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Bulk fill

Yuheng Wang, Konstantin von Gunten, Barbora Bartova, Nicolas Meisser, Markus Astner, Mario Burger, Rizlan Bernier-Latmani
Hundreds of tons of depleted uranium (DU) ammunition were used in previous armed conflicts in Iraq, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia/Kosovo. The majority (>90%) of DU penetrators miss their target and, if left in the environment, corrode in these post-conflict zones. Thus, the best way to understand the fate of bulk DU material in the environment is to characterize the corrosion products of intact DU penetrators under field conditions for extended periods of time. However, such studies are scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we characterized corrosion products formed from two intact DU penetrators that remained in soils in Bosnia and Herzegovina for over seven years...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Pablo Arturo Fernández Garrillo, Lukasz Borowik, Florent Caffy, Renaud Demadrille, Benjamin Grevin
Investigating the photo-carrier dynamics in nanostructured and heterogeneous energy materials is of crucial importance from both fundamental and technological points of view. Here, we demonstrate how non-contact atomic force microscopy combined with Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy under frequency modulated illumination can be used to simultaneously image the surface photo-potential dynamics at different timescales with a sub-10 nm lateral resolution. The basic principle of the method consists in the acquisition of spectroscopic curves of the surface potential as a function of the illumination frequency modulation on a two dimensional grid...
October 20, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yen-Sook Jung, Jun-Seok Yeo, Nam-Koo Kim, Sehyun Lee, Dong-Yu Kim
We report the effect of binary additives on the fabrication of polymer solar cells (PSCs) based on a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) system. The combination of 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), a high-boiling and selective solvent, for fullerene derivatives and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) precursor, a nonvolatile insulating additive, affords complementary functions on the effective modulation of BHJ morphology. It was found that DIO and PDMS precursor each play different roles on the control of BHJ morphology, and thus, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) can be further enhanced to 7...
October 19, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Carol Stewart, Nick D Kim, David M Johnston, Mostafa Nayyerloo
The greater Wellington region, New Zealand, is highly vulnerable to large earthquakes because it is cut by active faults. Bulk water supply pipelines cross the Wellington Fault at several different locations, and there is considerable concern about severe disruption of the provision of reticulated water supplies to households and businesses in the aftermath of a large earthquake. A number of policy initiatives have been launched encouraging householders to install rainwater tanks to increase post-disaster resilience...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Xing Jiang, Hai-Bao Duan, Saeed I Khan, Miguel A Garcia-Garibay
Artificial molecular machines are expected to operate under conditions of very low Reynolds numbers with inertial forces orders of magnitude smaller than viscous forces. While these conditions are relatively well understood in bulk fluids, opportunities to assess the role of viscous forces in confined crystalline media are rare. Here we report one such example of diffusion-controlled rotation in crystals and its application as a probe for viscosity of MOF-confined solvent. We describe the preparation and characterization of three pillared paddlewheel MOFs, with 9,10-bis(4-pyridylethynyl)triptycene 3 as a pillar and molecular rotator, and three axially substituted dicarboxylate linkers with different lengths and steric bulk...
September 28, 2016: ACS Central Science
Parthiban Ramasamy, Attila Szabo, Stefan Borzel, Jürgen Eckert, Mihai Stoica, András Bárdos
Soft ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glass key-shaped specimens with a maximum and minimum width of 25.4 and 5 mm, respectively, were successfully produced using a high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, The influence of die material, alloy temperature and flow rate on the microstructure, thermal stability and soft ferromagnetic properties has been studied. The results suggest that a steel die in which the molten metal flows at low rate and high temperature can be used to produce completely glassy samples...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Eva Klaric Sever, Nika Simenc, Mario Rakic, Hrvoje Skenderovic, Ivan Sever, Zrinka Tarle
To investigate the effects of bleaching agent on microhardness, color and light transmission of different restorative materials. Specimens (n=20) of Tetric EvoCeram (TEC), Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TECBF) and Equia Fill (EQUIA) were treated with either 40% hydrogen peroxide Opalesence Boost or destilled water for 45 min. Specimens were stained in tea solution or stored in deionized water for one and two weeks. Color, microhardness and light transmission were monitored at the baseline, after the bleaching and after the tea immersion or storage in deionized water...
2016: Dental Materials Journal
M Müller, N Néel, S Crampin, J Kröger
We have studied electron states present at the Pb(111) surface above Ar-filled nanocavities created by ion beam irradiation and annealing. Vertical confinement between the parallel crystal and nanocavity surfaces creates a series of quantum well state subbands. Differential conductance data measured by scanning tunneling spectroscopy contain a characteristic spectroscopic fine structure within the highest occupied subband, revealing additional quantization. Unexpectedly, reflection at the open boundary where the thin Pb film recovers its bulk thickness gives rise to the lateral confinement of electrons...
September 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
D So, S Pradhan, G Konstantatos
Colloidal copper indium sulfide (CIS) nanocrystals (NCs) are Pb- and Cd-free alternatives for use as absorbers in quantum dot solar cells. In a heterojunction with TiO2, non-annealed ligand-exchanged CIS NCs form solar cells yielding a meager power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.15%, with photocurrents plummeting far below predicted values from absorption. Decreasing the amount of zinc during post-treatment leads to improved mobility but marginal improvement in device performance (PCE = 0.30%). By incorporating CIS into a porous TiO2 network, we saw an overall drastic improvement in device performance, reaching a PCE of 1...
September 22, 2016: Nanoscale
(no author information available yet)
No better clinical outcome for bulk-filled resin composites.
October 7, 2016: British Dental Journal
Liuyuan Lan, Zhiming Chen, Qin Hu, Lei Ying, Rui Zhu, Feng Liu, Thomas P Russell, Fei Huang, Yong Cao
A novel donor-acceptor type conjugated polymer based on a building block of 4,8-di(thien-2-yl)-6-octyl-2-octyl-5H-pyrrolo[3,4-f]benzotriazole-5,7(6H)-dione (TZBI) as the acceptor unit and 4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)-benzo-[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene as the donor unit, named as PTZBIBDT, is developed and used as an electron-donating material in bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells. The resulting copolymer exhibits a wide bandgap of 1.81 eV along with relatively deep highest occupied molecular orbital energy level of -5...
September 2016: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Michael B Reardon, Muyun Xu, Qingzhe Tan, Peter G Baumgartel, Danielle J Augur, Shuanghong Huo, Charles E Jakobsche
Derivatives of geraniol are versatile synthetic intermediates that are useful for synthesizing a variety of terpenoid natural products; however, the results presented herein show that subtle differences in the structures of functionalized geranyl chlorides can significantly impact their abilities to function as effective electrophiles in synthetic reactions. A series of focused kinetics experiments identify specific structure-activity relationships that illustrate the importance not only of steric bulk, but also of electronic effects from distant regions of the molecules that contribute to their overall level of reactivity...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
C S Sampaio, K-J Chiu, E Farrokhmanesh, M Janal, R M Puppin-Rontani, M Giannini, E A Bonfante, P G Coelho, R Hirata
The present study aimed to characterize the pattern and volume of polymerization shrinkage of flowable resin composites, including one conventional, two bulk fill, and one self-adhesive. Standardized class I preparations (2.5 mm depth × 4 mm length × 4 mm wide) were performed in 24 caries-free human third molars that were randomly divided in four groups, according to the resin composite and adhesive system used: group 1 = Permaflo + Peak Universal Bond (PP); group 2 = Filtek Bulk Fill + Scotchbond Universal (FS); group 3 = Surefil SDR + XP Bond (SX); and group 4 = Vertise flow self-adhering (VE) (n=6)...
September 30, 2016: Operative Dentistry
Vesna Miletic, Dejan Peric, Milos Milosevic, Dragica Manojlovic, Nenad Mitrovic
OBJECTIVE: To compare strain and displacement of sculptable bulk-fill, low-shrinkage and conventional composites as well as dye penetration along the dentin-restoration interface. METHODS: Modified Class II cavities (N=5/group) were filled with sculptable bulk-fill (Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior, 3M ESPE; Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, Ivoclar Vivadent; fiber-reinforced EverX Posterior, GC; giomer Beautifil Bulk, Schofu), low-shrinkage (Kalore, GC), nanohybrid (Tetric EvoCeram, Ivoclar Vivadent) or microhybrid (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE) composites...
September 26, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Noor-Ul-Ain Jawaed, Syed Yawar Ali Abidi, Fazal-Ur-Rehman Qazi, Shahbaz Ahmed
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the coronal microleakage of packable composite using conventional incremental and posterior bulk fill flowable composite using Smart Dentine Replacement Single Step technique in the cervical margins of class II cavities in dentine using the dye penetration method. STUDY DESIGN: In-vitroInterventional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Operative Dentistry, Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ebad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences (DIKIOHS), Karachi, from November 2012 to April 2013...
September 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Silvia C Pérez-González, Victoria Bolaños-Carmona, María M Pérez-Gómez, Santiago González-López
This study tested the null hypothesis that the opacity of RealSeal SE (RSSE) sealer makes light-curing inefficient, while the degree of conversion (DC) is similar regardless of curing method. Fourteen uniradicular teeth were sectioned at 15 mm from the apex. Root canals were instrumented using the Reciproc file system, bulk-filled with RSSE, and divided randomly into two groups (dual-cure or self-cure). DC was determined by micro-Raman spectroscopy at 24 h, 48 h, and 1 week after filling, at 6, 9, and 12 mm from the coronal end...
2016: Journal of Oral Science
Reyhan Şişman, Ayça Aksoy, Muhammet Yalçın, Erdal Karaöz
Five bulk fill composite resins, including SDR, Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TEC), X-trafil (XTF), Sonic Fill (SF), Filtek Bulk Fill (FBF), were used in this study. Human dental pulp stem cells were cultured in 12-well culture dishes (3 × 104 cells per cm(2)) and stored in an incubator at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 1 day. On days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of co-culture, viable cells were measured using a WST-1 assay. Lower cell viability was observed with XTF and SDR bulk fill composite resins compared to the control group during the WST-1 assay...
2016: Journal of Oral Science
Liqiang Huang, Xiaofang Cheng, Jia Yang, Lifu Zhang, Weihua Zhou, Shuqin Xiao, Licheng Tan, Lie Chen, Yiwang Chen
Significant efforts have been dedicated to the interface engineering of organic photovoltaic device, suggesting that the performance and aging of the device are not only dependent on the active layer, but also governed by the interface with electrodes. In this work, controllable interfacial dipole and conductivity have been achieved in ionic liquids (ILs) modified poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). We conclude that an appropriate interfacial conductivity is as essential as the suitable work function for an efficient buffer layer...
October 3, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Liang-Xing Wang, Zhi-Quan Zhou, Hong-Chen Hao, Ming Lu
A p-n junction was made on p-type Si〈100〉 wafer (15 × 15 × 0.2 mm(3) in size) via phosphorous diffusion at 900 °C. Porous Si (PSi) with ultralow reflectivity (<0.3% in the ultraviolet and visible regimes) was achieved by etching a Ag-coated n(+) Si emitter in a solution of HF, H2O2 and H2O. The PSi was found to mainly consist of Si nanocrystallites with bandgap widths larger than that of bulk Si. Compared to other micro- or nanostructured Si-based crystalline-Si solar cells found in the literature, this PSi one possessed the feature of a graded band gap, which helped to suppress the surface recombination...
October 21, 2016: Nanotechnology
Tobias T Tauböck, Thomas Attin
Bulk-fill resin composites represent an innovative class of dental composite materials, developed to simplify and expedite the restoration process. They can be adequately photopolymerized up to 4–5mm composite thickness and therefore permit a more economical restorative approach as compared to conventional resin composites. The current paper summarizes the most important facts on bulk-fill composite materials and provides recommendations for the successful use of these materials in daily practice based on upto-date in vitro and in vivo research...
2016: Swiss Dental Journal
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