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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151101/psychoacoustics-and-neurophysiological-alterations-after-30-36-hours-of-sleep-deprivation
#1
Adrián Poblano, Sergio Díaz-Leines, Olga Gama-Moreno, Blanca Flores-Avalos
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Sleep deprivation (SD) may result in perceptual and cognitive alterations in healthy subjects. Our objective was to compare whether psychoacoustics and neurophysiological variables in healthy subjects were altered after SD of 30-36 h. METHOD: We examined 22 subjects by means of several psychoacoustics tests, P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN) recordings, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) before and after 30-36 h of SD. RESULTS: In the psychoacoustics tests, we found that after SD, difficulties were experienced by the left ear in the discrimination of words in noise and by the right ear in music discrimination...
November 18, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138621/influence-of-the-culture-media-and-the-organic-matter-in-the-growth-of-paxillus-ammoniavirescens-contu-dessi
#2
Elena Fernández-Miranda Cagigal, Abelardo Casares Sánchez
The genus Paxillus is characterized by the difficulty of species identification, which results in reproducibility problems, as well as the need for large quantities of fungal inoculum. In particular, studies of Paxillus ammoniavirescens have reported divergent results in the in vitro growth while little is known of its capacity to degrade organic matter. For all the above, and assuming that this variability could be due to an inappropriate culture media, the aim of this study was to analyse growth in different culture media (MMN, MS, and 1/2 MS) and in the case of MMN in presence/absence of two types of organic matter (fresh litter and senescence litter) to probe the saprophytic ability of P...
September 2017: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136715/-analysis-of-the-clinical-and-electrophysiological-characteristics-of-multifocal-motor-neuropathy
#3
H F Wang, F Yang, F Cui, Z H Chen, L Ling, X S Huang
Ten patients diagnosed with multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) were recruited in the Department of Neurology at Chinese PLA General Hospital from January 1, 2009 to August 31, 2015. The clinical and electrophysiological features were analyzed retrospectively. All patients complained of progressive asymmetric limb weakness, which was more severe in distal than in proximal. Five presented muscle atrophy. None had sensory disturbances. All suffered diminished or disappeared tendon reflex, whereas Babinski signs were negative...
November 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126047/clinico-sonographical-evaluation-of-idiopathic-clubfoot-and-its-correction-by-ponseti-method-a-prospective-study
#4
Sumit Chawla, Mallika Gupta, Varun Pandey, Abhishek Jain, Manoj Kumar
BACKGROUND: Objective evaluation of infant with clubfoot is required as conventional imaging modality is of limited usefulness. Ultrasound shows to be a promising technique for assessing deformity and monitoring of clubfoot correction. AIM: Study was done to evaluate the deformity sonographically; to assess the changes in these parameters after treatment by Ponseti method and to correlate these ultrasonographic variables with clinical Pirani score. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 82 feet in 54 children were observed...
September 29, 2017: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119657/reduced-neural-responses-to-vocal-fear-a-potential-biomarker-for-callous-uncaring-traits-in-early-childhood
#5
Caroline P Hoyniak, John E Bates, Isaac T Petersen, Chung-Lin Yang, Isabelle Darcy, Nathalie M G Fontaine
OBJECTIVE: Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are characterized by a lack of guilt and empathy, and low responsiveness to distress and fear in others. Children with CU traits are at-risk for engaging in early and persistent conduct problems. Individuals showing CU traits have been shown to have reduced neural responses to others' distress (e.g., fear). However, the neural components of distress responses in children with CU traits have not been investigated in early childhood. In the current study, we examined neural responses that underlie the processing of emotionally valenced vocal stimuli using the event-related potential technique in a group of preschoolers...
November 8, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102707/neurophysiological-differentiation-between-preattentive-and-attentive-processing-of-emotional-expressions-on-french-vowels
#6
Mathilde Carminati, Nicole Fiori-Duharcourt, Frédéric Isel
The present electrophysiological study investigated the processing of emotional prosody by minimizing as much as possible the effect of emotional information conveyed by the lexical-semantic context. Emotionally colored French vowels (i.e., happiness, sadness, fear, and neutral) were presented in a mismatch negativity (MMN) oddball paradigm. Both the MMN, i.e., an event-related potential (ERP) component thought to reflect preattentive change detection, and the P3a, i.e., an ERP marker of involuntary orientation of attention toward deviant stimuli, were significantly modulated by the emotional deviants compared to the neutral ones...
November 2, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098783/associations-of-maternal-nutrition-during-pregnancy-and-post-partum-with-maternal-cognition-and-caregiving
#7
Elizabeth L Prado, Ulla Ashorn, John Phuka, Kenneth Maleta, John Sadalaki, Brietta M Oaks, Marjorie Haskell, Lindsay H Allen, Steve A Vosti, Per Ashorn, Kathryn G Dewey
Pregnant and post-partum women require increased nutrient intake and optimal cognition, which depends on adequate nutrition, to enable reasoning and learning for caregiving. We aimed to assess (a) differences in maternal cognition and caregiving between women in Malawi who received different nutritional supplements, (b) 14 effect modifiers, and (c) associations of cognition and caregiving with biomarkers of iron, Vitamin A, B-vitamin, and fatty acid status. In a randomized controlled trial (n = 869), pregnant women daily received either multiple micronutrients (MMN), 20 g/day lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS), or a control iron/folic acid (IFA) tablet...
November 2, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079799/emergence-of-early-alterations-in-network-oscillations-and-functional-connectivity-in-a-tau-seeding-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-pathology
#8
A Ahnaou, D Moechars, L Raeymaekers, R Biermans, N V Manyakov, A Bottelbergs, C Wintmolders, K Van Kolen, T Van De Casteele, J A Kemp, W H Drinkenburg
Synaptic dysfunction and disconnectivity are core deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD), preceding clear changes in histopathology and cognitive functioning. Here, the early and late effects of tau pathology induction on functional network connectivity were investigated in P301L mice. Multichannel EEG oscillations were used to compute (1) coherent activity between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HPC) CA1-CA3 networks; (2) phase-amplitude cross frequency coupling (PAC) between theta and gamma oscillations, which is instrumental in adequate cognitive functioning; (3) information processing as assessed by auditory evoked potentials and oscillations in the passive oddball mismatch negativity-like (MMN) paradigm...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074265/the-effect-of-illusionary-perception-on-mismatch-negativity-mmn-an-electroencephalography-study
#9
Kentaro Ono, Daiki Yamasaki, Christian F Altmann, Tatsuya Mima
Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a unique brain response elicited by any discernible change of features in a tone sequence. Although the occurrence of MMN is dependent upon the difference of a stimulus parameter, such as frequency or intensity, recent studies have suggested that MMN occurs as a result of a comparison between an internal representation created by perception and an incoming tone. The present study aimed to investigate MMN occurs based upon the physical properties of stimuli or as a result of the perception of the scale illusion...
October 17, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066945/effect-of-eeg-referencing-methods-on-auditory-mismatch-negativity
#10
Yatin Mahajan, Varghese Peter, Mridula Sharma
Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) have consistently been used in the investigation of auditory and cognitive processing in the research and clinical laboratories. There is currently no consensus on the choice of appropriate reference for auditory ERPs. The most commonly used references in auditory ERP research are the mathematically linked-mastoids (LM) and average referencing (AVG). Since LM and AVG referencing procedures do not solve the issue of electrically-neutral reference, Reference Electrode Standardization Technique (REST) was developed to create a neutral reference for EEG recordings...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059543/spread-the-word-mmn-brain-response-reveals-whole-form-access-of-discontinuous-particle-verbs
#11
Jeff Hanna, Bert Cappelle, Friedemann Pulvermüller
The status of particle verbs such as rise (…) up as either lexically stored or combinatorially assembled is an issue which so far has not been settled decisively. In this study, we use the mismatch negativity (MMN) brain response to observe neurophysiological responses to discontinuous particle verbs. The MMN can be used to distinguish between whole-form storage and combinatorial processes, as it is enhanced to stored words compared to unknown pseudowords, whereas combinatorially legal strings elicit a reduced MMN relative to ungrammatical ones...
October 20, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036701/mismatch-negativity-but-not-p300-is-associated-with-functional-disability-in-schizophrenia
#12
Holly K Hamilton, Veronica B Perez, Judith M Ford, Brian J Roach, Judith Jaeger, Daniel H Mathalon
Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P300 event-related potential (ERP) reductions in schizophrenia (SZ) reflect preattentive and attention-mediated auditory processing deficits, respectively. Although both have been linked to cognitive deficits in SZ, their relative contributions to real-world functioning are unclear. We sought to determine the functional significance of disrupted auditory processing in SZ by examining MMN and P300 in typically disabled low-functioning patients and in patients with high levels of independent role functioning...
August 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036493/predicting-remission-in-subjects-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-using-mismatch-negativity
#13
Minah Kim, Tak Hyung Lee, Youngwoo Bryan Yoon, Tae Young Lee, Jun Soo Kwon
Background: The declining transition rate to psychotic disorder and the increasing rate of nonpsychotic poor outcomes among subjects at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis have increased the need for biomarkers to predict remission regardless of transition. This study investigated whether mismatch negativity (MMN) predicts the prognosis of CHR individuals during a 6-year follow-up period. Methods: A total of 47 healthy control (HC) subjects and 48 subjects at CHR for psychosis participated in the MMN assessment...
July 31, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033283/developmental-trajectory-of-mismatch-negativity-and-visual-event-related-potentials-in-healthy-controls-implications-for-neurodevelopmental-vs-neurodegenerative-models-of-schizophrenia
#14
Cheryl M Corcoran, Anastasia Stoops, Migyung Lee, Antigona Martinez, Pejman Sehatpour, Elisa C Dias, Daniel C Javitt
Sensory processing deficits are core features of schizophrenia, reflected in impaired generation of event-related potential (ERP) measures such as auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) and visual P1. To understand the potential time course of development of deficits in schizophrenia, we obtained MMN to unattended duration, intensity and frequency deviants, and visual P1 to attended LSF stimuli, in 43 healthy individuals ages 6 to 25years (mean 17), and compared results to data from 30 adult schizophrenia patients (mean age 38)...
October 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018583/effects-of-nutrition-interventions-during-pregnancy-on-low-birth-weight-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#15
Katharina da Silva Lopes, Erika Ota, Prakash Shakya, Amarjargal Dagvadorj, Olukunmi Omobolanle Balogun, Juan Pablo Peña-Rosas, Luz Maria De-Regil, Rintaro Mori
INTRODUCTION: Low birth weight (LBW, birth weight less than 2500 g) is associated with infant mortality and childhood morbidity. Poor maternal nutritional status is one of several contributing factors to LBW. We systematically reviewed the evidence for nutrition-specific (addressing the immediate determinants of nutrition) and nutrition-sensitive (addressing the underlying cause of undernutrition) interventions to reduce the risk of LBW and/or its components: preterm birth (PTB) and small-for-gestational age (SGA)...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018582/effect-of-low-dose-versus-higher-dose-antenatal-iron-supplementation-on-child-health-outcomes-at-36-months-of-age-in-viet-nam-longitudinal-follow-up-of-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Sarah Hanieh, Tran T Ha, Julie A Simpson, Sabine Braat, Tran T Thuy, Thach D Tran, Janet King, Tran Tuan, Jane Fisher, Beverley-Ann Biggs
INTRODUCTION: Intermittent iron-folic acid supplementation (IFA) is currently recommended for pregnant women in populations where anaemia prevalence among pregnant women is <20% or if daily iron is not acceptable. The effect of providing lower doses of antenatal elemental iron through intermittent regimes on longer-term health outcomes in childhood is unclear. METHODS: A prospective cohort study conducted between May 2012 and May 2014 in Viet Nam among children of 36 months of age, born to women previously enrolled in a cluster randomised controlled trial of antenatal micronutrient supplementation (daily IFA (60 mg elemental iron) vs twice-weekly IFA (60 mg elemental iron) vs twice-weekly multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplementation (60 mg elemental iron))...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987905/neural-processing-of-musical-meter-in-musicians-and-non-musicians
#17
T Christina Zhao, H T Gloria Lam, Harkirat Sohi, Patricia K Kuhl
Musical sounds, along with speech, are the most prominent sounds in our daily lives. They are highly dynamic, yet well structured in the temporal domain in a hierarchical manner. The temporal structures enhance the predictability of musical sounds. Western music provides an excellent example: while time intervals between musical notes are highly variable, underlying beats can be realized. The beat-level temporal structure provides a sense of regular pulses. Beats can be further organized into units, giving the percept of alternating strong and weak beats (i...
October 4, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986006/association-between-mismatch-negativity-and-global-functioning-is-specific-to-duration-deviance-in-early-stages-of-psychosis
#18
Daisuke Koshiyama, Kenji Kirihara, Mariko Tada, Tatsuya Nagai, Mao Fujioka, Shinsuke Koike, Motomu Suga, Tsuyoshi Araki, Kiyoto Kasai
BACKGROUND: Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a candidate biomarker for early stages of psychosis. Although an association among duration MMN (dMMN), cognitive deficits, and functional outcome in chronic schizophrenia has been shown by a large-scale study, the effects of deviant type and clinical stages have not been investigated. METHODS: We investigated the relationships among dMMN, frequency MMN (fMMN), global functioning, and cognitive function in early stages of psychosis...
October 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980891/multi-micronutrient-supplementation-during-pregnancy-for-prevention-of-maternal-anaemia-and-adverse-birth-outcomes-in-a-high-altitude-area-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-rural-tibet-of-china
#19
Yijun Kang, Shaonong Dang, Lingxia Zeng, Duolao Wang, Qiang Li, Jianpeng Wang, Luobu Ouzhu, Hong Yan
Anaemia during pregnancy, characterised by Hb <110 g/l, is a specific risk factor for adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes in developing countries. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of daily antenatal supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) compared with folic acid (FA) on the occurrence of anaemia among pregnant women and their infants' health in a high-altitude area. A prospective cohort study was carried out in two rural counties in Tibet from 2007 to 2012. A total of 1149 eligible pregnant women were allocated daily supplementation with FA in one county and MMN containing a recommended allowance of twenty-three vitamins and minerals in another county starting ≤24 weeks of gestation and continuing until delivery...
September 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972671/first-impression-bias-effects-on-mismatch-negativity-to-auditory-spatial-deviants
#20
Kaitlin Fitzgerald, Alexander Provost, Juanita Todd
Internal models of regularities in the world serve to facilitate perception as redundant input can be predicted and neural resources conserved for that which is new or unexpected. In the auditory system, this is reflected in an evoked potential component known as mismatch negativity (MMN). MMN is elicited by the violation of an established regularity to signal the inaccuracy of the current model and direct resources to the unexpected event. Prevailing accounts suggest that MMN amplitude will increase with stability in regularity; however, observations of first-impression bias contradict stability effects...
October 3, 2017: Psychophysiology
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