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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736682/brain-mechanisms-involved-in-angry-prosody-change-detection-in-school-age-children-and-adults-revealed-by-electrophysiology
#1
Judith Charpentier, Klara Kovarski, Sylvie Roux, Emmanuelle Houy-Durand, Agathe Saby, Frédérique Bonnet-Brilhault, Marianne Latinus, Marie Gomot
Voices transmit social signals through speech and/or prosody. Emotional prosody conveys key information about the emotional state of a speaker and is thus a crucial cue that one has to detect in order to develop efficient social communication. Previous studies in adults reported different brain responses to emotional than to neutral prosodic deviancy. The aim of this study was to characterize such specific emotional deviancy effects in school-age children. The mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a evoked potentials, reflecting automatic change detection and automatic attention orienting, respectively, were obtained for neutral and emotional angry deviants in both school-age children (n = 26) and adults (n = 14)...
May 7, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734894/-in-situ-vascular-nerve-graft-for-restoration-of-intrinsic-hand-function-an-anatomical-study
#2
Kamran Mozaffarian, Hamid Reza Zemoodeh, Mohammad Zarenezhad, Mohammad Owji
BACKGROUND: In combined high median and ulnar nerve injury, transfer of the posterior interosseous nerve branches to the motor branch of the ulnar nerve (MUN) is previously described in order to restore intrinsic hand function. In this operation a segment of sural nerve graft is required to close the gap between the donor and recipient nerves. However the thenar muscles are not innervated by this nerve transfer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the superficial radial nerve (SRN) can be used as an "in situ vascular nerve graft" to connect the donor nerves to the MUN and the motor branch of median nerve (MMN) at the same time in order to address all denervated intrinsic and thenar muscles...
June 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734823/from-the-field-improving-fetal-and-infant-growth-in-vulnerable-populations
#3
Seth Adu-Afarwuah
BACKGROUND: This article summarizes a presentation given at the 2017 Dairy for Global Nutrition Conference in Boise, Idaho. OBJECTIVE: To give an overview of the pattern of early growth faltering in developing countries and examine the implications of the iLiNS-DYAD randomized trial in Ghana. METHODS: The pattern of growth faltering in developing countries was outlined. In Ghana, 1320 women ≤ 20 weeks of pregnancy were assigned to 20 g/d small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement (SQ-LNS; LNS group) or multiple micronutrients (MMNs) containing 22 and 18 vitamins and minerals, respectively, until 6 months postpartum, or iron and folic acid (IFA) until delivery, and thereafter placebo until 6 months postpartum...
January 1, 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720932/influence-of-musical-enculturation-on-brain-responses-to-metric-deviants
#4
Niels T Haumann, Peter Vuust, Freja Bertelsen, Eduardo A Garza-Villarreal
The ability to recognize metric accents is fundamental in both music and language perception. It has been suggested that music listeners prefer rhythms that follow simple binary meters, which are common in Western music. This means that listeners expect odd-numbered beats to be strong and even-numbered beats to be weak. In support of this, studies have shown that listeners exposed to Western music show stronger novelty and incongruity related P3 and irregularity detection related mismatch negativity (MMN) brain responses to attenuated odd- than attenuated even-numbered metric positions...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715566/indexing-sensory-plasticity-evidence-for-distinct-predictive-coding-and-hebbian-learning-mechanisms-in-the-cerebral-cortex
#5
M J Spriggs, R L Sumner, R L McMillan, R J Moran, I J Kirk, S D Muthukumaraswamy
The Roving Mismatch Negativity (MMN), and Visual LTP paradigms are widely used as independent measures of sensory plasticity. However, the paradigms are built upon fundamentally different (and seemingly opposing) models of perceptual learning; namely, Predictive Coding (MMN) and Hebbian plasticity (LTP). The aim of the current study was to compare the generative mechanisms of the MMN and visual LTP, therefore assessing whether Predictive Coding and Hebbian mechanisms co-occur in the brain. Forty participants were presented with both paradigms during EEG recording...
April 28, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713997/identification-of-taar5-agonist-activity-of-alpha-neta-and-its-effect-on-mismatch-negativity-amplitude-in-awake-rats
#6
Aleksander A Aleksandrov, Veronika M Knyazeva, Anna B Volnova, Elena S Dmitrieva, Olga Korenkova, Stefano Espinoza, Andrey Gerasimov, Raul R Gainetdinov
Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a well-defined component of human event-related potentials that reflects the pre-attentive, stimulus-discrimination process and is associated with involuntary switching of attention. MMN-like responses detected in animal models provide an opportunity to investigate the neural mechanisms of this process that involves several neurotransmitter and neuromodulator systems. Trace amines are believed to play a significant role in neuromodulation of synaptic transmission. The present study aimed to determine the role of trace amine-associated receptor 5 (TAAR5) in the MMN-like response in rats...
May 1, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713269/effects-of-subanesthetic-ketamine-administration-on-visual-and-auditory-event-related-potentials-erp-in-humans-a-systematic-review
#7
André Schwertner, Maxciel Zortea, Felipe V Torres, Wolnei Caumo
Ketamine is a non-competitive N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist whose effect in subanesthetic doses has been studied for chronic pain and mood disorders treatment. It has been proposed that ketamine could change the perception of nociceptive stimuli by modulating the cortical connectivity and altering the top-down mechanisms that control conscious pain perception. As this is a strictly central effect, it would be relevant to provide fresh insight into ketamine's effect on cortical response to external stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694384/mismatch-negativity-reflects-asymmetric-pre-attentive-harmonic-interval-discrimination
#8
Luise Wagner, Torsten Rahne, Stefan K Plontke, Nico Heidekrüger
OBJECTIVE: Western music is based on intervals; thus, interval discrimination is important for distinguishing the character of melodies or tracking melodies in polyphonic music. In this study the encoding of intervals in simultaneously presented sound is studied. STUDY DESIGN: In an electrophysiological experiment in 15 normal-hearing non-musicians, major thirds or fifths were presented in a controlled oddball paradigm. Harmonic intervals were created by simultaneously presented sinusoidals with randomized root frequency...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692746/the-development-of-mismatch-responses-to-mandarin-lexical-tone-in-12-to-24-month-old-infants
#9
Ying-Ying Cheng, Chia-Ying Lee
This study explores the development of mismatch responses (MMRs) to Mandarin lexical tone changes in infants at 12, 18, and 24 months of age using the multi-deviant oddball paradigm with the low dipping Tone 3 (T3) as the standard, the high level Tone 1 (T1) as the large, and the high rising Tone 2 (T2) as the small deviant. The results show that the large acoustic change between T1/T3 elicited mismatch negativity (MMN) in all three age groups. The small acoustic change between T2/T3 elicited a positive mismatch response (P-MMR) at 12 and 18 months of age, but no MMR was found to the T2/T3 change at 24 months...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689493/are-lexical-tones-musical-native-language-s-influence-on-neural-response-to-pitch-in-different-domains
#10
Ao Chen, Varghese Peter, Frank Wijnen, Hugo Schnack, Denis Burnham
Language experience shapes musical and speech pitch processing. We investigated whether speaking a lexical tone language natively modulates neural processing of pitch in language and music as well as their correlation. We tested tone language (Mandarin Chinese), and non-tone language (Dutch) listeners in a passive oddball paradigm measuring mismatch negativity (MMN) for (i) Chinese lexical tones and (ii) three-note musical melodies with similar pitch contours. For lexical tones, Chinese listeners showed a later MMN peak than the non-tone language listeners, whereas for MMN amplitude there were no significant differences between groups...
April 21, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684224/mismatch-negativity-and-cortical-thickness-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#11
Sungkean Kim, Hyeonjin Jeon, Kuk-In Jang, Yong-Wook Kim, Chang-Hwan Im, Seung-Hwan Lee
Introduction: Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a measure of automatic neurophysiological brain processes for detecting unexpected sensory stimuli. This study investigated MMN reduction in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and examined whether cortical thickness is associated with MMN, for exploratory purposes. Methods: Electroencephalograms were recorded in 38 patients with schizophrenia, 37 patients with bipolar disorder, and 32 healthy controls (HCs) performing a passive auditory oddball paradigm...
April 19, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673322/the-spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-deviance-and-target-detection-in-the-passive-and-active-auditory-oddball-paradigm-a-sloreta-study
#12
Christoph Justen, Cornelia Herbert
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have investigated the neural underpinnings of passive and active deviance and target detection in the well-known auditory oddball paradigm by means of event-related potentials (ERPs) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The present auditory oddball study investigates the spatio-temporal dynamics of passive versus active deviance and target detection by analyzing amplitude modulations of early and late ERPs while at the same time exploring the neural sources underling this modulation with standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) ...
April 19, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656569/ghanaian-parents-perceptions-of-pre-and-postnatal-nutrient-supplements-and-their-effects
#13
Katherine P Adams, Harriet Okronipa, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Mary Arimond, Sika Kumordzie, Brietta M Oaks, Maku E Ocansey, Rebecca R Young, Stephen A Vosti, Kathryn G Dewey
Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) have been studied in efficacy and effectiveness trials, but little is known about how parents perceive the products and their effects. In a randomised trial in Ghana, efficacy of SQ-LNS provided to women during pregnancy and the first 6 months postpartum and to their children from 6 to 18 months of age was assessed by comparison with iron-folic acid (IFA) capsules and multiple micronutrient (MMN) capsules provided to women. In a follow-up study conducted when the index children from the original trial were between 4 and 6 years of age, we used survey-based methods to assess retrospective and current parental perceptions of nutrient supplements generally and of SQ-LNS and their effects compared with perceptions IFA and MMN capsules...
April 15, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655652/protective-role-of-rosmarinic-acid-on-amyloid-beta-42-induced-echoic-memory-decline-implication-of-oxidative-stress-and-cholinergic-impairment
#14
Deniz Kantar Gok, Enis Hidisoglu, Guzide Ayse Ocak, Hakan Er, Alev Duygu Acun, Piraye Yargıcoglu
In the present study, we examined whether rosmarinic acid (RA) reverses amyloid β (Aβ) induced reductions in antioxidant defense, lipid peroxidation, cholinergic damage as well as the central auditory deficits. For this purpose, Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups; Sham(S), Sham + RA (SR), Aβ42 peptide (Aβ) and Aβ42 peptide + RA (AβR) groups. Rat model of Alzheimer was established by bilateral injection of Aβ42 peptide (2,2 nmol/10 μl) into the lateral ventricles. RA (50 mg/kg, daily) was administered orally by gavage for 14 days after intracerebroventricular injection...
April 12, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628433/sensory-prediction-errors-are-less-modulated-by-global-context-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Judith Goris, Senne Braem, Annabel D Nijhof, Davide Rigoni, Eliane Deschrijver, Sander Van de Cruys, Jan R Wiersema, Marcel Brass
BACKGROUND: Recent predictive coding accounts of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggest that a key deficit in ASD concerns the inflexibility in modulating local prediction errors as a function of global top-down expectations. As a direct test of this central hypothesis, we used electroencephalography to investigate whether local prediction error processing was less modulated by global context (i.e., global stimulus frequency) in ASD. METHODS: A group of 18 adults with ASD was compared with a group of 24 typically developed adults on a well-validated hierarchical auditory oddball task in which participants listened to short sequences of either five identical sounds (local standard) or four identical sounds and a fifth deviant sound (local deviant)...
March 6, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623054/the-duration-of-auditory-sensory-memory-for-vowel-processing-neurophysiological-and-behavioral-measures
#16
Yan H Yu, Valerie L Shafer, Elyse S Sussman
Speech perception behavioral research suggests that rates of sensory memory decay are dependent on stimulus properties at more than one level (e.g., acoustic level, phonemic level). The neurophysiology of sensory memory decay rate has rarely been examined in the context of speech processing. In a lexical tone study, we showed that long-term memory representation of lexical tone slows the decay rate of sensory memory for these tones. Here, we tested the hypothesis that long-term memory representation of vowels slows the rate of auditory sensory memory decay in a similar way to that of lexical tone...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621073/normalization-of-speech-processing-after-whole-vault-cranioplasty-in-sagittal-synostosis
#17
Carolyn Chuang, Max Rolison, Jenny F Yang, Eric D Brooks, Peter W Hashim, Roberto Travieso, Jordan Terner, Derek M Steinbacher, Nicole Landi, Katherine K M Stavropoulos, Linda C Mayes, John A Persing, James C McPartland
BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive studies have found impairments in language-related abilities in nonsyndromic craniosynostosis, highlighting clinical importance of early language processing. In this study, neural response to speech sounds in infants with nonsyndromic sagittal craniosynostosis (NSC) is compared, preoperatively and postoperatively, using event-related potentials (ERPs) to objectively characterize development in language processing. METHODS: Electroencephalogram was recorded while 39 infants (12 NSC and 27 controls; ages 73-283 days) listened to the Hindi dental /da/ and retroflex /da/ phonemes (non-native phonemic discrimination task)...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615941/one-way-or-another-evidence-for-perceptual-asymmetry-in-pre-attentive-learning-of-non-native-contrasts
#18
Liquan Liu, Jia Hoong Ong, Alba Tuninetti, Paola Escudero
Research investigating listeners' neural sensitivity to speech sounds has largely focused on segmental features. We examined Australian English listeners' perception and learning of a supra-segmental feature, pitch direction in a non-native tonal contrast, using a passive oddball paradigm and electroencephalography. The stimuli were two contours generated from naturally produced high-level and high-falling tones in Mandarin Chinese, differing only in pitch direction (Liu and Kager, 2014). While both contours had similar pitch onsets, the pitch offset of the falling contour was lower than that of the level one...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596955/alterations-of-complex-mismatch-negativity-cmmn-elicited-by-a-two-tone-pattern-paradigm-in-early-phase-psychosis
#19
Emma M L Ells, Erica D Rudolph, Lauren Sculthorpe-Petley, Shelagh C Abriel, Debra J Campbell, Philip G Tibbo, Derek J Fisher
The mismatch negativity (MMN) is a component of the event-related potential (ERP) elicited by a change in auditory stimulation (e.g., the occurrence of a deviant sound that violates the rules or regularities of the preceding stimulus sequence) regardless of whether one is attending to the change or not. As such, the MMN provides a useful index of pre-attentive cognition. While decreases in MMN amplitude are robustly observed in chronic schizophrenia, these deficits are less consistently present at the early phase of the illness...
March 26, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581379/visual-mismatch-and-predictive-coding-a-computational-single-trial-erp-study
#20
Gabor Stefanics, Jakob Heinzle, András Attila Horváth, Klaas Enno Stephan
Predictive coding (PC) posits that the brain employs a generative model to infer the environmental causes of its sensory data and uses precision-weighted prediction errors (pwPE) to continuously update this model. While supported by much circumstantial evidence, experimental tests grounded in formal trial-by-trial predictions are rare. One partial exception are event-related potential (ERP) studies of the auditory mismatch negativity (MMN), where computational models have found signatures of pwPEs and related model-updating processes...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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