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Bulk fill

Kenneth W DeFontes, Joshua Vaughn, Jeremy Smith, Eric M Bluman
Talar body osteonecrosis can be a devastating, painful condition that is difficult to manage surgically when conservative treatments have failed. With early disease, nonoperative treatments can prolong the need for operative correction in the young patient. Later stage disease with extensive involvement may require a tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) arthrodesis to retain functionality of the limb. This situation frequently requires a structural bone graft. Using the technique described in this article, the void resulting from collapse of the talar body is filled with talar allograft, which offers a more anatomic and structurally rigid construct than previously described methods using an allograft femoral head...
March 1, 2018: Foot & Ankle International
P Pramanik, Bidisha Chakrabarti, Arti Bhatia, S D Singh, A Maity, P Aggarwal, P Krishnan
An attempt has been made to study the effect of elevated temperature on soil hydrothermal regimes and winter wheat growth under simulated warming in temperature gradient tunnel (TGT). Results showed that bulk density (BDs) of 0, 0.9, and 2.5 °C were significantly different whereas BDs of 2.8 and 3.5 °C were not significantly different. Water filled pore space (WFPS) was maximum at 3.5 °C temperature rise and varied between 43.80 and 98.55%. Soil surface temperature (ST) at different dates of sowing increased with rise in sensor temperature and highest ST was observed at S5 sensors (3...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Flávia Gonçalves, Luiza Mello de Paiva Campos, Ezequias Costa Rodrigues-Júnior, Fabrícia Viana Costa, Pamela Adeline Marques, Carlos Eduardo Francci, Roberto Ruggiero Braga, Letícia Cristina Cidreira Boaro
Bulk-fill composites are claimed to be restorative materials used in deep preparations and effectively photoactivated in layers up to 4 mm. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the degree of conversion, post-gel volumetric shrinkage, and cytotoxicity of six bulk-fill and two conventional composites. Degree of conversion was determined by FTIR spectroscopy; post-gel volumetric shrinkage was determined using the strain gauge method; and cytotoxicity in human fibroblasts was evaluated indirectly by the MTT assay...
March 8, 2018: Brazilian Oral Research
Vidya Kochat, Atanu Samanta, Yuan Zhang, Sanjit Bhowmick, Praveena Manimunda, Syed Asif S Asif, Anthony S Stender, Robert Vajtai, Abhishek K Singh, Chandra S Tiwary, Pulickel M Ajayan
Among the large number of promising two-dimensional (2D) atomic layer crystals, true metallic layers are rare. Using combined theoretical and experimental approaches, we report on the stability and successful exfoliation of atomically thin "gallenene" sheets on a silicon substrate, which has two distinct atomic arrangements along crystallographic twin directions of the parent α-gallium. With a weak interface between solid and molten phases of gallium, a solid-melt interface exfoliation technique is developed to extract these layers...
March 2018: Science Advances
Jex Ong, A U Yap, J Y Hong, A H Eweis, N A Yahya
This study investigated the viscoelastic properties of contemporary bulk-fill restoratives in distilled water and artificial saliva using dynamic mechanical analysis. The materials evaluated included a conventional composite (Filtek Z350), two bulk-fill composites (Filtek Bulk-fill and Tetric N Ceram), a bulk-fill giomer (Beautifil-Bulk Restorative), and two novel reinforced glass ionomer cements (Zirconomer [ZR] and Equia Forte [EQ]). The glass ionomer materials were also assessed with and without resin coating (Equia Forte Coat)...
March 13, 2018: Operative Dentistry
Joshua A Hammons, Fan Zhang, Jan Ilavsky
HYPOTHESIS: Many applications of deep eutectic solvents (DES) rely on exploitation of their unique yet complex liquid structures. Due to the ionic nature of the DES components, their diffuse structures are perturbed in the presence of a charged surface. We hypothesize that it is possible to perturb the bulk DES structure far (>100 nm) from a curved, charged surface with mesoscopic dimensions. EXPERIMENTS: We performed in situ, synchrotron-based ultra-small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) experiments to study the solvent distribution near the surface of charged mesoporous silica particles (MPS) (≈0...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Mohammad Mahdi Tavakoli, Fabrizio Giordano, Shaik M Zakeeruddin, Michael Grätzel
The solar to electric power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has recently reached 22.7 % exceeding that of competing thin film photovoltaics and the market leader polycrystalline silicon. Further augmentation of the PCE towards the Shockley-Queisser limit of 33.5 % warrants suppression of radiationless carrier recombination by judicious engineering of the interface between the light harvesting perovskite and the charge carrier extraction layers. Here, we introduce a mesoscopic oxide double layer as electron selective contact consisting of a scaffold of TiO2 nanoparticles covered by a thin film of SnO2, either in amorphous (a-SnO2), crystalline (c-SnO2) or nanocrystalline (quantum dot) form (SnO2-NC)...
March 12, 2018: Nano Letters
Fan Wu, Qiquan Qiao, Behzad Bahrami, Ke Chen, Rajesh Pathak, Yanhua Tong, Xiaoyi Li, Tiansheng Zhang, Ronghua Jian
We present a method to synthesize CuO nanorod array/TiO<sub>2</sub> nanocrystals bulk heterojunction on fluorin-tin-oxide (FTO) glass, in which single-crystalline p-type semiconductor of the CuO nanorod array is grown on the FTO glass by hydrothermal reaction and the n-type semiconductor of the TiO<sub>2</sub> precursor is filled into the CuO nanorods to form well-organized nano-interpenetrating bulk heterojunction after air annealing. The interface charge transfer in CuO nanorod array/TiO<sub>2</sub> heterojunction is studied by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM)...
March 9, 2018: Nanotechnology
Thaís Emanuelle Bakaus, Yançanã Luizy Gruber, Alessandra Reis, Osnara Maria Mongruel Gomes, Giovana Mongruel Gomes
The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the bond strength (BS) between fiberglass posts and flared root canals reinforced with different materials. The roots of 48 premolars were endodontically treated. After one week, the root canals were prepared to simulate an oversized root canal, except for the positive control group (PCG), which was cemented with a prefabricated fiber post (PFP) compatible with the root canal size, simulating an ideal adaptation. The other samples (n=8/group) were used to test alternative restorative techniques for filling root canals: negative control group (NCG [PFP with a smaller diameter than of the root canal]), composite resin group - CRG, bulkfill group - BFG, self-adhesive cement group - SAG, and glass ionomer group - GIG...
March 1, 2018: Brazilian Oral Research
Lindiane Cogo Rigo, Dimorvan Bordin, Vinicius Pavesi Fardin, Paulo G Coelho, Timothy G Bromage, Andre Reis, Ronaldo Hirata
This study evaluated the influence of polishing protocols on the surface roughness of flowable and regular bulk fill composites. Five bulk fill composites were tested: SureFil SDR Flow (SDR), Tetric EvoFlow Bulk fill (TEF), Filtek Bulk Fill Flowable (FIF), Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TEC), and Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior (FIP). Two polishing protocols were tested: Sof-Lex and Astropol. Astropol created a smoother surface for FIP (P < .05); however, the polishing protocol did not influence surface roughness on TEC (P > ...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry
Miroslav Kolibal, Tomáš Pejchal, Tomas Musalek, Tomas Sikola
Understanding of the initial stage of nanowire growth on a bulk substrate is crucial for rational design of nanowire building blocks in future electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, we provide in-situ scanning electron microscopy and Auger microscopy analysis of the initial stage of Au-catalyzed Ge nanowire growth on different substrates. Real time microscopy imaging and elementally-resolved spectroscopy clearly show that the catalyst dissolves the underlying substrate if held above certain temperature...
March 6, 2018: Nanotechnology
Hakan Kamalak, Aliye Kamalak, Ali Taghizadehghalehjoughi
This study was performed to evaluate possible DNA damage in cells of human origin exposed to dental composites in vitro using a cytotoxic assay. Five bulk-fill composites were filled in molds and irradiated for 20 s. DPSCs were inoculated into 24-well plates. After the insert membrane was inserted and composites were added and the experiment was continued for 24/72 hours. In order to investigate the effects of the materials on DPSCs; its effect on apoptosis-regulating Bcl-2 gene, Human Beta-Defensins (HBDs 1-2) gene, Interleukin 6, 8, 10 expression level was examined...
February 28, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Anders Fredrik Elfwing, Wanzhu Cai, Liangqi Ouyang, Xianjie Liu, Yuxin Xia, Zheng Tang, Olle Inganäs
A new solution processable electron transport material (ETM) is introduced for use in photovoltaic devices, which consists of a metallic conjugated polyelectrolyte, poly(4-(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4- b][1,4]dioxin-2-yl-methoxy)-1-butanesulfonic acid (PEDOT-S), and surfactant-functionalized deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (named DNA: CTMA: PEDOT-S). This ETM is demonstrated to effectively work for bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices (OPV) based on different electron acceptor materials. The fill factor, open circuit voltage and the overall power conversion efficiency of the solar cells with a DNA: CTMA: PEDOT-S modified cathode are comparable to that of devices with a traditional Lithium fluoride/Aluminum cathode...
March 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yanhui Feng, Runzhi Wei, Zhi Huang, Xinxin Zhang, Ge Wang
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled with lauric acid (LA) as a kind of shape-stabilized phase change material were prepared and their structures and phase change properties were characterized. The results showed that the melting point and latent heat of LA confined in carbon nanotubes were lower than those of the bulk material, and both decrease as the diameters of CNTs and the filling ratios of LA decrease. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicated that LA molecules form a liquid layer near pore walls and crystallize at the pore center...
March 5, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Toloo Jafari, Homayoon Alaghehmad, Ehsan Moodi
Background: Cavity preparation reduces the rigidity of tooth and its resistance to deformation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dimensional changes of the repaired teeth using two types of light cure composite and two methods of incremental and bulk filling by the use of finite element method. Materials and Methods: In this computerized in vitro experimental study, an intact maxillary premolar was scanned using cone beam computed tomography instrument (SCANORA, Switzerland), then each section of tooth image was transmitted to Ansys software using AUTOCAD...
January 2018: Dental Research Journal
Nurettin Korozlu, Olgun Adem Kaya, Ahmet Cicek, Bulent Ulug
In this work, the existence and propagation of acoustic Tamm states at the interface of air and a face-centered cubic solid-fluid phononic crystal composed of spherical air voids interconnected by cylindrical air channels are demonstrated. Supercell band structure computations via the finite element method reveal surface bands for Tamm states on (100), (110), and (111) surfaces of the phononic crystal. The states decay sharply into the phononic crystal so that only a two-row slab is sufficient to guide them over the respective surfaces without leakage, as confirmed by finite element simulations...
February 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Gui-Hua Lu, Xiao-Mei Hua, Jing Cheng, Yin-Ling Zhu, Gu-Hao Wang, Yan-Jun Pang, Rong-Wu Yang, Lei Zhang, Huixia Shou, Xiao-Ming Wang, Jinliang Qi, Yong-Hua Yang
Background: The worldwide use of glyphosate has dramatically increased, but also has been raising concern over its impact on mineral nutrition, plant pathogen, and soil microbiota. To date, the bulk of previous studies still have shown different results on the effect of glyphosate application on soil rhizosphere microbial communities. Objective: This study aimed to clarify whether glyphosate has impact on nitrogen-fixation, pathogen or disease suppression, and rhizosphere microbial community of a soybean EPSPS-transgenic line ZUTS31 in one growth season...
January 2018: Current Genomics
Takahiro Ohkubo, Stéphane Gin, Marie Collin, Yasuhiko Iwadate
The porous structure and mass transport characteristics of disordered silicate porous media were investigated via a geometry based analysis of water confined in the pores. Disordered silicate porous media were constructed to mimic the dissolution behavior of an alkali aluminoborosilicate glass, i.e., soluble Na and B were removed from the bulk glass, and then water molecules and Na were introduced into the pores to provide a complex porous structure filled with water. This modelling approach revealed large surface areas of disordered porous media...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Betul Pamuk, Philip B Allen, Maria Victoria Fernandez-Serra
Nuclear quantum effects lead to an anomalous shift of the volume of hexagonal ice; heavy ice has a larger volume than light ice. Furthermore, this anomaly in ice increases with temperature and persists in liquid water up to the boiling point. To gain more insight, we study nuclear quantum effects on the density and compressibility of several ice-like structures and crystalline ice phases. By calculating the anisotropic contributions to the stain tensor, we analyze how the compressibility changes along different directions in hexagonal ice, and find that hexagonal ice is softer along the x-y plane than the z-direction...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Paula de Castro Kruly, Marcelo Giannini, Renata Corrêa Pascotto, Laíse Midori Tokubo, Uhana Seifert Guimarães Suga, Any de Castro Ruiz Marques, Raquel Sano Suga Terada
Polymerization shrinkage of resin composite can compromise the longevity of restorations. To minimize this problem, the monomeric composition of composites have been modified. The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to assess the clinical behavior of restorations performed with low polymerization shrinkage resin composite in comparison with traditional methacrylates-based resin composite. This systematic review was registered at Prospero data system (CRD42015023940). Studies were searched in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Lilacs and EMBASE according to a predefined search strategy...
2018: PloS One
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