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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110513/effect-of-methylnaltrexone-and-naloxone-on-esophageal-motor-function-in-man
#1
E Scarpellini, A Pauwels, R Vos, N Rommel, J Tack
BACKGROUND: Endogenous opioids (EO) acting on μ-opiod receptors in central and enteric nervous system (ENS) control gastrointestinal motility but it is still unclear whether EO in ENS may control esophageal function in man, thus we will study the effects of methylnaltrexone (MNTX), a peripherally selective, and naloxone (NA), a non-selective μ-opiod receptor antagonist, on esophageal motility in healthy subjects. METHODS: Fifteen HV (6 M; 34.1 ± 0.6 years; BMI: 22...
January 22, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110399/safinamide-a-review-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Hannah A Blair, Sohita Dhillon
Safinamide (Xadago(®)) is an orally active, selective, reversible monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor with both dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic (glutamatergic) properties. In the EU, safinamide is approved for the treatment of mid- to late-stage fluctuating Parkinson's disease (PD) as add-on therapy to a stable dose of levodopa alone or in combination with other PD medications. Safinamide 50-100 mg/day administered as a fixed or flexible dose significantly increased daily 'on' time without dyskinesia (primary endpoint) in patients with mid- to late-stage PD with motor fluctuations in 24-week, placebo-controlled clinical trials...
January 21, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110287/aspirin-to-inhibit-sepsis-antisepsis-randomised-controlled-trial-protocol
#3
Damon P Eisen, Elizabeth M Moore, Karin Leder, Jessica Lockery, Emma S McBryde, John J McNeil, David Pilcher, Rory Wolfe, Robyn L Woods
INTRODUCTION: Sepsis is a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality, and is more common at the extremes of age. Moreover, the cost of in-hospital care for elderly patients with sepsis is significant. There are indications from experimental and observational studies that aspirin may reduce inflammation associated with infection. This paper describes the rationale and design of the AspiriN To Inhibit SEPSIS (ANTISEPSIS) trial, a substudy of ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE)...
January 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110155/first-in-man-study-with-a-novel-pegylated-recombinant-human-insulin-like-growth-factor-i
#4
H Kletzl, A Guenther, A Höflich, C Höflich, J Frystyk, R F Staack, E Schick, C Wandel, N Bleich, F Metzger
OBJECTIVE: This study is a first time assessment of safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of RO5046013 in human, in comparison with unmodified rhIGF-I. DESIGN: The study was conducted as a single-center, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, single ascending dose, parallel group study in a clinical research unit in France. A total of 62 healthy volunteers participated in this clinical trial. RO5046013 was given as single subcutaneous injection, or as intravenous infusion over 48h, at ascending dose levels...
January 10, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110058/threshold-dose-distribution-in-walnut-allergy
#5
Mark A Blankestijn, Ben C Remington, Geert F Houben, Joe L Baumert, André C Knulst, W Marty Blom, Rob J B Klemans, Steve L Taylor
BACKGROUND: In food allergy, eliciting doses (EDs) of foods on a population level can improve risk management and labeling strategies for the food industry and regulatory authorities. Previously, data available for walnut were unsuitable to determine EDs. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine EDs for walnut allergic adults and to compare with previously established threshold data for peanut and tree nuts. METHODS: Prospectively, adult subjects with a suspected walnut allergy underwent a low-dose double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109628/preoperative-bathing-of-the-surgical-site-with-chlorhexidine-for-infection-prevention-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#6
Lúcia Maciel de Castro Franco, Gláucia Fernandes Cota, Tatiana Saraiva Pinto, Flávia Falci Ercole
BACKGROUND: Preoperative bathing with 4% chlorhexidine is recommended as a measure to prevent surgical site infection (SSI) despite uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of the intervention. This review aimed to assess the effect of bathing with 4% chlorhexidine on the prevention of SSIs in clean surgeries compared with bathing with placebo solution or soap. METHODS: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines for systematic reviews and the Cochrane manual were followed...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109298/neuroregenerative-potential-of-intravenous-g-csf-and-autologous-peripheral-blood-stem-cells-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-randomized-double-blind-cross-over-study
#7
Wee-Jin Rah, Young-Ho Lee, Jin-Hwa Moon, Hyun-Ju Jun, Hye-Ryeong Kang, Hani Koh, Hye Jung Eom, Ji Young Lee, Young Jun Lee, Ji Young Kim, Yun-Young Choi, Kyeongil Park, Mi Jung Kim, Seung-Hyun Kim
OBJECTIVE: We performed a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study to assess the neuroregenerative potential of intravenous granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) followed by infusion of mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells (mPBMCs) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Children with non-severe CP were enrolled in this study. G-CSF was administered for 5 days, then mPBMCs were collected by apheresis and cryopreserved. One month later (M1), recipients were randomized to receive either mPBMCs or a placebo infusion, and these treatment groups were switched at 7 months (M7) and observed for another 6 months (M13)...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109295/a-randomised-active-and-placebo-controlled-three-period-crossover-trial-to-investigate-short-term-effects-of-the-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-linagliptin-on-macro-and-microvascular-endothelial-function-in-type-2-diabetes
#8
Thomas Jax, Alin Stirban, Arne Terjung, Habib Esmaeili, Andreas Berk, Sandra Thiemann, Robert Chilton, Maximilian von Eynatten, Nikolaus Marx
BACKGROUND: Studies of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors report heterogeneous effects on endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study assessed the effects of the DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin versus the sulphonylurea glimepiride and placebo on measures of macro- and microvascular endothelial function in patients with T2D who represented a primary cardiovascular disease prevention population. METHODS: This crossover study randomised T2D patients (n = 42) with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≤7...
January 21, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109258/effect-of-erythropoietin-in-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction-five-year-results-of-the-revival-3-trial
#9
Birgit Steppich, Philip Groha, Tareq Ibrahim, Heribert Schunkert, Karl-Ludwig Laugwitz, Martin Hadamitzky, Adnan Kastrati, Ilka Ott
BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (EPO) has been suggested to promote cardiac repair after MI. However, the randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled REVIVAL-3 trial showed that short term high dose EPO in timely reperfused myocardium does not improve left ventricular ejection fraction after 6 months. Moreover, the study raised safety concerns due to a trend towards a higher incidence of adverse clinical events as well as a increase in neointima formation after treatment with EPO. The present study therefore aimed to assess the 5-year clinical outcomes...
January 21, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109160/antibiotics-for-infection-prevention-after-excision-of-the-cervical-transformation-zone
#10
REVIEW
Chumnan Kietpeerakool, Bandit Chumworathayi, Jadsada Thinkhamrop, Butsakorn Ussahgij, Pisake Lumbiganon
BACKGROUND: Excision of the transformation zone of the cervix is the most commonly used approach to treat cervical precancerous lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)) to reduce the risk of developing cervical cancer. As the excision of the transformation zone leaves a raw area on the cervix, there is a risk of infection following the procedure. The incidence of infection after cold knife conization (CKC) is 36%, whereas the incidence for large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ, also known as loop electrical excision procedure (LEEP)) is much lower (0...
January 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109060/morphine-pharmacodynamics-in-mechanically-ventilated-preterm-neonates-undergoing-endotracheal-suctioning
#11
P A Välitalo, Ehj Krekels, M van Dijk, Shp Simons, D Tibboel, Caj Knibbe
To date, morphine pharmacokinetics (PKs) are well quantified in neonates, but results about its efficacy are ambiguous. This work presents an analysis of a previously published study on pain measurements in mechanically ventilated preterm neonates who received either morphine or placebo to improve comfort during invasive ventilation. The research question was whether morphine reduces the pain associated with endotracheal or nasal suctioning before, during, and after suctioning. Because these neonates cannot verbalize their pain levels, pain was assessed on the basis of several validated pain measurement instruments (i...
January 21, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109045/misoprostol-for-cervical-priming-prior-to-hysteroscopy-in-postmenopausal-and-premenopausal-nulliparous-women-a-multicentre-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#12
M L Tasma, M Louwerse, W J Hehenkamp, P M Geomini, M Y Bongers, S Veersema, P J van Kesteren, E Tromp, J A Huirne, G C Graziosi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reduction of pain by Misoprostol compared to placebo prior to hysteroscopy in postmenopausal and premenopausal nulliparous women. DESIGN: Randomised multicentre double-blind placebo controlled trial. SETTING: Two Dutch teaching hospitals and one Dutch university medical centre. POPULATION: Postmenopausal and premenopausal nulliparous women undergoing office hysteroscopy. METHODS: Patients were randomised to receive either 400 mcg Misoprostol or placebo 12 and 24 hours before hysteroscopy...
January 21, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108337/cardiovascular-and-cerebrovascular-events-among-patients-receiving-omalizumab-pooled-analysis-of-patient-level-data-from-25-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trials
#13
Carlos Iribarren, Kenneth J Rothman, Mary S Bradley, Gillis Carrigan, Mark D Eisner, Hubert Chen
Among patients who participated in randomized clinical trials of omalizumab, no substantial overall increase in the risk of cardiovascular events was observed in the treatment arms compared with placebo. <29/35 words>.
January 17, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108308/role-of-cyclooxygenase-in-the-vascular-response-to-locally-delivered-acetylcholine-in-caucasian-and-african-descent-individuals
#14
Matthew J Maley, James R House, Michael J Tipton, Clare M Eglin
INTRODUCTION: Individuals of African descent (AFD) are more susceptible to non-freezing cold injury (NFCI) compared with Caucasian individuals (CAU). Vasodilatation to acetylcholine (ACh) is lower in AFD compared with CAU in the non-glabrous foot and finger skin sites; the reason for this is unknown. Prostanoids are responsible, in part, for the vasodilator response to ACh, however it is not known whether the contribution differs between ethnicities. METHODS: 12 CAU and 12 AFD males received iontophoresis of ACh (1 w/v%) on non-glabrous foot and finger skin sites following placebo and then aspirin (600mg, single blinded)...
January 17, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107852/efficacy-of-topical-chamomile-oil-for-mild-and-moderate-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#15
Mohammad Hashem Hashempur, Mohammad Sadegh Ghasemi, Babak Daneshfard, Parissa Sadat Ghoreishi, Zeinab Nasiri Lari, Kaynoosh Homayouni, Arman Zargaran
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of topical chamomile oil in patients with mild and moderate carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). METHOD: Eighty six patients with electrodiagnostic criteria of mild and moderate CTS were enrolled in this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial and received wrist splint plus topical chamomile oil or placebo for 4 weeks. They were evaluated at the baseline and end of the study regarding functional and symptomatic scores, dynamometry, and electrodiagnostic indexes...
February 2017: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107851/effect-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a%C3%A2-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#16
REVIEW
Fang Fang, Ke Ni, Yiting Cai, Jin Shang, Xiaoke Zhang, Chengliang Xiong
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on patients with PCOS. METHODS: We performed a literature search in database and identified all of the RCTs published before December 2015 that compared the effect of vitamin D supplementation with placebo or metformin in PCOS patients. MAIN RESULTS: Nine out of 463 identified studies were included, involving 502 women presenting with PCOS. Vitamin D supplementation had significant effect on the improvement of follicular development with a higher number of dominant follicles (OR, 2...
February 2017: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107576/non-invasive-anaesthetic-methods-for-dermatological-laser-procedures-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
K Greveling, E P Prens, L Liu, M B A van Doorn
Pain is a common side-effect of dermatological laser procedures. Non-invasive anaesthetic drugs and anaesthetic procedures can be used to provide pain relief and increase patient satisfaction and treatment efficacy. However, it remains unclear which method provides the best pain relief. The objective of this systematic review was therefore to assess the efficacy and safety of non-invasive anaesthetic methods during dermatological laser procedures. A systematic literature search was conducted. Randomized and non-randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs and CCTs) were included...
January 20, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107570/efficacy-and-safety-of-interleukin-17-antagonists-in-patients-with-plaque-psoriasis-a-meta-analysis-from-phase-3-randomized-controlled-trails
#18
Dan Wu, Si-Yuan Hou, Shuai Zhao, Lin-Xin Hou, Ting Jiao, Nan-Nan Xu, Ning Zhang
BACKGROUND: The interleukin-17 (IL-17) cytokine pathway plays a key role in the development of psoriasis. Antibodies targeting IL-17 or blocking its receptor may be a new therapeutic approach for psoriasis. To assist treatment selection in daily practice it is essential to understand the benefit and risk profile of IL-17 antagonists. OBJECTIVE: We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of IL-17 antagonists in patients with psoriasis. METHODS: We searched a number of databases for relevant randomized clinical trials (RCTs) published before May 2016...
January 20, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107561/beta-blockers-for-hypertension
#19
REVIEW
Charles S Wiysonge, Hazel A Bradley, Jimmy Volmink, Bongani M Mayosi, Lionel H Opie
BACKGROUND: Beta-blockers refer to a mixed group of drugs with diverse pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. They have shown long-term beneficial effects on mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) when used in people with heart failure or acute myocardial infarction. Beta-blockers were thought to have similar beneficial effects when used as first-line therapy for hypertension. However, the benefit of beta-blockers as first-line therapy for hypertension without compelling indications is controversial...
January 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107559/a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-dose-escalation-first-in-man-study-phase-0-to-assess-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-topical-cytosolic-phospholipase-a2-inhibitor-avx001-in-patients-with-mild-to-moderate-plaque-psoriasis
#20
S H Omland, A Habicht, P Damsbo, J Wilms, B Johansen, R Gniadecki
BACKGROUND: Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α) is an enzyme suggested as a therapeutic target in inflammatory skin diseases. AVX001, a cPLA2α-inhibitor was investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, split-design, first-in-man study in patients with mild to moderate psoriasis. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to evaluate cutaneous safety and tolerability of AVX001 in doses from 0.002%-5.0%. Safety was assessed as local skin reaction adverse events (LSRAE) grade 3-4...
January 20, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
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