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Reorienting negativity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190673/interplay-between-supramodal-attentional-control-and-capacity-limits-in-the-low-level-visual-processors-modulate-the-tendency-to-inattention
#1
Massimiliano Papera, Anne Richards
When engaged in a demanding task, individuals may neglect unexpected visual stimuli presented concomitantly. Here we use a change detection task to show that propensity to inattention is associated with a flexible allocation of attentional resources to filter and represent visual information. This was reflected by N2 posterior contralateral (N2pc) and contralateral delay activity (CDA) respectively, but also during high-order reorienting of attentional resources (known as anterior directing attention negativity, ADAN)...
February 9, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168875/structural-and-dynamic-insights-into-a-glycine-mediated-short-analogue-of-a-designed-peptide-in-lipopolysaccharide-micelles-correlation-between-compact-structure-and-anti-endotoxin-activity
#2
Aritreyee Datta, Nancy Jaiswal, Humaira Ilyas, Shibjyoti Debnath, Kaushik Biswas, Dinesh Kumar, Anirban Bhunia
In this study, we report an interaction study of a 13-residue analogue peptide VG13P (VARGWGRKCPLFG), derived from designed VG16KRKP peptide (VARGWKRKCPLFGKGG), with Lys6Gly mutation and removal of last three residues Lys14-Gly15-Gly16, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of the outer-membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and responsible for sepsis or septic shock. VG13P displays an enhanced anti-endotoxin property as evident from significant reduction in LPS-induced TNF-α gene expression levels in monocytic cell line, while it retains almost unchanged antimicrobial activity as its parent VG16KRKP against Gram-negative bacterial as well as fungal pathogens...
February 7, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168598/brain-activity-underlying-negative-self-and-other-perception-in-adolescents-the-role-of-attachment-derived-self-representations
#3
Martin Debbané, Deborah Badoud, David Sander, Stephan Eliez, Patrick Luyten, Pascal Vrtička
One of teenagers' key developmental tasks is to engage in new and meaningful relationships with peers and adults outside the family context. Attachment-derived expectations about the self and others in terms of internal attachment working models have the potential to shape such social reorientation processes critically and thereby influence adolescents' social-emotional development and social integration. Because the neural underpinnings of this developmental task remain largely unknown, we sought to investigate them by functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 6, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167616/towards-trans-diagnostic-mechanisms-in-psychiatry-neurobehavioral-profile-of-rats-with-a-loss-of-function-point-mutation-in-the-dopamine-transporter-gene
#4
Valentina Vengeliene, Anton Bespalov, Martin Roßmanith, Sandra Horschitz, Stefan Berger, Ana L Relo, Hamid R Noori, Peggy Schneider, Thomas Enkel, Dusan Bartsch, Miriam Schneider, Berthold Behl, Anita C Hansson, Patrick Schloss, Rainer Spanagel
The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) matrix has been developed to reorient psychiatric research towards measurable behavioral dimensions and underlying mechanisms. Here we used a new genetic rat model with a loss of function point mutation in the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene (Slc6a3_N157K) to systematically study the RDoC matrix (www.nimh.nih.gov/research-priorities/rdoc/constructs/rdoc-matrix.shtml). First, we examined the impact of the Slc6a3_N157K mutation on monoaminergic signaling. We then performed behavioral tests representing each of the five RDoC domains - negative and positive valence systems, cognitive, social, and in arousal/regulatory systems...
February 6, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100024/evaluation-of-cast-re-orientation-on-a-dental-surveyor-using-three-tripod-techniques-a-survey-and-in-vitro-study
#5
Mohammed E Sayed, Idris A Busaily, Rana J Nahari, Ruaa O Hakami, Sami M Maashi, Naveen R Ramireddy
PURPOSE: To survey different educational levels (i.e., students, interns, technicians, and prosthodontic faculty) with regard to their opinions, attitudes, and adoption of three selected tripod techniques. The study will also investigate the accuracy of these techniques to reposition casts on the dental surveyor in anterio-posterior (AP) and lateral directions at both technique and educational levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tripod points, scored lines, and cemented post tripod techniques were used in this study...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926742/modeling-deficits-from-early-auditory-information-processing-to-psychosocial-functioning-in-schizophrenia
#6
Michael L Thomas, Michael F Green, Gerhard Hellemann, Catherine A Sugar, Melissa Tarasenko, Monica E Calkins, Tiffany A Greenwood, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur, Laura C Lazzeroni, Keith H Nuechterlein, Allen D Radant, Larry J Seidman, Alexandra L Shiluk, Larry J Siever, Jeremy M Silverman, Joyce Sprock, William S Stone, Neal R Swerdlow, Debby W Tsuang, Ming T Tsuang, Bruce I Turetsky, David L Braff, Gregory A Light
Importance: Neurophysiologic measures of early auditory information processing (EAP) are used as endophenotypes in genomic studies and biomarkers in clinical intervention studies. Research in schizophrenia has established correlations among measures of EAP, cognition, clinical symptoms, and functional outcome. Clarifying these associations by determining the pathways through which deficits in EAP affect functioning would suggest when and where to therapeutically intervene. Objectives: To characterize the pathways from EAP to outcome and to estimate the extent to which enhancement of basic information processing might improve cognition and psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia...
January 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851735/reorientation-of-sputnik-planitia-implies-a-subsurface-ocean-on-pluto
#7
F Nimmo, D P Hamilton, W B McKinnon, P M Schenk, R P Binzel, C J Bierson, R A Beyer, J M Moore, S A Stern, H A Weaver, C B Olkin, L A Young, K E Smith
The deep nitrogen-covered basin on Pluto, informally named Sputnik Planitia, is located very close to the longitude of Pluto's tidal axis and may be an impact feature, by analogy with other large basins in the Solar System. Reorientation of Sputnik Planitia arising from tidal and rotational torques can explain the basin's present-day location, but requires the feature to be a positive gravity anomaly, despite its negative topography. Here we argue that if Sputnik Planitia did indeed form as a result of an impact and if Pluto possesses a subsurface ocean, the required positive gravity anomaly would naturally result because of shell thinning and ocean uplift, followed by later modest nitrogen deposition...
December 1, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828269/simultaneous-retardation-compensation-during-bending-of-plastic-film-coated-with-a-polymer-layer-of-opposite-birefringence
#8
Jinyoung Jeong, Dabin Park, Ji-Hoon Lee
We proposed a method of eliminating the bending-induced retardation of a plastic film by coating it with a polymer layer with an opposite birefringence. We coated a polystyrene (PS) or a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) layer on a polycarbonate (PC) plastic film. The bare PC film is composed of main-chain-type polymers and showed an increase in retardation with bending. The main-chains of the PC polymer are reoriented along the circular arc direction during bending, resulting in a positive birefringence. In contrast, the 11 wt...
November 1, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776572/mismatch-negativity-and-p3a-amplitude-in-young-adolescents-with-first-episode-psychosis-a-comparison-with-adhd
#9
J Rydkjær, J R Møllegaard Jepsen, A K Pagsberg, B Fagerlund, B Y Glenthøj, B Oranje
BACKGROUND: Deficient mismatch negativity (MMN) has been proposed as a candidate biomarker in schizophrenia and may therefore be potentially useful in early identification and intervention in early onset psychosis. In this study we explored whether deficits in the automatic orienting and reorienting responses, measured as MMN and P3a amplitude, are present in young adolescents with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and whether findings are specific to psychosis compared to young adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
January 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732741/barriers-and-facilitators-to-healthy-eating-for-nurses-in-the-workplace-an-integrative-review
#10
Rachel Nicholls, Lin Perry, Christine Duffield, Robyn Gallagher, Heather Pierce
BACKGROUND: There is growing recognition of the influence of the workplace environment on the eating habits of the workforce, which in turn may contribute to increased overweight and obesity. Overweight and obesity exact enormous costs in terms of reduced well-being, worker productivity and increased risk of non-communicable diseases. The workplace is an ideal place to intervene and support healthy behaviours. This review aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to nurses' healthy eating in the workplace...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722376/negative-dissipation-gradients-in-hysteretic-materials
#11
Miriam Jaafar, Óscar Iglesias-Freire, Pedro García-Mochales, Juan José Sáenz, Agustina Asenjo
Measuring energy dissipation on the nanoscale is of great interest not only for nanomechanics but also to understand important energy transformation and loss mechanisms that determine the efficiency of energy of data storage devices. Fully understanding the magnetic dynamics and dissipation processes in nanomagnets is of major relevance for a number of basic and applied issues from magnetic recording to spin-based sensor devices to biomedical magnetic-based hyperthermia treatments. Here we present experimental evidence for a counter-intuitive monotonical reduction of energy dissipation as the interaction between two nanomagnets is enhanced...
September 29, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676321/phosphorylation-mechanism-of-phosphomevalonate-kinase-implications-for-rational-engineering-of-isoprenoid-biosynthetic-pathway-enzymes
#12
Meilan Huang, Kexin Wei, Xiao Li, James McClory, Guixiang Hu, Jian-Wei Zou, David Timson
The mevalonate pathway is of important clinical, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological relevance. However, lack of the understanding of the phosphorylation mechanism of the kinases in this pathway has limited rationally engineering the kinases in industry. Here the phosphorylation reaction mechanism of a representative kinase in the mevalonate pathway, phosphomevalonate kinase, was studied by using molecular dynamics and hybrid QM/MM methods. We find that a conserved residue (Ser106) is reorientated to anchor ATP via a stable H-bond interaction...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624607/-it-really-takes-a-village-a-socio-ecological-model-of-resilience-for-prevention-among-economically-disadvantaged-ethnic-minority-youth
#13
REVIEW
Dawn X Henderson, Jessica DeCuir-Gunby, Vandna Gill
Promoting resilience prevents maladaptation among economically disadvantaged ethnic minority (EDEM) youth. EDEM youth need access to a variety of assets and promotive factors (i.e., resources) in the family, school, and community system to counter risks and promote positive adaptation. However, the field lacks a socio-ecological model of resilience for prevention targeted towards EDEM youth. We aim to review assets and promotive factors in the family, school, and community systems to present a socio-ecological model of resilience for the prevention of negative educational and health outcomes among EDEM youth...
October 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607439/attention-network-dysfunction-in-bulimia-nervosa-an-fmri-study
#14
Jochen Seitz, Manuel Hueck, Brigitte Dahmen, Martin Schulte-Rüther, Tanja Legenbauer, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Kerstin Konrad
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence has suggested an increased rate of comorbid ADHD and subclinical attentional impairments in bulimia nervosa (BN) patients. However, little is known regarding the underlying neural mechanisms of attentional functions in BN. METHOD: Twenty BN patients and twenty age- and weight-matched healthy controls (HC) were investigated using a modified version of the Attention Network Task (ANT) in an fMRI study. This design enabled an investigation of the neural mechanisms associated with the three attention networks involved in alerting, reorienting and executive attention...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565067/flap-preconditioning-by-pressure-controlled-cupping-in-a-rat-model
#15
Kyung S Koh, Sung Woo Park, Tae Suk Oh, Jong Woo Choi
BACKGROUND: Flap survival is essential for the success of soft-tissue reconstruction. Accordingly, various surgical and medical methods aim to increase flap survival. Because flap survival is affected by the innate vascular supply, traditional preconditioning methods mainly target vasodilatation or vascular reorientation to increase blood flow to the tissue. External stress on the skin, such as an external volume expander or cupping, induces vascular remodeling, and these approaches have been used in the fat grafting field and in traditional Asian medicine...
August 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563985/reorientation-of-the-stripe-phase-of-2d-electrons-by-a-minute-density-modulation
#16
M A Mueed, Md Shafayat Hossain, L N Pfeiffer, K W West, K W Baldwin, M Shayegan
Interacting two-dimensional electrons confined in a GaAs quantum well exhibit isotropic transport when the Fermi level resides in the first excited (N=1) Landau level. Adding an in-plane magnetic field (B_{||}) typically leads to an anisotropic, stripelike (nematic) phase of electrons with the stripes oriented perpendicular to the B_{||} direction. Our experimental data reveal how a periodic density modulation, induced by a surface strain grating from strips of negative electron-beam resist, competes against the B_{||}-induced orientational order of the stripe phase...
August 12, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563803/charge-induced-long-range-order-in-a-room-temperature-ionic-liquid
#17
Ke Ma, Romana Jarosova, Greg M Swain, Gary J Blanchard
We report direct evidence for charge-induced long-range (ca. 100 μm) order in the room-temperature ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM(+)BF4(-)), supported on a silica surface. We have measured the rotational diffusion dynamics of anionic, cationic, and neutral chromophores as a function of distance from a silica surface. The results reflect the excess charge density gradient induced in the IL by the (negative) charge present on the silica surface. Identical measurements in ethylene glycol reveal spatially invariant reorientation dynamics for all chromophores...
September 20, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559171/differential-contributions-of-gaba-concentration-in-frontal-and-parietal-regions-to-individual-differences-in-attentional-blink
#18
Ken Kihara, Hirohito M Kondo, Jun I Kawahara
UNLABELLED: Selective attention plays an important role in identifying transient objects in a complex visual scene. Attentional control ability varies with observers. However, it is unclear what neural mechanisms are responsible for individual differences in attentional control ability. The present study used the following attentional blink paradigm: when two targets are to be identified in rapid serial visual presentation, the processing of the first target interrupts the identification of the second one appearing within 500 ms after the first-target onset...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547599/reorientation-of-single-wall-carbon-nanotubes-in-negative-anisotropy-liquid-crystals-by-an-electric-field
#19
Amanda García-García, Ricardo Vergaz, José F Algorri, Gianluigi Zito, Teresa Cacace, Antigone Marino, José M Otón, Morten A Geday
Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are anisotropic nanoparticles that can cause modifications in the electrical and electro-optical properties of liquid crystals. The control of the SWCNT concentration, distribution and reorientation in such self-organized fluids allows for the possibility of tuning the liquid crystal properties. The alignment and reorientation of CNTs are studied in a system where the liquid crystal orientation effect has been isolated. Complementary studies including Raman spectroscopy, microscopic inspection and impedance studies were carried out...
2016: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539392/maintenance-of-electrostatic-stabilization-in-altered-tubulin-lateral-contacts-may-facilitate-formation-of-helical-filaments-in-foraminifera
#20
David M Bassen, Yubo Hou, Samuel S Bowser, Nilesh K Banavali
Microtubules in foraminiferan protists (forams) can convert into helical filament structures, in which longitudinal intraprotofilament interactions between tubulin heterodimers are thought to be lost, while lateral contacts across protofilaments are still maintained. The coarse geometric features of helical filaments are known through low-resolution negative stain electron microscopy (EM). In this study, geometric restraints derived from these experimental data were used to generate an average atomic-scale helical filament model, which anticipated a modest reorientation in the lateral tubulin heterodimer interface...
2016: Scientific Reports
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