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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100492/dynamic-assembly-of-ultrasoft-colloidal-networks-enables-cell-invasion-within-restrictive-fibrillar-polymers
#1
Alison M Douglas, Alexandros A Fragkopoulos, Michelle K Gaines, L Andrew Lyon, Alberto Fernandez-Nieves, Thomas H Barker
In regenerative medicine, natural protein-based polymers offer enhanced endogenous bioactivity and potential for seamless integration with tissue, yet form weak hydrogels that lack the physical robustness required for surgical manipulation, making them difficult to apply in practice. The use of higher concentrations of protein, exogenous cross-linkers, and blending synthetic polymers has all been applied to form more mechanically robust networks. Each relies on generating a smaller network mesh size, which increases the elastic modulus and robustness, but critically inhibits cell spreading and migration, hampering tissue regeneration...
January 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100131/influence-of-activated-sewage-sludge-amendment-on-pahs-removal-efficiency-from-a-naturally-contaminated-soil-application-of-the-landfarming-treatment
#2
Borislava Lukić, David Huguenot, Antonio Panico, Eric D van Hullebusch, Giovanni Esposito
The removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a naturally co-contaminated soil by PAHs and heavy metals with an initial concentration of 620 mg of total PAHs kg(-1) dry soil was investigated. The efficiency of landfarming in removing phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene and the group of total 16 US EPA PAHs was evaluated. The process was biostimulated by adding centrifuged activated sewage sludge (SS) as an organic amendment. Experimental activities were conducted in four laboratory scale reactors filled with corn cobs as bulking agent to reach bulk density of 640 kg/m(3)...
January 18, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092629/transition-metal-substitution-for-h-in-graphane-a-high-throughput-study
#3
Bret C Hess, Erik K Swenson
This systematic study of transition metal (TM) substitution for H on graphane TM x H1-x C, (TM  =  Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn) combines ab initio calculations and cluster expansion to explore a huge variety of structures in more than 20 supercells over the full concentration range from x  =  0 to 1. We find energetically favorable structures at each concentration in supercells not studied before. At low x the lowest-energy structures contain lines and bands of TM atoms. For the larger atoms (Sc, Ti, V) the ordering becomes complex at higher concentrations, and their increased interaction in graphene causes H atoms to detach from the graphene to positions above the TMs...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091437/radiopacity-of-bulk-fill-flowable-resin-composite-materials
#4
T Yildirim, M K Ayar, M S Akdag, C Yesilyurt
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of currently marketed bulk fill flowable dental composite materials (Beautifil Bulk Flowable, SDR Flow, Filtek Bulk Fill Flow, and x-tra Base Bulk Fill). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six specimens of each material with a thickness of 1 mm were prepared, and digital radiographs were taken, using a CCD sensor along with an aluminum stepwedge and 1 mm-thick tooth slice. The mean gray level of each aluminum stepwedge and selected materials was measured, using the equal-density area tool of Kodak Dental Imaging software...
February 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090033/the-effect-of-surface-sealant-application-and-accelerated-aging-on-posterior-restorative-surfaces-an-sem-and-afm-study
#5
Neslihan Tekçe, Kanşad Pala, Safa Tuncer, Mustafa Demirci
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of surface sealant application and 10,000 thermocycles on the surface roughness and microhardness of different resin composite systems. A micro-hybrid (G Aenial Posterior), a nano-hybrid (Clearfil Majesty Posterior), a nano-fill (Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative, Enamel Shade), and a bulk-fill resin composite (Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior Restorative) were used for the study. Specimens were evaluated at 24 h, after application of the surface sealant Fortify Plus, and after thermocycling...
January 13, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088459/strain-development-in-bulk-filled-cavities-of-different-depths-characterized-using-a-non-destructive-acoustic-emission-approach
#6
Annelies Van Ende, Diogo Pedrollo Lise, Jan De Munck, Johan Vanhulst, Martine Wevers, Bart Van Meerbeek
OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate the effect of cavity depth and composite type on the interfacial debonding in bulk-filled cavities. (2) To correlate the theoretical shrinkage stress and the level of interfacial debonding determined by acoustic emission (AE). METHODS: 80 sound molars were divided in two groups to receive a Class-I cavity (3.5×3.5mm) with 2.5- or 4.0-mm depth. The cavities were restored with either a conventional paste-like (Filtek Z100, 3M ESPE), a conventional flowable (G-ænial Universal Flo, GC), a bulk-fill paste-like (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, Ivoclar Vivadent) or a bulk-fill flowable (SDR, Dentsply) composite (n=10)...
January 11, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066987/photothermal-membrane-distillation-for-seawater-desalination
#7
Antonio Politano, Pietro Argurio, Gianluca Di Profio, Vanna Sanna, Anna Cupolillo, Sudip Chakraborty, Hassan A Arafat, Efrem Curcio
Thermoplasmonic effects notably improve the efficiency of vacuum membrane distillation, an economically sustainable tool for high-quality seawater desalination. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes filled with spherical silver nanoparticles are used, whose size is tuned for the aim. With the addition of plasmonic nanoparticles in the membrane, the transmembrane flux increases by 11 times, and, moreover, the temperature at the membrane interface is higher than bulk temperature.
January 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050983/wear-resistance-of-bulk-fill-composite-resin-restorative-materials-polymerized-under-different-curing-intensities
#8
Fahad Alkhudhairy
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the wear resistance of four bulk-fill composite resin restorative materials cured using high- and low-intensity lights. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four samples were prepared from each composite resin material (Tetric N-Ceram, SonicFill, Smart Dentin Replacement, Filtek Bulk-Fill) resulting in a total of 96 samples; they were placed into a mold in a single increment. All of the 96 samples were cured using the Bluephase N light curing unit for 20 seconds...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047055/su-g-jep2-06-dosimetric-and-workflow-evaluation-of-first-commercial-synthetic-ct-software-for-clinical-use-in-pelvis
#9
N Tyagi, J Zhang, L Happersett, M Kadbi, J Mechalakos, J Deasy, M Hunt
PURPOSE: evaluate a commercial synthetic CT (syn-CT) software for use in prostate radiotherapy METHODS: Twenty prostate patients underwent CT and MR simulation scans in treatment position on a 3T Philips scanner. The MR protocol consisted of a T2w turbo spin-echo for soft tissue contrast, a 2D balanced-fast field echo (b-FFE) for fiducial identification, a dual-echo 3D FFE B0 map for distortion analysis and a 3D mDIXON FFE sequence to generate syn-CT. Two echoes are acquired during mDIXON scan, allowing water, fat, and in-phase images to be derived using the frequency shift of the fat and water protons...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040004/oscillatory-fluid-flow-in-deformable-tubes-implications-for-pore-scale-hydromechanics-from-comparing-experimental-observations-with-theoretical-predictions
#10
Patrick Kurzeja, Holger Steeb, Marc A Strutz, Jörg Renner
Oscillatory flow of four fluids (air, water, two aqueous sodium-tungstate solutions) was excited at frequencies up to 250 Hz in tubes of two materials (steel, silicone) covering a wide range in length, diameter, and thickness. The hydrodynamical response was characterized by phase shift and amplitude ratio between pressures in an upstream (pressure excitation) and a downstream reservoir connected by the tubes. The resulting standing flow waves reflect viscosity-controlled diffusive behavior and inertia-controlled wave behavior for oscillation frequencies relatively low and high compared to Biot's critical frequency, respectively...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011129/fast-and-sensitive-in-vivo-studies-under-controlled-environmental-conditions-to-substitute-long-term-field-trials-with-genetically-modified-plants
#11
Patricia Horn, André Schlichting, Christel Baum, Ute Hammesfahr, Sören Thiele-Bruhn, Peter Leinweber, Inge Broer
We introduce an easy, fast and effective method to analyze the influence of genetically modified (GM) plants on soil and model organisms in the laboratory to substitute laborious and time consuming field trials. For the studies described here we focused on two GM plants of the so-called 3rd generation: GM plants producing pharmaceuticals (PMP) and plant made industrials (PMI). Cyanophycin synthetase (cphA) was chosen as model for PMI and Choleratoxin B (CTB) as model for PMP. The model genes are expressed in transgenic roots of composite Vicia hirsuta plants grown in petri dishes for semi-sterile growth or small containers filled with non-sterile soil...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002693/degree-of-conversion-and-polymerization-shrinkage-of-bulk-fill-resin-based-composites
#12
P Yu, Auj Yap, X Y Wang
This study evaluated the degree of conversion (DC) and polymerization shrinkage (PS) of contemporary bulk-fill resin-based composites (RBCs) including giomer materials. Two giomer bulk-fill (Beautifil Bulk Restorative [BBR], Beautifil Bulk Flowable [BBF]), two nongiomer bulk-fill (Tetric N-Ceram Bulk-fill [TNB], Smart Dentin Replacement [SDR]), and three conventional non-bulk-fill (Beautifil II [BT], Beautifil Flow Plus [BF], Tetric N-Ceram [TN]) RBCs were selected for the study. To evaluate the DC, disc-shaped specimens of 5-mm diameter and 2-mm, 4-mm, and 6-mm thickness were fabricated using customized Teflon molds...
January 2017: Operative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998134/a-14-7-organic-silicon-nanoholes-hybrid-solar-cell-via-interfacial-engineering-by-solution-processed-inorganic-conformal-layer
#13
Yu-Tsu Lee, Fang-Ru Lin, Chien-Hsun Chen, Zingway Pei
We demonstrated a high-performance Si-organic hybrid heterojunction solar cell utilizing low-temperature and liquid-phase-processed TiO2 as an interlayer between poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and Si nanoholes to produce a conformal contact on the surface of the Si nanostructure. The hydrophilic TiO2/Si-nanohole surface enabled the PEDOT:PSS to flow into the spacing of the close-packed nanoholes. Scanning electron microscopy images were used to confirm the PEDOT:PSS nanohole filling induced by the TiO2...
December 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994314/comparative-evaluation-of-the-microtensile-bond-strength-of-bulk-fill-and-low-shrinkage-composite-for-different-depths-of-class-ii-cavities-with-the-cervical-margin-in-cementum-an-in-vitro-study
#14
Sonali Taneja, Pragya Kumar, Avnish Kumar
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of bulk fill and low shrinkage composite for different depths of Class II cavities with the cervical margin in cementum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Standardized conservative box-shaped Class II cavities were prepared on sixty sound-impacted human third molars. The samples were randomly divided into two groups: Group I (n = 30) - horizontal incremental technique and Group II (n = 30) - bulk fill technique (SonicFill)...
November 2016: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967172/scaling-relations-in-the-diffusive-infiltration-in-fractals
#15
F D A Aarão Reis
In a recent work on fluid infiltration in a Hele-Shaw cell with the pore-block geometry of Sierpinski carpets (SCs), the area filled by the invading fluid was shown to scale as F∼t^{n}, with n<1/2, thus providing a macroscopic realization of anomalous diffusion [Filipovitch et al., Water Resour. Res. 52, 5167 (2016)WRERAQ0043-139710.1002/2016WR018667]. The results agree with simulations of a diffusion equation with constant pressure at one of the borders of those fractals, but the exponent n is very different from the anomalous exponent ν=1/D_{W} of single-particle diffusion in the same fractals (D_{W} is the random-walk dimension)...
November 2016: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965486/comparison-of-shear-bond-strength-and-microleakage-of-various-bulk-fill-bioactive-dentin-substitutes-an-in-vitro-study
#16
Fahad I Alkhudhairy, Zeeshan H Ahmad
INTRODUCTION: Various bulk-fill materials depending on their composition, viscosity, and flow ability have different physical and mechanical properties. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine and compare the shear bond strength and microleakage properties of activa restorative with other bulk-fill restorative materials surefil (SDR), Biodentine, ever X posterior. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty permanent premolars were selected for shear bond strength, and 20 permanent premolars were selected with class II cavities on mesial and distal side for microleakage...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957266/dynamic-thermo-mechanical-properties-of-various-flowable-resin-composites
#17
Stéphanie Jager, Rémy Balthazard, Marin Vincent, Abdessellam Dahoun, Eric Mortier
BACKGROUND: This study compared the storage modulus (E'), the loss modulus (E'') and the loss tangent (tan δ) of various flowable resin composites. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Grandio Flow (GRF), GrandioSo Heavy Flow (GHF), Filtek Supreme XTE (XTE) and Filtek Bulk Fill (BUL) flowable resins and Clinpro Sealant (CLI) ultra-flowable pit and fissure sealant resin were used. 25 samples were tested using a dynamical mechanical thermal analysis system in bending mode. Measurements were taken within a temperature range of 10 to 55°C...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955917/silver-doped-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-as-antimicrobial-additives-to-dental-polymers
#18
C Chambers, S B Stewart, B Su, H F Jenkinson, J R Sandy, A J Ireland
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this in vitro study were to produce a filled resin containing Ag-TiO2 filler particles and to test its antibacterial properties. METHODS: Ag-TiO2 particles were manufactured using the ball milling method and incorporated into an epoxy resin using a high speed centrifugal mixer. Using UV/vis spectrophotometry investigations were performed to assess how the photocatalytic properties of the Ag-TiO2 particles are affected when encased in resin...
December 9, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943630/nitrate-addition-has-minimal-short-term-impacts-on-greenland-ice-sheet-supraglacial-prokaryotes
#19
Karen A Cameron, Marek Stibal, Nathan Chrismas, Jason Box, Carsten S Jacobsen
Tropospheric nitrate levels are predicted to increase throughout the 21(st) century, with potential effects on terrestrial ecosystems, including the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). This study considers the impacts of elevated nitrate concentrations on the abundance and composition of dominant bulk and active prokaryotic communities sampled from in situ nitrate fertilization plots on the GrIS surface. Nitrate concentrations were successfully elevated within sediment-filled meltwater pools, known as cryoconite holes; however, nitrate additions applied to surface ice did not persist...
December 10, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940389/silk-based-bioinks-for-soft-tissue-reconstruction-using-3-dimensional-3d-printing-with-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-assessments
#20
María J Rodriguez, Joseph Brown, Jodie Giordano, Samuel J Lin, Fiorenzo G Omenetto, David L Kaplan
In the field of soft tissue reconstruction, custom implants could address the need for materials that can fill complex geometries. Our aim was to develop a material system with optimal rheology for material extrusion, that can be processed in physiological and non-toxic conditions and provide structural support for soft tissue reconstruction. To meet this need we developed silk based bioinks using gelatin as a bulking agent and glycerol as a non-toxic additive to induce physical crosslinking. We developed these inks optimizing printing efficacy and resolution for patient-specific geometries that can be used for soft tissue reconstruction...
February 2017: Biomaterials
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