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Bulk fill

Chaoying Mao, Yajiang Huang, Junlong Yang, Miqiu Kong, Yuan Wang, Qi Yang, Guangxian Li
The effect of particle parameters (aspect ratio, AR, and concentration) and flow conditions (gap spacing and shear rate) on droplet orientation deformation behavior in polystyrene (PS) particle-filled binary polymeric emulsions is investigated by using rheo-optical technique and confocal microscopy. Interesting vorticity orientation behavior is achieved by tailoring experimental conditions to gain rigid anisotropic droplets during slow confined shear flow. PS ellipsoids with high AR are found to reside both at the fluid interface in a monolayer side-on state and inside droplets, leading to the formation of rigid anisotropic droplets due to interfacial/bulk jamming effect at appropriate particle concentrations...
September 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Abhishek Sharma, Mihirsinh Chauhan, Vishal Bharti, Manoj Kumar, Suresh Chand, Brijesh Tripathi, J P Tiwari
The design and fabrication of better excitonic solar cells are the need of the hour for futuristic energy solutions. This designing needs a better understanding of the charge transport properties of excitonic solar cells. One of the popular methods of understanding the charge transport properties is the analysis of the J-V characteristics of a device through theoretical simulation at varied illumination intensity. Herein, a J-V characteristic of a polymer:fullerene based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs) of structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS (∼40 nm)/PTB7:PC71BM (∼100 nm)/Al (∼120 nm) is analyzed using one- and two-diode models at varied illumination intensity in the range of 0...
September 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Priscilla Cardoso Lazari, Marco Aurélio de Carvalho, Altair A Del Bel Cury, Pascal Magne
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Which post-and-core combination will best improve the performance of extensively damaged endodontically treated incisors without a ferrule is still unclear. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the restoration of extensively damaged endodontically treated incisors without a ferrule using glass-ceramic crowns bonded to various composite resin foundation restorations and 2 types of posts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty decoronated endodontically treated bovine incisors without a ferrule were divided into 4 groups and restored with various post-and-core foundation restorations...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Huawei Hu, Philip C Y Chow, Guangye Zhang, Tingxuan Ma, Jing Liu, Guofang Yang, He Yan
Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs) have attracted intensive research attention over the past two decades owing to their unique advantages including mechanical flexibility, light weight, large area, and low-cost fabrications. To date, OSC devices have achieved power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) exceeding 12%. Much of the progress was enabled by the development of high-performance donor polymers with favorable morphological, electronic, and optical properties. A key problem in morphology control of OSCs is the trade-off between achieving small domain size and high polymer crystallinity, which is especially important for the realization of efficient thick-film devices with high fill factors...
September 15, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Kang Wang, Wenjing Zhao, Jia Liu, Jinzhi Niu, Yucheng Liu, Xiaodong Ren, Jiangshan Feng, Zhike Liu, Jie Sun, Dapeng Wang, Shengzhong Frank Liu
Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have received great attention due to their excellent photovoltaic properties especially for the comparable efficiency to silicon solar cells. The electron transport layer (ETL) is regarded as a crucial medium in transporting electrons and blocking holes for PSCs. In this study, CO2 plasma generated by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) was introduced to modify the TiO2 ETL. The results indicated that CO2 plasma treated compact TiO2 layer exhibited better surface hydrophilicity, higher conductivity, and lower bulk defect state density in comparison with the pristine TiO2 film...
September 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jin-Hu Dou, Lei Sun, Yicong Ge, Wenbin Li, Christopher H Hendon, Ju Li, Sheraz Gul, Junko Yano, Eric A Stach, Mircea Dincă
The two-dimensionally connected metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) Ni3(HIB)2 and Cu3(HIB)2 (HIB = hexaiminobenzene) are bulk electrical conductors and exhibit ultraviolet-photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) signatures expected of metallic solids. Electronic band structure calculations confirm that in both materials the Fermi energy lies in a partially filled delocalized band. Together with additional structural characterization and microscopy data, these results represent the first report of metallic behavior and permanent porosity coexisting within a metal-organic framework...
September 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
André Figueiredo Reis, Mariana Vestphal, Roberto Cesar do Amaral, José Augusto Rodrigues, Jean-François Roulet, Marina Guimarães Roscoe
This systematic review assessed the literature to evaluate the efficiency of polymerization of bulk-fill composite resins at 4 mm restoration depth. PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched with no restrictions on year, publication status, or article's language. Selection criteria included studies that evaluated bulk-fill composite resin when inserted in a minimum thickness of 4 mm, followed by curing according to the manufacturers' instructions; presented sound statistical data; and comparison with a control group and/or a reference measurement of quality of polymerization...
August 28, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
Mariel Soeiro Maas, Yvette Alania, Livia Camargo Natale, Marcela Charantola Rodrigues, David Christopher Watts, Roberto Ruggiero Braga
Clinical trials have identified secondary caries and bulk fracture as the main causes for composite restoration failure. As a measure to avoid frequent reinterventions for restoration replacement, composites with some sort of defense mechanism against biofilm formation and demineralization, as well as materials with lower susceptibility to crack propagation are necessary. Also, the restorative procedure with composites are very time-consuming and technically demanding, particularly concerning the application of the adhesive system...
August 28, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
Shigeru Nakatsuka, Shunsuke Akari, Jakapan Chantana, Takashi Minemoto, Yoshitaro Nose
We report on the optimization of interface structure in ZnSnP2 solar cells. The effects of back electrode materials and related interface on photovoltaic performance were investigated. It was clarified that a conventional structure Mo/ZnSnP2 showed a schottky-behaviour, while an ohmic-behaviour was observed in the Cu/ZnSnP2 structure annealed at 300 °C. STEM-EDX analysis suggested that Cu-Sn-P ternary compound was formed at the interface. This compound is considered to play an important role to obtain the ohmic contact between ZnSnP2 and Cu...
September 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Geon-Hyoung Park, Minsoo Kim, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Hu-Jong Lee
Recently, there has been significant interest in superconducting coherence via chiral quantum-Hall (QH) edge channels at an interface between a two-dimensional normal conductor and a superconductor (N-S) in a strong transverse magnetic field. In the field range where the superconductivity and the QH state coexist, the coherent confinement of electron- and hole-like quasiparticles by the interplay of Andreev reflection and the QH effect leads to the formation of Andreev edge states (AES) along the N-S interface...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Carmem S Pfeifer
After a brief review of current restorative materials and classifications, this article discusses the latest developments in polymer-based direct filling materials, with emphasis on products and studies available in the last 10 years. This will include the more recent bulk fill composites and self-adhesive materials, for which clinical evidence of success, albeit somewhat limited, is already available. The article also introduces the latest cutting edge research topics on new materials for composite restorations, and an outlook for the future of how those may help to improve the service life of dental composite restorations...
October 2017: Dental Clinics of North America
Fabian Fritz, Rasmus Westerström, Aram Kostanyan, Christin Schlesier, Jan Dreiser, Benjamin Watts, Lothar Houben, Martina Luysberg, Stanislav M Avdoshenko, Alexey Popov, Claus M Schneider, Carola Meyer
Endohedral lanthanide ions packed inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a one-dimensional assembly have been studied with a combination of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). By correlating HRTEM and STXM images we show that structures down to 30 nm are resolved with chemical contrast and record X-ray absorption spectra from endohedral lanthanide ions embedded in individual nanoscale CNT bundles. XMCD measurements of an Er<sub>3</sub>N@C<sub>80</sub> bulk sample and a macroscopic assembly of filled CNTs indicates that the magnetic properties of the endohedral Er<sup>3+</sup> ions are unchanged when encapsulated in CNTs...
September 8, 2017: Nanotechnology
Silvia E Angelova, Valia Nikolova, Stiliyana Pereva, Tony Spassov, Todor Dudev
Cyclodextrins (CDs) are among the most widely used native host systems with ability to form inclusion complexes with various molecular objects. This ability is so strong that the "hydrophobic" CD cavity never remains empty - even in the guest-free state it is filled with water molecules. However, no consensus has been reached concerning both the total number of hydrating water molecules and their preferred binding location in the CDs. Several outstanding questions regarding the CD hydration still wait to be answered: (1) Which spots of the CD cavity ("hot spots") have the highest affinity for the guest water molecules? (2) How stable are water clusters inside the cavity? (3) Which mode of water binding - sequential or bulk - is thermodynamically more favored? (4) What is the upper limit of the number of water molecules bound inside the host cavity? (5) What factors do control the CD hydration process? Here, using αCD as a typical representative of the cyclodextrin family, we endeavor to answer these questions by combining experimental measurements (differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry) with theoretical (DFT) calculations...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Monchai Jitvisate, James R T Seddon
The interfacial behavior of ionic liquids promises tunable lubrication as well as playing an integral role in ion diffusion for electron transfer. Diluting the ionic liquids optimizes bulk parameters, such as electric conductivity, and one would expect dilution to disrupt the near-wall molecular ordering. We study this ordering in the ionic liquids [Emim](+)[NTf2](-), [Emim](+)[DCA](-), and [C4mpyr](+)[NTf2](-), diluted in the solvent dimethyl sulfoxide. We found a structural crossover from well-ordered ionic liquids to a well-ordered solvent with increasing dilution, but this occurs nonlinearly, with solvent molecules initially space-filling and solvating and later disrupting the ionic layers...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
Takatsugu Yamamoto, Masao Hanabusa, Saori Kimura, Yasuko Momoi, Tohru Hayakawa
The objective of this study was to investigate changes in polymerization stress and elastic modulus for light-cured bulk-fill resin composites following irradiation. Crack analysis was applied to obtain the stresses for 24 h after irradiation, which were calculated from the lengths of cracks in a glass mold bonded to the composites. The elastic modulus was repeatedly measured by nano-indentation tests performed over 24 h. The lengths of the cracks, the interfacial stress, and the elastic modulus were significantly affected by the material and time after irradiation (p<0...
September 7, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
Lucia Bossoni, Laure Grand Moursel, Marjolein Bulk, Brecht G Simon, Andrew Webb, Louise van der Weerd, Martina Huber, Pietro Carretta, Alessandro Lascialfari, Tjerk H Oosterkamp
Muon spin rotation is employed to investigate the spin dynamics of ferritin proteins isolated from the brain of an Alzheimer's disease (AD) patient and of a healthy control, using a sample of horse-spleen ferritin as a reference. A model based on the Néel theory of superparamagnetism is developed in order to interpret the spin relaxation rate of the muons stopped by the core of the protein. Using this model, our preliminary observations show that ferritins from the healthy control are filled with a mineral compatible with ferrihydrite, while ferritins from the AD patient contain a crystalline phase with a larger magnetocrystalline anisotropy, possibly compatible with magnetite or maghemite...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
C McGuirk, F Hussain, B J Millar
OBJECTIVES: Direct composite restorations are increasingly popular and a flowable bulk-fill base material (SDR, Dentsply) claims to minimise stress through a more flexible polymerisation process. This retrospective audit of restorations placed in general practice compares SDR based restorations with conventional composite restorations. METHODS: Restorations were all placed by one operator using a similar clinical technique and were audited as Group G, placed with a conventional layering composite (G-aenial, GC) and Group S which had a bulk-fill base of SDR (Dentsply) and then were covered with G-aenial (GC)...
September 2017: European Journal of Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry
Chaoqiang Xu, Yande Que, Yuan Zhuang, Zhijun Lin, Xuefeng Wu, Kedong Wang, Xudong Xiao
The growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecular coronene film on various substrates and the subsequent doping of potassium under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions have been systematically investigated by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS). The crystalline structures and molecular orientations of coronene thin films are both thickness-dependent and substrate-sensitive due to the competition between molecule-substrate interaction and intermolecular interaction...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Ian C Bourg, Jonathan B Ajo-Franklin
The ability to predict the permeability of fine-grained soils, sediments, and sedimentary rocks is a fundamental challenge in the geosciences with potentially transformative implications in subsurface hydrology. In particular, fine-grained sedimentary rocks (shale, mudstone) constitute about two-thirds of the sedimentary rock mass and play important roles in three energy technologies: petroleum geology, geologic carbon sequestration, and radioactive waste management. The problem is a challenging one that requires understanding the properties of complex natural porous media on several length scales...
September 1, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
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August 25, 2017: British Dental Journal
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