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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230351/fabrication-and-demonstration-of-mercury-disc-well-probes-for-stripping-based-cyclic-voltammetry-scanning-electrochemical-microscopy
#1
Zachary J Barton, Joaquín Rodríguez-López
Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is a rising technique for the study of energy storage materials. Hg-based probes allow the extension of SECM investigations to ionic processes, but the risk of irreversible Hg amalgam saturation limits their operation to rapid timescales and dilute analyte solutions. Here, we report a novel fabrication protocol for Hg disc-well ultramicroelectrodes (UMEs), which retain access to stripping information but are less susceptible to amalgam saturation than traditional Hg sphere-caps or thin-films...
February 23, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210447/the-effect-of-different-insertion-techniques-on-the-depth-of-cure-and-vickers-surface-micro-hardness-of-two-bulk-fill-resin-composite-materials
#2
Lamiaa-Mahmoud Moharam, Ahmed-Zohair El-Hoshy, Karim Abou-Elenein
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the Vickers surface micro-hardness and the depth of cure of two bulk-fill resin composites and one incremental-fill resin composite. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two Bulk-fill dental resin composites (X-tra Fil, Voco; Sonic-FillTM 2, Kerr Corporation) and an incremental-fill dental resin composite (Filtek™ Z250 XT, 3M ESPE) were used. Sixty cylindrical specimens of 4 mm thickness were prepared using split Teflon moulds...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195133/direct-observation-of-nucleation-in-the-bulk-of-an-opaque-sample
#3
Chaoling Xu, Yubin Zhang, Andrew Godfrey, Guilin Wu, Wenjun Liu, Jonathan Z Tischler, Qing Liu, Dorte Juul Jensen
Remarkably little is known about the physical phenomena leading to nucleation of new perfect crystals within deformed metals during annealing, in particular how and where volumes with nearly perfect lattices evolve from structures filled with dislocations, and how local variations at the micrometer length scale affect this nucleation process. We present here the first experimental measurements that relate directly nucleation of recrystallization to the local deformation microstructure in the bulk of a sample of cold rolled aluminum, further deformed locally by a hardness indentation...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186782/role-of-dynamical-heterogeneities-on-the-mechanical-response-of-confined-polymer
#4
R J Masurel, P Gelineau, S Cantournet, A Dequidt, D R Long, F Lequeux, H Montes
Confinement induces various modifications in the dynamics of polymers as compared to bulk. We focus here on the role of dynamical heterogeneities on the mechanics of confined polymers. Using a simple model that allows computation of the mechanical response over 10 decades in frequency, we show that the local mechanical coupling controlling the macroscopic response in the bulk disappears in a confined geometry. The slowest domains significantly contribute to the mechanical response for increasing confinement...
January 27, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165242/encapsulation-and-residency-of-a-hydrophobic-dye-within-the-water-filled-interior-of-a-pamam-dendrimer-molecule
#5
Somnath Koley, Subhadip Ghosh
Tightly confined water within a small droplet behaves differently from bulk water. This notion is obtained based on the several reports that show unusual behaviors of water droplet residing at the core of a reverse micelle. In this study we have shown a well known hydrophobic dye coumarin 153 (C153) prefers to reside at the water rich region inside dendrimer molecule. Optical density (OD) measurement at the absorption peak of C153 shows C153 is almost insoluble in bulk water but highly soluble in aqueous dendrimer solution...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160094/marginal-adaptation-and-microleakage-of-a-bulk-fill-composite-resin-photopolymerized-with-different-techniques
#6
Vania Stephanie Sánchez Gamarra, Gilberto Antonio Borges, Luiz Henrique Burnett Júnior, Ana Maria Spohr
The purpose of this study was to investigate the marginal adaptation and microleakage of SonicFill composite with different photopolymerization techniques. Class II cavities were prepared in 40 premolars and divided into groups according to the photopolymerization technique (n = 10): G1:1200 mW/cm(2) for 20 s; G2:1200 mW/cm(2) for 40 s; G3:Soft-start with 650 mW/cm(2) for 5 s and 1200 mW/cm(2) for 15 s; G4:Soft-start with 650 mW/cm(2) for 10 s and 1200 mW/cm(2) for 30 s. The cavities were restored with OptiBond FL adhesive and SonicFill...
February 3, 2017: Odontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154317/depth-of-cure-flexural-properties-and-volumetric-shrinkage-of-low-and-high-viscosity-bulk-fill-giomers-and-resin-composites
#7
Akimasa Tsujimoto, Wayne W Barkmeier, Toshiki Takamizawa, Mark A Latta, Masashi Miyazaki
The purpose of this study was to investigate the depth of cure, flexural properties and volumetric shrinkage of low and high viscosity bulk-fill giomers and resin composites. Depth of cure and flexural properties were determined according to ISO 4049, and volumetric shrinkage was measured using a dilatometer. The depths of cure of giomers were significantly lower than those of resin composites, regardless of photo polymerization times. No difference in flexural strength and modulus was found among either high or low viscosity bulk fill materials...
February 1, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139122/oleofoams-properties-of-crystal-coated-bubbles-from-whipped-oleogels-evidence-for-pickering-stabilization
#8
D Z Gunes, M Murith, J Godefroid, C Pelloux, H Deyber, O Schafer, O Breton
Interfacially stabilized nonaqueous lipid-based foams, which we name here oleofoams, are rarely encountered as opposed to the large number of aqueous foams stabilized by molecular or particulate emulsifiers. There is no case well described in the literature with a convincing characterization of the interfacial contribution to oleofoam stability. Methods for filling this gap are described here, which reach out to a large part of the lipid phase diagram. We bring here complete evidence that lipidic crystals made of a high fraction of fully soluble monoglyceride (MG) in oil do not only adsorb at the oil-air interface but also can easily form a jammed, closely packed layer of crystals around the bubbles of a foam produced by whipping (Pickering effect)...
January 31, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138674/enhanced-photovoltaic-performance-of-polymer-filled-nanoporous-si-hybrid-structures
#9
Minjae Gang, Joo-Hyoung Lee
We propose a novel hybrid structure for improving the efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells. By employing first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that ordered, nanoporous silicon (np-Si), when filled with polythiophene (PT) inside the pores, exhibits a substantially enhanced absorption coefficient compared to both np-Si and the bulk, which makes the np-Si/PT heterojunction a superior light absorbing material. In addition, the PT-filled porous structure forms a staggered gap, or type II, heterojunction at the interfaces, where the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum of the composite reside on PT and np-Si, respectively...
January 31, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128601/quasiphase-transition-in-a-single-file-of-water-molecules-encapsulated-in-6-5-carbon-nanotubes-observed-by-temperature-dependent-photoluminescence-spectroscopy
#10
Xuedan Ma, Sofie Cambré, Wim Wenseleers, Stephen K Doorn, Han Htoon
Molecules confined inside single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) behave quite differently from their bulk analogues. In this Letter we present temperature-dependent (4.2 K up to room temperature) photoluminescence (PL) spectra of water-filled and empty single-chirality (6,5) SWCNTs. Superimposed on a linear temperature-dependent PL spectral shift of the empty SWCNTs, an additional stepwise PL spectral shift of the water-filled SWCNTs is observed at ∼150  K. With the empty SWCNTs serving as an ideal reference system, we assign this shift to temperature-induced changes occurring in the single-file chain of water molecules encapsulated in the tubes...
January 13, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100492/dynamic-assembly-of-ultrasoft-colloidal-networks-enables-cell-invasion-within-restrictive-fibrillar-polymers
#11
Alison M Douglas, Alexandros A Fragkopoulos, Michelle K Gaines, L Andrew Lyon, Alberto Fernandez-Nieves, Thomas H Barker
In regenerative medicine, natural protein-based polymers offer enhanced endogenous bioactivity and potential for seamless integration with tissue, yet form weak hydrogels that lack the physical robustness required for surgical manipulation, making them difficult to apply in practice. The use of higher concentrations of protein, exogenous cross-linkers, and blending synthetic polymers has all been applied to form more mechanically robust networks. Each relies on generating a smaller network mesh size, which increases the elastic modulus and robustness, but critically inhibits cell spreading and migration, hampering tissue regeneration...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100131/influence-of-activated-sewage-sludge-amendment-on-pahs-removal-efficiency-from-a-naturally-contaminated-soil-application-of-the-landfarming-treatment
#12
Borislava Lukić, David Huguenot, Antonio Panico, Eric D van Hullebusch, Giovanni Esposito
The removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a naturally co-contaminated soil by PAHs and heavy metals with an initial concentration of 620 mg of total PAHs kg(-1) dry soil was investigated. The efficiency of landfarming in removing phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene and the group of total 16 US EPA PAHs was evaluated. The process was biostimulated by adding centrifuged activated sewage sludge (SS) as an organic amendment. Experimental activities were conducted in four laboratory scale reactors filled with corn cobs as bulking agent to reach bulk density of 640 kg/m(3)...
January 18, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092629/transition-metal-substitution-for-h-in-graphane-a-high-throughput-study
#13
Bret C Hess, Erik K Swenson
This systematic study of transition metal (TM) substitution for H on graphane TM x H1-x C, (TM  =  Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn) combines ab initio calculations and cluster expansion to explore a huge variety of structures in more than 20 supercells over the full concentration range from x  =  0 to 1. We find energetically favorable structures at each concentration in supercells not studied before. At low x the lowest-energy structures contain lines and bands of TM atoms. For the larger atoms (Sc, Ti, V) the ordering becomes complex at higher concentrations, and their increased interaction in graphene causes H atoms to detach from the graphene to positions above the TMs...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091437/radiopacity-of-bulk-fill-flowable-resin-composite-materials
#14
T Yildirim, M K Ayar, M S Akdag, C Yesilyurt
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of currently marketed bulk fill flowable dental composite materials (Beautifil Bulk Flowable, SDR Flow, Filtek Bulk Fill Flow, and x-tra Base Bulk Fill). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six specimens of each material with a thickness of 1 mm were prepared, and digital radiographs were taken, using a CCD sensor along with an aluminum stepwedge and 1 mm-thick tooth slice. The mean gray level of each aluminum stepwedge and selected materials was measured, using the equal-density area tool of Kodak Dental Imaging software...
February 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090033/the-effect-of-surface-sealant-application-and-accelerated-aging-on-posterior-restorative-surfaces-an-sem-and-afm-study
#15
Neslihan Tekçe, Kanşad Pala, Safa Tuncer, Mustafa Demirci
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of surface sealant application and 10,000 thermocycles on the surface roughness and microhardness of different resin composite systems. A micro-hybrid (G Aenial Posterior), a nano-hybrid (Clearfil Majesty Posterior), a nano-fill (Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative, Enamel Shade), and a bulk-fill resin composite (Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior Restorative) were used for the study. Specimens were evaluated at 24 h, after application of the surface sealant Fortify Plus, and after thermocycling...
January 13, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088459/strain-development-in-bulk-filled-cavities-of-different-depths-characterized-using-a-non-destructive-acoustic-emission-approach
#16
Annelies Van Ende, Diogo Pedrollo Lise, Jan De Munck, Johan Vanhulst, Martine Wevers, Bart Van Meerbeek
OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate the effect of cavity depth and composite type on the interfacial debonding in bulk-filled cavities. (2) To correlate the theoretical shrinkage stress and the level of interfacial debonding determined by acoustic emission (AE). METHODS: 80 sound molars were divided in two groups to receive a Class-I cavity (3.5×3.5mm) with 2.5- or 4.0-mm depth. The cavities were restored with either a conventional paste-like (Filtek Z100, 3M ESPE), a conventional flowable (G-ænial Universal Flo, GC), a bulk-fill paste-like (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, Ivoclar Vivadent) or a bulk-fill flowable (SDR, Dentsply) composite (n=10)...
January 11, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066987/photothermal-membrane-distillation-for-seawater-desalination
#17
Antonio Politano, Pietro Argurio, Gianluca Di Profio, Vanna Sanna, Anna Cupolillo, Sudip Chakraborty, Hassan A Arafat, Efrem Curcio
Thermoplasmonic effects notably improve the efficiency of vacuum membrane distillation, an economically sustainable tool for high-quality seawater desalination. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes filled with spherical silver nanoparticles are used, whose size is tuned for the aim. With the addition of plasmonic nanoparticles in the membrane, the transmembrane flux increases by 11 times, and, moreover, the temperature at the membrane interface is higher than bulk temperature.
January 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050983/wear-resistance-of-bulk-fill-composite-resin-restorative-materials-polymerized-under-different-curing-intensities
#18
Fahad Alkhudhairy
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the wear resistance of four bulk-fill composite resin restorative materials cured using high- and low-intensity lights. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four samples were prepared from each composite resin material (Tetric N-Ceram, SonicFill, Smart Dentin Replacement, Filtek Bulk-Fill) resulting in a total of 96 samples; they were placed into a mold in a single increment. All of the 96 samples were cured using the Bluephase N light curing unit for 20 seconds...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047055/su-g-jep2-06-dosimetric-and-workflow-evaluation-of-first-commercial-synthetic-ct-software-for-clinical-use-in-pelvis
#19
N Tyagi, J Zhang, L Happersett, M Kadbi, J Mechalakos, J Deasy, M Hunt
PURPOSE: evaluate a commercial synthetic CT (syn-CT) software for use in prostate radiotherapy METHODS: Twenty prostate patients underwent CT and MR simulation scans in treatment position on a 3T Philips scanner. The MR protocol consisted of a T2w turbo spin-echo for soft tissue contrast, a 2D balanced-fast field echo (b-FFE) for fiducial identification, a dual-echo 3D FFE B0 map for distortion analysis and a 3D mDIXON FFE sequence to generate syn-CT. Two echoes are acquired during mDIXON scan, allowing water, fat, and in-phase images to be derived using the frequency shift of the fat and water protons...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040004/oscillatory-fluid-flow-in-deformable-tubes-implications-for-pore-scale-hydromechanics-from-comparing-experimental-observations-with-theoretical-predictions
#20
Patrick Kurzeja, Holger Steeb, Marc A Strutz, Jörg Renner
Oscillatory flow of four fluids (air, water, two aqueous sodium-tungstate solutions) was excited at frequencies up to 250 Hz in tubes of two materials (steel, silicone) covering a wide range in length, diameter, and thickness. The hydrodynamical response was characterized by phase shift and amplitude ratio between pressures in an upstream (pressure excitation) and a downstream reservoir connected by the tubes. The resulting standing flow waves reflect viscosity-controlled diffusive behavior and inertia-controlled wave behavior for oscillation frequencies relatively low and high compared to Biot's critical frequency, respectively...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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