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Phonetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729803/anterosuperior-rehabilitation-with-metal-free-fixed-prosthesis-based-on-zirconia
#1
Sthelen Nayara Cenci, Igor Alessandro Gontarsky, Marcella Goetz Moro, Lidia Olga Bach Pinheiro, Adriana Postiglione Bührer Samra
The loss of upper front dental elements causes functional and psychosocial problems to the affected individuals. In this case report, the treatment planning considered hard and soft tissue loss for a complex fixed partial denture (FPD) rehabilitation. The six-element, all-ceramic FPD was manufactured using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing system with zirconia framework, veneered with leucite-reinforced ceramic. Ceramic artificial gum was also produced to guarantee tooth-facial proportions as well as lip support, promoting both esthetics and phonetics...
April 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724982/primary-phonological-planning-units-in-spoken-word-production-are-language-specific-evidence-from-an-erp-study
#2
Jie Wang, Andus Wing-Kuen Wong, Suiping Wang, Hsuan-Chih Chen
It is widely acknowledged in Germanic languages that segments are the primary planning units at the phonological encoding stage of spoken word production. Mixed results, however, have been found in Chinese, and it is still unclear what roles syllables and segments play in planning Chinese spoken word production. In the current study, participants were asked to first prepare and later produce disyllabic Mandarin words upon picture prompts and a response cue while electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718970/activation-of-semantic-information-at-the-sublexical-level-during-handwriting-production-evidence-from-inhibition-effects-of-chinese-semantic-radicals-in-the-picture-word-interference-paradigm
#3
Xuqian Chen, Yuanlan Liao, Xianzhe Chen
Using a non-alphabetic language (e.g., Chinese), the present study tested a novel view that semantic information at the sublexical level should be activated during handwriting production. Over 80% of Chinese characters are phonograms, in which semantic radicals represent category information (e.g., 'chair,' 'peach,' 'orange' are related to plants) while phonetic radicals represent phonetic information (e.g., 'wolf,' 'brightness,' 'male,' are all pronounced /lang/). Under different semantic category conditions at the lexical level (semantically related in Experiment 1; semantically unrelated in Experiment 2), the orthographic relatedness and semantic relatedness of semantic radicals in the picture name and its distractor were manipulated under different SOAs (i...
August 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717151/what-drives-sound-symbolism-different-acoustic-cues-underlie-sound-size-and-sound-shape-mappings
#4
Klemens Knoeferle, Jixing Li, Emanuela Maggioni, Charles Spence
Sound symbolism refers to the non-arbitrary mappings that exist between phonetic properties of speech sounds and their meaning. Despite there being an extensive literature on the topic, the acoustic features and psychological mechanisms that give rise to sound symbolism are not, as yet, altogether clear. The present study was designed to investigate whether different sets of acoustic cues predict size and shape symbolism, respectively. In two experiments, participants judged whether a given consonant-vowel speech sound was large or small, round or angular, using a size or shape scale...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715374/in-vivo-evaluation-of-the-mechanical-and-viscoelastic-properties-of-the-rat-tongue
#5
Emanuele Loro, Stephen H Wang, Richard J Schwab, Tejvir S Khurana
The tongue is a highly innervated and vascularized muscle hydrostat on the floor of the mouth of most vertebrates. Its primary functions include supporting mastication and deglutition, as well as taste-sensing and phonetics. Accordingly, the strength and volume of the tongue can impact the ability of vertebrates to accomplish basic activities such as feeding, communicating, and breathing. Human patients with sleep apnea have enlarged tongues, characterized by reduced muscle tone and increased intramuscular fat that can be visualized and quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711720/onset-age-of-l2-acquisition-influences-language-network-in-early-and-late-cantonese-mandarin-bilinguals
#6
Xiaojin Liu, Liu Tu, Junjing Wang, Bo Jiang, Wei Gao, Ximin Pan, Meng Li, Miao Zhong, Zhenzhen Zhu, Meiqi Niu, Yanyan Li, Ling Zhao, Xiaoxi Chen, Chang Liu, Zhi Lu, Ruiwang Huang
Early second language (L2) experience influences the neural organization of L2 in neuro-plastic terms. Previous studies tried to reveal these plastic effects of age of second language acquisition (AoA-L2) and proficiency-level in L2 (PL-L2) on the neural basis of language processing in bilinguals. Although different activation patterns have been observed during language processing in early and late bilinguals by task-fMRI, few studies reported the effect of AoA-L2 and high PL-L2 on language network at resting state...
July 13, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710926/speech-and-language-therapy-service-delivery-overcoming-limited-provision-for-children
#7
L M T Jesus, J Martinez, A R Valente, M C Costa
OBJECTIVES: To test an alternative Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) service delivery model based on partnerships between a University and local schools and charities, and to report on the impact and feasibility of intervention based on long-term outcome measures and three case studies with individual analysis of Reliable Change. STUDY DESIGN: The following six-step model was tested: 1-establishing partnerships; 2-flagging children; 3-pre-treatment SLT assessment; 4-reporting and discussion with parents and teachers; 5-treatment; 6-post-treatment assessment...
July 12, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710697/the-basis-of-the-syllable-hierarchy-articulatory-pressures-or-universal-phonological-constraints
#8
Xu Zhao, Iris Berent
Across languages, certain syllable types are systematically preferred to others (e.g., [Formula: see text] lbif, where [Formula: see text] indicates a preference). Previous research has shown that these preferences are active in the brains of individual speakers, they are evident even when none of these syllable types exists in participants' language, and even when the stimuli are presented in print. These results suggest that the syllable hierarchy cannot be reduced to either lexical or auditory/phonetic pressures...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697697/postfocal-downstep-in-german
#9
Frank Kügler, Caroline Féry
This article is a follow-up study of Féry and Kügler (2008. Pitch accent scaling on given, new and focused constituents in German. Journal of Phonetics, 36, 680-703). It reports on an experiment of the F0 height of potential pitch accents in the postfocal region of German sentences and addresses in this way an aspect of the influence of information structure on the intonation of sentences that was left open in the previous article. The results of the experiment showed that, when several constituents are located in this position, they are often in a downstep relation, but are rarely upstepped...
June 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679267/acoustic-characteristics-of-punjabi-retroflex-and-dental-stops
#10
Qandeel Hussain, Michael Proctor, Mark Harvey, Katherine Demuth
The phonological category "retroflex" is found in many Indo-Aryan languages; however, it has not been clearly established which acoustic characteristics reliably differentiate retroflexes from other coronals. This study investigates the acoustic phonetic properties of Punjabi retroflex /ʈ/ and dental /ʈ̪/ in word-medial and word-initial contexts across /i e a o u/, and in word-final context across /i a u/. Formant transitions, closure and release durations, and spectral moments of release bursts are compared in 2280 stop tokens produced by 30 speakers...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679266/focus-encoding-and-prosodic-structure-in-shanghai-chinese
#11
Bijun Ling, Jie Liang
This paper investigated the phonetic effects of contrastive focus on F0, duration, and intensity patterns in disyllabic groups which undergo left- and right-dominant sandhis in Shanghai Chinese, in order to further the authors' understanding of the nature of a left-/right-dominant sandhi and the relation between focus encoding and prosodic structure. Results showed that the left-dominant sandhi was characterized by tone rightward spreading and formed one prosodic word, while the right-dominant sandhi was characterized by phonetic reduction and formed one prosodic phrase...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675808/delayed-primary-palatal-closure-in-resource-poor-countries-speech-results-in-ugandan-older-children-and-young-adults-with-cleft-lip-and-palate
#12
Laura Bruneel, Anke Luyten, Kim Bettens, Evelien D'haeseleer, Cleo Dhondt, Andrew Hodges, George Galiwango, Hubert Vermeersch, Kristiane Van Lierde
AIMS: Unrepaired clefts still regularly occur in resource-poor countries as a result of limited health-care access. The purpose of the present study was to report resonance, airflow and articulation characteristics following delayed (≥8years) primary palatal closure. METHODS: Fifteen Ugandan participants with cleft (lip and) palate (CP±L) were included as well as 15 age- and gender-matched Ugandan subjects without clefts. Palatal closure was performed at a mean age of 15;10 years using the Sommerlad technique...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658910/relation-between-clinical-oral-dryness-score-and-denture-satisfaction-among-patients-in-a-tertiary-care-centre-india
#13
Radhika Doppalapudi, Sudhakar Vundavalli, A Kaleswara Rao, Sriharsha Babu Vadapalli, Duggineni Chalapathi Rao, Ayesha Thabusum
INTRODUCTION: Xerostomia is a subjective feeling of dryness commonly seen in elderly populations which impairs the quality of life. Due to loss of lubricating property of saliva the buccal mucosa, tongue and lips tend to stick leading to dry, freckled, ulcerated and sore mucosa which is of major concern to the patient to use complete denture. AIM: The aim of the study was to assess the relation between oral dryness score and denture satisfaction among elderly patients...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655064/range-and-precision-of-formant-movement-in-pediatric-dysarthria
#14
Kristen M Allison, Lucas Annear, Marisa Policcicio, Katherine C Hustad
Purpose: This study aimed to improve understanding of speech characteristics associated with dysarthria in children with cerebral palsy by analyzing segmental and global formant measures in single-word and sentence contexts. Method: Ten 5-year-old children with cerebral palsy and dysarthria and 10 age-matched, typically developing children participated in this study. Vowel space area and second formant interquartile range were measured from children's elicited productions of single words and sentences...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655042/a-novel-investigation-of-generalized-motor-program-theory-syllable-stress-as-a-motor-class-variable
#15
Kimberly M Meigh
Purpose: This experiment evaluated syllable-stress position as a motor class directed by a syllable-sized generalized motor program. Reaction times were predicted to be slower for stimuli with untrained stress patterns outside the trained motor class. Furthermore, reaction times were predicted to be stable for untrained stimuli within the same motor class regardless of phonetic similarity. Method: Twenty-three young adults with typical speech and hearing participated in a motor-learning study comprised of motor-class training and a judgment task...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654944/perceptually-salient-sound-distortions-and-apraxia-of-speech-a-performance-continuum
#16
Katarina L Haley, Adam Jacks, Jessica D Richardson, Julie L Wambaugh
Purpose: We sought to characterize articulatory distortions in apraxia of speech and aphasia with phonemic paraphasia and to evaluate the diagnostic validity of error frequency of distortion and distorted substitution in differentiating between these disorders. Method: Study participants were 66 people with speech sound production difficulties after left-hemisphere stroke or trauma. They were divided into 2 groups on the basis of word syllable duration, which served as an external criterion for speaking rate in multisyllabic words and an index of likely speech diagnosis...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654943/the-nature-of-error-consistency-in-individuals-with-acquired-apraxia-of-speech-and-aphasia
#17
Lauren Bislick, Malcolm McNeil, Kristie A Spencer, Kathryn Yorkston, Diane L Kendall
Purpose: The primary characteristics used to define acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) have evolved to better reflect a disorder of motor planning/programming. However, there is debate regarding the feature of relatively consistent error location and type. Method: Ten individuals with acquired AOS and aphasia and 11 individuals with aphasia without AOS participated in this study. In the context of a 2-group experimental design, error consistency was examined via 5 repetitions of 30 multisyllabic words...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653556/supra-segmental-changes-in-speech-production-as-a-result-of-spectral-feedback-degradation-comparison-with-lombard-speech
#18
Elizabeth D Casserly, Yeling Wang, Nicholas Celestin, Lily Talesnick, David B Pisoni
Perturbations to acoustic speech feedback have been typically localized to specific phonetic characteristics, for example, fundamental frequency (F0) or the first two formants (F1/F2), or affect all aspects of the speech signal equally, for example, via the addition of background noise. This paper examines the consequences of a more selective global perturbation: real-time cochlear implant (CI) simulation of acoustic speech feedback. Specifically, we examine the potential similarity between speakers' response to noise vocoding and the characteristics of Lombard speech...
June 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652342/early-phonology-revealed-by-international-adoptees-birth-language-retention
#19
Jiyoun Choi, Mirjam Broersma, Anne Cutler
Until at least 6 mo of age, infants show good discrimination for familiar phonetic contrasts (i.e., those heard in the environmental language) and contrasts that are unfamiliar. Adult-like discrimination (significantly worse for nonnative than for native contrasts) appears only later, by 9-10 mo. This has been interpreted as indicating that infants have no knowledge of phonology until vocabulary development begins, after 6 mo of age. Recently, however, word recognition has been observed before age 6 mo, apparently decoupling the vocabulary and phonology acquisition processes...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639985/implant-site-related-and-patient-based-factors-with-the-potential-to-impact-patients-satisfaction-quality-of-life-measures-and-perceptions-toward-dental-implant-treatment
#20
Ali Orkun Topçu, Nermin Yamalik, Güliz N Güncü, Tolga F Tözüm, Hakan El, Serdar Uysal, Nur Hersek
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed at evaluating both the implant site-related and patient-based factors with the potential to affect the extent of patients' satisfaction and also their perceptions regarding dental implant treatment. Potential differences between the esthetic evaluations of dental patients and dental specialists were also considered. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Implant-supported fixed prosthesis (n = 164) in 264 anterior esthetic implant sites were included...
August 2017: Implant Dentistry
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