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Phonological awareness

Erin Hawkins, Susan Gathercole, Duncan Astle, The Calm Team, Joni Holmes
Symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity frequently co-occur with language difficulties in both clinical and community samples. We explore the specificity and strength of these associations in a heterogeneous sample of 254 children aged 5 to 15 years identified by education and health professionals as having problems with attention, learning and/or memory. Parents/carers rated pragmatic and structural communication skills and behaviour, and children completed standardised assessments of reading, spelling, vocabulary, and phonological awareness...
October 21, 2016: Brain Sciences
Jeremy M Law, Jan Wouters, Pol Ghesquière
The direct influence of phonological awareness (PA) on reading outcomes has been widely demonstrated, yet PA may also exert indirect influence on reading outcomes through other cognitive variables such as morphological awareness (MA). However, PA's own development is dependent and influenced by many extraneous variables such as auditory processing, which could ultimately impact reading outcomes. In a group of pre-reading children with a family risk of dyslexia and low-risk controls, this study sets out to answer questions surrounding PA's relationship at various grain sizes (syllable, onset/rime and phoneme) with measures of auditory processing (frequency modulation (FM) and an amplitude rise-time task (RT)) and MA, independent of reading experience...
October 23, 2016: Developmental Science
Usha Goswami, Lisa Barnes, Natasha Mead, Alan James Power, Victoria Leong
Children with developmental dyslexia are characterized by phonological difficulties across languages. Classically, this 'phonological deficit' in dyslexia has been investigated with tasks using single-syllable words. Recently, however, several studies have demonstrated difficulties in prosodic awareness in dyslexia. Potential prosodic effects in short-term memory have not yet been investigated. Here we create a new instrument based on three-syllable words that vary in stress patterns, to investigate whether prosodic similarity (the same prosodic pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables) exerts systematic effects on short-term memory...
October 17, 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Ola Ozernov-Palchik, Elizabeth S Norton, Georgios Sideridis, Sara D Beach, Maryanne Wolf, John D E Gabrieli, Nadine Gaab
Research suggests that early identification of developmental dyslexia is important for mitigating the negative effects of dyslexia, including reduced educational attainment and increased socioemotional difficulties. The strongest pre-literacy predictors of dyslexia are rapid automatized naming (RAN), phonological awareness (PA), letter knowledge, and verbal short-term memory. The relationship among these constructs has been debated, and several theories have emerged to explain the unique role of each in reading ability/disability...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Science
Iliana I Karipidis, Georgette Pleisch, Martina Röthlisberger, Christoph Hofstetter, Dario Dornbierer, Philipp Stämpfli, Silvia Brem
Learning letter-speech sound correspondences is a major step in reading acquisition and is severely impaired in children with dyslexia. Up to now, it remains largely unknown how quickly neural networks adopt specific functions during audiovisual integration of linguistic information when prereading children learn letter-speech sound correspondences. Here, we simulated the process of learning letter-speech sound correspondences in 20 prereading children (6.13-7.17 years) at varying risk for dyslexia by training artificial letter-speech sound correspondences within a single experimental session...
October 14, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Chen Chen, Matthew H Schneps, Katherine E Masyn, Jennifer M Thomson
Increasing evidence has shown visual attention span to be a factor, distinct from phonological skills, that explains single-word identification (pseudo-word/word reading) performance in dyslexia. Yet, little is known about how well visual attention span explains text comprehension. Observing reading comprehension in a sample of 105 high school students with dyslexia, we used a pathway analysis to examine the direct and indirect path between visual attention span and reading comprehension while controlling for other factors such as phonological awareness, letter identification, short-term memory, IQ and age...
October 14, 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Xiuli Tong, Xinjie He, S Hélène Deacon
Languages differ considerably in how they use prosodic features, or variations in pitch, duration, and intensity, to distinguish one word from another. Prosodic features include lexical tone in Chinese and lexical stress in English. Recent cross-sectional studies show a surprising result that Mandarin Chinese tone sensitivity is related to Mandarin-English bilingual children's English word reading. This study explores the mechanism underlying this relation by testing two explanations of these effects: the prosodic hypothesis and segmental phonological awareness transfer...
October 13, 2016: Memory & Cognition
Yahua Cheng, Jie Zhang, Xinchun Wu, Hongyun Liu, Hong Li
The present study examined the developmental relationship between morphological awareness (MA) and reading comprehension (RC) using a 2-year and four-wave cross-lagged design with a sample of 149 Chinese children (80 males and 69 females). We measured children's MA, word reading (WR), and RC from T1 to T4, in addition to phonological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, and general cognitive ability at T1 as control measures. Four plausible cross-lagged models were assessed and compared to examine the direction of the developmental relationships between MA and RC over time...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Nathane Sanches Marques Silva, Patrícia Abreu Pinheiro Crenitte
Purpose: To assess the applicability of an intervention program to children at risk for reading disabilities. Methods: This experimental study compared 10 children at risk for reading difficulty submitted to a phonological decoding intervention program (study group) with 10 other children at risk for reading difficulty not submitted to the program (control group). The intervention program was based on two international studies. It comprised 24 sessions: the first 12 sessions were conducted with groups of two to three children, whereas the others were performed individually...
September 26, 2016: CoDAS
David J Purpura, Sara A Schmitt, Colleen M Ganley
The current study investigated the relations between the three cognitive processes that comprise executive functioning (EF)-response inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility-and individual components of mathematics and literacy skills in preschool children. Participants were 125 preschool children ranging in age from 3.12 to 5.26years (M=4.17years, SD=0.58). Approximately 53.2% were female, and the sample was predominantly Caucasian (69.8%). Results suggest that the components of EF may be differentially related to the specific components of early mathematics and literacy...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Maria Lennox, Marleen F Westerveld, David Trembath
PURPOSE: This study examined the effectiveness of a classroom-based intervention programme aimed at improving the oral language and emergent literacy skills of students from low socio-economic, culturally diverse backgrounds within their first formal year of schooling ("prep"). METHOD: Data from 137 students were available for analysis. Participants were from three primary schools located in Queensland, Australia. Eight classes were allocated to intervention and two classes acted as a business as usual control...
September 19, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Tatsuya Ogino, Kaoru Hanafusa, Teruko Morooka, Akihito Takeuchi, Makio Oka, Yoko Ohtsuka
OBJECTIVE: To clarify cognitive processes underlining the development of reading in children speaking Japanese as their first language, we examined relationships between performances of cognitive tasks in the preschool period and later reading abilities. METHODS: Ninety-one normally developing preschoolers (41 girls and 50 boys; 5years 4months to 6years 4months, mean 5years 10months) participated as subjects. We conducted seven cognitive tasks including phonological awareness tasks, naming tasks, and working memory tasks in the preschool period...
September 13, 2016: Brain & Development
Katherine E Travis, Jenna N Adams, Vanessa N Kovachy, Michal Ben-Shachar, Heidi M Feldman
Reading, an essential life skill in modern society, is typically learned during childhood. Adults who can read show white matter differences compared to adults who never learned to read. Studies have not established whether children who can read show similar white matter differences compared to children who cannot read. We compared 6-year old children who could decode written English words and pseudowords (n = 31; Readers) and 6-year old children who could not decode pseudowords and had a standard score <100 on a task for reading single words (n = 11; Pre-readers)...
September 15, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Beth A O'Brien, Sebastian Wallot
This paper focuses on reading fluency by bilingual primary school students, and the relation of text fluency to their reading comprehension. Group differences were examined in a cross-sectional design across the age range when fluency is posed to shift from word-level to text-level. One hundred five bilingual children from primary grades 3, 4, and 5 were assessed for English word reading and decoding fluency, phonological awareness, rapid symbol naming, and oral language proficiency with standardized measures...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Octávio Moura, Marcelino Pereira, Cláudia Alfaiate, Eva Fernandes, Boavida Fernandes, Susana Nogueira, Joana Moreno, Mário R Simões
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate the neurocognitive functioning of children with developmental dyslexia (DD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: Four groups of children between the ages of 8 and 10 years participated in the study: typically developing children (TDC; N = 34), children with DD-only (N = 32), children with ADHD-only (N = 32), and children with DD+ADHD (N = 18). RESULTS: Children with DD and ADHD exhibited significant weaknesses on almost all neurocognitive measures compared with TDC...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Gene Ouellette, Monique Sénéchal
In this study we evaluated whether the sophistication of children's invented spellings in kindergarten was predictive of subsequent reading and spelling in Grade 1, while also considering the influence of well-known precursors. Children in their first year of schooling (mean age = 66 months; N = 171) were assessed on measures of oral vocabulary, alphabetic knowledge, phonological awareness, word reading and invented spelling; approximately 1 year later they were assessed on multiple measures of reading and spelling...
September 12, 2016: Developmental Psychology
Elizabeth Sacchi, Sarah Laszlo
As reading development progresses, the visual processing of word forms becomes increasingly left-lateralized. This is visible, among other ways, as increased left-lateralization of the N170 ERP component. A primary explanation of this effect, the phonological mapping hypothesis, proposes that the left-lateralization of visual word form processing that accompanies reading development is the result of calling upon left hemisphere auditory language regions to perform the linking of orthography with phonology (phonological mapping)...
September 8, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Timothy C Papadopoulos, George C Spanoudis, George K Georgiou
We examined the prominent theoretical explanations of the RAN-reading relationship in a relatively transparent language (Greek) in a sample of children (n = 286) followed from Grade 1 to Grade 2. Specifically, we tested the fit of eight different models, as defined by the type of reading performance predicted (oral vs. silent word reading fluency), the type of RAN tasks (non-alphanumeric vs. alphanumeric), and the RAN effects (direct vs. indirect). Working memory, attention, processing speed, and motor skills were used as "common cause" variables predicting both RAN and reading fluency and phonological awareness and orthographic processing were used as mediators of RAN's effects on reading fluency...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Blanca Schaefer, Joy Stackhouse, Bill Wells
PURPOSE: There is strong empirical evidence that English-speaking children with spoken language difficulties (SLD) often have phonological awareness (PA) deficits. The aim of this study was to explore longitudinally if this is also true of pre-school children speaking German, a language that makes extensive use of derivational morphemes which may impact on the acquisition of different PA levels. METHOD: Thirty 4-year-old children with SLD were assessed on 11 PA subtests at three points over a 12-month period and compared with 97 four-year-old typically developing (TD) children...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Nathalie J Veenendaal, Margriet A Groen, Ludo Verhoeven
The aim of the present study was to examine the relation between decoding and segmental and suprasegmental phonology, and their contribution to reading comprehension, in the upper primary grades. Following a longitudinal design, the performance of 99 Dutch primary school children on phonological awareness (segmental phonology) and text reading prosody (suprasegmental phonology) in fourth-grade and fifth-grade, and reading comprehension in sixth-grade were examined. In addition, decoding efficiency as a general assessment of reading was examined...
January 2016: Reading Research Quarterly
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