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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926981/efficacy-of-allergen-immunotherapy-in-reducing-the-likelihood-of-developing-new-allergen-sensitizations-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Danilo Di Bona, Antonella Plaia, Maria Stefania Leto-Barone, Simona La Piana, Luigi Macchia, Gabriele Di Lorenzo
BACKGROUND: Guidelines and position papers indicate that allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only disease-modifying treatment, including prevention of the onset of new allergen sensitizations. However, this preventive effect was shown by only a few observational studies. Our aim was to systematically review the efficacy of AIT in preventing the onset of new allergen sensitizations. METHODS: Computerized bibliographic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (through June 2015) were supplemented with manual searches of reference lists...
December 7, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926661/the-effect-of-intraoperative-and-6-h-postoperative-intravenous-administration-of-low-dose-prostacyclin-on-the-endothelium-hemostasis-and-hemodynamics-in-patients-undergoing-a-pancreaticoduodenoctemy-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study
#2
Pär I Johansson, Christian R Mortensen, Tatiana Nielsen, Carsten Tollund, Jakob Stensballe, Carsten P Hansen, Hans J Frederiksen, Sisse R Ostrowski
BACKGROUND: Capillary leakage, secondary to endothelial breakdown, is common in patients undergoing major surgical procedures with extensive tissue injury and this is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Prostacyclin has been ascribed cytoprotective properties together with its vasodilatory and antiplatelet effects. The present pilot study investigated the safety and endothelial protective effects of low-dose prostacyclin infusion. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A randomized placebo-controlled pilot study evaluating the effect of prostacyclin (iloprost) infusion (1...
December 6, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926633/effects-of-calcium-vitamin-d-and-hormone-therapy-on-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-the-women-s-health-initiative-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Peter F Schnatz, Xuezhi Jiang, Aaron K Aragaki, Matthew Nudy, David M OʼSullivan, Mark Williams, Erin S LeBlanc, Lisa W Martin, JoAnn E Manson, James M Shikany, Karen C Johnson, Marcia L Stefanick, Martha E Payne, Jane A Cauley, Barbara V Howard, John Robbins
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the treatment effect of calcium+vitamin D supplementation, hormone therapy, both, and neither on cardiovascular disease risk factors. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial among Women's Health Initiative (WHI) participants. The predefined primary outcome was low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). RESULTS: Between September 1993 and October 1998, a total of 68,132 women aged 50-79 years were recruited and randomized to the WHI-Dietary Modification (n=48,835) and WHI-Hormone Therapy trials (n=27,347)...
December 2, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926561/percutaneous-posterior-tibial-nerve-stimulation-vs-perianal-application-of-glyceryl-trinitrate-ointment-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-anal-fissure-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#4
Jaime Ruiz-Tovar, Carolina Llavero
BACKGROUND: Current therapeutic guidelines for the treatment of chronic anal fissure establish a medical approach as the first step. Glyceryl trinitrate ointment is the most popular of the available topical treatments in Spain but it is associated with the appearance of headache. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the compliance rate among patients receiving glyceryl trinitrate treatment for chronic anal fissure with that among patients receiving percutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation...
January 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926458/changes-in-relative-and-absolute-concentrations-of-plasma-phospholipid-fatty-acids-observed-in-a-randomized-trial-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-supplementation-in-uganda
#5
Xiaoling Song, Pho Diep, Jeannette M Schenk, Corey Casper, Jackson Orem, Zeina Makhoul, Johanna W Lampe, Marian L Neuhouser
Expressing circulating phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in relative concentrations has some limitations: the total of all fatty acids are summed to 100%; therefore, the values of individual fatty acid are not independent. In this study we examined if both relative and absolute metrics could effectively measure changes in circulating PLFA concentrations in an intervention trial. 66 HIV and HHV8 infected patients in Uganda were randomized to take 3g/d of either long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (1856mg EPA and 1232mg DHA) or high-oleic safflower oil in a 12-week double-blind trial...
November 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925214/acute-and-chronic-effects-of-noradrenergic-enhancement-on-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-induced-neuroplasticity-in-humans
#6
Hsiao-I Kuo, Walter Paulus, Giorgi Batsikadze, Asif Jamil, Min-Fang Kuo, Michael A Nitsche
KEY POINTS: Chronic administration of the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (NRI) reboxetine (RBX) increased and prolonged the long-term potentiation-like plasticity induced by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for over 24 h. Chronic administration of RBX converted cathodal tDCS-induced long-term depression-like plasticity into facilitation for 120 min. Chronic noradrenergic activity enhancement on plasticity of the human brain might partially explain the delayed therapeutic impact of selective NRIs in depression and other neuropsychiatric diseases...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924798/effects-of-sulfate-rich-mineral-water-on-functional-constipation-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-study
#7
Johannes Naumann, Catharina Sadaghiani, Felix Alt, Roman Huber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Forschende Komplementärmedizin, Research in Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924779/hepatic-safety-of-maraviroc-in-patients-with-hiv-1-and-hepatitis-c-and-or-b-virus-144-week-results-from-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#8
Juergen K Rockstroh, Frank Plonski, Meena Bansal, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Catherine B Small, David M Asmuth, Gilles Pialoux, Rebecca Zhang-Roper, Ronnie Wang, Juan A Pineda, Jayvant Heera
BACKGROUND: In the primary 48-week analysis of a hepatic safety trial in patients with HIV-1 co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV), maraviroc-containing treatment regimens were not associated with increased hepatotoxicity. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study, patients received maraviroc twice daily (n=70) or placebo (n=67) with concomitant antiretroviral therapy for 144 weeks (clinicaltrials...
December 7, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924679/effect-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-as-adjunctive-therapy-to-methylphenidate-on-adhd-symptoms-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#9
Nakisa Mohammadpour, Shima Jazayeri, Mehdi Tehrani-Doost, Mahmoud Djalali, Mostafa Hosseini, Mohammad Effatpanah, Rozita Davari-Ashtiani, Elham Karami
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have shown that serum levels of vitamin D were lower in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children compared to healthy controls. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation as adjunctive therapy to methylphenidate on symptoms of children with ADHD. METHODS: Sixty-two children aged 5-12 years with a diagnosis of ADHD based on DSM-IV criteria were randomly assigned into two groups to receive either 2000IU vitamin D or placebo in addition to methylphenidate for 8 weeks...
December 7, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924644/risk-of-malignancies-using-anti-tnf-agents-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-psoriatic-arthritis-and-ankylosing-spondylitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Stefanos Bonovas, Silvia Minozzi, Theodore Lytras, Marien González-Lorenzo, Valentina Pecoraro, Silvia Colombo, Ilaria Polloni, Lorenzo Moja, Michela Cinquini, Valentina Marino, Delia Goletti, Andrea Matucci, Giuliano Tocci, Giuseppe Maria Milano, Raffaele Scarpa, Fabrizio Cantini
Malignancies have been reported in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis, treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents. Areas covered: We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the effect of anti-TNF agents on the occurrence of cancer (any type). Literature databases were searched up to May 2014 to identify relevant studies that evaluated adalimumab, certolizumab, etanercept, golimumab, or infliximab, compared with placebo or no treatment...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924643/risk-of-infections-using-anti-tnf-agents-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-psoriatic-arthritis-and-ankylosing-spondylitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Silvia Minozzi, Stefanos Bonovas, Theodore Lytras, Valentina Pecoraro, Marien González-Lorenzo, Anan Judina Bastiampillai, Eugenia Maria Gabrielli, Andrea Carlo Lonati, Lorenzo Moja, Michela Cinquini, Valentina Marino, Andrea Matucci, Giuseppe Maria Milano, Giuliano Tocci, Raffaele Scarpa, Delia Goletti, Fabrizio Cantini
Five anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents have received regulatory approval for use in rheumatology: adalimumab, golimumab, infliximab, certolizumab, and etanercept. Apart from their well-documented therapeutic value, it is still uncertain to what extent they are associated with an increased risk of infectious adverse events. Areas covered: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized studies to determine the effect of anti-TNF drugs on the occurrence of infectious adverse events (serious infections; tuberculosis; opportunistic infections; any infection)...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924459/patient-reported-outcomes-and-quality-of-life-with-sunitinib-versus-placebo-for-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-results-from-an-international-phase-iii-trial
#12
Aaron Vinik, Andrew Bottomley, Beata Korytowsky, Yung-Jue Bang, Jean-Luc Raoul, Juan W Valle, Peter Metrakos, Dieter Hörsch, Rajiv Mundayat, Arlene Reisman, Zhixiao Wang, Richard C Chao, Eric Raymond
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this analysis was to compare patient-reported outcomes and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a pivotal phase III trial of sunitinib versus placebo in patients with progressive, well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NCT00428597). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients received sunitinib 37.5 mg (n = 86) or placebo (n = 85) on a continuous daily-dosing schedule until disease progression, unacceptable adverse events (AEs), or death...
December 6, 2016: Targeted Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924138/the-effects-of-a-multi-ingredient-supplement-on-markers-of-muscle-damage-and-inflammation-following-downhill-running-in-females
#13
Jessica L Köhne, Michael J Ormsbee, Andrew J McKune
BACKGROUND: The effects of a multi-ingredient performance supplement (MIPS) on markers of inflammation and muscle damage, perceived soreness and lower limb performance are unknown in endurance-trained female athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of MIPS (NO-Shotgun®) pre-loaded 4 weeks prior to a single-bout of downhill running (DHR) on hsC-Reactive Protein (hsCRP), interleukin (IL)-6, creatine kinase (CK), muscle soreness, lower limb circumferences and performance...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923780/attentional-bias-modification-with-serious-game-elements-evaluating-the-shots-game
#14
Wouter J Boendermaker, Soraya Sanchez Maceiras, Marilisa Boffo, Reinout W Wiers
BACKGROUND: Young adults often experiment with heavy use of alcohol, which poses severe health risks and increases the chance of developing addiction problems. In clinical patients, cognitive retraining of automatic appetitive processes, such as selective attention toward alcohol (known as "cognitive bias modification of attention," or CBM-A), has been shown to be a promising add-on to treatment, helping to prevent relapse. OBJECTIVE: To prevent escalation of regular use into problematic use in youth, motivation appears to play a pivotal role...
December 6, 2016: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923429/effects-of-tiagabine-on-slow-wave-sleep-and-arousal-threshold-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#15
Luigi Taranto-Montemurro, Scott A Sands, Bradley A Edwards, Ali Azarbarzin, Melania Marques, Camila de Melo, Danny J Eckert, David P White, Andrew Wellman
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity is markedly reduced during slow wave sleep (SWS) even in patients with a severe disease. The reason for this improvement is uncertain but likely relates to non-anatomical factors (i.e. reduced arousability, chemosensitivity, and increased dilator muscle activity). The anticonvulsant tiagabine produces a dose-dependent increase in SWS in subjects without OSA. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that tiagabine would reduce OSA severity by raising the overall arousal threshold during sleep...
November 28, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923181/combined-oral-contraceptive-use-is-associated-with-both-improvement-and-worsening-of-mood-in-the-different-phases-of-the-treatment-cycle-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomized-trial
#16
Cecilia Lundin, Kristina Gemzell Danielsson, Marie Bixo, Lena Moby, Hanna Bengtsdotter, Izabella Jawad, Lena Marions, Jan Brynhildsen, Agota Malmborg, Ingela Lindh, Inger Sundström Poromaa
OBJECTIVE: Ever since the introduction of combined oral contraception (COC), one of the major reasons for discontinuing the pill use has been mood-related side effects. Moreover, women who discontinue the pill turn to less effective methods whereby the probability of an unintended conception increases. Approximately 4-10% of COC users complain of depressed mood, irritability or increased anxiety, but drug-related causality has been difficult to prove. Given the lack of randomized controlled trials in this area, we aimed to prospectively estimate the severity of adverse mood in COC users that would be as representative of general users as possible...
November 29, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922936/the-rejoice-trial-a-phase-3-randomized-controlled-trial-evaluating-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-a-novel-vaginal-estradiol-soft-gel-capsule-for-symptomatic-vulvar-and-vaginal-atrophy
#17
Ginger D Constantine, James A Simon, James H Pickar, David F Archer, Harvey Kushner, Brian Bernick, Gina Gasper, Shelli Graham, Sebastian Mirkin
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of TX-004HR vaginal estradiol soft-gel capsules for moderate-to-severe dyspareunia associated with postmenopausal vulvar and vaginal atrophy. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study, postmenopausal women with a self-identified most bothersome symptom of dyspareunia received 4, 10, or 25 μg TX-004HR or placebo for 12 weeks. Four co-primary efficacy endpoints were change from baseline to week 12 in percentages of superficial and parabasal cells, vaginal pH, and severity of dyspareunia...
December 5, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922719/markov-mixed-effects-modeling-using-electronic-adherence-monitoring-records-identifies-influential-covariates-to-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis
#18
Kumpal Madrasi, Ayyappa Chaturvedula, Jessica E Haberer, Mark Sale, Michael J Fossler, David Bangsberg, Jared M Baeten, Connie Celum, Craig W Hendrix
Adherence is a major factor in the effectiveness of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. Modeling patterns of adherence helps to identify influential covariates of different types of adherence as well as to enable clinical trial simulation so that appropriate interventions can be developed. We developed a Markov mixed-effects model to understand the covariates influencing adherence patterns to daily oral PrEP. Electronic adherence records (date and time of medication bottle cap opening) from the Partners PrEP ancillary adherence study with a total of 1147 subjects were used...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922566/the-placebo-analgesic-effect-in-healthy-individuals-and-patients-a-meta-analysis
#19
June Thorvaldsen Forsberg, Monica Martinussen, Magne Arve Flaten
OBJECTIVES: The present meta-analysis investigates whether the magnitude of placebo analgesia is different in patients compared to healthy individuals and whether placebo analgesia is different in experimentally induced pain compared to clinical pain in patients. METHODS: A literature search in Web of Science (ISI) on the terms "placebo analgesia" and "placebo analgesic" was conducted. The search resulted in 71 studies, including 4239 participants. Fifty-five studies included healthy individuals and 16 studies included patients...
December 2, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922340/ratio-of-means-vs-difference-of-means-as-measures-of-superiority-non-inferiority-and-average-bioequivalence
#20
Wanjie Sun, Stella Grosser, Yi Tsong
Ratio of means (ROM) and difference of means (DOM) are often used in a superiority, non-inferiority (NI), or average bioequivalence (ABE) test to evaluate whether the test mean is superior, NI, or equivalent to the reference (placebo or active control) mean. Literature provided recommendations regarding how to choose between ROM and DOM, mainly for superiority testing. In this paper, we evaluated these two measures from other perspectives and cautioned the potential impact of different scoring systems/transformation for the same outcome (which is not rarely seen in practice) on power of a ROM or DOM test for superiority, NI or ABE: 1) For superiority, with the same margin, power remains the same for a location, scale, or combined shift (no other transformations) to scoring systems for both measures; however, for NI and ABE, different shifts can change the power of the test significantly; 2) Direction of scores (larger or smaller value indicating desirable effects) does not change power for a DOM superiority, NI, or ABE test, but it does change power tremendously for a ROM NI or ABE test...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
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