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Phonetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342382/words-cluster-phonetically-beyond-phonotactic-regularities
#1
Isabelle Dautriche, Kyle Mahowald, Edward Gibson, Anne Christophe, Steven T Piantadosi
Recent evidence suggests that cognitive pressures associated with language acquisition and use could affect the organization of the lexicon. On one hand, consistent with noisy channel models of language (e.g., Levy, 2008), the phonological distance between wordforms should be maximized to avoid perceptual confusability (a pressure for dispersion). On the other hand, a lexicon with high phonological regularity would be simpler to learn, remember and produce (e.g., Monaghan et al., 2011) (a pressure for clumpiness)...
March 22, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326994/effects-of-lexical-competition-and-dialect-exposure-on-phonological-priming
#2
Cynthia G Clopper, Abby Walker
A cross-modal lexical decision task was used to explore the effects of lexical competition and dialect exposure on phonological form priming. Relative to unrelated auditory primes, matching real word primes facilitated lexical decision for visual real word targets, whereas competing minimal pair primes inhibited lexical decision. These effects were robust across two English vowel pairs (mid-front and low-front) and for two listener groups (mono-dialectal and multi-dialectal). However, both the most robust facilitation and the most robust inhibition were observed for the mid-front vowel words with few phonological competitors for the mono-dialectal listener group...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326991/the-effects-of-language-experience-and-speech-context-on-the-phonetic-accommodation-of-english-accented-spanish-voicing
#3
Fernando Llanos, Alexander L Francis
Native speakers of Spanish with different amounts of experience with English classified stop-consonant voicing (/b/ versus /p/) across different speech accents: English-accented Spanish, native Spanish, and native English. While listeners with little experience with English classified target voicing with an English- or Spanish-like voice onset time (VOT) boundary, predicted by contextual VOT, listeners familiar with English relied on an English-like VOT boundary in an English-accented Spanish context even in the absence of clear contextual cues to English VOT...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326988/discrimination-and-identification-of-a-third-formant-frequency-cue-to-place-of-articulation-by-young-children-and-adults
#4
Kelly Richardson, Joan E Sussman
Typically-developing children, 4 to 6 years of age, and adults participated in discrimination and identification speech perception tasks using a synthetic consonant-vowel continuum ranging from /da/ to /ga/. The seven-step synthetic /da/-/ga/ continuum was created by adjusting the first 40 ms of the third formant frequency transition. For the discrimination task, listeners participated in a Change/No-Change paradigm with four different stimuli compared to the endpoint-1 /da/ token. For the identification task, listeners labeled each token along the /da/-/ga/ continuum as either "DA" or "GA...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326986/the-role-of-predictability-in-intonational-variability
#5
Rory Turnbull
Predictability is known to affect many properties of speech production. In particular, it has been observed that highly predictable elements (words, syllables) are produced with less phonetic prominence (shorter duration, less peripheral vowels) than less predictable elements. This tendency has been proposed to be a general property of language. This paper examines whether predictability is correlated with fundamental frequency (F0) production, through analysis of experimental corpora of American English. Predictability was variously defined as discourse mention, utterance probability, and semantic focus...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321196/connected-speech-in-neurodegenerative-language-disorders-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Veronica Boschi, Eleonora Catricalà, Monica Consonni, Cristiano Chesi, Andrea Moro, Stefano F Cappa
Language assessment has a crucial role in the clinical diagnosis of several neurodegenerative diseases. The analysis of extended speech production is a precious source of information encompassing the phonetic, phonological, lexico-semantic, morpho-syntactic, and pragmatic levels of language organization. The knowledge about the distinctive linguistic variables identifying language deficits associated to different neurodegenerative diseases has progressively improved in the last years. However, the heterogeneity of such variables and of the way they are measured and classified limits any generalization and makes the comparison among studies difficult...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320669/regularized-speaker-adaptation-of-kl-hmm-for-dysarthric-speech-recognition
#7
Myungjong Kim, Younggwan Kim, Joohong Yoo, Jun Wang, Hoirin Kim
This paper addresses the problem of recognizing the speech uttered by patients with dysarthria, which is a motor speech disorder impeding the physical production of speech. Patients with dysarthria have articulatory limitation, and therefore, they often have trouble in pronouncing certain sounds, resulting in undesirable phonetic variation. Modern automatic speech recognition systems designed for regular speakers are ineffective for dysarthric sufferers due to the phonetic variation. To capture the phonetic variation, Kullback-Leibler divergence based hidden Markov model (KL-HMM) is adopted, where the emission probability of state is parametrized by a categorical distribution using phoneme posterior probabilities obtained from a deep neural network-based acoustic model...
March 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317356/-effects-of-hawley-retainer-and-vacuum-formed-retainer-on-articulation-of-chinese-speech-of-adult-orthodontic-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Wan Jia, You Lun, Chen Junyu, Chen Zhiqiang, Wang Tong
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the influence of Hawley retainer and vacuum-formed retainer on the articu-lation of Chinese speech of adult orthodontic patients. METHODS: A total of 20 volunteers were recruited in this randomized controlled trial in accordance with the inclusion criteria. Participants were randomly distributed into two groups, namely, the Hawley retainer group and the vacuum-formed retainer group. Speech performance was evaluated at the following time inter-vals: before wearing retainers (T0), immediately after wearing both upper and lower retainers (T1), 24 h later (T2), 1 week later (T3), and 1 month later (T4)...
August 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298832/reconstruction-of-interdental-papilla-using-autogenous-bone-and-connective-tissue-grafts
#9
Santhanakrishnan Muthukumar, Pooja Ajit, Shiyamali Sundararajan, Suresh Ranga Rao
Previous studies have reported the management of Class I and II papillary defects, but knowledge on Class III defects, estimated to have a poor periodontal prognosis, remains minimal. In this case report, a Class III papillary defect reconstruction was attempted mainly since the patient reported with difficulty in phonetics. In Stage I, autogenous bone graft from the maxillary tuberosity and subepithelial connective tissue graft was augmented to decrease the distance between the interdental bone crest and contact point, simultaneously achieving a switch in the periodontal biotype...
July 2016: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268617/thin-film-high-density-micro-electrocorticographic-decoding-of-a-human-cortical-gyrus
#10
Leah Muller, Sarah Felix, Kedar G Shah, Kye Lee, Satinderpall Pannu, Edward F Chang
High-density electrocorticography (ECoG) arrays are promising interfaces for high-resolution neural recording from the cortical surface. Commercial options for high-density arrays are limited, and historically tradeoffs must be made between spatial coverage and electrode density. However, thin-film technology is a promising alternative for generating electrode arrays capable of large area coverage and high channel count, with resolution on the order of cortical columns in the functional surface unit of a human gyrus...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268213/the-nature-of-phonetic-gradience-across-a-dialect-continuum-evidence-from-modern-greek-vowels
#11
Charalambos Themistocleous
This study investigates the acoustic properties of vowels in 2 Modern Greek varieties: Standard Modern Greek (SMG) and Cypriot Greek (CG). Both varieties contain in their phonetic inventories the same 5 vowels. Forty-five female speakers between 19 and 29 years old participated in this study: 20 SMG speakers and 25 CG speakers, born and raised in Athens and Nicosia, respectively. Stimuli consisted of a set of nonsense CVCV and VCV words, each containing 1 of the 5 Greek vowels in stressed and unstressed position...
March 7, 2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265900/bilinguals-twisted-tongues-frequency-lag-or-interference
#12
Chuchu Li, Matthew Goldrick, Tamar H Gollan
Though bilinguals know many more words than monolinguals, within each language bilinguals exhibit some processing disadvantages, extending to sublexical processes specifying the sound structure of words (Gollan & Goldrick, Cognition, 125(3), 491-497, 2012). This study investigated the source of this bilingual disadvantage. Spanish-English bilinguals, Mandarin-English bilinguals, and English monolinguals repeated tongue twisters composed of English nonwords. Twister materials were made up of sound sequences that are unique to the English language (nonoverlapping) or sound sequences that are highly similar-yet phonetically distinct-in the two languages for the bilingual groups (overlapping)...
March 6, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246030/indexing-cortical-entrainment-to-natural-speech-at-the-phonemic-level-methodological-considerations-for-applied-research
#13
Giovanni M Di Liberto, Edmund C Lalor
Speech is central to human life. As such, any delay or impairment in receptive speech processing can have a profoundly negative impact on the social and professional life of a person. Thus, being able to assess the integrity of speech processing in different populations is an important goal. Current standardized assessment is mostly based on psychometric measures that do not capture the full extent of a person's speech processing abilities and that are difficult to administer in some subjects groups. A potential alternative to these tests would be to derive "direct", objective measures of speech processing from cortical activity...
February 25, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242517/when-a-hit-sounds-like-a-kiss-an-electrophysiological-exploration-of-semantic-processing-in-visual-narrative
#14
Mirella Manfredi, Neil Cohn, Marta Kutas
Researchers have long questioned whether information presented through different sensory modalities involves distinct or shared semantic systems. We investigated uni-sensory cross-modal processing by recording event-related brain potentials to words replacing the climactic event in a visual narrative sequence (comics). We compared Onomatopoeic words, which phonetically imitate action sounds (Pow!), with Descriptive words, which describe an action (Punch!), that were (in)congruent within their sequence contexts...
February 24, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241209/compensatory-strategies-in-the-developmental-patterns-of-english-s-gender-and-vowel-context-effects
#15
Hye-Young Bang, Meghan Clayards, Heather Goad
Purpose: The developmental trajectory of English /s/ was investigated to determine the extent to which children's speech productions are acoustically fine-grained. Given the hypothesis that young children have adultlike phonetic knowledge of /s/, the following were examined: (a) whether this knowledge manifests itself in acoustic spectra that match the gender-specific patterns of adults, (b) whether vowel context affects the spectra of /s/ in adults and children similarly, and (c) whether children adopt compensatory production strategies to match adult acoustic targets...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241199/the-quantal-larynx-the-stable-regions-of-laryngeal-biomechanics-and-implications-for-speech-production
#16
Scott Reid Moisik, Bryan Gick
Purpose: Recent proposals suggest that (a) the high dimensionality of speech motor control may be reduced via modular neuromuscular organization that takes advantage of intrinsic biomechanical regions of stability and (b) computational modeling provides a means to study whether and how such modularization works. In this study, the focus is on the larynx, a structure that is fundamental to speech production because of its role in phonation and numerous articulatory functions. Method: A 3-dimensional model of the larynx was created using the ArtiSynth platform (http://www...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231303/greeklex-2-a-comprehensive-lexical-database-with-part-of-speech-syllabic-phonological-and-stress-information
#17
Antonios Kyparissiadis, Walter J B van Heuven, Nicola J Pitchford, Timothy Ledgeway
Databases containing lexical properties on any given orthography are crucial for psycholinguistic research. In the last ten years, a number of lexical databases have been developed for Greek. However, these lack important part-of-speech information. Furthermore, the need for alternative procedures for calculating syllabic measurements and stress information, as well as combination of several metrics to investigate linguistic properties of the Greek language are highlighted. To address these issues, we present a new extensive lexical database of Modern Greek (GreekLex 2) with part-of-speech information for each word and accurate syllabification and orthographic information predictive of stress, as well as several measurements of word similarity and phonetic information...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226797/thin-film-high-density-micro-electrocorticographic-decoding-of-a-human-cortical-gyrus
#18
Leah Muller, Sarah Felix, Kedar G Shah, Kye Lee, Satinderpall Pannu, Edward F Chang, Leah Muller, Sarah Felix, Kedar G Shah, Kye Lee, Satinderpall Pannu, Edward F Chang, Satinderpall Pannu, Sarah Felix, Leah Muller, Kedar G Shah, Kye Lee, Edward F Chang
High-density electrocorticography (ECoG) arrays are promising interfaces for high-resolution neural recording from the cortical surface. Commercial options for high-density arrays are limited, and historically tradeoffs must be made between spatial coverage and electrode density. However, thin-film technology is a promising alternative for generating electrode arrays capable of large area coverage and high channel count, with resolution on the order of cortical columns in the functional surface unit of a human gyrus...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223806/efficacy-of-a-short-cognitive-training-program-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#19
María Yaiza Pérez-Martín, Montserrat González-Platas, Pablo Eguía-Del Río, Cristina Croissier-Elías, Alejandro Jiménez Sosa
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a common feature in multiple sclerosis (MS) and may have a substantial impact on quality of life. Evidence about the effectiveness of neuropsychological rehabilitation is still limited, but current data suggest that computer-assisted cognitive training improves cognitive performance. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combined computer-assisted training supported by home-based neuropsychological training to improve attention, processing speed, memory and executive functions during 3 consecutive months...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218556/scandcleft-randomised-trials-of-primary-surgery-for-unilateral-cleft-lip-and-palate-5-speech-outcomes-in-5-year-olds-consonant-proficiency-and-errors
#20
Elisabeth Willadsen, Anette Lohmander, Christina Persson, Inger Lundeborg, Suvi Alaluusua, Ragnhild Aukner, Anja Bau, Maria Boers, Melanie Bowden, Julie Davies, Berit Emborg, Christina Havstam, Christine Hayden, Gunilla Henningsson, Anders Holmefjord, Elina Hölttä, Mia Kisling-Møller, Lillian Kjøll, Maria Lundberg, Eilish McAleer, Jill Nyberg, Marjukka Paaso, Nina Helen Pedersen, Therese Rasmussen, Sigvor Reisæter, Helene Søgaard Andersen, Antje Schöps, Inger-Beate Tørdal, Gunvor Semb
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Normal articulation before school start is a main objective in cleft palate treatment. The aim was to investigate if differences exist in consonant proficiency at age 5 years between children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) randomised to different surgical protocols for primary palatal repair. A secondary aim was to estimate burden of care in terms of received additional secondary surgeries and speech therapy. DESIGN: Three parallel group, randomised clinical trials were undertaken as an international multicentre study by 10 cleft teams in five countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, and the UK...
February 2017: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
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