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Reorienting negativity

Pia Rämä, Alina Leminen, Satu Koskenoja-Vainikka, Miika Leminen, Kimmo Alho, Teija Kujala
Dual language experience has typically been shown to improve various executive control functions. We investigated with event-related brain potentials (ERPs) recorded from early (natively) bilingual speakers and control participants whether it also affects auditory selective attention. We delivered to our participants two tone streams, one to the left and one to the right ear. Both streams consisted of standard tones and two types of infrequent deviant tones which had either an enhanced duration or intensity...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Alžběta Dostálková, Filip Kaufman, Ivana Křížová, Anna Kultová, Karolína Strohalmová, Romana Hadravová, Tomáš Ruml, Michaela Rumlová
In addition to specific RNA-binding zinc finger domains, retroviral Gag polyprotein contains clusters of basic amino acid residues thought to support Gag-viral genomic RNA (gRNA) interactions. One of these clusters is the basic K16 NK18 EK20 region, located upstream of the first zinc finger of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) nucleocapsid protein (NC). To investigate the role of this basic region in the M-PMV life cycle, we used a combination of in vivo and in vitro methods to study a series of mutants in which the overall charge of this region was more positive (RNRER), more negative (AEAEA), or neutral (AAAAA)...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
Seishi Shimizu, Nobuyuki Matubayasi
Ions affect the self-diffusion and relaxation of water. Such ion-induced changes of water dynamics have long been rationalized in terms of the change of the water structure around the ions. The aim of this paper is to establish a link between dynamics and the "water structure" on the basis of the extended jump (EJ) model for the reorientational motion of water, Eyring's transition state theory of the self-diffusion of water, and the statistical thermodynamic preferential solvation theory developed from the Kirkwood-Buff (KB) theory...
February 8, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ben Corry
Nerve and muscle signalling is controlled by voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels which are the targets of local anesthetics, anti-epileptics and anti-arrythmics. Current medications do not selectively target specific types of Nav found in the body, but compounds that do so have the potential to be breakthrough treatments for chronic pain, epilepsy and other neuronal disorders. We use long computer simulations totaling more than 26 μs to show how a promising lead compound can target one Nav implicated in pain perception and specific channels found in bacteria, and accurately predict the affinity of the compound to different channel types...
January 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jigneshkumar Dahyabhai Prajapati, Carlos José Fernández Solano, Mathias Winterhalter, Ulrich Kleinekathöfer
In Gram-negative bacteria, the lack or quenching of antibiotics translocation across the outer membrane is one of the main factors for acquiring antibiotic resistance. An atomic level comprehension of the key features governing the transport of drugs by outer membrane protein channels will be very helpful in developing the next generation of antibiotics. In a previous study [J. D. Prajapati et al, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2017, 13, 4553--4566], we characterized the diffusion pathway of the ciprofloxacin molecule through the outer membrane porin OmpC of E...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Toby Freeman, Fran Baum, Ronald Labonté, Sara Javanparast, Angela Lawless
Health system changes may increase primary health care workers' dilemmatic space, created when reforms contravene professional values. Dilemmatic space may be a risk factor for burnout. This study partnered with six Australian primary health care services (in South Australia: four state government-managed services including one Aboriginal health team and one non-government organisation and in Northern Territory: one Aboriginal community-controlled service) during a period of change and examined workers' dilemmatic space and incidence of burnout...
February 1, 2017: Health (London)
Abiodun Idowu Adanikin, Nuala McGrath, Sabu S Padmadas
OBJECTIVE: Evidence from the last three Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in Nigeria shows slow progress in family planning (FP) uptake, despite programmatic interventions. While socioeconomic and religious barriers continue to exist, psychosocial factors such as negative contraceptive perceptions by male partners may influence both spousal FP demand and use. Therefore, this research investigates the influence of male partners' contraceptive perceptions on spousal FP demand and use...
December 2017: Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare: Official Journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives
Michael Bentley, Toby Freeman, Fran Baum, Sara Javanparast
This article draws on data from a 5-year project that examined the effectiveness of Comprehensive primary healthcare (CPHC) in local communities. A hallmark of CPHC services is interprofessional teamwork. Drawing from this study, our article presents factors that enabled, or hindered, healthcare teams working interprofessionally in Australian primary healthcare (PHC) services. The article reports on the experiences of teams working in six Australian PHC services (four managed by state governments, one non-government sexual health organisation, and one Aboriginal community-controlled health service) during a time of significant health sector restructure...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Interprofessional Care
Lamis Abuhaloob, Poul Erik Petersen
BACKGROUND: Political conflicts in the Palestinian Territories (PT) have resulted in systematic deterioration of socio-economic conditions and health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has emphasised the negative impacts of social crisis on children' oral health and quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and trends in dental caries and poor gingival health of schoolchildren in the PT through the scholastic years 1998/1999 to 2012/2013. METHODS: This is a retrospective study...
November 23, 2017: International Dental Journal
Erich S Tusch, Nicole C Feng, Phillip J Holcomb, Kirk R Daffner
In young adults, primary visual task processing can be either enhanced or disrupted by novel auditory stimuli preceding target events, depending on task demands. Little is known about this phenomenon in older individuals, who, in general, are more susceptible to distraction. In the current study, age-related differences in the electrophysiological effects of task-irrelevant auditory stimuli on visual target processing were examined. Under both low and high primary task loads, the categorization/updating process in response to visual targets preceded by auditory novels, as indexed by the target P3 component, was enhanced in young, but diminished in old adults...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Steve Scheiner
The various heterodimers formed by a series of Lewis acids with NH3 as Lewis base are identified. Lewis acids include those that can form chalcogen (HSF and HSBr), pnicogen (H2 PF and H2 PBr), and tetrel (H3 SiF and H3 SiBr) bonds, as well as H-bonds and halogen bonds. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) of each Lewis acid is considered in a number of ways. Pictorial versions show broad regions of positive and negative MEP, on surfaces that vary with respect to either the value of the chosen isopotential, or their distance from the nuclei...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Saba Ghazvini, Ryan Alonso, Nabil Alhakamy, Prajnaparamita Dhar
Lipid membranes, a major component of cells, are subjected to significant changes in pH depending on their location in the cell: the outer leaflet of the cell membrane is exposed to a pH of 7.4 whereas lipid membranes that make up late endosomes and lysosomes are exposed to a pH of as low as 4.4. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how changes in the environmental pH within cells alter the fluidity of phospholipid membranes. Specifically, we studied pH-induced alterations in the surface arrangement of monounsaturated lipids with zwitterionic headgroups (phosphoethanolamine (PE) and phosphocholine (PC)) that are abundant in plasma membranes as well as anionic lipids (phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG)) that are abundant in inner membranes using a combination of techniques including surface tension vs area measurements, interfacial microrheology, and fluorescence/atomic force microscopy...
November 9, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Dominic James Farris, Brent James Raiteri
Humans and other cursorial mammals have distal leg muscles with high in-series compliance that aid locomotor economy. This muscle-tendon design is considered sub-optimal for injecting net positive mechanical work. However, humans change speed frequently when walking and any acceleration requires net positive ankle work. The present study unveiled how the muscle-tendon interaction of human ankle plantar flexors are adjusted and integrated with body mechanics to provide net positive work during accelerative walking...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Jigneshkumar Dahyabhai Prajapati, Carlos José Fernández Solano, Mathias Winterhalter, Ulrich Kleinekathöfer
The rapid spreading of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria has become a major threat for humans as well as animals. As one of the main factors involved, the permeability of the outer membrane has attracted a great deal of attention recently. However, the knowledge regarding the translocation mechanisms for most available antibiotics is so far rather limited. Here, a theoretical study concerning the diffusion route of ciprofloxacin across the outer membrane porin OmpC from E. coli is presented...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
L Bromberg, X Liu, I Wang, S Smith, K Schwicker, Z Eller, G K German
The outermost layer of human skin, or stratum corneum, acts as a protective barrier between underlying living tissue and the external environment. The wettability of this tissue layer can influence spreading of chemicals and the adhesion of pathogenic microorganisms. We show in this article that the wettability of isolated human stratum corneum can be controlled through treatment with solutions of the anionic surfactant, sodium lauryl sulfate, buffered to different pH values. Relative to control treatments with the buffer solution alone, surfactant solution treatments under acidic conditions cause delipidated stratum corneum to become more hydrophobic...
September 1, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Cindy L Munro, Paula Cairns, Ming Ji, Karel Calero, W McDowell Anderson, Zhan Liang
OBJECTIVES: Explore the effect of an automated reorientation intervention on ICU delirium in a prospective randomized controlled trial. BACKGROUND: Delirium is common in ICU patients, and negatively affects outcomes. Few prevention strategies have been tested. METHODS: Thirty ICU patients were randomized to 3 groups. Ten received hourly recorded messages in a family member's voice during waking hours over 3 ICU days, 10 received the same messages in a non-family voice, and 10 (control) did not receive any automated reorientation messages...
July 2017: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
Fernando Bravo, Ian Cross, Sarah Hawkins, Nadia Gonzalez, Jorge Docampo, Claudio Bruno, Emmanuel Andreas Stamatakis
We frequently infer others' intentions based on non-verbal auditory cues. Although the brain underpinnings of social cognition have been extensively studied, no empirical work has yet examined the impact of musical structure manipulation on the neural processing of emotional valence during mental state inferences. We used a novel sound-based theory-of-mind paradigm in which participants categorized stimuli of different sensory dissonance level in terms of positive/negative valence. Whilst consistent with previous studies which propose facilitated encoding of consonances, our results demonstrated that distinct levels of consonance/dissonance elicited differential influences on the right angular gyrus, an area implicated in mental state attribution and attention reorienting processes...
June 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Christian Beste, Moritz Mückschel, Raymond Rosales, Aloysius Domingo, Lillian Lee, Arlene Ng, Christine Klein, Alexander Münchau
An important brain function is to predict upcoming events on the basis of extracted regularities of previous inputs. These predictive coding processes can disturb performance in concurrent perceptual decision-making and are known to depend on fronto-striatal circuits. However, it is unknown whether, and if so, to what extent striatal microstructural properties modulate these processes. We addressed this question in a human disease model of striosomal dysfunction, i.e. X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP), using high-density EEG recordings and source localization...
May 2, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
John Emmanuel Kitui, Vaughan Dutton, Dirk Bester, Rachel Ndirangu, Susan Wangai, Stephen Ngugi
BACKGROUND: A community health programme in Narok County in Kenya aimed to improve skilled birth assistance during childbirth through two demand side interventions. First, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) were co-opted into using their influence to promote use of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) at health facilities during delivery, and to accompany pregnant women to health facilities in return for a Ksh500 (Approximately USD5 as of August 2016) cash incentive for each pregnant mother they accompanied...
April 21, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Donat-P Häder, Ruth Hemmersbach
Motile microorganisms utilize a number of responses to external stimuli including light, temperature, chemicals as well as magnetic and electric fields. Gravity is a major clue to select a niche in their environment. Positive gravitaxis leads an organism down into the water column and negative gravitaxis brings it to the surface. In Euglena the precision of gravitaxis is regulated by an internal rhythm entrained by the daily light/dark cycle. This and the cooperation with phototaxis bring the cells into an optimal position in the water column...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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