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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742928/shotgun-mitogenomics-across-body-size-classes-in-a-local-assemblage-of-tropical-diptera-phylogeny-species-diversity-and-mitochondrial-abundance-spectrum
#1
Le Qin Choo, Alex Crampton-Platt, Alfried P Vogler
Mitochondrial genomes can be assembled readily from shotgun sequenced DNA mixtures of mass-trapped arthropods ('mitochondrial metagenomics'), speeding up the taxonomic characterization. Bulk sequencing was conducted on some 800 individuals of Diptera obtained by canopy-fogging of a single tree in Borneo dominated by small (<1.5 mm) individuals. Specimens were split into five body-size classes for DNA extraction, to equalize read numbers across specimens and to study how body size, a key ecological trait, interacts with species and phylogenetic diversity...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742058/ito-with-embedded-silver-grids-as-transparent-conductive-electrodes-for-large-area-organic-solar-cells
#2
Bhushan Ramesh Patil, Mina Mirsafaei, Pawel Piotr Cielecki, Andre Luis Fernandes Cauduro, Jacek Fiutowski, Horst-Guenter Rubahn, Morten Madsen
In this work, development of semi-transparent electrodes for efficient large area organic solar cells (OSCs) has been demonstrated. Electron beam evaporated silver grids were embedded in commercially available ITO coatings on glass, through a standard negative photolithography process, in order to improve the conductivity of planar ITO substrates. The fabricated electrodes with embedded line and square patterned Ag grids reduced the sheet resistance of ITO by 25 % and 40 %, respectively, showing optical transmittance drops of less than 6 % within the complete visible light spectrum for both patterns...
July 25, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733597/design-of-new-mott-multiferroics-via-complete-charge-transfer-promising-candidates-for-bulk-photovoltaics
#3
Hanghui Chen, Andrew Millis
Optimal materials to induce bulk photovoltaic effects should lack inversion symmetry and have an optical gap matching the energies of visible radiation. Ferroelectric perovskite oxides such as BaTiO3 and PbTiO3 exhibit substantial polarization and stability, but have the disadvantage of excessively large band gaps. We use both density functional theory and dynamical mean field theory calculations to design a new class of Mott multiferroics-double perovskite oxides A 2VFeO6 (A = Ba, Pb, etc). While neither perovskite AVO3 nor AFeO3 is ferroelectric, in the double perovskite A 2VFeO6 a 'complete' charge transfer from V to Fe leads to a non-bulk-like charge configuration-an empty V-d shell and a half-filled Fe-d shell, giving rise to a polarization comparable to that of ferroelectric ATiO3...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726374/impact-of-thermal-annealing-on-organic-photovoltaic-cells-using-regioisomeric-donor-acceptor-acceptor-molecules
#4
Tao Zhang, Han Han, Yunlong Zou, Ying-Chi Lee, Hiroya Oshima, Ken-Tsung Wong, Russell J Holmes
We report a promising set of donor-acceptor-acceptor (D-A-A) electron-donor materials based on coplanar thieno[3,2-b]/[2,3-b]indole, benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole, and dicyanovinylene, which are found to show broadband absorption with high extinction coefficients. The role of the regioisomeric electron-donating thienoindole moiety on the physical and structural properties is examined. Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) based on the thieno[2,3-b]indole-based electron donor NTU-2, using C70 as an electron acceptor, show a champion power conversion efficiency of 5...
July 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721100/shear-bond-strength-of-different-surface-treatments-in-bulk-fill-microhybrid-and-nanoparticle-repair-resins
#5
Rudys Rodolfo de Jesus Tavarez, Lauber Jose Dos Santos Almeida Júnior, Tayanne Christine Gomes Guará, Izabella Santos Ribeiro, Etevaldo Matos Maia Filho, Leily Macedo Firoozmand
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of surface treatment and different types of composite resin on the microshear bond strength of repairs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-two specimens (n=72) were prepared using a nanoparticle resin and stored in artificial saliva at 37 ± 1°C for 24 h. After this period, the specimens (n=24) were restored with microhybrid resin P60 (3M ESPE), nanoparticle resin Filtek Z350 (3M ESPE), and Bulk Fill Surefil SDR Flow (Dentsply) composite resins...
2017: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716201/a-matched-case-control-study-comparing-udder-health-production-and-fertility-parameters-in-dairy-farms-before-and-after-the-eradication-of-bovine-virus-diarrhoea-in-switzerland
#6
A Tschopp, R Deiss, M Rotzer, S Wanda, B Thomann, G Schüpbach-Regula, M Meylan
An obligatory eradication programme for Bovine Virus Diarrhoea (BVD) was implemented in Switzerland in 2008. Between 2008 and 2012, all bovines were tested for antigen or antibodies against BVDV. By the year 2012, eradication was completed in the majority of farms. A decrease of the prevalence of persistently infected (PI) newborn calves was observed from 1.4% in 2008 to <0.02% in 2012. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of BVD eradication on different parameters of animal health, production and fertility in Swiss dairy herds which had completed the eradication programme...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709299/anisotropic-hydrodynamic-function-of-dense-confined-colloids
#7
Kim Nygård, Johan Buitenhuis, Matias Kagias, Konstantins Jefimovs, Federico Zontone, Yuriy Chushkin
Dense colloidal dispersions exhibit complex wave-vector-dependent diffusion, which is controlled by both direct particle interactions and indirect nonadditive hydrodynamic interactions mediated by the solvent. In bulk the hydrodynamic interactions are probed routinely, but in confined geometries their studies have been hitherto hindered by additional complications due to confining walls. Here we solve this issue by combining high-energy x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and small-angle x-ray-scattering experiments on colloid-filled microfluidic channels to yield the confined fluid's hydrodynamic function in the short-time limit...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707452/on-the-dimensional-control-of-2d-hybrid-nanomaterials
#8
Alessandro Longo, Dirk-Jan Mulder, Huub P C van Kuringen, Daniel Hermida-Merino, Dipanjan Banerjee, Debarshi Dasgupta, Ivelina K Shishmanova, Anne B Spoelstra, Dirk J Broer, Albert P H J Schenning, Giuseppe Portale
Thermotropic smectic liquid crystalline polymers were used as a scaffold to create organic/inorganic hybrid layered nanomaterials. Different polymers were prepared by photopolymerizing blends of a hydrogen bonded carboxylic acid derivative and a 10% cross-linker of variable length in their liquid crystalline phase. Nanopores with dimensions close to 1 nm were generated by breaking the hydrogen bonded dimers in a high pH solution. The pores were filled with positively charged silver (Ag) ions, resulting in a layered silver(I)-polymeric hybrid material...
July 13, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702633/a-dft-study-of-h-dissolution-into-the-bulk-of-a-crystalline-ni-111-surface-a-chemical-identifier-for-the-reaction-kinetics
#9
Mahdi Shirazi, Annemie Bogaerts, Erik C Neyts
In this study, we investigated the diffusion of H-atoms to the subsurface and their further diffusion into the bulk of a Ni(111) crystal by means of density functional theory calculations in the context of thermal and plasma-assisted catalysis. The H-atoms at the surface can originate from the dissociative adsorption of H2 or CH4 molecules, determining the surface H-coverage. When a threshold H-coverage is passed, corresponding to 1.00 ML for the crystalline Ni(111) surface, the surface-bound H-atoms start to diffuse to the subsurface...
July 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690967/synthesis-of-fe-leq-lax-n-coordination-polymer-nanoparticles-using-blockcopolymer-micelles
#10
Christoph Göbel, Ottokar Klimm, Florian Puchtler, Sabine Rosenfeldt, Stephan Förster, Birgit Weber
Spin-crossover compounds are a class of materials that can change their spin state from high spin (HS) to low spin (LS) by external stimuli such as light, pressure or temperature. Applications demand compounds with defined properties concerning the size and switchability that are maintained when the compound is integrated into composite materials. Here, we report the synthesis of [Fe(Leq)(Lax)]n coordination polymer (CP) nanoparticles using self-assembled polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) block copolymer (BCP) micelles as template...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688735/implications-of-resin-based-composite-rbc-restoration-on-cuspal-deflection-and-microleakage-score-in-molar-teeth-placement-protocol-and-restorative-material
#11
Lauren E J McHugh, Ioanna Politi, Rami S Al-Fodeh, Garry J P Fleming
OBJECTIVE: To assess the cuspal deflection of standardised large mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities in third molar teeth restored using conventional resin-based composite (RBC) or their bulk fill restorative counterparts compared with the unbound condition using a twin channel deflection measuring gauge. Following thermocycling, the cervical microleakage of the restored teeth was assessed to determine marginal integrity. METHODS: Standardised MOD cavities were prepared in forty-eight sound third molar teeth and randomly allocated to six groups...
July 5, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685123/a-top-down-approach-for-fabricating-three-dimensional-closed-hollow-nanostructures-with-permeable-thin-metal-walls
#12
Carlos Angulo Barrios, Víctor Canalejas-Tejero
We report on a top-down method for the controlled fabrication of three-dimensional (3D), closed, thin-shelled, hollow nanostructures (nanocages) on planar supports. The presented approach is based on conventional microelectronic fabrication processes and exploits the permeability of thin metal films to hollow-out polymer-filled metal nanocages through an oxygen-plasma process. The technique is used for fabricating arrays of cylindrical nanocages made of thin Al shells on silicon substrates. This hollow metal configuration features optical resonance as revealed by spectral reflectance measurements and numerical simulations...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684960/effect-of-mouthwashes-on-solubility-and-sorption-of-restorative-composites
#13
José Pereira Leal, Jaqueline Damasceno da Silva, Rafaelle Fernanda Melão Leal, Carlos da Cunha Oliveira-Júnior, Vera Lúcia Gomes Prado, Glauber Campos Vale
OBJECTIVE: Composites sorption and solubility can be precursors of several chemical and physical processes, which lead to deleterious effects on the polymer structure. This study evaluated the effect of mouthwashes on solubility and sorption of composite resins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two specimens of each evaluated composite (Filtek Bulk Fill Flow, Opallis Flow, Durafill VS, and Filtek Z350) were prepared and randomized into seven groups for each solution (mouth rinses with and without alcohol and distilled water) and stored for seven days...
2017: International Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662878/bonding-over-dentin-replacement-materials
#14
Naghmeh Meraji, Josette Camilleri
INTRODUCTION: Dentin replacement materials are necessary in large cavities to protect the pulp and reduce the bulk of filling material. These materials are layered with a composite resin restorative material. Microleakage caused by poor bonding of composite resin to underlying dentin replacement material will result in pulp damage. The aim of this study was to characterize the interface between dentin replacement materials and composite resin and to measure the shear bond strength after dynamic aging...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652817/effect-of-preheating-and-light-curing-unit-on-physicochemical-properties-of-a-bulk-fill-composite
#15
Jéssica Dias Theobaldo, Flávio Henrique Baggio Aguiar, Núbia Inocencya Pavesi Pini, Débora Alves Nunes Leite Lima, Priscila Christiane Suzy Liporoni, Anderson Catelan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of composite preheating and polymerization mode on degree of conversion (DC), microhardness (KHN), plasticization (P), and depth of polymerization (DP) of a bulk fill composite. METHODS: Forty disc-shaped samples (n = 5) of a bulk fill composite were prepared (5 × 4 mm thick) and randomly divided into 4 groups according to light-curing unit (quartz-tungsten-halogen [QTH] or light-emitting diode [LED]) and preheating temperature (23 or 54 °C)...
2017: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652643/hybrid-tandem-quantum-dot-organic-photovoltaic-cells-with-complementary-near-infrared-absorption
#16
Taesoo Kim, Elenita Palmiano, Ru-Ze Liang, Hanlin Hu, Banavoth Murali, Ahmad R Kirmani, Yuliar Firdaus, Yangqin Gao, Arif Sheikh, Mingjian Yuan, Omar F Mohammed, Sjoerd Hoogland, Pierre M Beaujuge, Edward H Sargent, Aram Amassian
Monolithically integrated hybrid tandem solar cells that effectively combine solution-processed colloidal quantum dot (CQD) and organic bulk heterojunction subcells to achieve tandem performance that surpasses the individual subcell efficiencies have not been demonstrated to date. In this work, we demonstrate hybrid tandem cells with a low bandgap PbS CQD subcell harvesting the visible and near-infrared photons and a polymer:fullerene-poly (diketopyrrolopyrrole-terthiophene) (PDPP3T):[6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM)-top cell absorbing effectively the red and near-infrared photons of the solar spectrum in a complementary fashion...
May 29, 2017: Applied Physics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652556/characteristics-of-low-polymerization-shrinkage-flowable-resin-composites-in-newly-developed-cavity-base-materials-for-bulk-filling-technique
#17
Keiko Nitta, Rie Nomoto, Yuji Tsubota, Masuji Tsuchikawa, Tohru Hayakawa
The purpose of this study was to evaluate polymerization shrinkage and other physical properties of newly-developed cavity base materials for bulk filling technique, with the brand name BULK BASE (BBS). Polymerization shrinkage was measured according to ISO/FDIS 17304. BBS showed the significantly lowest polymerization shrinkage and significantly higher depth of cure than conventional flowable resin composites (p<0.05). The Knoop hardness, flexural strength and elastic modulus of that were significantly lower than conventional flowable resin composites (p<0...
June 23, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648055/poly-ethylene-glycol-mediated-collagen-gel-mechanics-regulates-cellular-phenotypes-in-a-microchanneled-matrix
#18
Max H Rich, Min Kyung Lee, William C Ballance, Marni Boppart, Hyunjoon Kong
For the past few decades, efforts have been extensively made to reproduce tissue of interests for various uses including fundamental bioscience studies, clinical treatments, and even soft robotic systems. In these studies, cells are often cultured in micropores introduced in a provisional matrix despite that bulk rigidity may negatively affect cellular differentiation involved in tissue formation. To this end, we hypothesized that suspending cells within a soft fibrous matrix that is encapsulated within the microchannels of a provisional matrix would allow us to mediate effects of the matrix rigidity on cells and, in turn, to increase the cell differentiation level...
July 18, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626204/intrapulpal-temperature-changes-during-curing-of-different-bulk-fill-restorative-materials
#19
Elif Yasa, Cigdem Atalayin, Gamze Karacolak, Tugrul Sari, L Sebnem Turkun
The aim of this study was to evaluate the intrapulpal temperature changes during the curing of different bulk-fill restorative materials. Ten mandibular molar teeth were selected and occlusal surfaces were removed to obtain a standard 0.5 mm occlusal dentin thickness. Five bulk-fill restorative materials and a conventional resin composite (control) were applied. The intrapulpal temperature changes during the curing of these materials were determined by a device simulating pulpal blood microcirculation. The difference between the initial and maximum temperature values (Δt), was recorded...
June 15, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618542/one-dimensional-irreversible-aggregation-with-dynamics-of-a-totally-asymmetric-simple-exclusion-process
#20
N Zh Bunzarova, N C Pesheva
We define and study one-dimensional model of irreversible aggregation of particles obeying a discrete-time kinetics, which is a special limit of the generalized Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process (gTASEP) on open chains. The model allows for clusters of particles to translate as a whole entity one site to the right with the same probability as single particles do. A particle and a cluster, as well as two clusters, irreversibly aggregate whenever they become nearest neighbors. Nonequilibrium stationary phases appear under the balance of injection and ejection of particles...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
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