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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806417/phonetic-complexity-affects-children-s-mandarin-tone-production-accuracy-in-disyllabic-words-a-perceptual-study
#1
Puisan Wong, Winifred Strange
This is the first study to examine the effect of phonetic contexts on children's lexical tone production. Mandarin tones in disyllabic words produced by forty-four 2- to 6-year-old children and twelve mothers were low-pass filtered to eliminate lexical information. Native Mandarin-speaking adults categorized the tones based on the pitch information in the filtered stimuli. All mothers' tones were categorized with ceiling accuracy. Counter to the findings in most previous studies on children's tone acquisition and the prevailing assumption in models of speech development that children acquire suprasegmental features much earlier than segmental features, this study found that children as old as six years of age have not mastered the production of Mandarin tones...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806311/evaluation-of-maximal-speech-intelligibility-with-vibrant-soundbridge-in-patients-with-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#2
Hyun-Jin Lee, Jeon Mi Lee, Jae Young Choi, Jinsei Jung
OBJECTIVE: The study investigated improvements in maximal speech intelligibility after Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) implantation and analyzed the effect of the hearing loss pattern on maximal speech intelligibility represented by a phonetically balanced word score (PBmax). The effect of middle ear implants on PBmax has not been evaluated yet. STUDY DESIGN: Study. SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center. PATIENTS/INTERVENTIONS: Sixty patients who underwent VSB from December 2011 to January 2016 were retrospectively reviewed...
August 10, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803218/do-you-hear-feather-when-listening-to-rain-lexical-tone-activation-during-unconscious-translation-evidence-from-mandarin-english-bilinguals
#3
Xin Wang, Juan Wang, Jeffrey G Malins
Although lexical tone is a highly prevalent phonetic cue in human languages, its role in bilingual spoken word recognition is not well understood. The present study investigates whether and how adult bilinguals, who use pitch contours to disambiguate lexical items in one language but not the other, access a tonal L1 when exclusively processing a non-tonal L2. Using the visual world paradigm, we show that Mandarin-English listeners automatically activated Mandarin translation equivalents of English target words such as 'rain' (Mandarin 'yu3'), and consequently were distracted by competitors whose segments and tones overlapped with the translations of English target words ('feather', also 'yu3' in Mandarin)...
August 10, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802788/auditory-perceptual-evaluation-of-dysphonia-a-comparison-between-narrow-and-broad-terminology-systems
#4
Jenny Iwarsson, Anne Bingen-Jakobsen, Ditte Søbæk Johansen, Inge Ernst Kølle, Solveig Gunvor Pedersen, Stine Løvind Thorsen, Niels Reinholt Petersen
OBJECTIVE: In auditory-perceptual voice analysis, a multiparameter approach and a more reductionist approach may be compared with narrow and broad phonetic transcription and used interchangeably, depending on the purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the perspectives of a translation of the terminology used in the multiparameter Danish Dysphonia Assessment (DDA) approach into the five-parameter GRBAS system. METHODS: Voice samples illustrating type and grade of the voice qualities included in DDA were rated by five speech language pathologists using the GRBAS system with the aim of estimating inter- and intrarater reliability...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796806/an-analysis-of-the-influence-of-deep-neural-network-dnn-topology-in-bottleneck-feature-based-language-recognition
#5
Alicia Lozano-Diez, Ruben Zazo, Doroteo T Toledano, Joaquin Gonzalez-Rodriguez
Language recognition systems based on bottleneck features have recently become the state-of-the-art in this research field, showing its success in the last Language Recognition Evaluation (LRE 2015) organized by NIST (U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology). This type of system is based on a deep neural network (DNN) trained to discriminate between phonetic units, i.e. trained for the task of automatic speech recognition (ASR). This DNN aims to compress information in one of its layers, known as bottleneck (BN) layer, which is used to obtain a new frame representation of the audio signal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777928/the-paired-t-test-and-beyond-recommendations-for-testing-the-central-tendencies-of-two-paired-samples-in-research-on-speech-language-and-hearing-pathology
#6
Toni Rietveld, Roeland van Hout
PURPOSE: In this tutorial we review current practice in the analysis of data obtained in designs involving two dependent samples and evaluate two conventional statistics: the t test for paired samples and its non-parametric alternative, the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test (WSR). It is a sequel to our tutorial on the analysis of designs with two independent samples on the basis of non-count data (Rietveld & van Hout, 2015). The frequency with which these statistics are used is assessed on the basis of publications on disordered communication in Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, Journal of Communication Disorders and Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research for the time interval 2006-2015...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764479/analyzing-dialect-variation-in-historical-speech-corpora
#7
Margaret E L Renwick, Rachel M Olsen
The Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States is an extensive audio corpus of sociolinguistic interviews with 1121 speakers from eight southeastern U.S. states. Complete interviews have never been fully transcribed, leaving a wealth of phonetic information unexplored. This paper details methods for large-scale acoustic analysis of this historical speech corpus, providing a fuller picture of Southern speech than offered by previous impressionistic analyses. Interviews from 10 speakers (∼36 h) in southeast Georgia were transcribed and analyzed for dialectal features associated with the Southern Vowel Shift and African American Vowel Shift, also considering the effects of age, gender, and race...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764468/automatic-sociophonetics-exploring-corpora-with-a-forensic-accent-recognition-system
#8
Georgina Brown, Jessica Wormald
This paper demonstrates how the Y-ACCDIST system, the York ACCDIST-based automatic accent recognition system [Brown (2015). Proceedings of the International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Glasgow, UK], can be used to inspect sociophonetic corpora as a preliminary "screening" tool. Although Y-ACCDIST's intended application is to assist with forensic casework, the system can also be exploited in sociophonetic research to begin unpacking variation. Using a subset of the PEBL (Panjabi-English in Bradford and Leicester) corpus, the outputs of Y-ACCDIST are explored, which, it is argued, efficiently and objectively assess speaker similarities across different linguistic varieties...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764450/the-articulatory-dynamics-of-pre-velar-and-pre-nasal-%C3%A3-raising-in-english-an-ultrasound-study
#9
Jeff Mielke, Christopher Carignan, Erik R Thomas
Most dialects of North American English exhibit /æ/-raising in some phonological contexts. Both the conditioning environments and the temporal dynamics of the raising vary from region to region. To explore the articulatory basis of /æ/-raising across North American English dialects, acoustic and articulatory data were collected from a regionally diverse group of 24 English speakers from the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. A method for examining the temporal dynamics of speech directly from ultrasound video using EigenTongues decomposition [Hueber, Aversano, Chollet, Denby, Dreyfus, Oussar, Roussel, and Stone (2007)...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764439/comparing-malleability-of-phonetic-category-between-i-and-u
#10
Reiko Kataoka, Hahn Koo
This study reports differential category retuning effect between [i] and [u]. Two groups of American listeners were exposed to ambiguous vowels ([i/u]) within words that index a phoneme /i/ (e.g., athl[i/u]t) (i-group) or /u/ (e.g., aftern[i/u]n) (u-group). Before and after the exposure these listeners categorized sounds from a [bip]-[bup] continuum. The i-group significantly increased /bip/ responses after exposure, but the u-group did not change their responses significantly. These results suggest that the way mental representation handles phonetic variation may influence malleability of each category, highlighting the complex relationship among distribution of sounds, their mental representation, and speech perception...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756027/key-considerations-in-designing-a-speech-brain-computer-interface
#11
Florent Bocquelet, Thomas Hueber, Laurent Girin, Stéphan Chabardès, Blaise Yvert
Restoring communication in case of aphasia is a key challenge for neurotechnologies. To this end, brain-computer strategies can be envisioned to allow artificial speech synthesis from the continuous decoding of neural signals underlying speech imagination. Such speech brain-computer interfaces do not exist yet and their design should consider three key choices that need to be made: the choice of appropriate brain regions to record neural activity from, the choice of an appropriate recording technique, and the choice of a neural decoding scheme in association with an appropriate speech synthesis method...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744904/do-mandibular-complete-dentures-made-using-a-neutral-zone-technique-improve-speech-a-pilot-study
#12
Peter Rehmann, Anna Katharina Künkel, Daniel Weber, Ulrich Lotzmann, Bernd Wöstmann
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate speech sound production (SSP) in older edentulous patients provided with two different types of mandibular complete dentures (MCDs; conventional vs neutral zone). BACKGROUND: Regarding the fact that complete dentures (CDs) affect SSP, it is unknown whether the set-up of the artificial teeth resulting from the neutral zone technique leads to a negative impact on SSP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 21 participants, a conventional MCD and a MCD using a modified neutral zone technique (neutral zone dentures) were fabricated...
July 26, 2017: Gerodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741729/influence-of-timing-of-delayed-hard-palate-closure-on-articulation-skills-in-3-year-old-danish-children-with-unilateral-cleft-lip-and-palate
#13
Elisabeth Willadsen, Maria Boers, Antje Schöps, Mia Kisling-Møller, Joan Bogh Nielsen, Line Dahl Jørgensen, Mikael Andersen, Stig Bolund, Helene Søgaard Andersen
BACKGROUND: Differing results regarding articulation skills in young children with cleft palate (CP) have been reported and often interpreted as a consequence of different surgical protocols. AIMS: To assess the influence of different timing of hard palate closure in a two-stage procedure on articulation skills in 3-year-olds born with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). Secondary aims were to compare results with peers without CP, and to investigate if there are gender differences in articulation skills...
July 25, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729803/anterosuperior-rehabilitation-with-metal-free-fixed-prosthesis-based-on-zirconia
#14
Sthelen Nayara Cenci, Igor Alessandro Gontarsky, Marcella Goetz Moro, Lidia Olga Bach Pinheiro, Adriana Postiglione Bührer Samra
The loss of upper front dental elements causes functional and psychosocial problems to the affected individuals. In this case report, the treatment planning considered hard and soft tissue loss for a complex fixed partial denture (FPD) rehabilitation. The six-element, all-ceramic FPD was manufactured using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing system with zirconia framework, veneered with leucite-reinforced ceramic. Ceramic artificial gum was also produced to guarantee tooth-facial proportions as well as lip support, promoting both esthetics and phonetics...
April 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724982/primary-phonological-planning-units-in-spoken-word-production-are-language-specific-evidence-from-an-erp-study
#15
Jie Wang, Andus Wing-Kuen Wong, Suiping Wang, Hsuan-Chih Chen
It is widely acknowledged in Germanic languages that segments are the primary planning units at the phonological encoding stage of spoken word production. Mixed results, however, have been found in Chinese, and it is still unclear what roles syllables and segments play in planning Chinese spoken word production. In the current study, participants were asked to first prepare and later produce disyllabic Mandarin words upon picture prompts and a response cue while electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718970/activation-of-semantic-information-at-the-sublexical-level-during-handwriting-production-evidence-from-inhibition-effects-of-chinese-semantic-radicals-in-the-picture-word-interference-paradigm
#16
Xuqian Chen, Yuanlan Liao, Xianzhe Chen
Using a non-alphabetic language (e.g., Chinese), the present study tested a novel view that semantic information at the sublexical level should be activated during handwriting production. Over 80% of Chinese characters are phonograms, in which semantic radicals represent category information (e.g., 'chair,' 'peach,' 'orange' are related to plants) while phonetic radicals represent phonetic information (e.g., 'wolf,' 'brightness,' 'male,' are all pronounced /lang/). Under different semantic category conditions at the lexical level (semantically related in Experiment 1; semantically unrelated in Experiment 2), the orthographic relatedness and semantic relatedness of semantic radicals in the picture name and its distractor were manipulated under different SOAs (i...
August 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717151/what-drives-sound-symbolism-different-acoustic-cues-underlie-sound-size-and-sound-shape-mappings
#17
Klemens Knoeferle, Jixing Li, Emanuela Maggioni, Charles Spence
Sound symbolism refers to the non-arbitrary mappings that exist between phonetic properties of speech sounds and their meaning. Despite there being an extensive literature on the topic, the acoustic features and psychological mechanisms that give rise to sound symbolism are not, as yet, altogether clear. The present study was designed to investigate whether different sets of acoustic cues predict size and shape symbolism, respectively. In two experiments, participants judged whether a given consonant-vowel speech sound was large or small, round or angular, using a size or shape scale...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715374/in-vivo-evaluation-of-the-mechanical-and-viscoelastic-properties-of-the-rat-tongue
#18
Emanuele Loro, Stephen H Wang, Richard J Schwab, Tejvir S Khurana
The tongue is a highly innervated and vascularized muscle hydrostat on the floor of the mouth of most vertebrates. Its primary functions include supporting mastication and deglutition, as well as taste-sensing and phonetics. Accordingly, the strength and volume of the tongue can impact the ability of vertebrates to accomplish basic activities such as feeding, communicating, and breathing. Human patients with sleep apnea have enlarged tongues, characterized by reduced muscle tone and increased intramuscular fat that can be visualized and quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711720/onset-age-of-l2-acquisition-influences-language-network-in-early-and-late-cantonese-mandarin-bilinguals
#19
Xiaojin Liu, Liu Tu, Junjing Wang, Bo Jiang, Wei Gao, Ximin Pan, Meng Li, Miao Zhong, Zhenzhen Zhu, Meiqi Niu, Yanyan Li, Ling Zhao, Xiaoxi Chen, Chang Liu, Zhi Lu, Ruiwang Huang
Early second language (L2) experience influences the neural organization of L2 in neuro-plastic terms. Previous studies tried to reveal these plastic effects of age of second language acquisition (AoA-L2) and proficiency-level in L2 (PL-L2) on the neural basis of language processing in bilinguals. Although different activation patterns have been observed during language processing in early and late bilinguals by task-fMRI, few studies reported the effect of AoA-L2 and high PL-L2 on language network at resting state...
July 13, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710926/speech-and-language-therapy-service-delivery-overcoming-limited-provision-for-children
#20
L M T Jesus, J Martinez, A R Valente, M C Costa
OBJECTIVES: To test an alternative Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) service delivery model based on partnerships between a University and local schools and charities, and to report on the impact and feasibility of intervention based on long-term outcome measures and three case studies with individual analysis of Reliable Change. STUDY DESIGN: The following six-step model was tested: 1-establishing partnerships; 2-flagging children; 3-pre-treatment SLT assessment; 4-reporting and discussion with parents and teachers; 5-treatment; 6-post-treatment assessment...
July 12, 2017: Public Health
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