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Brain derived neurotrophic factor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919728/voluntary-running-improves-depressive-behaviours-and-the-structure-of-the-hippocampus-in-rats-a-possible-impact-of-myokines
#1
Magda A Eldomiaty, Shaima M Almasry, Maha K Desouky, Sami A Algaidi
This study investigated the impact of voluntary exercise on depressive behaviours, serum and hippocampal levels of myokines, and histopathological features of hippocampal formation in rats. Depressed rats were allowed to voluntarily run on a wheel for 3 weeks. Locomotor activity was assessed by a forced swimming test and the myokine levels in sera and hippocampal homogenates were measured using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. Brain sections were analysed for hippocampal structure and neuronal counts. Voluntary running produced significant increase in the distance moved by rats and significant decrease in immobility duration...
December 2, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919646/role-of-neurotrophic-factors-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#2
Shih-Jen Tsai
Neurotrophins (NTs), a family of proteins including nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4, are essential for neural growth, survival, and differentiation, and are therefore crucial for brain development. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by problems of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. ADHD is one of the most common childhood onset psychiatric disorders. Studies have suggested that both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of the disorder, although the precise causes of ADHD have not yet been identified...
November 30, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919226/molar-loss-and-powder-diet-leads-to-memory-deficit-and-modifies-the-mrna-expression-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-the-hippocampus-of-adult-mice
#3
Yosuke Takeda, Hiroshi Oue, Shinsuke Okada, Akira Kawano, Katsunori Koretake, Makoto Michikawa, Yasumasa Akagawa, Kazuhiro Tsuga
BACKGROUND: It is known that tooth loss is known to be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and soft diet feeding induces memory impairment. Recent studies have shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with tooth loss or soft diet in young animal model, and that BDNF expression is decreased in patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, single or combined effect of tooth loss and/or soft diet on brain function has not fully understood. Here we examined the effect of molar loss and powder diet on memory ability and the expression of BDNF mRNA in the hippocampus of adult C57BL/6J mice...
December 5, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918874/effects-of-the-natural-%C3%AE-carboline-alkaloid-harmine-a-main-constituent-of-ayahuasca-in-memory-and-in-the-hippocampus-a-systematic-literature-review-of-preclinical-studies
#4
Rafael G Dos Santos, Jaime E C Hallak
Harmine is a natural β-carboline alkaloid found in several botanical species, such as the Banisteriopsis caapi vine used in the preparation of the hallucinogenic beverage ayahuasca and the seeds of Syrian rue (Peganum harmala). Preclinical studies suggest that harmine may have neuroprotective and cognitive-enhancing effects, and retrospective/observational investigations of the mental health of long-term ayahuasca users suggest that prolonged use of this harmine-rich hallucinogen is associated with better neuropsychological functioning...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918823/short-term-alteration-of-developmental-neural-activity-enhances-neurite-outgrowth-of-retinal-explants
#5
Meng-Jung Lee, Chuan-Chin Chiao
Purpose: It is well known that the gradual loss of axon growth ability of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) during development is largely determined by extrinsic signals rather than being programmed intrinsically. Spontaneous retinal waves are the major neural activity during retinal development. Thus restoring the developmental environment by providing the proper neural activity may be able to help axon regeneration of RGCs. Methods: Retinal explants from P5 and P11 C57BL/6 mice were treated pharmacologically or stimulated electrically, and cultured with or without brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on coverslips or a multielectrode array for 5 days to examine the neurite outgrowth capacity of RGCs...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918277/computational-model-of-a-positive-bdnf-feedback-loop-in-hippocampal-neurons-following-inhibitory-avoidance-training
#6
Yili Zhang, Paul Smolen, Cristina M Alberini, Douglas A Baxter, John H Byrne
Inhibitory avoidance (IA) training in rodents initiates a molecular cascade within hippocampal neurons. This cascade contributes to the transition of short- to long-term memory (i.e., consolidation). Here, a differential equation-based model was developed to describe a positive feedback loop within this molecular cascade. The feedback loop begins with an IA-induced release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which in turn leads to rapid phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB), and a subsequent increase in the level of the β isoform of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPβ)...
December 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916956/functional-diversity-of-neurotrophin-actions-on-the-oculomotor-system
#7
REVIEW
Beatriz Benítez-Temiño, María A Davis-López de Carrizosa, Sara Morcuende, Esperanza R Matarredona, Rosa R de la Cruz, Angel M Pastor
Neurotrophins play a principal role in neuronal survival and differentiation during development, but also in the maintenance of appropriate adult neuronal circuits and phenotypes. In the oculomotor system, we have demonstrated that neurotrophins are key regulators of developing and adult neuronal properties, but with peculiarities depending on each neurotrophin. For instance, the administration of NGF (nerve growth factor), BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) or NT-3 (neurotrophin-3) protects neonatal extraocular motoneurons from cell death after axotomy, but only NGF and BDNF prevent the downregulation in ChAT (choline acetyltransferase)...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915477/treadmill-exercise-improves-memory-function-depending-on-circadian-rhythm-changes-in-mice
#8
Dong Sup Hwang, Hyo Bum Kwak, Il Gyu Ko, Sung Eun Kim, Jun Jang Jin, Eun Sang Ji, Hyun Hee Choi, Oh Young Kwon
PURPOSE: Exercise enhances memory function by increasing neurogenesis in the hippocampus, and circadian rhythms modulate synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. The circadian rhythm-dependent effects of treadmill exercise on memory function in relation with neurogenesis were investigated using mice. METHODS: The step-down avoidance test was used to evaluate short-term memory, the 8-arm maze test was used to test spatial learning ability, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine immunofluorescence was used to assess neurogenesis...
November 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915043/involvement-of-bdnf-trkb-signaling-in-the-effect-of-diphenyl-diselenide-on-motor-function-in-a-parkinson-s-disease-rat-model
#9
Tuane Bazanella Sampaio, Simone Pinton, Juliana Trevisan da Rocha, Bibiana Mozzaquatro Gai, Cristina Wayne Nogueira
Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] is a compound with pharmacological proprieties, such as antidepressant and neuroprotective. Therefore, this study investigated whether (PhSe)2 reverses motor impairment and neurochemical alterations in a model of Parkinson's disease induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in rats. For this, male Wistar rats received 20μg/3μl of 6-OHDA or vehicle into the right striatum...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914953/both-secreted-and-the-cellular-levels-of-bdnf-attenuated-due-to-tau-hyperphosphorylation-in-primary-cultures-of-cortical-neurons
#10
İrem Lütfiye Atasoy, Erdinç Dursun, Duygu Gezen Ak, Derya Metin Armağan, Melek Öztürk, Selma Yılmazer
Intracellular aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau in neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) is a major neuropathological hallmark of taupathies such as Alzheimer's disease. Okadaic acid (OKA) is a potent inhibitor of PP2A, leading to abnormal tau phosphorylation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that is selectively downregulated in AD. In this study, we investigated the effects of OKA induced tau hyperphosphorylation on secreted and cellular levels of BDNF in primary cortical neurons that were treated with 25nM OKA...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913877/oxidative-stress-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-first-episode-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-major-depression-effects-of-disease-acuity-and-potential-confounders
#11
Wolfgang Jordan, Henrik Dobrowolny, Sabine Bahn, Hans-Gert Bernstein, Tanja Brigadski, Thomas Frodl, Berend Isermann, Volkmar Lessmann, Jürgen Pilz, Andrea Rodenbeck, Kolja Schiltz, Edzard Schwedhelm, Hayrettin Tumani, Jens Wiltfang, Paul C Guest, Johann Steiner
Oxidative stress and immune dysregulation have been linked to schizophrenia and depression. However, it is unknown whether these factors are related to the pathophysiology or whether they are an epiphenomenon. Inconsistent oxidative stress-related findings in previous studies may have resulted from the use of different biomarkers which show disparate aspects of oxidative stress. Additionally, disease severity, medication, smoking, endocrine stress axis activation and obesity are potential confounders. In order to address some of these shortcomings, we have analyzed a broader set of oxidative stress biomarkers in our exploratory study, including urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), 8-OH-2-deoyxguanosine (8-OH-2-dG), and blood levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in acutely ill drug-naïve first episode patients with schizophrenia (n = 22), major depression (n = 18), and controls (n = 43)...
December 2, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913431/pro-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-probdnf-mediated-p75ntr-activation-promotes-depolarizing-actions-of-gaba-and-increases-susceptibility-to-epileptic-seizures
#12
Baptiste Riffault, Nazim Kourdougli, Camille Dumon, Nadine Ferrand, Emmanuelle Buhler, Fabienne Schaller, Caroline Chambon, Claudio Rivera, Jean-Luc Gaiarsa, Christophe Porcher
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is synthesized as a precursor, namely proBDNF, which can be processed into mature BDNF (mBDNF). Evidences suggest that proBDNF signaling through p75(NTR) may account for the emergence of neurological disorders. These findings support the view that the relative availability of mBDNF and proBDNF forms is an important mechanism underlying brain circuit formation and cognitive functions. Here we describe novel insights into the proBDNF/p75(NTR) mechanisms and function in vivo in modulating neuronal circuit and synaptic plasticity during the first postnatal weeks in rats...
December 1, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913184/tolerance-of-hyperammonemia-in-brain-of-heteropneustes-fossilis-is-supported-by-glutamate-glutamine-cycle
#13
Suman Mishra, Rajnikant Mishra
This report presents analysis of molecular switches associated with tolerance to hyperammonemia in Heteropneustes fossilis because it tolerates about 100-fold more ammonia than mammals. Brains of Heteropneustes fossilis exposed to 100mM ammonium chloride were dissected after Zero hour as control, 16hrs and 20hrs exposure. The status of neuron and glia were analysed by Golgi staining, Luxol Fast Blue, and Nissl's staining. The expression patterns of genes associated to homeostasis of neuron and glia, management of oxidative stress and inflammation, ammonia metabolism and brain derived neurotrophic factor were analysed through reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913110/downregulated-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-induced-oxidative-stress-in-the-pathophysiology-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#14
REVIEW
Tapan Behl, Anita Kotwani
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of neurotrophin growth factor family, physiologically mediates induction of neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation, promotes neuronal growth and survival and maintains synaptic plasticity and neuronal interconnections. Unlike the central nervous system, its secretion in the peripheral nervous system occurs in an activity-dependent manner. BDNF improves neuronal mortality, growth, differentiation and maintenance. It also provides neuroprotection against several noxious stimuli, thereby preventing neuronal damage during pathologic conditions...
November 29, 2016: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909828/the-dopamine-related-polymorphisms-bdnf-comt-drd2-drd3-and-drd4-are-not-linked-with-changes-in-csf-dopamine-levels-and-frequency-of-hiv-infection
#15
Anne Horn, C Scheller, S du Plessis, R Burger, G Arendt, J Joska, S Sopper, C M Maschke, M Obermann, I W Husstedt, J Hain, P Riederer, E Koutsilieri
We showed previously that higher levels in CSF dopamine in HIV patients are associated with the presence of the dopamine transporter (DAT) 10/10-repeat allele which was also detected more frequently in HIV-infected individuals compared to uninfected subjects. In the current study, we investigated further whether other genetic dopamine (DA)-related polymorphisms may be related with changes in CSF DA levels and frequency of HIV infection in HIV-infected subjects. Specifically, we studied genetic polymorphisms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, catechol-O-methyltransferase, and dopamine receptors DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4 genetic polymorphisms in uninfected and HIV-infected people in two different ethnical groups, a German cohort (Caucasian, 72 individuals with HIV infection and 22 individuals without HIV infection) and a South African cohort (Xhosan, 54 individuals with HIV infection and 19 individuals without HIV infection)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909004/pea3-transcription-factors-etv4-and-etv5-are-required-for-proper-hippocampal-dendrite-development-and-plasticity
#16
Paula Aldana Fontanet, Antonella Soledad Ríos, Fernando Cruz Alsina, Gustavo Paratcha, Fernanda Ledda
The proper formation and morphogenesis of dendrites is essential to the establishment of neuronal connectivity. We report that 2 members of the Pea3 family of transcription factors, Etv4 and Etv5, are expressed in hippocampal neurons during the main period of dendritogenesis, suggesting that they have a function in dendrite development. Here, we show that these transcription factors are physiological regulators of growth and arborization of pyramidal cell dendrites in the developing hippocampus. Gain and loss of function assays indicate that Etv4 and Etv5 are required for proper development of hippocampal dendritic arbors and spines...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908981/neurotrophin-signalling-novel-insights-into-mechanisms-and-pathophysiology
#17
REVIEW
Mariela Mitre, Abigail Mariga, Moses V Chao
Neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are prominent regulators of neuronal survival, growth and differentiation during development. While trophic factors are viewed as well-understood but not innovative molecules, there are many lines of evidence indicating that BDNF plays an important role in the pathophysiology of many neurodegenerative disorders, depression, anxiety and other psychiatric disorders. In particular, lower levels of BDNF are associated with the aetiology of Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908782/adaptive-responses-of-neuronal-mitochondria-to-bioenergetic-challenges-roles-in-neuroplasticity-and-disease-resistance
#18
REVIEW
Sophia M Raefsky, Mark P Mattson
An important concept in neurobiology is "neurons that fire together, wire together" which means that the formation and maintenance of synapses is promoted by activation of those synapses. Very similar to the effects of the stress of exercise on muscle cells, emerging findings suggest that neurons respond to activity by activating signaling pathways (e.g., Ca(2+), CREB, PGC-1α, NF-κB) that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular stress resistance. These pathways are also activated by aerobic exercise and food deprivation, two bioenergetic challenges of fundamental importance in the evolution of the brains of all mammals, including humans...
November 29, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907172/neuroendocrine-inflammatory-responses-in-overweight-obese-infants
#19
Ana Cristina Resende Camargos, Vanessa Amaral Mendonça, Camila Alves de Andrade, Katherine Simone Caires Oliveira, Rosalina Tossige-Gomes, Etel Rocha-Vieira, Camila Danielle Cunha Neves, Érica Leandro Marciano Vieira, Hércules Ribeiro Leite, Murilo Xavier Oliveira, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira Júnior, Cândido Celso Coimbra, Ana Cristina Rodrigues Lacerda
Childhood obesity is related to a cascade of neuroendocrine inflammatory changes. However, there remains a gap in the current literature regarding the possible occurrence of these changes in overweight/obese infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate adipokines, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and redox status in overweight/obese infants versus normal-weight peers. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 50 infants (25 in the overweight/obese group and 25 in the normal-weight group) between 6 and 24 months...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905540/the-effects-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-an-animal-model-of-tinnitus
#20
Wilhelmina H A M Mulders, Vanessa Vooys, Kalina Makowiecki, Alex D Tang, Jennifer Rodger
Tinnitus (phantom auditory perception associated with hearing loss) can seriously affect wellbeing. Its neural substrate is unknown however it has been linked with abnormal activity in auditory pathways. Though no cure currently exists, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to reduce tinnitus in some patients, possibly via induction of cortical plasticity involving brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We examined whether low intensity rTMS (LI-rTMS) alleviates signs of tinnitus in a guinea pig model and whether this involves changes in BDNF expression and hyperactivity in inferior colliculus...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
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