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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898342/voice-sensitive-brain-networks-encode-talker-specific-phonetic-detail
#1
Emily B Myers, Rachel M Theodore
The speech stream simultaneously carries information about talker identity and linguistic content, and the same acoustic property (e.g., voice-onset-time, or VOT) may be used for both purposes. Separable neural networks for processing talker identity and phonetic content have been identified, but it is unclear how a singular acoustic property is parsed by the neural system for talker identification versus phonetic processing. In the current study, listeners were exposed to two talkers with characteristically different VOTs...
November 26, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893562/clinical-evaluation-of-zygomatic-implant-supported-fixed-and-removable-prosthesis
#2
Belir Atalay, Özge Doğanay, Banu Karayazgan Saraçoğlu, Özgür Bultan, Günter Hafiz
The aim of our study was to present success and complication rates of 32 zygomatic implants (ZI) and compare satisfaction of patients rehabilitated with ZI supported hybrid prosthesis in atrophic jaws and removable prosthesis in maxillary defects. Sixteen patients who have been diagnosed as atrophic maxilla or maxillary defect were treated with ZI supported hybrid or removable prosthesis between 2008 and 2016 years, respectively. Thirty-two of 70 implants were placed in the zygomatic bone. Two prosthetic groups were compared 1 month after prosthesis delivery in terms of general satisfaction, stability, performance, esthetics, phonetics, hygiene level based on visual analog scale...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891743/ingressive-speech-errors-a-service-evaluation-of-speech-sound-therapy-in-a-child-aged-4-6
#3
Laura Hrastelj, Rachael-Anne Knight
BACKGROUND: A pattern of ingressive substitutions for word-final sibilants can be identified in a small number of cases in child speech disorder, with growing evidence suggesting it is a phonological difficulty, despite the unusual surface form. Phonological difficulty implies a problem with the cognitive process of organizing speech into sound contrasts. AIMS: To evaluate phonological therapy approaches in the remediation of non-pulmonic speech errors. Thus, adding to evidence concerning the nature of ingressive substitutions and their remediation whilst highlighting their occurrence within child speech disorder population for practising and training speech and language therapists...
November 27, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882773/the-acquisition-of-initial-consonant-clusters-in-german-speaking-2-year-olds
#4
Blanca Schaefer, Annette Fox-Boyer
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore cluster acquisition in typically developing German-speaking 2-year-olds. METHOD: Data from four cross-sectional studies (n = 145, aged 2;00-2;11) and one eight-month longitudinal study were analysed (n = 6, aged 2;01-2;04). Two different percentages of consonant clusters correct were calculated to allow a more detailed analysis. RESULT: Findings showed that the majority of children produced clusters, although they could not be considered to be fully acquired...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848086/the-roles-of-cognitive-and-language-abilities-in-predicting-decoding-and-reading-comprehension-comparisons-of-dyslexia-and-specific-language-impairment
#5
Alexandra A Lauterbach, Yujeong Park, Linda J Lombardino
This study aimed to (a) explore the roles of cognitive and language variables in predicting reading abilities of two groups of individuals with reading disabilities (i.e., dyslexia and specific language impairment) and (b) examine which variable(s) is the most predictive in differentiating two groups. Inclusion/exclusion criteria applied to categorize the two groups yielded a total of 63 participants (n = 44 for the dyslexia; n = 19 for the specific language impairment). A stepwise multiple regression approach was conducted to examine which cognitive and/or language variables made the largest contribution to reading abilities (i...
November 15, 2016: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846920/is-prosodic-production-driven-by-lexical-development-longitudinal-evidence-from-babble-and-words
#6
Ilke DE Clerck, Michèle Pettinato, J O Verhoeven, Steven Gillis
This study investigated the relation between lexical development and the production of prosodic prominence in disyllabic babble and words. Monthly recordings from nine typically developing Belgian-Dutch-speaking infants were analyzed from the onset of babbling until a cumulative vocabulary of 200 words was reached. The differentiation between the two syllables of isolated disyllabic utterances was computed for f0, intensity, and duration measurements. Results showed that the ambient trochaic pattern emerged in babble, but became enhanced in words...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843261/autotransplantation-of-a-strange-positioned-impacted-central-incisor-in-a-surgically-prepared-socket-a-miracle-esthetic-concept
#7
Chandresh Jaiswara, Vinay K Srivastava, Neeraj Dhiman
: Esthetics is a prime concern for a young lady. Any anomaly in the anterior tooth may create anxiety and depression. This anxiety and depression may hamper her married life and overall personality. This case report reveals an unerupted right central incisor situated in a strange position, creating space in the maxillary anterior region and giving an unesthetic appearance. Autotransplantation is a method of choice for a strangely positioned impacted central incisor in a new appropriate site...
July 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837569/syllabo-a-new-tool-to-study-sublexical-phenomena-in-spoken-quebec-french
#8
Pascale Bédard, Anne-Marie Audet, Patrick Drouin, Johanna-Pascale Roy, Julie Rivard, Pascale Tremblay
Sublexical phonotactic regularities in language have a major impact on language development, as well as on speech processing and production throughout the entire lifespan. To understand the impact of phonotactic regularities on speech and language functions at the behavioral and neural levels, it is essential to have access to oral language corpora to study these complex phenomena in different languages. Yet, probably because of their complexity, oral language corpora remain less common than written language corpora...
November 11, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833745/advances-in-real-time-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-vocal-tract-for-speech-science-and-technology-research
#9
Asterios Toutios, Shrikanth S Narayanan
Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (rtMRI) of the moving vocal tract during running speech production is an important emerging tool for speech production research providing dynamic information of a speaker's upper airway from the entire mid-sagittal plane or any other scan plane of interest. There have been several advances in the development of speech rtMRI and corresponding analysis tools, and their application to domains such as phonetics and phonological theory, articulatory modeling, and speaker characterization...
2016: APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826946/phonetic-convergence-across-multiple-measures-and-model-talkers
#10
Jennifer S Pardo, Adelya Urmanche, Sherilyn Wilman, Jaclyn Wiener
This study consolidates findings on phonetic convergence in a large-scale examination of the impacts of talker sex, word frequency, and model talkers on multiple measures of convergence. A survey of nearly three dozen published reports revealed that most shadowing studies used very few model talkers and did not assess whether phonetic convergence varied across same- and mixed-sex pairings. Furthermore, some studies have reported effects of talker sex or word frequency on phonetic convergence, but others have failed to replicate these effects or have reported opposing patterns...
November 8, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819457/more-than-a-boundary-shift-perceptual-adaptation-to-foreign-accented-speech-reshapes-the-internal-structure-of-phonetic-categories
#11
Xin Xie, Rachel M Theodore, Emily B Myers
The literature on perceptual learning for speech shows that listeners use lexical information to disambiguate phonetically ambiguous speech sounds and that they maintain this new mapping for later recognition of ambiguous sounds for a given talker. Evidence for this kind of perceptual reorganization has focused on phonetic category boundary shifts. Here, we asked whether listeners adjust both category boundaries and internal category structure in rapid adaptation to foreign accents. We investigated the perceptual learning of Mandarin-accented productions of word-final voiced stops in English...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815130/informational-masking-and-the-effects-of-differences-in-fundamental-frequency-and-fundamental-frequency-contour-on-phonetic-integration-in-a-formant-ensemble
#12
Robert J Summers, Peter J Bailey, Brian Roberts
This study explored the effects on speech intelligibility of across-formant differences in fundamental frequency (ΔF0) and F0 contour. Sentence-length speech analogues were presented dichotically (left=F1+F3; right=F2), either alone or-because competition usually reveals grouping cues most clearly-accompanied in the left ear by a competitor for F2 (F2C) that listeners must reject to optimize recognition. F2C was created by inverting the F2 frequency contour. In experiment 1, all left-ear formants shared the same constant F0 and ΔF0F2 was 0 or ±4 semitones...
November 1, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808351/die-cad-cam-gefertigte-totalprothese-mit-dem-%C3%A2-digital-denture-professional-system%C3%A2
#13
Tim Joda, Philipp Müller, Frank Zimmerling, Martin Schimmel
The article describes the medical and dental procedures for four treatment sessions with the Digital Denture Professional (DDP) system. First, conventional preliminary dental impressions of the full arch are taken to achieve accurate jaw positioning records. The study models and patient data are digitalised using a laboratory scanner. The dental lab technician then constructs and mills custom impression trays and a mount as an intraoral instrument. A closed-mouth impression is then taken to record vertical dimensions and central relation position...
2016: Swiss Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794357/effects-of-obstruent-voicing-on-vowel-f0-evidence-from-true-voicing-languages
#14
James P Kirby, D Robert Ladd
This study investigates consonant-related F0 perturbations ("CF0") in French and Italian by comparing the effects of voiced and voiceless obstruents on F0 to those of voiced sonorants. The voiceless obstruents /p f/ in both languages are found to have F0-raising properties similar to American English voiceless obstruents, while F0 following the (pre)voiced obstruents /b v/ in French and Italian patterns together with /m/, again similar to English [Hanson (2009). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125(1), 425-441]. In both languages, F0 is significantly depressed, relative to sonorants, during the closure for voiced obstruents, but cannot be differentiated from sonorants following the release of oral constriction...
October 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794323/do-talkers-produce-less-dispersed-phoneme-categories-in-a-clear-speaking-style
#15
Outi Tuomainen, Valerie Hazan, Rachel Romeo
This study investigated whether adaptations made in clear speaking styles result in more discriminable phonetic categories than in a casual style. Multiple iterations of keywords with word-initial /s/-/ʃ/ were obtained from 40 adults in casual and clear speech via picture description. For centroids, cross-category distance increased in clear speech but with no change in within-category dispersion and no effect on discriminability. However, talkers produced fewer tokens with centroids in the ambiguous region for the /s/-/ʃ/ distinction...
October 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794292/lexically-guided-perceptual-tuning-of-internal-phonetic-category-structure
#16
Julia R Drouin, Rachel M Theodore, Emily B Myers
Listeners use lexical information to retune the mapping between the acoustic signal and speech sound representations, resulting in changes to phonetic category boundaries. Other research shows that phonetic categories have a rich internal structure; within-category variation is represented in a graded fashion. The current work examined whether lexically informed perceptual learning promotes a comprehensive reorganization of internal category structure. The results showed a reorganization of internal structure for one but not both of the examined categories, which may reflect an attenuation of learning for distributions with extensive category overlap...
October 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794278/measuring-time-frequency-importance-functions-of-speech-with-bubble-noise
#17
Michael I Mandel, Sarah E Yoho, Eric W Healy
Listeners can reliably perceive speech in noisy conditions, but it is not well understood what specific features of speech they use to do this. This paper introduces a data-driven framework to identify the time-frequency locations of these features. Using the same speech utterance mixed with many different noise instances, the framework is able to compute the importance of each time-frequency point in the utterance to its intelligibility. The mixtures have approximately the same global signal-to-noise ratio at each frequency, but very different recognition rates...
October 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778051/patient-survey-on-invisalign-%C3%A2-treatment-comparen-the-smarttrack-%C3%A2-material-to-the-previous-aligner-material
#18
Anne-Kathrin Bräscher, Dietmar Zuran, Robert E Feldmann, Justus Benrath
OBJECTIVES: In 2013, a novel material SmartTrack(®) was introduced to replace the previous material used for Invisalign(®) aligners. We conducted this study to test how this transition was accepted by patients during ongoing Invisalign(®) treatment. METHODS: We surveyed a total of 72 patients (68 % women, 32 % men, mean age: 29.3 ± 9.2 years) who had worn the new material for a mean of 6 months. They completed a questionnaire with 25 items that compared both materials in terms of pain, pressure upon insertion, comfort, mucosal irritation, phonetics, discoloration, and taste...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768175/exploring-the-clinical-utility-of-relative-fundamental-frequency-as-an-objective-measure-of-vocal-hyperfunction
#19
Nelson Roy, Rebecca A Fetrow, Ray M Merrill, Christopher Dromey
Purpose: Vocal hyperfunction, related to abnormal laryngeal muscle activity, is considered the proximal cause of primary muscle tension dysphonia (pMTD). Relative fundamental frequency (RFF) has been proposed as an objective acoustic marker of vocal hyperfunction. This study examined (a) the ability of RFF to track changes in vocal hyperfunction after treatment for pMTD and (b) the influence of dysphonia severity, among other factors, on the feasibility of RFF computation. Method: RFF calculations and dysphonia severity ratings were derived from pre- and posttreatment recordings from 111 women with pMTD and 20 healthy controls...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736242/bias-in-the-perception-of-phonetic-detail-in-children-s-speech-a-comparison-of-categorical-and-continuous-rating-scales
#20
Benjamin Munson, Sarah K Schellinger, Jan Edwards
Previous research has shown that continuous rating scales can be used to assess phonetic detail in children's productions, and could potentially be used to detect covert contrasts. Two experiments examined whether continuous rating scales have the additional benefit of being less susceptible to task-related biasing than categorical phonetic transcriptions. In both experiments, judgements of children's productions of /s/ and /θ/ were interleaved with two types of rating tasks designed to induce bias: continuous judgements of a parameter whose variation is itself relatively more continuous (gender typicality of their speech) in one biasing condition, and categorical judgements of a parameter that is relatively less continuous (the vowel they produced) in the other biasing condition...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
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