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Zacharias G Laoutidis, Georgia E Lekka, Kanellos T Kioulos
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to review the existing literature on clinical trials with glutamatergic agents in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and to perform a meta-analysis to estimate the overall effect size. DATA SOURCES: We searched in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for eligible studies, using the following search terms: (glutamate OR glutaminergic OR glutamatergic OR NMDA OR AMPA OR kainate) AND (obsessive-compulsive disorder OR obsessive OR compulsive OR OCD)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Roger S McIntyre, Ioana Florea, Brigitte Tonnoir, Henrik Loft, Raymond W Lam, Michael Cronquist Christensen
OBJECTIVE: This post hoc analysis investigates the effect of vortioxetine on cognitive functioning and depressive symptoms in working adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Population data from FOCUS, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study investigating the efficacy of vortioxetine versus placebo on cognitive functioning and depression in patients with MDD, were used to analyze mean change from baseline scores for the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Trail Making Test A/B (TMT-A/B), Stroop, and Perceived Deficits Questionnaire (PDQ)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Enrica Cavedo, Bruno Dubois, Olivier Colliot, Simone Lista, Bernard Croisile, Guy Louis Tisserand, Jacques Touchon, Alain Bonafe, Pierre J Ousset, Olivier Rouaud, Fréderic Ricolfi, Alain Vighetto, Florence Pasquier, Samantha Galluzzi, Christine Delmaire, Mathieu Ceccaldi, Nadine Girard, Stéphane Lehericy, Françoise Duveau, Marie Chupin, Marie Sarazin, Didier Dormont, Harald Hampel
OBJECTIVE: Cortical thinning, previously identified during prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a "candidate" biomarker implemented in AD clinical therapy trials. We investigated the effect of donepezil treatment on cortical thickness in mild cognitively impaired subjects with the amnestic syndrome of the hippocampal type, a prodromal at-risk group for progression to AD dementia. METHODS: Data were from a longitudinal analysis of a community-based multicenter suspected prodromal AD cohort diagnosed by the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (81 donepezil vs 92 placebo) enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel group design using donepezil (10 mg/day)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Carlijn C M Welten, Maarten W J Koeter, Tamar D Wohlfarth, Jitschak G Storosum, Wim van den Brink, Christine C Gispen-de Wied, Hubert G M Leufkens, Damiaan A J P Denys
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether early nonresponse to antipsychotic treatment of acute mania predicts treatment failure and, if so, to establish the best definition or criterion of an early nonresponse. DATA SOURCES: Short-term efficacy studies assessing antipsychotics that were submitted to the Dutch Medicines Evaluation Board during an 11-year period as part of the marketing authorization application for the indication of acute manic episode of bipolar disorder...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Lenneke Schrier, Rob Zuiker, Frans W H M Merkus, Erica S Klaassen, Zheng Guan, Bert Tuk, Joop M A van Gerven, Ronald van der Geest, Geert Jan Groeneveld
AIM: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, nasal tolerance and effects on sedation of a highly concentrated aqueous intranasal midazolam formulation (Nazolam) and to compare these to intravenous midazolam. METHODS: In this four-way crossover, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 16 subjects received 2.5 mg Nazolam, 5.0 mg Nazolam, 2.5 mg intravenous midazolam or placebo on different occasions. Pharmacokinetics of midazolam and α-hydroxy-midazolam were characterized and related to outcome variables for sedation (Saccadic Peak Velocity, the Bond and Lader Visual Analogue Scale for sedation, the Simple Reaction Time Task and the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation)...
October 25, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Petra D Cravens, Rehana Z Hussain, William A Miller-Little, Li-Hong Ben, Benjamin M Segal, Emily Herndon, Olaf Stüve
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 are heterodimers that share the p40 subunit, and both cytokines are critical in the differentiation of T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells, respectively. Th1 and Th17 effector cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), an animal model of the human central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune demyelinating disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). However, ustekinumab, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against p40 failed to show efficacy over placebo in a phase II clinical trial in patients with MS...
2016: PloS One
Joanne Elizabeth Hegarty, Jane Elizabeth Harding, Gregory David Gamble, Caroline Anne Crowther, Richard Edlin, Jane Marie Alsweiler
BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypoglycaemia is common, affecting up to 15% of newborns, and can cause brain damage. Currently, there are no strategies, beyond early feeding, to prevent neonatal hypoglycaemia. Our aim was to determine a dose of 40% oral dextrose gel that will prevent neonatal hypoglycaemia in newborn babies at risk. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-finding trial of buccal dextrose gel to prevent neonatal hypoglycaemia at two hospitals in New Zealand...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Krista Lundelin, Tuija Poussa, Seppo Salminen, Erika Isolauri
BACKGROUND: Societies worldwide are faced with a progressive increase in immune-mediated health problems such as allergic, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, as well as obesity. Perinatal administration of specific probiotic bacteria is an attractive approach in reducing the risk of these conditions, but long-term efficacy and safety data are lacking. The aim here was to evaluate the clinical benefit and long-term safety of specific probiotics administered during the perinatal period...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Nanette Santoro, Amanda Allshouse, Genevieve Neal-Perry, Lubna Pal, Rogerio A Lobo, Frederick Naftolin, Dennis M Black, Eliot A Brinton, Matthew J Budoff, Marcelle I Cedars, N Maritza Dowling, Mary Dunn, Carey E Gleason, Howard N Hodis, Barbara Isaac, Maureen Magnani, JoAnn E Manson, Virginia M Miller, Hugh S Taylor, Whitney Wharton, Erin Wolff, Viola Zepeda, S Mitchell Harman
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to compare the efficacy of two forms of menopausal hormone therapy in alleviating vasomotor symptoms, insomnia, and irritability in early postmenopausal women during 4 years. METHODS: A total of 727 women, aged 42 to 58, within 3 years of their final menstrual period, were randomized to receive oral conjugated estrogens (o-CEE) 0.45 mg (n = 230) or transdermal estradiol (t-E2) 50 μg (n = 225; both with micronized progesterone 200 mg for 12 d each mo), or placebos (PBOs; n = 275)...
October 24, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
E Deflandre, V Bonhomme, A-C Courtois, S Degey, R Poirrier, J-F Brichant
Postoperative development or worsening of obstructive sleep apnea is a potential complication of anesthesia. The objective of this study was to study the effects of a premedication with alprazolam on the occurrence of apneas during the immediate postoperative period. Fifty ASA 1 - 2 patients undergoing a colonoscopy were recruited. Patients with a history of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were excluded. Recruited patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: in Group A, they received 0.5 mg of alprazolam orally one hour before the procedure; and in Group C, they received placebo...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
K Tsioufis, Costas Tsioufis, Kyriakos Dimitriadis, Emmanouil Mantzouranis, Ilianna Mani, Dimitrios Tousoulis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of the combination of lercanidipine/enalapril versus amlodipine/enalapril and hydrochlorothiazide/enalapril on blood pressure, target organ damage and sympathetic activation in patients with grade 2 essential hypertension. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a 3 month, randomized, blinded-endpoint study in essential hypertensive patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Office and ambulatory blood pressure, arterial stiffness, urinary albumin to creatinine ratio, renal arterial resistive index, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity were evaluated at baseline, after a 2 week run-in placebo period, at 1 month and at 3 months...
October 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Damiano Rizzoni
OBJECTIVE: The dose-effect relationship of fixed-dose combinations of anti-hypertensive drugs has been only poorly explored. This pooled analysis investigates the dose-response relationship of fixed-dose lercanidipine + enalapril in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was an individual patient data analysis of four randomized studies (n = 2340). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary efficacy variable was the change from baseline in sitting diastolic blood pressure (SDBP)...
October 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Nayely Garibay-Nieto, Gloria Queipo-Garcia, Flor Alvarez-Huerta, Mayra Bustos-Esquivel, Erendira Villanueva-Ortega, Fernando Ramirez, Mireya Leon, Estibalitz Laresgoiti-Servitje, Ravindranath Duggirala, Teresa Macias, Sergio Cuevas, Abel Jalife, Miguel Fonseca-Sanchez, Fabiola Serratos, Juan Carlos Lopez-Alvarenga
CONTEXT: Insulin resistance precedes metabolic syndrome abnormalities and may promote cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in children with obesity. Results of lifestyle modification programs have been discouraging, and the use of adjuvant strategies has been necessary. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of metformin and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on insulin sensitivity, measured via euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique and insulin pathway expression molecules in muscle biopsies of children with obesity...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Duolao Wang, Ameet Bakhai, Radivoj Arezina, Jörg Täubel
BACKGROUND: Electrocardiogram (ECG) variability is greatly affected by the ECG recording method. This study aims to compare Holter and standard ECG recording methods in terms of central locations and variations of ECG data. METHODS: We used the ECG data from a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial and used a mixed model approach to assess the agreement between two methods in central locations and variations of eight ECG parameters (Heart Rate, PR, QRS, QT, RR, QTcB, QTcF, and QTcI intervals)...
November 2016: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
Vandit Sardana, Joanna Burzynski, Paul Zalzal
PURPOSE: Topical ketoprofen in Transfersome gel has been used for the alleviation of symptoms in osteoarthritis. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with various side effects. Topical NSAIDs are known to have a lower side-effect profile when compared with systemic administration. The present systematic review aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of topical ketoprofen in Transfersome gel in knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed...
October 24, 2016: Musculoskeletal Care
S A Harrison, S R Marri, N Chalasani, R Kohli, W Aronstein, G A Thompson, W Irish, M V Miles, S A Xanthakos, E Lawitz, M Noureddin, T D Schiano, M Siddiqui, A Sanyal, B A Neuschwander-Tetri, P G Traber
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and resultant liver fibrosis is a major health problem without approved pharmacotherapy. Pre-clinical results of GR-MD-02, a galectin-3 inhibitor, suggested potential efficacy in NASH with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis and prompted initiation of a clinical development programme in NASH with advanced fibrosis. AIM: To evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics and exploratory pharmacodynamic markers of GR-MD-02 in subjects having NASH with bridging fibrosis...
October 24, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Fang Hua, Huixu Xie, Helen V Worthington, Susan Furness, Qi Zhang, Chunjie Li
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia developing in people who have received mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. VAP is a potentially serious complication in these patients who are already critically ill. Oral hygiene care (OHC), using either a mouthrinse, gel, toothbrush, or combination, together with aspiration of secretions, may reduce the risk of VAP in these patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of oral hygiene care on incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation in hospital intensive care units (ICUs)...
October 25, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Anthony J Hatswell, Nick Freemantle, Gianluca Baio
BACKGROUND: Pharmaceuticals are usually granted a marketing authorisation on the basis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Occasionally the efficacy of a treatment is assessed without a randomised comparator group (either active or placebo). OBJECTIVE: To identify and develop a taxonomic account of economic modelling approaches for pharmaceuticals licensed without RCT data. METHODS: We searched PubMed, the websites of UK health technology assessment bodies and the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Scientific Presentations Database for assessments of treatments granted a marketing authorisation by the US Food and Drug Administration or European Medicines Agency from January 1999 to May 2014 without RCT data (74 indications)...
October 24, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
Richard Bogan, Todd Swick, Mortimer Mamelak, Ruzica Kovacevic-Ristanovic, Chinglin Lai, Jed Black, Kathleen F Villa, Jacques Montplaisir
INTRODUCTION: The present post hoc analysis was designed to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using the 36-item Short Form Health Status Survey (SF-36) during an 8-week trial of sodium oxybate (SXB). METHODS: SF-36 was assessed in a phase 3 placebo-controlled trial in patients with narcolepsy (N = 228) randomized to placebo or SXB in doses of 4.5, 6, or 9 g nightly for 8 weeks. Changes from baseline in SF-36 (last observation carried forward) were compared between SXB and placebo, and effect sizes (ES) were estimated...
October 24, 2016: Neurology and Therapy
Eva-Lena Stenblom, Björn Weström, Caroline Linninge, Peter Bonn, Mary Farrell, Jens F Rehfeld, Caroline Montelius
Green-plant thylakoids increase satiety by affecting appetite hormones such as ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The objective of this study was to investigate if thylakoids also affect gastrointestinal (GI) passage and microbial composition. To analyse the effects on GI passage, 16 rats were gavage-fed a control or thylakoid-supplemented high-fat diet (HFD) 30 min before receiving Evans blue. Another 16 rats were fed a control HFD or thylakoid HFD for two weeks prior to the intragastric challenge with Evans blue...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
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