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Reorienting negativity

Sabina Sarvan, François Charih, Momen Askoura, James Butcher, Joseph S Brunzelle, Alain Stintzi, Jean-François Couture
Ferric uptake regulators (Fur) are a family of transcription factors coupling gene regulatory events to metal concentration. Recent evidence has expanded the mechanistic repertoires employed by Fur to activate or repress gene expression in the presence or absence of regulatory metals. However, the mechanistic basis underlying this extended repertoire has remained largely unexplored. In this study, we used an extensive set of mutations to demonstrate that Campylobacter jejuni Fur (CjFur) employs the same surface to positively and negatively control gene expression regardless of the presence or absence of metals...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Widyanto Dwi Nugroho, Satoshi Nakaba, Yusuke Yamagishi, Shahanara Begum, Md Hasnat Rahman, Kayo Kudo, Sri Nugroho Marsoem, Ryo Funada
Background and Aims: In response to a gravitational stimulus, angiosperm trees generally form tension wood on the upper sides of leaning stems in order to reorientate the stems in the vertical direction. It is unclear whether the angle of inclination from the vertical affects tension wood formation. This study was designed to investigate negative gravitropism, tension wood formation and growth eccentricity in Acacia mangium seedlings inclined at different angles. Methods: Uniform seedlings of A...
May 3, 2018: Annals of Botany
Irene Natalia, Nicole Zeiler, Moritz Weiß, Erin Koos
Here, negative normal stress differences are reported in capillary suspensions, i.e. particle suspensions in a two-fluid system that creates strong capillary attractions, at a solid concentration of 25%, and a volume fraction that has heretofore been considered too low to show such normal stress differences. Such capillary suspensions have strong particle networks and are shear thinning for the entire range of shear rates studied. Capillary suspensions exist in two states: a pendular state when the secondary fluid preferentially wets the particles, and a capillary state when the bulk fluid is preferentially wetting...
April 24, 2018: Soft Matter
A Dominic Fortes
Accurate and precise lattice parameters for D2 O and H2 O varieties of hexagonal ice (ice Ih, space group P63 /mmc) have been obtained in the range 1.6 to 270 K. Precision of the lattice parameters (∼0.0002% in a and 0.0004% in c for D2 O, 0.0008% in a and 0.0015% in c for H2 O) is ensured by use of the time-of-flight method on one of the longest primary neutron flight-path instruments in the world, the High-Resolution Powder Diffractometer at the ISIS neutron source. These data provide a more precise description of the negative thermal expansion of the material at low temperatures than the previous synchrotron `gold standard' [Röttger et al...
April 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica Section B, Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials
C G Wei, Y H Liu, X Jin
The auditory nervous system has a rapid development period after birth, if there lack enough sensory(auditory) stimulation during this period, there should be a serious and negative impact on the growth and development of auditory center. In the auditory deprivation persist in the critical period, the auditory and visual cortex should be in cross-model reorganization and reorientation of cortical function. Cochlear implantation, especially intervention in the younger age, could excite the auditory cortex, and continuous stimulation to the cerebral cortex can promote the adaptation and reconstruction of auditory function...
March 7, 2018: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Assil Bouzid, Alfredo Pasquarello
Based on constant Fermi-level molecular dynamics and a proper alignment scheme, we perform simulations of the Pt(111)/water interface under variable bias potential referenced to the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE). Our scheme yields a potential of zero charge μpzc of ∼ 0.22 eV relative to the SHE and a double layer capacitance C dl of ~ 19 μFcm -2 , in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. In addition, we study the structural reorganization of the electrical double layer for bias potentials ranging from -0...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Pia Rämä, Alina Leminen, Satu Koskenoja-Vainikka, Miika Leminen, Kimmo Alho, Teija Kujala
Dual language experience has typically been shown to improve various executive control functions. We investigated with event-related brain potentials (ERPs) recorded from early (natively) bilingual speakers and control participants whether it also affects auditory selective attention. We delivered to our participants two tone streams, one to the left and one to the right ear. Both streams consisted of standard tones and two types of infrequent deviant tones which had either an enhanced duration or intensity...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Alžběta Dostálková, Filip Kaufman, Ivana Křížová, Anna Kultová, Karolína Strohalmová, Romana Hadravová, Tomáš Ruml, Michaela Rumlová
In addition to specific RNA-binding zinc finger domains, the retroviral Gag polyprotein contains clusters of basic amino acid residues that are thought to support Gag-viral genomic RNA (gRNA) interactions. One of these clusters is the basic K16 NK18 EK20 region, located upstream of the first zinc finger of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) nucleocapsid (NC) protein. To investigate the role of this basic region in the M-PMV life cycle, we used a combination of in vivo and in vitro methods to study a series of mutants in which the overall charge of this region was more positive (RNRER), more negative (AEAEA), or neutral (AAAAA)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Virology
Seishi Shimizu, Nobuyuki Matubayasi
Ions affect the self-diffusion and relaxation of water. Such ion-induced changes of water dynamics have long been rationalized in terms of the change of the water structure around the ions. The aim of this paper is to establish a link between dynamics and the "water structure" on the basis of the extended jump (EJ) model for the reorientational motion of water, Eyring's transition state theory of the self-diffusion of water, and the statistical thermodynamic preferential solvation theory developed from the Kirkwood-Buff (KB) theory...
February 21, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ben Corry
Nerve and muscle signalling is controlled by voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels which are the targets of local anesthetics, anti-epileptics and anti-arrythmics. Current medications do not selectively target specific types of Nav found in the body, but compounds that do so have the potential to be breakthrough treatments for chronic pain, epilepsy and other neuronal disorders. We use long computer simulations totaling more than 26 μs to show how a promising lead compound can target one Nav implicated in pain perception and specific channels found in bacteria, and accurately predict the affinity of the compound to different channel types...
January 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jigneshkumar Dahyabhai Prajapati, Carlos José Fernández Solano, Mathias Winterhalter, Ulrich Kleinekathöfer
In Gram-negative bacteria, the lack or quenching of antibiotic translocation across the outer membrane is one of the main factors for acquiring antibiotic resistance. An atomic-level comprehension of the key features governing the transport of drugs by outer-membrane protein channels would be very helpful in developing the next generation of antibiotics. In a previous study [ J. D. Prajapati et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2017 , 13 , 4553 ], we characterized the diffusion pathway of a ciprofloxacin molecule through the outer membrane porin OmpC of Escherichia coli by combining metadynamics and a zero-temperature string method...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Toby Freeman, Fran Baum, Ronald Labonté, Sara Javanparast, Angela Lawless
Health system changes may increase primary health care workers' dilemmatic space, created when reforms contravene professional values. Dilemmatic space may be a risk factor for burnout. This study partnered with six Australian primary health care services (in South Australia: four state government-managed services including one Aboriginal health team and one non-government organisation and in Northern Territory: one Aboriginal community-controlled service) during a period of change and examined workers' dilemmatic space and incidence of burnout...
February 1, 2017: Health (London)
Abiodun Idowu Adanikin, Nuala McGrath, Sabu S Padmadas
OBJECTIVE: Evidence from the last three Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in Nigeria shows slow progress in family planning (FP) uptake, despite programmatic interventions. While socioeconomic and religious barriers continue to exist, psychosocial factors such as negative contraceptive perceptions by male partners may influence both spousal FP demand and use. Therefore, this research investigates the influence of male partners' contraceptive perceptions on spousal FP demand and use...
December 2017: Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare: Official Journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives
Michael Bentley, Toby Freeman, Fran Baum, Sara Javanparast
This article draws on data from a 5-year project that examined the effectiveness of Comprehensive primary healthcare (CPHC) in local communities. A hallmark of CPHC services is interprofessional teamwork. Drawing from this study, our article presents factors that enabled, or hindered, healthcare teams working interprofessionally in Australian primary healthcare (PHC) services. The article reports on the experiences of teams working in six Australian PHC services (four managed by state governments, one non-government sexual health organisation, and one Aboriginal community-controlled health service) during a time of significant health sector restructure...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Interprofessional Care
Lamis Abuhaloob, Poul Erik Petersen
BACKGROUND: Political conflicts in the Palestinian Territories (PT) have resulted in systematic deterioration of socio-economic conditions and health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has emphasised the negative impacts of social crisis on children' oral health and quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and trends in dental caries and poor gingival health of schoolchildren in the PT through the scholastic years 1998/1999 to 2012/2013. METHODS: This is a retrospective study...
November 23, 2017: International Dental Journal
Erich S Tusch, Nicole C Feng, Phillip J Holcomb, Kirk R Daffner
In young adults, primary visual task processing can be either enhanced or disrupted by novel auditory stimuli preceding target events, depending on task demands. Little is known about this phenomenon in older individuals, who, in general, are more susceptible to distraction. In the current study, age-related differences in the electrophysiological effects of task-irrelevant auditory stimuli on visual target processing were examined. Under both low and high primary task loads, the categorization/updating process in response to visual targets preceded by auditory novels, as indexed by the target P3 component, was enhanced in young, but diminished in old adults...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Steve Scheiner
The various heterodimers formed by a series of Lewis acids with NH3 as Lewis base are identified. Lewis acids include those that can form chalcogen (HSF and HSBr), pnicogen (H2 PF and H2 PBr), and tetrel (H3 SiF and H3 SiBr) bonds, as well as H-bonds and halogen bonds. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) of each Lewis acid is considered in a number of ways. Pictorial versions show broad regions of positive and negative MEP, on surfaces that vary with respect to either the value of the chosen isopotential, or their distance from the nuclei...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Saba Ghazvini, Ryan Alonso, Nabil Alhakamy, Prajnaparamita Dhar
Lipid membranes, a major component of cells, are subjected to significant changes in pH depending on their location in the cell: the outer leaflet of the cell membrane is exposed to a pH of 7.4 whereas lipid membranes that make up late endosomes and lysosomes are exposed to a pH of as low as 4.4. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how changes in the environmental pH within cells alter the fluidity of phospholipid membranes. Specifically, we studied pH-induced alterations in the surface arrangement of monounsaturated lipids with zwitterionic headgroups (phosphoethanolamine (PE) and phosphocholine (PC)) that are abundant in plasma membranes as well as anionic lipids (phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG)) that are abundant in inner membranes using a combination of techniques including surface tension vs area measurements, interfacial microrheology, and fluorescence/atomic force microscopy...
January 23, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Dominic James Farris, Brent James Raiteri
Humans and other cursorial mammals have distal leg muscles with high in-series compliance that aid locomotor economy. This muscle-tendon design is considered sub-optimal for injecting net positive mechanical work. However, humans change speed frequently when walking and any acceleration requires net positive ankle work. The present study unveiled how the muscle-tendon interaction of human ankle plantar flexors are adjusted and integrated with body mechanics to provide net positive work during accelerative walking...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Jigneshkumar Dahyabhai Prajapati, Carlos José Fernández Solano, Mathias Winterhalter, Ulrich Kleinekathöfer
The rapid spreading of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria has become a major threat for humans as well as animals. As one of the main factors involved, the permeability of the outer membrane has attracted a great deal of attention recently. However, the knowledge regarding the translocation mechanisms for most available antibiotics is so far rather limited. Here, a theoretical study concerning the diffusion route of ciprofloxacin across the outer membrane porin OmpC from E. coli is presented...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
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