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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108252/abnormalities-in-cortical-auditory-responses-in-children-with-central-auditory-processing-disorder
#1
Amineh Koravand, Benoît Jutras, Maryse Lassonde
The main objective of the present study was to identify markers of neural deficits in children with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) by measuring latency and amplitude of the auditory cortical responses and mismatch negativity (MMN) responses. Passive oddball paradigms were used with nonverbal and verbal stimuli to record cortical auditory evoked potentials and MMN. Twenty-three children ages 9 to 12 participated in the study: 10 with normal hearing acuity as well as CAPD and 13 with normal hearing without CAPD...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106790/contributions-of-letter-speech-sound-learning-and-visual-print-tuning-to-reading-improvement-evidence-from-brain-potential-and-dyslexia-training-studies
#2
REVIEW
Gorka Fraga González, Gojko Žarić, Jurgen Tijms, Milene Bonte, Maurits W van der Molen
We use a neurocognitive perspective to discuss the contribution of learning letter-speech sound (L-SS) associations and visual specialization in the initial phases of reading in dyslexic children. We review findings from associative learning studies on related cognitive skills important for establishing and consolidating L-SS associations. Then we review brain potential studies, including our own, that yielded two markers associated with reading fluency. Here we show that the marker related to visual specialization (N170) predicts word and pseudoword reading fluency in children who received additional practice in the processing of morphological word structure...
January 18, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104188/maternal-multiple-micronutrient-supplementation-and-other-biomedical-and-socioenvironmental-influences-on-children-s-cognition-at-age-9-12-years-in-indonesia-follow-up-of-the-summit-randomised-trial
#3
Elizabeth L Prado, Susy K Sebayang, Mandri Apriatni, Siti R Adawiyah, Nina Hidayati, Ayuniarti Islamiyah, Sudirman Siddiq, Benyamin Harefa, Jarrad Lum, Katherine J Alcock, Michael T Ullman, Husni Muadz, Anuraj H Shankar
BACKGROUND: Brain and cognitive development during the first 1000 days from conception are affected by multiple biomedical and socioenvironmental determinants including nutrition, health, nurturing, and stimulation. An improved understanding of the long-term influence of these factors is needed to prioritise public health investments to optimise human development. METHODS: We did a follow-up study of the Supplementation with Multiple Micronutrients Intervention Trial (SUMMIT), a double-blind, cluster-randomised trial of maternal supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or iron and folic acid (IFA) in Indonesia...
February 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095801/providing-lipid-based-nutrient-supplement-during-pregnancy-does-not-reduce-the-risk-of-maternal-p-falciparum-parasitaemia-and-reproductive-tract-infections-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Minyanga Nkhoma, Per Ashorn, Ulla Ashorn, Kathryn G Dewey, Austrida Gondwe, John Mbotwa, Stephen Rogerson, Steve M Taylor, Kenneth Maleta
BACKGROUND: Maternal infections are associated with maternal and foetal adverse outcomes. Nutrient supplementation during pregnancy may reduce the occurrence of infections by improving maternal immunity. We aimed to investigate the impact of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement (SQ-LNS) on the occurrence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia during pregnancy and trichomoniasis, vaginal candidiasis and urinary tract infection (UTI) after delivery. METHODS: Pregnant Malawian women enrolled in the iLiNS-DYAD trial receiving daily supplementation with SQ-LNS, multiple micronutrients (MMN) or iron & folic acid (IFA) from <20 gestation weeks (gw) were assessed for P...
January 17, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092503/propagation-modeling-and-analysis-of-molecular-motors-in-molecular-communication
#5
Youssef Chahibi, Ian F Akyildiz, Ilangko Balasingham
Molecular motor networks (MMNs) are networks constructed from molecular motors to enable nanomachines to perform coordinated tasks of sensing, computing, and actuation at the nano- and micro- scales. Living cells are naturally enabled with this same mechanism to establish point-to-point communication between different locations inside the cell. Similar to a railway system, the cytoplasm contains an intricate infrastructure of tracks, named microtubules, interconnecting different internal components of the cell...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062201/effects-of-sound-pressure-level-and-visual-perceptual-load-on-the-auditory-mismatch-negativity
#6
Malina Szychowska, Rasmus Eklund, Mats E Nilsson, Stefan Wiens
Auditory change detection has been studied extensively with mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential. Because it is unresolved if the duration MMN depends on sound pressure level (SPL), we studied effects of different SPLs (56, 66, and 76dB) on the duration MMN. Further, previous research suggests that the MMN is reduced by a concurrent visual task. Because a recent behavioral study found that high visual perceptual load strongly reduced detection sensitivity to irrelevant sounds, we studied if the duration MMN is reduced by load, and if this reduction is stronger at low SPLs...
January 3, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057557/anesthetics-inhibit-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase1-2-phosphorylation-via-nmda-receptor-phospholipase-c-and-protein-kinase-c-in-mouse-hippocampal-slices
#7
Gao Haiying, Han Mingjie, Zhang Lingyu, Wang Qingxiang, Wang Haisong, Zhang Bingxi
BACKGROUND: Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) has been implicated in learning and memory; however, whether intravenous anesthetics modulate ERK1/2 remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of several intravenous anesthetics on the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in the hippocampus of adult mice. METHODS: Western blotting was used to examine cellular levels of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated ERK1/2 in mouse hippocampus slices, which were incubated with or without anesthetics including propofol, etomidate, ketamine and midazolam, a protein kinase C (PKC) activator or inhibitor, or phospholipase C (PLC) activator or inhibitor...
January 3, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056388/aberrant-temporal-behavior-of-mismatch-negativity-generators-in-schizophrenia-patients-and-subjects-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#8
Minah Kim, Kang Ik Kevin Cho, Youngwoo Bryan Yoon, Tae Young Lee, Jun Soo Kwon
OBJECTIVE: Although disconnection syndrome has been considered a core pathophysiologic mechanism of schizophrenia, little is known about the temporal behavior of mismatch negativity (MMN) generators in individuals with schizophrenia or clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. METHODS: MMN was assessed in 29 schizophrenia patients, 40 CHR subjects, and 47 healthy controls (HCs). Individual realistic head models and the minimum L2 norm algorithm were used to generate a current source density (CSD) model of MMN...
December 18, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056017/when-hearing-is-tricky-speech-processing-strategies-in-prelingually-deafened-children-and-adolescents-with-cochlear-implants-having-good-and-poor-speech-performance
#9
Magdalene Ortmann, Pienie Zwitserlood, Arne Knief, Johanna Baare, Stephanie Brinkheetker, Antoinette Am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Christian Dobel
Cochlear implants provide individuals who are deaf with access to speech. Although substantial advancements have been made by novel technologies, there still is high variability in language development during childhood, depending on adaptation and neural plasticity. These factors have often been investigated in the auditory domain, with the mismatch negativity as an index for sensory and phonological processing. Several studies have demonstrated that the MMN is an electrophysiological correlate for hearing improvement with cochlear implants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043881/simultaneously-evoked-auditory-potentials-seap-a-new-method-for-concurrent-measurement-of-cortical-and-subcortical-auditory-evoked-activity
#10
Christopher Slugocki, Daniel Bosnyak, Laurel J Trainor
Recent electrophysiological work has evinced a capacity for plasticity in subcortical auditory nuclei in human listeners. Similar plastic effects have been measured in cortically-generated auditory potentials but it is unclear how the two interact. Here we present Simultaneously-Evoked Auditory Potentials (SEAP), a method designed to concurrently elicit electrophysiological brain potentials from inferior colliculus, thalamus, and primary and secondary auditory cortices. Twenty-six normal-hearing adult subjects (mean 19...
December 30, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043833/changes-in-room-acoustics-elicit-a-mismatch-negativity-in-the-absence-of-overall-interaural-intensity-differences
#11
Johannes Daniel Frey, Mike Wendt, Andreas Löw, Stephan Möller, Udo Zölzer, Thomas Jacobsen
Changes in room acoustics provide important clues about the environment of sound source-perceiver systems, for example, by indicating changes in the reflecting characteristics of surrounding objects. To study the detection of auditory irregularities brought about by a change in room acoustics, a passive oddball protocol with participants watching a movie was applied in this study. Acoustic stimuli were presented via headphones. Standards and deviants were created by modelling rooms of different sizes, keeping the values of the basic acoustic dimensions (e...
December 30, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041983/basic-discriminative-and-semantic-processing-in-patients-in-the-vegetative-and-minimally-conscious-state
#12
Helena Erlbeck, Ruben G L Real, Boris Kotchoubey, Donatella Mattia, Jakob Bargak, Andrea Kübler
Patients who survive injuries to the brain following accidents or diseases often acquire a disorder of consciousness (DOC). Assessment of the state of consciousness in these patients is difficult since they are usually incapable of reproducible motor movements. The application of event-related potentials (ERP) recorded via EEG constitutes one promising approach to complement the assessment of cognitive functions in DOC patients. For these assessments, a hierarchical approach was suggested which means that paradigms aiming at higher order ERPs are only presented if early responses were found...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011436/phonological-abilities-in-literacy-impaired-children-brain-potentials-reveal-deficient-phoneme-discrimination-but-intact-prosodic-processing
#13
Claudia Männel, Gesa Schaadt, Franziska K Illner, Elke van der Meer, Angela D Friederici
Intact phonological processing is crucial for successful literacy acquisition. While individuals with difficulties in reading and spelling (i.e., developmental dyslexia) are known to experience deficient phoneme discrimination (i.e., segmental phonology), findings concerning their prosodic processing (i.e., suprasegmental phonology) are controversial. Because there are no behavior-independent studies on the underlying neural correlates of prosodic processing in dyslexia, these controversial findings might be explained by different task demands...
November 27, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003754/associations-between-the-mismatch-negativity-component-and-symptom-severity-in-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#14
Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Toyosaku Ota, Junzo Iida, Yoko Nakanishi, Naoko Kishimoto, Toshifumi Kishimoto
AIM: Cognitive impairment is an important predictor of functional outcome in patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the neurophysiology of ADHD-related cognitive impairments remains unclear. Event-related potentials (ERPs) represent the noninvasive measurement of neural correlates of cognitive function. Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an ERP component that is presumed to index the preattentive monitoring of changes in the auditory environment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Previous studies have shown altered MMN amplitude and latency in patients with ADHD...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000311/subcutaneous-immunoglobulin-as-first-line-therapy-in-treatment-naive-patients-with-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy-randomized-controlled-trial-study
#15
L H Markvardsen, S H Sindrup, I Christiansen, N K Olsen, J Jakobsen, H Andersen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) is effective as maintenance treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). We investigated whether multiple subcutaneous infusions are as effective as conventional therapy with intravenous loading doses in treatment-naive patients with CIDP. METHODS: Twenty patients fulfilling the clinical and electrophysiological criteria for CIDP were included and treated with either SCIG (0.4 g/kg/week) for 5 weeks or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (0...
February 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988478/monitoring-the-short-term-effect-of-intravenous-immunoglobulins-in-multifocal-motor-neuropathy-using-motor-unit-number-index
#16
Manon Philibert, Aude-Marie Grapperon, Emilien Delmont, Shahram Attarian
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether motor unit number index (MUNIX) is pertinent to monitor the effect of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) in multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). METHODS: MUNIX was assessed longitudinally in 7 MMN patients and 17 healthy controls in the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles. A MUNIX sum-score and a compound muscle action potential (CMAP) sum-score were calculated by summing up the scores of APB and ADM...
January 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965527/lexical-specification-of-prosodic-information-in-swedish-evidence-from-mismatch-negativity
#17
Hatice Zora, Tomas Riad, Iris-Corinna Schwarz, Mattias Heldner
Like that of many other Germanic languages, the stress system of Swedish has mainly undergone phonological analysis. Recently, however, researchers have begun to recognize the central role of morphology in these systems. Similar to the lexical specification of tonal accent, the Swedish stress system is claimed to be morphologically determined and morphemes are thus categorized as prosodically specified and prosodically unspecified. Prosodically specified morphemes bear stress information as part of their lexical representations and are classified as tonic (i...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940303/neural-representation-of-a-melodic-motif-effects-of-polyphonic-contexts
#18
Madeline Huberth, Takako Fujioka
In music, a melodic motif is often played repeatedly in different pitch ranges and at different times. Event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that the mismatch negativity (MMN) reflects memory trace processing that encodes two separate melodic lines ("voices") with different motifs. Here we investigated whether a single motif presented in two voices is encoded as a single entity or two separate entities, and whether motifs overlapping in time impede or enhance encoding strength. Electroencephalogram (EEG) from 11 musically-trained participants was recorded while they passively listened to sequences of 5-note motifs where the 5th note either descended (standard) or ascended (deviant) relative to the previous note (20% deviant rate)...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927940/diagnostic-value-of-sonography-in-treatment-naive-chronic-inflammatory-neuropathies
#19
H Stephan Goedee, W Ludo van der Pol, Jan-Thies H van Asseldonk, Hessel Franssen, Nicolette C Notermans, Alexander J F E Vrancken, Michael A van Es, Stavros Nikolakopoulos, Leo H Visser, Leonard H van den Berg
OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic value of high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS) for detection of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), Lewis-Sumner syndrome (LSS), and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). METHODS: Between January 2013 and January 2015, we enrolled 75 consecutive treatment-naive patients with chronic inflammatory neuropathies and 70 disease controls. We performed extensive nerve conduction and standardized HRUS studies bilaterally of large arm and leg nerves and brachial plexus...
January 10, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894782/transitioning-eeg-experiments-away-from-the-laboratory-using-a-raspberry-pi-2
#20
Jonathan W P Kuziek, Axita Shienh, Kyle E Mathewson
BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography (EEG) experiments are typically performed in controlled laboratory settings to minimise noise and produce reliable measurements. These controlled conditions also reduce the applicability of the obtained results to more varied environments and may limit their relevance to everyday situations. NEW METHOD: Advances in computer portability may increase the mobility and applicability of EEG results while decreasing costs. In this experiment we show that stimulus presentation using a Raspberry Pi 2 computer provides a low cost, reliable alternative to a traditional desktop PC in the administration of EEG experimental tasks...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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