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Female genital mutilation

Samuel Kimani, Bettina Shell-Duncan
Purpose of Review: Female genital cutting/mutilation (FGM/C) performed by health care professionals (medicalization) and reduced severity of cutting have been advanced as strategies for minimizing health risks, sparking acrimonious ongoing debates. This study summarizes key debates and critically assesses supporting evidence. Recent Findings: While medicalization is concentrated in Africa, health professionals worldwide have faced requests to perform FGM/C. Whether medicalization is hindering the decline of FGM/C is unclear...
2018: Current Sexual Health Reports
Sara Johnsdotter
Purpose of Review: The purpose of this review was to explore current research on the impact of migration on issues related to female genital cutting and sexuality. Recent Findings: There is growing evidence that migration results in a broad opposition to female genital cutting among concerned migrant groups in western countries. In addition, after migration, affected women live in the midst of a dominant discourse categorizing them as "mutilated" and sexually disfigured...
2018: Current Sexual Health Reports
Adel Hussein Elduma
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation or female circumcision (FGM) is a serious health problem in Sudan. This procedure is harmful to women and causes many complications during pregnancy and childbirth. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the female genital mutilation (FGM) and its associated factors in Sudan. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data from Sudan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS - UNICEF) was used in this research. The survey was carried out in 2014 and included women aged between 14 - 49 years...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Ivan Mañero, Trinidad Labanca
BACKGROUND: Clitoral reconstruction after genital mutilation is a feasible and effective strategy to reduce clitoral pain, improve sexual pleasure, and restore vulvar appearance. TECHNIQUE: We describe a novel surgical technique for clitorolabial reconstruction using a vaginal graft. EXPERIENCE: We present a series of 32 consecutive women who underwent this procedure at Iván Mañero Clinic, Barcelona, Spain, and were prospectively followed...
March 8, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Olayide Ogunsiji, Lesley Wilkes, Harrison Ng Chok
Western countries working toward eradication of female genital mutilation require better inclusion of women originally from countries where the practice is prevalent. However, few authors have examined the knowledge, attitudes and experiences of circumcised African migrant women in western countries. Our findings from forty responses from self-reported survey and five in-depth interviews show that the participating African migrant women know the reasons behind FGC, are living with the negative consequences of FGC and have a zero tolerance attitude toward the practice...
February 23, 2018: Health Care for Women International
Bettina Zinka, Ines Ackermann, Claudia Bormann, Matthias Graw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
Jasmine Abdulcadir, Sandra Marras, Lucrezia Catania, Omar Abdulcadir, Patrick Petignat
Female genital mutilation type III (infibulation) is achieved by narrowing the vaginal orifice by creating a covering seal, accomplished by cutting and appositioning the labia minora and/or labia majora, with or without clitoral excision. Infibulation is responsible for significant urogynecological, obstetrical, and psychosexual consequences that can be treated with defibulation (or de-infibulation), an operation that opens the infibulation scar, exposing the vulvar vestibule, vaginal orifice, external urethral meatus, and eventually the clitoris...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Andrea C Johnson, W Douglas Evans, Nicole Barrett, Howida Badri, Tamador Abdalla, Cody Donahue
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation and cutting (FGM/C, herein FGM) is a widespread and harmful practice. The Government developed a national campaign in Sudan, called Saleema, to change social norms discouraging FGM. Saleema translates to being "whole", healthy in body and mind, unharmed, intact, pristine, and untouched, in a God-given condition. An interim evaluation was conducted using focus groups among Sudanese adults. The primary aim was to explore perceptions of the Saleema poster exemplars and to assess if the desired themes were being communicated...
February 17, 2018: Reproductive Health
Dorit Schöller, Christl Reisenauer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Helen Baillot, Nina Murray, Elaine Connelly, Natasha Howard
BACKGROUND: Public and policy attention to female genital mutilation (FGM) in diaspora communities has increased in Europe, but research remains limited and misinformation abounds. As a first step to addressing these issues, this study explored FGM prevention and response interventions in Europe, using a scoping literature review and key informant interviews. METHODS: A scoping study design was selected, using Arksey and O'Malley's six-stage scoping framework to review identified sources...
February 8, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Claire Tantet, Camille Aupiais, Mathilde Bourdon, Frédéric Sorge, Adèle Pagès, Dora Levy, Barthélémy Lafon-Desmurs, Albert Faye
We investigated the knowledge of female genital mutilation (FGM) among 60 general and 52 specialized travel medicine practitioners. Less than 50% of these practitioners had adequate knowledge of FGM. Only 42.9% declared having encountered FGM. FGM is likely underestimated in health facilities. Medical education and supporting information should be developed to better address and prevent FGM.
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
Ranit Mishori, Nicole Warren, Rebecca Reingold
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: American Family Physician
Livia Elisa Ortensi, Patrizia Farina, Els Leye
BACKGROUND: Migration flows of women from Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting practicing countries have generated a need for data on women potentially affected by Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting. This paper presents enhanced estimates for foreign-born women and asylum seekers in Italy in 2016, with the aim of supporting resource planning and policy making, and advancing the methodological debate on estimation methods. METHODS: The estimates build on the most recent methodological development in Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting direct and indirect estimation for Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting non-practicing countries...
January 12, 2018: BMC Public Health
Khalid Yassin, Hadeel A Idris, AbdelAziem A Ali
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2018: Reproductive Health
Paola Castagna, Rossana Ricciardelli, Federica Piazza, Grazia Mattutino, Beatrice Pattarino, Antonella Canavese, Sarah Gino
The phenomenon of migration is often related to violence and exploitation. Data collection in conflict-affected countries is hard and complicated by the lack of literature, especially on the health of migrant female victims of violence. The aim of our study has been to realise a clinical and forensic evaluation on African female migrant's global health through their admissions to the Rape Centre "Soccorso Violenza Sessuale" at Sant'Anna Hospital in Turin. In our sample, we considered several aspects such as place where the violence occurred, number and the identity of the perpetrators, use of physical restraint instruments and/or substances, kidnapping, prostitution under duress, abuses, pregnancies and outcomes, injuries and complained symptoms, female genital mutilation, and sexually transmitted diseases...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Meharban Singh
Health of women has a profound effect on the health and welfare of communities, countries and the world at large. A large number of social, economic, educational, political and religious dimensions impact the lives of girls and women with repercussions on their health and status in society and welfare of their children. It is a sad reality that a large number of children, adolescents and women worldwide have limited or no access to essential health care services, nutrition and education. Gender inequity and discrimination against girls cannot be bridged unless there are equal opportunities for healthcare and education for boys and girls...
January 6, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Pierick Mouginot, Gabriele Uhl, Lutz Fromhage
Sperm competition may select for male reproductive traits that influence female mating or oviposition rate. These traits may induce fitness costs to the female; however, they may be costly for the males as well as any decrease in female fitness also affects male fitness. Male adaptations to sperm competition manipulate females by altering not only female behaviour or physiology, but also female morphology. In orb-weaving spiders, mating may entail mutilation of external structures of the female genitalia, which prevents genital coupling with subsequent males...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Kensuke Nakata
Some male spiders exhibit female genital mutilation behaviour (FGM) by removing the female genital appendage (scape) to control the mating frequency of females. Female spiders have two, i.e. right and left, genital openings connected with separate spermathecae into which males transfer sperm successively using one pedipalp (secondary genitalia) at a time. Thus, males must complete at least two palpal insertions to fill both spermathecae, before FGM. The present study examined whether (i) scape removal is only associated with the second palpal insertion (one-action hypothesis) or (ii) two contralateral palpal insertions facilitate FGM, with each insertion cutting the basal part of the scape halfway (two-actions hypothesis)...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Zohra S Lassi, Rehana A Salam, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: The health challenges faced by young people are more complex than adults and can compromise their full growth and development. Attention must be paid to the health of this age group, yet adolescents and youth remain largely invisible and often disappear from the major global datasets. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to discuss the global health challenges faced by adolescents and youth, global legislations and guidelines pertaining to this particular age group, recommendations to arrest these challenges, and research priorities...
September 2017: Annals of Global Health
Catrin Evans, Ritah Tweheyo, Julie McGarry, Jeanette Eldridge, Carol McCormick, Valentine Nkoyo, Gina Marie Awoko Higginbottom
INTRODUCTION: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an issue of global concern. High levels of migration mean that healthcare systems in higher-income western countries are increasingly being challenged to respond to the care needs of affected communities. Research has identified significant challenges in the provision of, and access to, FGM-related healthcare. There is a lack of confidence and competence among health professionals in providing appropriate care, suggesting an urgent need for evidence-based service development in this area...
December 14, 2017: BMJ Open
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