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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334636/impact-of-demographic-factors-on-the-antidepressant-effect-a-patient-level-data-analysis-from-depression-trials-submitted-to-the-pharmaceuticals-and-medical-devices-agency-in-japan
#1
Tetsuo Nakabayashi, Ayako Hara, Hirofumi Minami
A substantial and variable placebo response can cause unreliable findings in clinical trials designed to demonstrate the efficacy of antidepressants, and the high rate of failed trials represents a major obstacle in the development of new drugs for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the influence of demographic and symptom factors on the antidepressant effect remains to be established. The purpose of this study was to estimate the magnitude of this influence. A patient-level meta-analysis of data from double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials involving the use of antidepressants for adults with MDD was performed...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334582/carbohydrate-mouth-rinsing-does-not-prevent-the-decline-in-maximal-strength-following-fatiguing-exercise
#2
Christopher D Black, Daniel J Schubert, Marcin K Szczyglowski, Joshua D Wren
Carbohydrate (CHO) rinsing has been shown to attenuate the decline of maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) following fatiguing exercise-perhaps via a central mechanism. This study sought to determine the effect of a CHO rinse on MVC, voluntary activation, and contractile properties following fatiguing exercise. Thirteen adults participated in a double-blind, cross-over study. MVC of the dominant knee extensors was assessed and voluntary activation (%VA) was determined using twitch-interpolation. Participants then held 50% of MVC until volitional fatigue followed by a 20s rinse with a solution of 8% maltodextrin (CHO) or placebo (PLA)...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334511/evaluation-of-recombinant-factor-viia-tranexamic-acid-and-desmopressin-to-reduce-prasugrel-related-bleeding-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-study-in-a-rabbit-model
#3
Fanny Bonhomme, Thomas Lecompte, Charles M Samama, Anne Godier, Pierre Fontana
BACKGROUND: Prasugrel is a thienopyridine that inhibits platelet aggregation more rapidly and effectively than clopidogrel, with an increased bleeding risk. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of three nonspecific haemostatic drugs - recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa), tranexamic acid and desmopressin (DDAVP) - to limit blood loss after administration of prasugrel in a rabbit model of bleeding while also evaluating any prothrombotic effects...
January 13, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334287/efficacy-and-safety-of-alpha-blockers-in-medical-expulsive-therapy-for-ureteral-stones-a-mixed-treatment-network-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-clinical-trials
#4
Kannan Sridharan, Gowri Sivaramakrishnan
Alpha blockers (AB) are the main group of drugs used for medical expulsive therapy (MET) in patients with ureteral stones. However, there is no consensus on the relative efficacy and safety of individual AB in MET. Areas covered: The present work is a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing AB with either placebo or standard of care in patients with ureteral stones. Electronic databases of Medline, Cochrane CENTRAL and Google Scholar were searched for eligible clinical studies. Inverse variance heterogeneity model was used for mixed treatment comparisons...
January 15, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334271/the-safety-of-available-treatments-of-male-hypogonadism-in-organic-and-functional-hypogonadism
#5
G Corona, G Rastrelli, Y Reisman, A Sforza, M Maggi
In the case of primary male hypogonadism (HG), only testosterone (T) replacement therapy (TRT) is possible whereas when the problem is secondary to a pituitary or hypothalamus alteration both T production and fertility can be, theoretically, restored. We here systematically reviewed and discussed the advantages and limits of medications formally approved for the treatment of HG. Areas covered: Data derived from available meta-analyses of placebo controlled randomized trials (RCTs) were considered and analyzed...
January 15, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334132/oxybutynin-3-gel-for-the-treatment-of-primary-focal-hyperhidrosis-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#6
Nicholas V Nguyen, Jane Gralla, James Abbott, Anna L Bruckner
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There are no reliably effective, well-tolerated topical agents for the treatment of hyperhidrosis. We sought to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of oxybutynin 3% gel in adolescents and young adults with primary focal hyperhidrosis. METHODS: Patients with severe axillary hyperhidrosis were treated with topical oxybutynin 3% gel for 4 weeks. Response to treatment was assessed by calculating change in Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Score from baseline to weeks 1 and 4...
January 15, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334040/botulinum-toxin-type-a-for-pain-in-advanced-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Veronica Bruno, Maria Eliza Freitas, Deborah Mancini, Jane P Lui, Janis Miyasaki, Susan H Fox
Background and Objective Pain is a frequent symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD), and the therapeutic alternatives are scarce. The goal of this trial was to measure the effects of botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) in the treatment of limb pain in advanced PD. Methods A randomized double-blind crossover versus placebo study of BTXA for limb pain in advanced Parkinson's disease was conducted. Subjects received individualized BTXA/placebo dosing per pain distribution in limbs. The primary outcome was a measure of change in global pain on a numeric rating scale (NRS) at 4 and 12 weeks postinjection and on a visual analogue scale 12 weeks after treatment...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333721/carbohydrate-dose-influences-liver-and-muscle-glycogen-oxidation-and-performance-during-prolonged-exercise
#8
Andy J King, John P O'Hara, Douglas J Morrison, Tom Preston, Roderick F G J King
This study investigated the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) dose and composition on fuel selection during exercise, specifically exogenous and endogenous (liver and muscle) CHO oxidation. Ten trained males cycled in a double-blind randomized order on 5 occasions at 77% V˙O2max for 2 h, followed by a 30-min time-trial (TT) while ingesting either 60 g·h-1 (LG) or 75 g·h-113 C-glucose (HG), 90 g·h-1 (LGF) or 112.5 g·h-113 C-glucose-13 C-fructose ([2:1] HGF) or placebo. CHO doses met or exceed reported intestinal transporter saturation for glucose and fructose...
January 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333665/clinical-and-metabolic-effects-associated-with-weight-changes-and-obeticholic-acid-in-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#9
B Hameed, N A Terrault, R M Gill, R Loomba, N Chalasani, J H Hoofnagle, M L Van Natta
BACKGROUND: In a 72-week, randomised controlled trial of obeticholic acid (OCA) in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), OCA was superior to placebo in improving serum ALT levels and liver histology. OCA therapy also reduced weight. AIMS: Because weight loss by itself can improve histology, to perform a post hoc analysis of the effects of weight loss and OCA treatment in improving clinical and metabolic features of NASH. METHODS: The analysis was limited to the 200 patients with baseline and end-of-treatment liver biopsies...
January 14, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333561/pharmacokinetics-of-the-b-cell-lymphoma-2-bcl-2-inhibitor-venetoclax-in-female-subjects-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#10
Mukul Minocha, Jiewei Zeng, Jeroen K Medema, Ahmed A Othman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Venetoclax is an oral selective Bcl-2 inhibitor approved for the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia with 17p deletion. Mechanistic and preclinical evidence warranted evaluation of venetoclax for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This work characterized the pharmacokinetics of venetoclax in female subjects with SLE. METHODS: Single (10-500 mg) and multiple (30-600 mg) escalating doses of venetoclax or matching placebo were evaluated using randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled designs (6 active and 2 placebo per dose with 73 unique SLE patients enrolled, 25 of whom enrolled twice)...
January 15, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333517/safety-and-feasibility-of-platelet-rich-fibrin-matrix-injections-for-treatment-of-common-urologic-conditions
#11
Ethan L Matz, Amy M Pearlman, Ryan P Terlecki
Purpose: Autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) is used increasingly in a variety of settings. PRP injections have been used for decades to improve angiogenesis and wound healing. They have also been offered commercially in urology with little to no data on safety or efficacy. PRP could theoretically improve multiple urologic conditions, such as erectile dysfunction (ED), Peyronie's disease (PD), and stress urinary incontinence (SUI). A concern with PRP, however, is early washout, a situation potentially avoided by conversion to platelet rich fibrin matrix (PRFM)...
January 2018: Investigative and Clinical Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333394/evaluation-of-anti-wrinkle-effects-of-duoligo-composed-of-lactulose-and-galactooligosaccharides
#12
Eun Young Jung, Jung Il Kwon, Yang Hee Hong, Hyung Joo Suh
Currently, alternatives to prebiotics for skin treatment are receiving much interest. However, little is known about the efficacy of topically applied prebiotics in skin anti-aging. This study was conducted to observe the anti-aging effects of DuOligo, which is composed of lactulose and galactooligosaccharides (GOS). We investigated wrinkle-related parameters by quantitative and qualitative skin evaluation in healthy women who consumed DuOligo for 8 weeks. The double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study included subjects who were divided into two groups (Placebo: dextrin 4...
December 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332737/effect-of-a-lateral-glide-mobilisation-with-movement-of-the-hip-on-vibration-threshold-in-healthy-volunteers
#13
Darren A Smith, Jacob Saranga, Andrew Pritchard, Nikolaos A Kommatas, Shinu Kovelal Punnoose, Supriya Tukaram Kale
BACKGROUND: Mulligan's mobilisation-with-movement (MWM) techniques are proposed to achieve their clinical benefit via neurophysiological mechanisms. However, previous research has focussed on responses in the sympathetic nervous system only, and is not conclusive. An alternative measure of neurophysiological response to MWM is required to support or refute this mechanism of action. Recently, vibration threshold (VT) has been used to quantify changes in the sensory nervous system in patients experiencing musculoskeletal pain...
January 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332572/lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a2-and-coronary-heart-disease
#14
Areti Sofogianni, Stelina Alkagiet, Konstantinos Tziomalos
In the last decades, the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has been the topic of intense research. Several markers of inflammation have shown predictive value for first and recurrent coronary events in patients without and with established coronary heart disease (CHD). Among these markers, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) has recently received considerable attention. In the present review, the potential role of Lp-PLA2 as a marker of CHD risk and as a therapeutic target is discussed...
January 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332430/effect-of-creatine-phosphate-sodium-on-bispectral-index-and-recovery-quality-during-the-general-anaesthesia-emergence-period-in-elderly-patients-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#15
Wei Wang, Wan-You Yu, Jie Lv, Lian-Hua Chen, Zhong Li
Objective To evaluate the effect of creatine phosphate sodium on bispectral index (BIS) and recovery quality during the general anaesthesia emergence period in elderly patients. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled patients undergoing transabdominal cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either creatine phosphate sodium (1.0 g/100 ml 0.9% saline; group P) or 100 ml 0.9% saline (group C) over 30 minutes during surgical incision...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332320/the-role-of-tiotropium-olodaterol-dual-bronchodilator-therapy-in-the-management-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#16
REVIEW
David M G Halpin
Bronchodilator therapy is central to the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and are recommended as the preferred treatment by the Global Obstructive Lung Disease Initiative (GOLD). Long acting anti-muscarinics (LAMA) and long acting β₂ agonists (LABA) are both more effective than regular short-acting drugs but many patients remain symptomatic despite monotherapy with these drugs. Combination therapy with LAMA and LABA increases the therapeutic benefit while minimizing dose-dependent side effects of long-acting bronchodilator therapy...
January 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332237/acute-acetaminophen-ingestion-improves-performance-and-muscle-activation-during-maximal-intermittent-knee-extensor-exercise
#17
Paul T Morgan, Joanna L Bowtell, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M Jones, Stephen J Bailey
AIM: Acetaminophen is a commonly used medicine for pain relief and emerging evidence suggests that it may improve endurance exercise performance. This study investigated some of the physiological mechanisms by which acute acetaminophen ingestion might blunt muscle fatigue development. METHODS: Thirteen active males completed 60 × 3 s maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors with each contraction separated by a 2 s passive recovery period...
January 13, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332222/efficacy-of-crocus-sativus-saffron-in-treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder-associated-with-post-menopausal-hot-flashes-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#18
Ladan Kashani, Sophia Esalatmanesh, Farzaneh Eftekhari, Samrand Salimi, Tahereh Foroughifar, Farnaz Etesam, Hamideh Safiaghdam, Ehsan Moazen-Zadeh, Shahin Akhondzadeh
PURPOSE: Due to concerns regarding the side effects of hormone therapy, many studies have focused on the development of non-hormonal agents for treatment of hot flashes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus) in treatment of major depressive disorder associated with post-menopausal hot flashes. METHODS: Sixty women with post-menopausal hot flashes participated in this study. The patients randomly received either saffron (30 mg/day, 15 mg twice per day) or placebo for 6 weeks...
January 13, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332050/supplemental-retinal-carotenoids-enhance-memory-in-healthy-individuals-with-low-levels-of-macular-pigment-in-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#19
Rebecca Power, Robert F Coen, Stephen Beatty, Riona Mulcahy, Rachel Moran, Jim Stack, Alan N Howard, John M Nolan
BACKGROUND: There is a biologically plausible rationale whereby the dietary carotenoids lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ), which are collectively referred to as macular pigment (MP) in the central retina (macula), support the maintenance of cognition via their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of supplemental L, Z, and MZ on memory, executive function, and verbal fluency among healthy individuals with low MP levels...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331959/probenecid-improves-cardiac-function-in-patients-with-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-in-vivo-and-cardiomyocyte-calcium-sensitivity-in-vitro
#20
Nathan Robbins, Mark Gilbert, Mohit Kumar, James W McNamara, Patrick Daly, Sheryl E Koch, Ginger Conway, Mohamed Effat, Jessica G Woo, Sakthivel Sadayappan, Jack Rubinstein
BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 is a calcium channel activated by probenecid. Probenecid is a Food and Drug Administration-approved uricosuric drug that has recently been shown to induce positive lusitropic and inotropic effects in animal models through cardiomyocyte transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 activation. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that oral probenecid can improve cardiac function and symptomatology in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and to further elucidate its calcium-dependent effects on myocyte contractility...
January 13, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
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