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L-B Zhao, G-D Zhen, Y Zhang, Y-Y Pan, G-H Du, S-Z Zhou, Z-F Li
OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy of melatonin on acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this randomized control trial, a total of 59 AOPP patients with subsequent delirium were randomly divided into two groups, the melatonin group (n=29) and the placebo-controlled group (n=30). Patients in the melatonin group (n=29) underwent oral administration of melatonin in addition to the symptomatic treatment, while those in the placebo-controlled group took a placebo in addition to the symptomatic treatment...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
A Rampello, P Papi, G Pompa, A Rampello, A Polimeni, C Di Paolo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate functionality and clinical application of a novel immediate device in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). To address the research purpose, authors developed and implemented a randomized control clinical trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty patients were enrolled in this study and were randomly divided into two subgroups based on the treatment applied: patient group (PG) and control group (CG). The CG was not subjected to any kind of treatment, even placebo, in order to be able to assess the spontaneous development of the pathology over time...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
J F Gruber, S Becker-Dreps, M G Hudgens, M A Brookhart, J C Thomas, M Jonsson Funk
Delays in rotavirus vaccine schedule could improve performance in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, delaying the first dose could be detrimental if infants experience severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) early in life. Our objective was to describe the timing and predictors of severe RVGE in unvaccinated children in LMICs. We analysed the placebo arms from two clinical trials (cohort 1: NCT00241644; cohort 2: NCT00362648). We estimated the rate, cumulative incidence (per 1000 infants) and age distribution of severe RVGE episodes...
March 22, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Maria V Cannizzaro, Annunziata Dattola, Virginia Garofalo, Ester Del Duca, Luca Bianchi
BACKGROUND: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that manifests as open and closed comedones as well as inflammatory papules, pustules, and nodules localized on face and trunk. Oral isotretinoin demonstrated to be effective in controlling seborrhea, inflammation, Propionibacterium Acnes hyperproliferation and reducing scarring, nevertheless muco-cutaneous side effects, particularly dryness, itching, bruising are commonly seen in patients under treatment with isotretinoin reducing the compliance to the treatment...
April 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Akeem A Yusuf, Steven R Cummings, Nelson B Watts, Maurille Tepie Feudjo, J Michael Sprafka, Jincheng Zhou, Haifeng Guo, Akhila Balasubramanian, Cyrus Cooper
Studies examining real-world effectiveness of osteoporosis therapies are beset by limitations due to confounding by indication. By evaluating longitudinal changes in fracture incidence, we demonstrated that osteoporosis therapies are effective in reducing fracture risk in real-world practice settings. INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis therapies have been shown to reduce incidence of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials. However, information on the real-world effectiveness of these therapies is limited...
March 21, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Qian Gao, Xuemei Li, Haitao Huang, Ying Guan, Qili Mi, Jianhua Yao
Phyllanthus emblica: (PE) fruit extract has pharmacological activity and exert anti-bacterial, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects, but few study exist for evaluating its improved effects on the imbalance of oral ecology, which may contribute to series of oral diseases. In this study, an examiner-blinded, randomized, and gum-base-controlled crossover manner was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a sugar-free chewing gum containing PE fruit extract in changing the oral microbiome. Twenty healthy young adults were randomly instructed to chew either PE gum or placebo gum...
March 21, 2018: Current Microbiology
Adrienne L K Li, Kristin Wadsworth, Naveed T Siddiqui, May Alarab, Colleen D McDermott, Nucelio Lemos, Ashraf Dawood, Danny Lovatsis
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Pre-emptive gabapentin has been shown to decrease postoperative pain in abdominal and vaginal hysterectomy. However, the effect of pre-emptive low-dose gabapentin has not been studied in vaginal hysterectomy combined with concomitant pelvic reconstruction. METHODS: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial assessed all women seen for symptomatic prolapse requiring vaginal hysterectomy with concomitant pelvic reconstruction with or without midurethral sling...
March 21, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
Mitul A Mehta, Anne Schmechtig, Vasileia Kotoula, Juliet McColm, Kimberley Jackson, Claire Brittain, Sitra Tauscher-Wisniewski, Bruce J Kinon, Paul D Morrison, Thomas Pollak, Timothy Mant, Steven C R Williams, Adam J Schwarz
BACKGROUND: Aberrant glutamate neurotransmission, and in particular dysfunction of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), has been implicated in psychiatric disorders and represents a novel therapeutic target. Low-dose administration of the NMDA antagonist ketamine in healthy volunteers elicits a strong blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) imaging signal that can be attenuated by pretreatment with single, therapeutically effective doses of marketed medicines interacting with the glutamate system...
March 21, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Irfan Qamruddin, Mohammad Khursheed Alam, Habiba Abdullah, Muhammad Abdullah Kamran, Nausheen Jawaid, Verda Mahroof
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the analgesic effect of a single application of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on spontaneous pain and pain on chewing after placement of initial archwires. Methods: Forty-two patients (26 women, 16 men) were randomly recruited for this split-mouth randomized clinical trial. Each patient received super-elastic nickel-titanium (NiTi) initial archwires (0.012, 0.014, 0.016, and 0.018-inch [in]) in the maxilla for leveling and alignment for an interval of 4 weeks between archwires...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Orthodontics
Xuechan Lyu, Jiang Du, Guilai Zhan, Yujie Wu, Hang Su, Youwei Zhu, Fredrik Jarskog, Min Zhao, Xiaoduo Fan
Objective: The rates of obesity and cigarette smoking are much higher in patients with schizophrenia compared to the general population. This study was to examine whether naltrexone and bupropion combination treatment can help weight loss and smoking cessation in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Obese male schizophrenia patients with current cigarette smoking were randomized to receive adjunctive naltrexone (25 mg/day) and bupropion (300 mg/day) combination or placebo for 24 weeks. Twenty-two patients were enrolled in the study, and 21 patients completed the study (11 in the treatment group, and 10 in the placebo group)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Andrea Negro, Angela Koverech, Paolo Martelletti
Migraine is an important socioeconomic burden and is ranked the sixth cause of years of life lost because of disability in the general population and the third cause of years of life lost in people younger than 50 years. The cornerstone of pharmacological treatment is represented by the acute therapy. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) receptor subtype 1B /1D agonists, called triptans, are nowadays the first-line acute therapy for patients who experience moderate-to-severe migraine attacks. Unfortunately, a high percentage of patients are not satisfied with this acute treatment, either for lack of response or side effects...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Yoshihiko Sugihara, Shigehito Ikushima, Mika Miyake, Takayoshi Kirisako, Yukihiro Yada, Daisuke Fujiwara
Purpose: The present study examined the effect of ingestion of Koji extract containing 14-dehydroergosterol (14-DHE), prepared from Aspergillus kawachii NBRC4308, on improvement of skin conditions among healthy volunteers. Subjects and methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, 70 healthy adult women who felt that their skin was dry ingested either a placebo dietary supplement or Koji extract (200 mg/day) supplement containing 0...
2018: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
Luca Giacomelli, Stefano Togni, Martino Meneghin, Roberto Eggenhöffner, Giada Maramaldi
Purpose: The purpose of this in vivo study is to evaluate the acute clinical application of a multicomponent powder (Vitachelox® ), including three naturally occurring standardized extracts rich in polyphenols (grape seed extract, green tea extract, oak wood/bark extract), on healthy volunteers by measuring prevention of any metal deposition within the stratum corneum (SC) following a 6-h exposure period in a polluted environment. Patients and methods: In this in vivo study, we evaluated the skin protective activity of the multicomponent powder formulated in a base emulsion compared to a relevant placebo cream...
2018: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
Joan T Merrill, William R Shanahan, Morton Scheinberg, Kenneth C Kalunian, David Wofsy, Renee S Martin
BACKGROUND: Targeted inhibitors of B-cell activating factor (BAFF) have been evaluated in phase III trials in over 4000 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Post hoc analyses of these studies identify greater treatment effect in patients entering with higher disease activity, greater corticosteroid doses, anti double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and low complement C3 or C4. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of blisibimod, a BAFF inhibitor, in a population of patients with SLE enriched for high disease activity...
March 21, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Basant Pradhan, Ludmil Mitrev, Ruin Moaddell, Irving W Wainer
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic and debilitating condition that is often refractory to standard frontline antidepressant therapy. A promising new approach to PTSD therapy is administration of a single sub-anesthetic dose of (R,S)-ketamine (Ket). The treatment produces rapid and significant therapeutic response, which lasts for only 4-7 days. In one of our studies, the mean duration of response was increased to 33 days when Ket administration was combined with a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, Trauma Interventions using Mindfulness Based Extinction and Reconsolidation (TIMBER)...
March 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Takuya Kurazumi, Yojiro Ogawa, Ryo Yanagida, Hiroshi Morisaki, Ken-Ichi Iwasaki
BACKGROUND: Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) and cephalad fluid shift are considered factors that affect intracranial pressure (ICP) during spaceflight. Increases in ICP were reported during cephalad fluid shift induced by head-down tilt (HDT), while little is known regarding the effect of additional CO2 during HDT on ICP. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that this combination increases ICP more than HDT alone. METHODS: There were 15 healthy male volunteers who underwent 4 types of 10-min interventions consisting of Placebo/Supine (air and supine), CO2/Supine (3% CO2 and supine, CO2 alone), Placebo/HDT (air and -10° HDT, HDT alone), and CO2/HDT (3% CO2 and -10° HDT, combination)...
April 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Sarah Zaheer, Kiara Taquechel, Jenifer M Brown, Gail K Adler, Jonathan S Williams, Anand Vaidya
BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest that vitamin D therapy may decrease cardiovascular disease risk in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) by lowering renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity. However, randomized human intervention studies to evaluate the effect of vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonists on RAS activity are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to investigate the effect of direct VDR activation with calcitriol on circulating RAS activity and vascular hemodynamics in T2DM...
January 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Darshan S Kelley, Yuriko Adkins, Kevin D Laugero
Increased oxidative stress contributes to development and progression of several human chronic inflammatory diseases. Cherries are a rich source of polyphenols and vitamin C which have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Our aim is to summarize results from human studies regarding health benefits of both sweet and tart cherries, including products made from them (juice, powder, concentrate, capsules); all referred to as cherries here. We found 29 (tart 20, sweet 7, unspecified 2) published human studies which examined health benefits of consuming cherries...
March 17, 2018: Nutrients
Oscar J Ponce, Gabriela Spencer-Bonilla, Neri Alvarez-Villalobos, Valentina Serrano, Naykky Singh-Ospina, Rene Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Alejandro Salcido-Montenegro, Raed Benkhadra, Larry J Prokop, Shalender Bhasin, Juan P Brito
Context: The efficacy and safety of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in hypogonadal men remain incompletely understood. Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCT) to determine the effects of TRT on patient-important outcomes and adverse events in hypogonadal men. Data Sources: We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Scopus from inception to March 2th, 2017...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Il Ju Choi, Myeong-Cherl Kook, Young-Il Kim, Soo-Jeong Cho, Jong Yeul Lee, Chan Gyoo Kim, Boram Park, Byung-Ho Nam
BACKGROUND: Patients with early gastric cancers that are limited to gastric mucosa or submucosa usually have an advanced loss of mucosal glandular tissue (glandular atrophy) and are at high risk for subsequent (metachronous) development of new gastric cancer. The long-term effects of treatment to eradicate Helicobacter pylori on histologic improvement and the prevention of metachronous gastric cancer remain unclear. METHODS: In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, we assigned 470 patients who had undergone endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer or high-grade adenoma to receive either H...
March 22, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
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