years, SDage  = 6.06) reported on their parenting stress as well as their preschoolers' (Mage  = 3...
March 14, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295211/preschoolers-understanding-of-how-others-learn-through-action-and-instruction
#17
David M Sobel, Susan M Letourneau
It is widely believed that exploration is a mechanism for young children's learning. The present investigation examines preschoolers' beliefs about how learning occurs. We asked 3- to 5-year-olds to articulate how characters in a set of stories learned about a new toy. Younger preschoolers were more likely to overemphasize the role of characters' actions in learning than older children were (Experiment 1, N = 53). Overall performance improved when the stories explicitly stated that characters were originally ignorant and clarified the characters' actions, but general developmental trends remained (Experiment 2, N = 48)...
March 10, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295204/encouraging-maternal-guidance-of-preschoolers-spatial-thinking-during-block-play
#18
Giulia A Borriello, Lynn S Liben
Spatial thinking, an important component of cognition, supports academic achievement and daily activities (e.g., learning science and math; using maps). Better spatial skills are correlated with more spatial play and more parental attention to spatial concepts. Tested here was whether informing mothers about spatial thinking and ways to encourage it would increase the spatial guidance they provide to their preschool children (N = 41; M = 5.23 years) during dyadic block play. Mothers given such instructions indeed produced more spatial language and spatial guidance than mothers asked to play as usual...
March 13, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295189/unpacking-socio-economic-risks-for-reading-and-academic-self-concept-in-primary-school-differential-effects-and-the-role-of-the-preschool-home-learning-environment
#19
Alexandria Crampton, James Hall
BACKGROUND: Uncertainty remains concerning how children's reading and academic self-concept are related and how these are differentially affected by social disadvantage and home learning environments. AIMS: To contrast the impacts of early socio-economic risks and preschool home learning environments upon British children's reading abilities and academic self-concept between 7 and 10 years. SAMPLE: n = 3,172 British children aged 3-10 years and their families...
March 13, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294294/mother-child-attachment-from-infancy-to-the-preschool-years-predicting-security-and-stability
#20
Elizabeth Meins, Jean-François Bureau, Charles Fernyhough
Relations between maternal mind-mindedness (appropriate and nonattuned mind-related comments), children's age-2 perspective-taking abilities, and attachment security at 44 (n = 165) and 51 (n = 128) months were investigated. Nonattuned comments predicted insecure preschool attachment, via insecure 15-month attachment security (44-month attachment) and poorer age-2 perspective-taking abilities (51-month attachment). With regard to attachment stability, higher perspective-taking abilities distinguished the stable secure groups from (a) the stable insecure groups and (b) children who changed from secure to insecure (at trend level)...
March 10, 2017: Child Development
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