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Ivan Chow, Steven Brown
We present here a musical approach to speech melody, one that takes advantage of the intervallic precision made possible with musical notation. Current phonetic and phonological approaches to speech melody either assign localized pitch targets that impoverish the acoustic details of the pitch contours and/or merely highlight a few salient points of pitch change, ignoring all the rest of the syllables. We present here an alternative model using musical notation, which has the advantage of representing the pitch of all syllables in a sentence as well as permitting a specification of the intervallic excursions among syllables and the potential for group averaging of pitch use across speakers...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Arantzazu Zabala, Monika Salgueiro, Oihane Sáez-Atxukarro, Javier Ballesteros, Guillermo Ruiz-Irastorza, Rafael Segarra
OBJECTIVES: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease. Its most prevalent manifestation is neuropsychiatric SLE (NP-SLE), which is characterized by increased involvement of the nervous system, with relevant symptoms, such as marked cognitive deficits, which are directly involved in subsequent functional disability. The objective of this study is to identify and compare the profile of cognitive deficits in patients with NP-SLE and patients with non-neuropsychiatric SLE (nonNP-SLE) by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Jeong-Im Han, Sujin Oh
This study examined two possible sources of asymmetrical lexical access: phonetic proximity to the nearest L1 category and orthographic information. Three groups of native Korean speakers learned Arabic non-words with sound pairs with/without an L1-dominant category (/l-r/ vs. /χ-ħ/), and then their phonetic categorization and lexical encoding abilities were evaluated. One group was presented with the same letters for the target pair (e.g., <l> for both /l/ and /r/), the second group, different letters (e...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Valentina Ferpozzi, Luca Fornia, Marcella Montagna, Chiara Siodambro, Antonella Castellano, Paola Borroni, Marco Riva, Marco Rossi, Federico Pessina, Lorenzo Bello, Gabriella Cerri
The exact nature of the role of Broca's area in control of speech and whether it is exerted at the cognitive or at the motor level is still debated. Intraoperative evidence of a lack of motor responses to direct electrical stimulation (DES) of Broca's area and the observation that its stimulation induces a "speech arrest" without an apparent effect on the ongoing activity of phono-articulatory muscles, raises the argument. Essentially, attribution of direct involvement of Broca's area in motor control of speech, requires evidence of a functional connection of this area with the phono-articulatory muscles' motoneurons...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jennifer Hay
This paper synthesizes a wide range of literature from sociolinguistics and cognitive psychology, to argue for a central role for the "word" as a vehicle of language variation and change. Three crucially interlinked strands of research are reviewed-the role of context in associative learning, the word-level storage of phonetic and contextual detail, and the phonetic consequences of skewed distributions of words across different contexts. I argue that the human capacity for associative learning, combined with attention to fine-phonetic detail at the level of the word, plays a significant role in predicting a range of subtle but systematically robust observed socioindexical patterns in speech production and perception...
March 2, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
Christopher Dromey, Elise Hunter, Shawn L Nissen
Purpose: This study used perceptual and acoustic measures to examine the time course of speech adaptation after the attachment of electromagnetic sensor coils to the tongue, lips, and jaw. Method: Twenty native English speakers read aloud stimulus sentences before the attachment of the sensors, immediately after attachment, and again 5, 10, 15, and 20 min later. They read aloud continuously between recordings to encourage adaptation. Sentence recordings were perceptually evaluated by 20 native English listeners, who rated 150 stimuli (which included 31 samples that were repeated to assess rater reliability) using a visual analog scale with the end points labeled as "precise" and "imprecise...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Jing Chen, Hongying Yang, Xihong Wu, Brian C J Moore
In Mandarin Chinese, the fundamental frequency (F0) contour defines lexical "Tones" that differ in meaning despite being phonetically identical. Flattening the F0 contour impairs the intelligibility of Mandarin Chinese in background sounds. This might occur because the flattening introduces misleading lexical information. To avoid this effect, two types of speech were used: single-Tone speech contained Tones 1 and 0 only, which have a flat F0 contour; multi-Tone speech contained all Tones and had a varying F0 contour...
February 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Rachael-Anne Knight, Chandni Bandali, Clare Woodhead, Parul Vansadia
BACKGROUND: The critical role of phonetic transcription in the assessment, diagnosis and management of speech disorders is well established and thus pre-registration degrees dedicate numerous hours to phonetic training. However, this training is not always fully used in clinical work and clinicians may find it difficult to maintain their skills, suggesting a 'theory/practice gap'. AIMS: This paper surveys speech and language therapists' (SLTs) views of their training, practice and maintenance of transcription in order to investigate the posited theory/practice gap and to explore how education in phonetics is translated into practice...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Meredith Saletta, Lisa Goffman, Caitlin Ward, Jacob Oleson
Purpose: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show particular deficits in the generation of sequenced action: the quintessential procedural task. Practiced imitation of a sequence may become rote and require reduced procedural memory. This study explored whether speech motor deficits in children with SLI occur generally or only in conditions of high linguistic load, whether speech motor deficits diminish with practice, and whether it is beneficial to incorporate conditions of high load to understand speech production...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Leire Garcia-Iza, Zuriñe Martinez, Ane Ugarte, Mercedes Fernandez, Xabier Altuna
OBJECTIVE: Our goal in this study is to find out the outcomes of cochlear implantation in elderly (> 60 years) and check if this improvement is similar to that of their younger counterparts in short- and long-term evolution. In addition, we have attempted to ascertain the predictive factors that might affect the verbal comprehension results of older patients. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Ninety-four patients older than 40 years, divided into two groups...
February 26, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Li-Mei Chen, Katherine C Hustad, Ray D Kent, Yu Ching Lin
Purpose: This study explored the speech characteristics of Mandarin-speaking children with cerebral palsy (CP) and typically developing (TD) children to determine (a) how children in the 2 groups may differ in their speech patterns and (b) the variables correlated with speech intelligibility for words and sentences. Method: Data from 6 children with CP and a clinical diagnosis of moderate dysarthria were compared with data from 9 TD children using a multiple speech subsystems approach...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Rosa S Gisladottir, Sara Bögels, Stephen C Levinson
Everyday conversation requires listeners to quickly recognize verbal actions, so-called speech acts , from the underspecified linguistic code and prepare a relevant response within the tight time constraints of turn-taking. The goal of this study was to determine the time-course of speech act recognition by investigating oscillatory EEG activity during comprehension of spoken dialog. Participants listened to short, spoken dialogs with target utterances that delivered three distinct speech acts (Answers, Declinations, Pre-offers)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Ambar W Raut, Vijay Mantri, Vaibhao I Shambharkar, Mitul Mishra
Anterior crown fractures are a common form of traumatic dental injuries that mainly affect the maxillary incisors, especially in children and adolescents. Complicated crown fractures although less common, pose a challenge to the clinician. The main objective while treating such cases is successful pain management and immediate restoration of function, esthetics and phonetics. Since the development of the adhesive dentistry, the patient's own fragment can be used to restore the fractured tooth. Reattachment of fractured tooth fragments offers a viable restorative alternative...
January 2018: Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine
Michael T Compton, Anya Lunden, Sean D Cleary, Luca Pauselli, Yazeed Alolayan, Brooke Halpern, Beth Broussard, Anthony Crisafio, Leslie Capulong, Pierfrancesco Maria Balducci, Francesco Bernardini, Michael A Covington
OBJECTIVE: Acoustic phonetic methods are useful in examining some symptoms of schizophrenia; we used such methods to understand the underpinnings of aprosody. We hypothesized that, compared to controls and patients without clinically rated aprosody, patients with aprosody would exhibit reduced variability in: pitch (F0), jaw/mouth opening and tongue height (formant F1), tongue front/back position and/or lip rounding (formant F2), and intensity/loudness. METHODS: Audiorecorded speech was obtained from 98 patients (including 25 with clinically rated aprosody and 29 without) and 102 unaffected controls using five tasks: one describing a drawing, two based on spontaneous speech elicited through a question (Tasks 2 and 3), and two based on reading prose excerpts (Tasks 4 and 5)...
February 12, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Cristina Mei, Evelina Fedorenko, David J Amor, Amber Boys, Caitlyn Hoeflin, Peter Carew, Trent Burgess, Simon E Fisher, Angela T Morgan
Recurrent deletions of a ~600-kb region of 16p11.2 have been associated with a highly penetrant form of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Yet prior findings have been based on a small, potentially biased sample using retrospectively collected data. We examine the prevalence of CAS in a larger cohort of individuals with 16p11.2 deletion using a prospectively designed assessment battery. The broader speech and language phenotype associated with carrying this deletion was also examined. 55 participants with 16p11...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Sami Boudelaa
Previous research suggests that late bilinguals who speak typologically distant languages are the least likely to show evidence of non-selective lexical access processes. This study puts this claim to test by using the gating task to determine whether words beginning with speech sounds that are phonetically similar in Arabic and English (e.g., [b,d,m,n]) give rise to selective or non-selective lexical access processes in late Arabic-English bilinguals. The results show that an acoustic-phonetic input (e.g., [bæ]) that is consistent with words in Arabic (e...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Yu-Lin Cheng
In this study, EFL learners who listened to four short context-rich audio files each delivered in an unfamiliar English accent were required to produce best-attempt transcriptions and accent imitation recordings. Results indicate that exposure alone does not suffice to eliminate accent impact on EFL listeners. Importantly, results from one-way ANOVA analyses reveal between-participants differences in residual accent impact, vocabulary knowledge, and quality of accent imitation. Results from a linear mixed-effects model analysis, while suggesting that other unidentified factors may also assist EFL listeners in processing unfamiliar accented English, demonstrate that the more able mimics cope more successfully with unfamiliar accents than the less able mimics...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Erin Gustafson, Matthew Goldrick
Speakers track the probability that a word will occur in a particular context and utilize this information during phonetic processing. For example, content words that have high probability within a discourse tend to be realized with reduced acoustic/articulatory properties. Such probabilistic information may influence L1 and L2 speech processing in distinct ways (reflecting differences in linguistic experience across groups and the overall difficulty of L2 speech processing). To examine this issue, L1 and L2 speakers performed a referential communication task, describing sequences of simple actions...
2018: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
Jens Hjortkjaer, Jonatan Märcher-Rørsted, Søren A Fuglsang, Torsten Dau
Neuronal oscillations are thought to play an important role in working memory (WM) and speech processing. Listening to speech in real-life situations is often cognitively demanding but it is unknown whether WM load influences how auditory cortical activity synchronizes to speech features. Here we developed an auditory n-back paradigm to investigate cortical entrainment to speech envelope fluctuations under different degrees of WM load. We measured the electroencephalogram (EEG), pupil dilations, and behavioural performance from 22 subjects listening to continuous speech with an embedded n-back task...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Katarina L Haley, Kevin T Cunningham, Catherine Torrington Eaton, Adam Jacks
Purpose: Diagnostic recommendations for acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) have been contradictory concerning whether speech sound errors are consistent or variable. Studies have reported divergent findings that, on face value, could argue either for or against error consistency as a diagnostic criterion. The purpose of this study was to explain discrepancies in error consistency results based on the unit of analysis (segment, syllable, or word) to help determine which diagnostic recommendation is most appropriate...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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