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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222484/overweight-obese-underweight-and-frequency-of-sugar-consumption-as-risk-indicators-for-early-childhood-caries-in-brazilian-preschool-children
#1
Cecilia Claudia Costa Ribeiro, Mariana Carvalho Batista da Silva, Ana Margarida Melo Nunes, Erika Bárbara de Abreu Fonseca Thomaz, Cadidja Dayane Sousa Carmo, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa Ribeiro, Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva
BACKGROUND: A possible association between being overweight or obese and early childhood caries (ECC) remains controversial. AIM: To investigated this association in a developing country testing the confounding effects of socioeconomic factors and frequency of sugar consumption. METHODS: Historical cohort study, 388 children (aged 24-71 months) living in São Luís, Brazil. A theoretical model adjusted according to income, birthweight, and nutritional status at twelve months and frequency of sugar consumption was generated with directed acyclic graphs to analyze this association...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222343/motor-skills-in-kindergarten-internal-structure-cognitive-correlates-and-relationships-to-background-variables
#2
Nicole Oberer, Venera Gashaj, Claudia M Roebers
The present study aimed to contribute to the discussion about the relation between motor coordination and executive functions in preschool children. Specifically, the relation between gross and fine motor skills and executive functions as well as the relation to possible background variables (SES, physical activity) were investigated. Based on the data of N=156 kindergarten children the internal structure of motor skills was investigated and confirmed the theoretically assumed subdivision of gross and fine motor skills...
February 17, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222149/ultrasonographic-evaluation-of-urinary-tract-morbidity-in-school-aged-and-preschool-aged-children-infected-with-schistosoma-haematobium-and-its-evolution-after-praziquantel-treatment-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Beatrice Barda, Jean T Coulibaly, Christoph Hatz, Jennifer Keiser
BACKGROUND: Schistosoma haematobium infections are responsible for significant urinary tract (UT) complications. Schistosomiasis control programs aim to reduce morbidity, yet the extent of morbidity in preschool-aged children and the impact of treatment on morbidity reduction are not well studied. METHODOLOGY: Our study was embedded in a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind trial in Côte d'Ivoire, which evaluated the efficacy and safety of three doses (20, 40 and 60 mg/kg) of praziquantel in school-aged (SAC) and preschool-aged (PSAC) children infected with S...
February 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221733/regional-lung-ventilation-pattern-in-preschool-children-with-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-is-modified-by-bronchodilator-response
#4
Wojciech Durlak, Małgorzata Klimek, Przemko Kwinta
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains a significant long-term complication of prematurity. A standardized method of pulmonary function testing is still not available in preschool children with BPD. We investigated the feasibility of Electrical Impedance Segmentography (EIS) monitoring in this group and the impact of bronchodilator response (BDR) to salbutamol on the pattern of lung ventilation. METHODS: We conducted a follow-up study of 4-year-old premature children who had been treated in the tertiary NICU...
March 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221049/childhood-gender-typed-behavior-and-adolescent-sexual-orientation-a-longitudinal-population-based-study
#5
Gu Li, Karson T F Kung, Melissa Hines
Lesbian and gay individuals have been reported to show more interest in other-sex, and/or less interest in same-sex, toys, playmates, and activities in childhood than heterosexual counterparts. Yet, most of the relevant evidence comes from retrospective studies or from prospective studies of clinically referred, extremely gender nonconforming children. In addition, findings are mixed regarding the relation between childhood gender-typed behavior and the later sexual orientation spectrum from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively lesbian/gay...
February 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219251/childhood-intelligence-and-early-tooth-wear-patterns
#6
Tuomo Heikkinen, Jaana Rusanen, Koshi Sato, Paula Pesonen, Virpi Harila, Lassi Alvesalo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore the relationships between early dental wear patterns and preschool IQ (Intelligence Quotient, by Stanford-Binet) of the child to illuminate the historic relationship of mental queries and bruxism. METHODS: The dental study participants were 864 Euro-American preschool and school children whose IQs were tested for school maturity purposes at the age of 4 years, followed by dental data in a cross-sectional manner at the mean age of 7...
February 20, 2017: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219081/current-methods-of-evaluating-speech-language-outcomes-for-preschoolers-with-communication-disorders-a-scoping-review-using-the-icf-cy
#7
Barbara Jane Cunningham, Karla N Washington, Amanda Binns, Katelyn Rolfe, Bernadette Robertson, Peter Rosenbaum
Purpose: The purpose of this scoping review was to identify current measures used to evaluate speech-language outcomes for preschoolers with communication disorders within the framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY; World Health Organization, 2007). Method: The review involved 5 phases outlined by Arksey and O'Malley (2005) and further developed by Levac, Colquhoun, and O'Brien (2010): (a) articulating the research question; (b) identifying relevant studies; (c) selecting studies; (d) charting the data; and (e) collating, summarizing, and reporting the results...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219036/-i-use-it-when-i-see-it-the-role-of-development-and-experience-in-deaf-and-hearing-children-s-understanding-of-iconic-gesture
#8
Rachel W Magid, Jennie E Pyers
Iconicity is prevalent in gesture and in sign languages, yet the degree to which children recognize and leverage iconicity for early language learning is unclear. In Experiment 1 of the current study, we presented sign-naïve 3-, 4- and 5-year-olds (n=87) with iconic shape gestures and no additional scaffolding to ask whether children can spontaneously map iconic gestures to their referents. Four- and five-year-olds, but not three-year-olds, recognized the referents of iconic shape gestures above chance. Experiment 2 asked whether preschoolers (n=93) show an advantage in fast-mapping iconic gestures compared to arbitrary ones...
February 16, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217944/longitudinal-relations-between-children-s-cognitive-and-affective-theory-of-mind-with-reactive-and-proactive-aggression
#9
Gina Austin, Rebecca Bondü, Birgit Elsner
Aggression may be performed for different reasons, such as defending oneself (reactive aggression) or to reach egoistic aims (proactive aggression). It is a widely accepted notion that a lack of theory of mind (ToM) as a basic social competence should be linked to higher aggression, but findings on the developmental links between ToM and different functions of aggression have been inconsistent. One reason for this may be the failure of taking the bi-dimensionality of both ToM (cognitive vs. affective) and aggression (reactive vs...
February 20, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215543/the-mediating-role-of-child-self-regulation-of-eating-in-the-relationship-between-parental-use-of-food-as-a-reward-and-child-emotional-overeating
#10
Elisabeth M Powell, Leslie A Frankel, Daphne Hernandez
Emotional eating, or eating in response to negative emotions rather than internal hunger cues, has been related to many maladaptive eating patterns that contribute to weight gain and obesity. The parent feeding practice of use of food as a reward is positively associated with children emotionally overeating. Yet, little is known as to the potential behavioral mechanism linking these behaviors. The current study examined the mediating role of child self-regulation of eating in the relationship between parental use of food as a reward and child emotional overeating...
February 16, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215424/bi-directional-associations-between-child-fussy-eating-and-parents-pressure-to-eat-who-influences-whom
#11
Pauline W Jansen, Lisanne M de Barse, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Oscar H Franco, Henning Tiemeier
BACKGROUND: Fussy eating is common in young children, often raising concerns among parents. The use of pressuring feeding practices may provoke or worsen child fussiness, but these practices could equally be a parent's response to child fussy eating. OBJECTIVE: In longitudinal analyses, we assessed directionality in the relation between fussy eating and parent's pressure to eat across childhood. METHODS: Study participants were 4845 mother-child dyads from the population-based Generation R cohort in the Netherlands...
February 16, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215256/the-association-between-chronotype-and-sleep-problems-in-preschool-children
#12
Nur K Jafar, Elaine K H Tham, Derric Z H Eng, Daniel Y T Goh, Oon-Hoe Teoh, Yung S Lee, Lynette Pei-Chi Shek, Fabian Yap, Yap Seng Chong, Michael J Meaney, Joshua J Gooley, Birit F P Broekman
OBJECTIVE: Adolescents and adults who are evening-types exhibit shorter sleep duration and more sleep problems than individuals with an earlier chronotype. We hypothesized that already at a preschool age, evening-types would exhibit more sleep problems relative to children who are morning or intermediate chronotypes. The aim of this study was to examine the association between chronotype and sleep problems among preschool children. METHODS: We studied a subset of typically-developing 4...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215253/early-features-associated-with-the-neurocognitive-development-at-36-months-of-age-the-aube-study
#13
Sabine Plancoulaine, Camille Stagnara, Sophie Flori, Flora Bat-Pitault, Jian-Sheng Lin, Hugues Patural, Patricia Franco
BACKGROUND: Few studies on the relations between sleep quantity and/or quality and cognition have been conducted among preschoolers from healthy general population. We aimed at identifying, among 36 months old children, early factors associated with intelligence quotient (IQ) estimated through the Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale Intelligence-III test and its indicators: Full-Scale-, Verbal- and Performance-IQs and their subscale scores. METHODS: We included 194 children from the French birth cohort AuBE with both available Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale Intelligence-III scores at three years and sleep data...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210826/stranger-fear-and-early-risk-for-social-anxiety-in-preschoolers-with-fragile-x-syndrome-contrasted-to-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Jessica F Scherr, Abigail L Hogan, Deborah Hatton, Jane E Roberts
This study investigated behavioral indicators of social fear in preschool boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS) with a low degree of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms (FXS-Low; n = 29), FXS with elevated ASD symptoms (FXS-High; n = 25), idiopathic ASD (iASD; n = 11), and typical development (TD; n = 36). Gaze avoidance, escape behaviors, and facial fear during a stranger approach were coded. Boys with elevated ASD symptoms displayed more avoidant gaze, looking less at the stranger and parent than those with low ASD symptoms across etiologies...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209413/the-impact-of-choice-on-young-children-s-prosocial-motivation
#15
Diotima J Rapp, Jan M Engelmann, Esther Herrmann, Michael Tomasello
The current study explored how freedom of choice affects preschoolers' prosocial motivation. Children (3- and 5-year-olds) participated in either a choice condition (where they could decide for themselves whether to help or not) or a no-choice condition (where they were instructed to help). Prosocial motivation was subsequently assessed by measuring the amount children helped an absent peer in the face of an attractive alternative game. The 5-year-olds provided with choice helped more than the children not provided with choice, and this effect was stronger for girls than for boys...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207165/birth-order-and-preschool-children-s-cooperative-abilities-a-within-family-analysis
#16
Heather Prime, André Plamondon, Jennifer M Jenkins
There is evidence for a laterborn sibling advantage in some social skills, although this has not been investigated in children's early capacities for cooperation. Using a within-family design, this study compared firstborn and laterborn (i.e., middle and youngest) siblings on their cooperative abilities when they were aged around 3 years. Further, the study investigated whether the association between children's birth order and cooperative abilities was dependent on the prosocial behaviour of other siblings in the home...
February 16, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206898/fluoride-varnish-applications-in-preschoolers-and-dental-fluorosis-in-permanent-incisors-results-of-a-nested-cohort-study-within-a-clinical-trial
#17
Ana Paula Pires Dos Santos, Marcella Cristina Bordallo Malta, Mirian de Waele Souchois de Marsillac, Branca Heloisa de Oliveira
PURPOSE: To compare the prevalence and severity of fluorosis in the permanent maxillary incisors of children who had participated in a two-year randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial on fluoride varnish application in the primary dentition and to assess children's esthetic perception of their teeth. METHODS: Parents of 200 one- to four-year-old children who had received biannual applications of fluoride or placebo varnish were contacted four years after the end of the trial...
October 15, 2016: Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203332/status-and-determinants-of-motor-impairment-in-preschool-children-from-migrant-families-in-china
#18
Hua Jin, Jing Hua, Jianqiang Shen, Lijuan Feng, Guixiong Gu
BACKGROUND: Although poor health conditions and decreased developmental levels have been investigated in migrant children, no study in China has focused on these children's individual motor development. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to explore the prevalence of motor impairment in Chinese migrant children and to determine the contributory factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a structured questionnaire was administered to primary caregivers of preschool children aged 3 - 6 (n = 2,976) in ten kindergartens from two districts of Suzhou, China, to assess the children's home socioeconomic status and motor environment, that is, the presence of affordances for motor development...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203212/influence-of-ongoing-task-difficulty-and-motivation-level-on-children-s-prospective-memory-in-a-chinese-sample
#19
Pi-Guo Han, Lei Han, Yu-Long Bian, Yu Tian, Min-Xia Xu, Feng-Qiang Gao
Prospective memory (PM) is the process associated with the task of realizing delayed intentions in the future. Researchers distinguish two types of PM, namely time-based PM (tbPM) and event-based PM (ebPM). Experiment 1 investigated the developmental trajectory of 3- to 5-year-old preschool children's PM ability, and the occurrence of delayed retrieval (children execute the PM task in a larger window of opportunity) in both tbPM and ebPM tasks. Results revealed that the 5-year-old children outperformed the 3- and 4-year-old children in PM...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202412/play-with-your-food-sensory-play-is-associated-with-tasting-of-fruits-and-vegetables-in-preschool-children
#20
Helen Coulthard, Anne-Marie Sealy
The objective of the current study was to ascertain whether taking part in a sensory play activity with real fruits and vegetables (FV) can encourage tasting in preschool children, compared to a non-food activity or visual exposure to the activity. Three to four year old pre-school children (N = 62) were recruited from three preschool nursery classes from a school in Northamptonshire, UK. A between participants experimental study was conducted with each class assigned to one of three conditions; sensory FV play, sensory non-food play and visual FV exposure...
February 12, 2017: Appetite
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