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Female genital mutilation

Jasmine Abdulcadir, Lucrezia Catania, Michelle Jane Hindin, Lale Say, Patrick Petignat, Omar Abdulcadir
Female genital mutilation comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or injury to the female genital organs for nonmedical reasons. Health care providers for women and girls living with female genital mutilation have reported difficulties in recognizing, classifying, and recording female genital mutilation, which can adversely affect treatment of complications and discussions of the prevention of the practice in future generations. According to the World Health Organization, female genital mutilation is classified into four types, subdivided into subtypes...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Elinor Clarke
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a collective term for the deliberate alteration, removal and cutting of the female genitalia. It has no known health benefits and can have negative physical and psychological consequences. The number of women and girls in the UK that are affected by FGM is unknown. Recent NHS data suggested that FGM has been evident (declared or observed) in women who have accessed health care; however, there are gaps in knowledge and a limited evidence base on the health consequences of FGM...
October 13, 2016: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Debbie Duncan
This is the fourth and final article in a series on female genital mutilation (FGM). It describes the complications of FGM, with a focus on the urinary ones. FGM refers to all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia and/or damage to other female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified FGM into four types (1-4). Women who have type 3 commonly experience long-term complications of their urological tract. The first-line treatment for type 3 FGM involves surgical defibulation, but this is not always successful and women can be left with neurogenic bladder dysfunction and urethral stricture disease...
October 13, 2016: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Christina Pechmann, Franz Petermann, Sören Schmidt, Dennis Nitkowski, Anke Köbach, Martina Ruf, Thomas Elbert
The Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is still practiced in many countries and mainly performed for traditional reasons. In this study, the relationship of the FGM type (type I and type III) with anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder as well as the attitude toward FGM was analyzed. For this purpose the data of N=109 of FGM type I and III affected women from Ethiopia were collected. Analyses show moderation effects. It was found that the symptoms of depression and PTSD were less pronounced with a positive attitude towards the FGM in the sample of severely mutilated women (type III)...
October 11, 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Maria I Rodriguez, Armando Seuc, Lale Say, Michelle J Hindin
BACKGROUND: To investigate the association between type of episiotomy and obstetric outcomes among 6,187 women with type 3 Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of women presenting in labor to 28 obstetric centres in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal and Sudan between November 2001 and March 2003. Data were analysed using cross tabulations and multivariable logistic regression to determine if type of episiotomy by FGM classification had a significant impact on key maternal outcomes...
October 10, 2016: Reproductive Health
Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a common harmful traditional practice in many communities in Africa and to a lesser extent in Middle East and other regions in the world. In order to better understand publishing on this topic, we conducted a bibliometric study on FGM/C. Bibliometric analyses can be used as an indicator of the extent of interaction of researchers, health authorities, and communities with a particular health issue. METHODS: Scopus database was used to retrieve data on FGM/C...
October 10, 2016: Reproductive Health
C M R Ouédraogo, S Madzou, A Simporé, V Combaud, A Ouattara, F Millogo, A Ouédraogo, S Kiemtore, H Zamane, Y A Sawadogo, P Kaien, B Dramé, B Thieba, J Lankoandé, P Descamps
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this survey was to assess the results of a new clitoral transposition technique in the obstetrics and gynecology department of CHUYO. MATERIALS AND METHOD: A cohort of 68 women victims of genital mutilation has received clitoral reconstruction by a new technique of transposition of the clitoris. They were operated and followed for 12 months in CHUYO gynecology ward in Ouagadougou. We evaluated the management of pain, anatomical aspect, functional and occurrence of complications...
October 5, 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
Emmanuel Kabengele Mpinga, Aurélie Macias, Jennifer Hasselgard-Rowe, Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala, Tshimungu Kandolo Félicien, Henk Verloo, Ngoyi K Zacharie Bukonda, Philippe Chastonay
BACKGROUND: Global efforts to end female genital mutilation (FGM) have intensified in recent decades because of the rising awareness that such a practice is an act of extreme violence against women and girls. Articles on FGM have been published highlighting the combined efforts of international and non-governmental organizations, governments, as well as religious and civil society groups to end the practice. However, the consequences of this research are not well known, and it seems that the socioeconomic aspects of the practice are underreported...
2016: Global Health Action
Claudine Gayle, Janice Rymer
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional practice that has no medical benefit and severe health consequences for girls and women. This article discusses the risks to patients who are pregnant and have had FGM. It will describe urinary tract infections caused by FGM, and how this condition increases the risk of preterm labour and delivery. It will also address the difficulty in vaginal examinations that can be caused by FGM and instances when this can delay diagnosis and treatment. In addition, it will explore a number of intrapartum risks caused by FGM and the role of deinfibulation in pregnancy...
September 22, 2016: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Rehana A Salam, Anadil Faqqah, Nida Sajjad, Zohra S Lassi, Jai K Das, Miriam Kaufman, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
Adolescents have special sexual and reproductive health needs (whether or not they are sexually active or married). This review assesses the impact of interventions to improve adolescent sexual and reproductive health (including the interventions to prevent female genital mutilation/cutting [FGM/C]) and to prevent intimate violence. Our review findings suggest that sexual and reproductive health education, counseling, and contraceptive provision are effective in increasing sexual knowledge, contraceptive use, and decreasing adolescent pregnancy...
October 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Elinor Clarke, Yana Richens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Clare Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Israa Siddig
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a practice that is now familiar to UK health professionals. It continues to be a problem in high-risk populations and affects girls and women throughout their lives. Complications related to FGM are poorly reported and documented. Health professionals, therefore, must be aware of the adverse effects and how they affect obstetric, gynaecological and sexual function and general quality of life. They must also be sensitive towards the psychological and emotional issues relating to FGM...
September 8, 2016: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Teshome Oljira, Nega Assefa, Yadeta Dessie
OBJECTIVE: To assess the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) among mothers and daughters, and to investigate sociodemographic factors influencing the practice of FGM in Harar, Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among women aged 15 years or older who had at least one living daughter younger than 12 years via the Harar Health and Demographic Surveillance System 2013. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews...
August 22, 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Rigmor C Berg, Jan Odgaard-Jensen, Atle Fretheim, Vigdis Underland, Gunn Vist
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology International
Vincenzo Puppo
The World Health Organization reports that more than 200 million women currently alive have been subjected to female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) worldwide, and three million girls continue to be at risk each year. FGM/C today is women's business. The vulva is formed by the labia majora and the vestibule, with its erectile apparatus. These structures are located under the urogenital diaphragm, behind the pubic symphysis in the anterior perineal region. The clitoris is entirely an external genital organ: the glans and body covered by the prepuce are visible/free while the roots are hidden...
September 6, 2016: Clinical Anatomy
Eleanor Brown, Faith Mwangi-Powell, Miriam Jerotich, Victoria le May
The Girl Summit held in 2014 aimed to mobilise greater effort to end Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) within a generation, building on a global movement which viewed the practice as a severe form of violence against women and girls and a violation of their rights. The UN, among others, endorse "comprehensive" strategies to end FGM, including legalistic measures, social protection and social communications. FGM is a sensitive issue and difficult to research, and rapid ethnographic methods can use existing relations of trust within social networks to explore attitudes towards predominant social norms which posit FGM as a social necessity...
May 2016: Reproductive Health Matters
John Chishugi, Trixy Franke
A young girl was brought to the emergency unit after suffering sexual abuse by an older male. Additional abuses against women and girls include physical beating, forced marriage, female genital mutilation, breast ironing, widow's rites, psychological abuse, and discrimination in education, finance, employment, and legal access. Cameroon has adopted strategies aimed at eliminating violence against women, including ratification of international policies, penal codes, and support of local and international efforts that promote women; however, many of the laws remain in name only and are rarely enforced, given women's lack of financial access to quality lawyers and an unsympathetic male-dominated police force...
August 2016: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Julie Balfour, Jasmine Abdulcadir, Lale Say, Michelle J Hindin
BACKGROUND: Studies on healthcare providers' awareness, knowledge and attitudes regarding female genital mutilation (FGM) have shown a lack of awareness of the prevalence, diagnosis, and management of FGM. Our objective was to systematically review the literature on interventions improving healthcare providers' capacities of prevention and treatment of FGM. METHODS: Systematic review of the published and grey literature on interventions aimed at improving healthcare providers' capacities of prevention and treatment of FGM (1995-2015)...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Tarek K Al-Hussaini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
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