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Phonetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443053/perceptual-improvement-of-lexical-tones-in-infants-effects-of-tone-language-experience
#1
Feng-Ming Tsao
To learn words in a tonal language, tone-language learners should not only develop better abilities for perceiving consonants and vowels, but also for lexical tones. The divergent trend of enhancing sensitivity to native phonetic contrasts and reduced sensitivity to non-native phonetic contrast is theoretically essential to evaluate effects of listening to an ambient language on speech perception development. The loss of sensitivity in discriminating lexical tones among non-tonal language-learning infants was apparent between 6 and 12 months of age, but only few studies examined trends of differentiating native lexical tones in infancy...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439232/mapping-the-speech-code-cortical-responses-linking-the-perception-and-production-of-vowels
#2
William L Schuerman, Antje S Meyer, James M McQueen
The acoustic realization of speech is constrained by the physical mechanisms by which it is produced. Yet for speech perception, the degree to which listeners utilize experience derived from speech production has long been debated. In the present study, we examined how sensorimotor adaptation during production may affect perception, and how this relationship may be reflected in early vs. late electrophysiological responses. Participants first performed a baseline speech production task, followed by a vowel categorization task during which EEG responses were recorded...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434678/do-not-let-the-spanish-s-misguide-you
#3
João Malta Barbosa, Graciela Granda Gill, João Mendez Caramês
The orthographic representation of the "s" in the Spanish language may have three phonetic variations and be associated with other phonological phenomena that add to its unpredictability when used to evaluate the closest speaking space. These are of clinical interest since each of these variations may represent a more or less pronounced difference from what is observed in the English language and patient population. The present article explains the previously mentioned variations and reviews the suggested Spanish terms for evaluation of the closest speaking space...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409649/lexical-stress-contrast-marking-in-fluent-and-non-fluent-aphasia-in-spanish-the-relationship-between-acoustic-cues-and-compensatory-strategies
#4
Lorraine Baqué
This study sought to investigate stress production in Spanish by patients with Broca's (BA) and conduction aphasia (CA) as compared to controls. Our objectives were to assess whether: a) there were many abnormal acoustic correlates of stress as produced by patients, b) these abnormalities had a phonetic component and c) ability for articulatory compensation for stress marking was preserved. The results showed abnormal acoustic values in both BA and CA's productions, affecting not only duration but also F0 and intensity cues, and an interaction effect of stress pattern and duration on intensity cubes in BA, but not in CA or controls...
April 14, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407509/infant-word-segmentation-recruits-the-cerebral-network-of-phonological-short-term-memory
#5
Yasuyo Minagawa, Yoko Hakuno, Ai Kobayashi, Nozomi Naoi, Shozo Kojima
Segmenting word units from running speech is a fundamental skill infants must develop in order to acquire language. Despite ample behavioral evidence of this skill, its neurocognitive basis remains unclear. Using behavioral testing and functional near-infrared spectroscopy, we aimed to uncover the neurocognitive substrates of word segmentation and its development. Of three age-groups of Japanese infants (5-6, 7-8, and 9-10months of age), the two older age-groups showed significantly larger temporo-parietal (particularly supramarginal gyrus) responses to target words repeatedly presented for training, than to control words...
April 10, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406683/evaluating-the-sources-and-functions-of-gradiency-in-phoneme-categorization-an-individual-differences-approach
#6
Efthymia C Kapnoula, Matthew B Winn, Eun Jong Kong, Jan Edwards, Bob McMurray
During spoken language comprehension listeners transform continuous acoustic cues into categories (e.g., /b/ and /p/). While long-standing research suggests that phonetic categories are activated in a gradient way, there are also clear individual differences in that more gradient categorization has been linked to various communication impairments such as dyslexia and specific language impairments (Joanisse, Manis, Keating, & Seidenberg, 2000; López-Zamora, Luque, Álvarez, & Cobos, 2012; Serniclaes, Van Heghe, Mousty, Carré, & Sprenger-Charolles, 2004; Werker & Tees, 1987)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396294/chronic-ambulatory-electrocorticography-from-human-speech-cortex
#7
Vikram R Rao, Matthew K Leonard, Jonathan K Kleen, Ben A Lucas, Emily A Mirro, Edward F Chang
Direct intracranial recording of human brain activity is an important approach for deciphering neural mechanisms of cognition. Such recordings, usually made in patients with epilepsy undergoing inpatient monitoring for seizure localization, are limited in duration and depend on patients' tolerance for the challenges associated with recovering from brain surgery. Thus, typical intracranial recordings, similar to most non-invasive approaches in humans, provide snapshots of brain activity in acute, highly constrained settings, limiting opportunities to understand long timescale and natural, real-world phenomena...
April 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385634/phonological-facilitation-in-picture-naming-when-and-where-a-tdcs-study
#8
Alberto Pisoni, Milena Cerciello, Zaira Cattaneo, Costanza Papagno
Phonological facilitation (PF) refers to a reduction of naming latencies when a phonologically related word is presented concurrently with the target picture, as compared to the presentation of phonologically unrelated words. According to spread of activation models of word production, this effect arises after lexical selection, during phonetic encoding, and is due to the co-activation of the phonemes shared by the target word and the distracter. Conversely, semantic interference (SI) is characterized by longer naming latencies when semantically related distracters are concurrently presented with the target picture...
April 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384645/perception-of-japanese-pitch-accent-without-f0
#9
Yukiko Sugiyama
Phonological contrasts are typically encoded with multiple acoustic correlates to ensure efficient communication. Studies have shown that such phonetic redundancy is found not only in segmental contrasts, but also in suprasegmental contrasts such as tone. In Japanese, fundamental frequency (F0) is the primary cue for pitch accent. However, little is known about its secondary cues. In the present study, a perception experiment was conducted to examine whether any secondary cues exist for Japanese accent. First, minimal pairs of final-accented and unaccented words were identified using a database, resulting in 14 pairs of words...
April 7, 2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384234/vowel-reduction-in-word-final-position-by-early-and-late-spanish-english-bilinguals
#10
Emily Byers, Mehmet Yavas
Vowel reduction is a prominent feature of American English, as well as other stress-timed languages. As a phonological process, vowel reduction neutralizes multiple vowel quality contrasts in unstressed syllables. For bilinguals whose native language is not characterized by large spectral and durational differences between tonic and atonic vowels, systematically reducing unstressed vowels to the central vowel space can be problematic. Failure to maintain this pattern of stressed-unstressed syllables in American English is one key element that contributes to a "foreign accent" in second language speakers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381734/implant-supported-oral-rehabilitation-in-child-with-ectodermal-dysplasia-4-year-follow-up
#11
Thaisa Cezária Triches, Marcos Ximenes, João Gustavo Oliveira de Souza, Armando Rodrigues Lopes Pereira Neto, Antônio Carlos Cardoso, Michele Bolan
Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is an anomaly determined by genetic factors that alter ectodermal structures such as skin, hair, nails, glands, and teeth. Children affected by this condition require extensive, comprehensive, and multidisciplinary treatment. An 8-year-old female patient visited the Dentistry Clinic of the Federal University of Santa Catarina with the chief complaint of multiple missing teeth. The mother reported that the patient had ED. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed the congenital absence of several primary and permanent teeth and tooth germs...
2017: Bulletin of Tokyo Dental College
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367659/visual-stimuli-in-intervention-approaches-for-pre-schoolers-diagnosed-with-phonological-delay
#12
Cassandra Ferreira Pedro, Marisa Lousada, Andreia Hall, Luis M T Jesus
The aim of this study was to develop and content validate specific speech and language intervention picture cards: The Letter-Sound (L&S) cards. The present study was also focused on assessing the influence of these cards on letter-sound correspondences and speech sound production. An expert panel of six speech and language therapists analysed and discussed the L&S cards based on several criteria previously established. A Speech and Language Therapist carried out a 6-week therapeutic intervention with a group of seven Portuguese phonologically delayed pre-schoolers aged 5;3 to 6;5...
April 3, 2017: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348537/graphemes-sharing-phonetic-features-tend-to-induce-similar-synesthetic-colors
#13
Mi-Jeong Kang, Yeseul Kim, Ji-Young Shin, Chai-Youn Kim
Individuals with grapheme-color synesthesia experience idiosyncratic colors when viewing achromatic letters or digits. Despite large individual differences in grapheme-color association, synesthetes tend to associate graphemes sharing a perceptual feature with similar synesthetic colors. Sound has been suggested as one such feature. In the present study, we investigated whether graphemes of which representative phonemes have similar phonetic features tend to be associated with analogous synesthetic colors. We tested five Korean multilingual synesthetes on a color-matching task using graphemes from Korean, English, and Japanese orthography...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342382/words-cluster-phonetically-beyond-phonotactic-regularities
#14
Isabelle Dautriche, Kyle Mahowald, Edward Gibson, Anne Christophe, Steven T Piantadosi
Recent evidence suggests that cognitive pressures associated with language acquisition and use could affect the organization of the lexicon. On one hand, consistent with noisy channel models of language (e.g., Levy, 2008), the phonological distance between wordforms should be maximized to avoid perceptual confusability (a pressure for dispersion). On the other hand, a lexicon with high phonological regularity would be simpler to learn, remember and produce (e.g., Monaghan et al., 2011) (a pressure for clumpiness)...
March 22, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326994/effects-of-lexical-competition-and-dialect-exposure-on-phonological-priming
#15
Cynthia G Clopper, Abby Walker
A cross-modal lexical decision task was used to explore the effects of lexical competition and dialect exposure on phonological form priming. Relative to unrelated auditory primes, matching real word primes facilitated lexical decision for visual real word targets, whereas competing minimal pair primes inhibited lexical decision. These effects were robust across two English vowel pairs (mid-front and low-front) and for two listener groups (mono-dialectal and multi-dialectal). However, both the most robust facilitation and the most robust inhibition were observed for the mid-front vowel words with few phonological competitors for the mono-dialectal listener group...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326991/the-effects-of-language-experience-and-speech-context-on-the-phonetic-accommodation-of-english-accented-spanish-voicing
#16
Fernando Llanos, Alexander L Francis
Native speakers of Spanish with different amounts of experience with English classified stop-consonant voicing (/b/ versus /p/) across different speech accents: English-accented Spanish, native Spanish, and native English. While listeners with little experience with English classified target voicing with an English- or Spanish-like voice onset time (VOT) boundary, predicted by contextual VOT, listeners familiar with English relied on an English-like VOT boundary in an English-accented Spanish context even in the absence of clear contextual cues to English VOT...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326988/discrimination-and-identification-of-a-third-formant-frequency-cue-to-place-of-articulation-by-young-children-and-adults
#17
Kelly Richardson, Joan E Sussman
Typically-developing children, 4 to 6 years of age, and adults participated in discrimination and identification speech perception tasks using a synthetic consonant-vowel continuum ranging from /da/ to /ga/. The seven-step synthetic /da/-/ga/ continuum was created by adjusting the first 40 ms of the third formant frequency transition. For the discrimination task, listeners participated in a Change/No-Change paradigm with four different stimuli compared to the endpoint-1 /da/ token. For the identification task, listeners labeled each token along the /da/-/ga/ continuum as either "DA" or "GA...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326986/the-role-of-predictability-in-intonational-variability
#18
Rory Turnbull
Predictability is known to affect many properties of speech production. In particular, it has been observed that highly predictable elements (words, syllables) are produced with less phonetic prominence (shorter duration, less peripheral vowels) than less predictable elements. This tendency has been proposed to be a general property of language. This paper examines whether predictability is correlated with fundamental frequency (F0) production, through analysis of experimental corpora of American English. Predictability was variously defined as discourse mention, utterance probability, and semantic focus...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321196/connected-speech-in-neurodegenerative-language-disorders-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Veronica Boschi, Eleonora Catricalà, Monica Consonni, Cristiano Chesi, Andrea Moro, Stefano F Cappa
Language assessment has a crucial role in the clinical diagnosis of several neurodegenerative diseases. The analysis of extended speech production is a precious source of information encompassing the phonetic, phonological, lexico-semantic, morpho-syntactic, and pragmatic levels of language organization. The knowledge about the distinctive linguistic variables identifying language deficits associated to different neurodegenerative diseases has progressively improved in the last years. However, the heterogeneity of such variables and of the way they are measured and classified limits any generalization and makes the comparison among studies difficult...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320669/regularized-speaker-adaptation-of-kl-hmm-for-dysarthric-speech-recognition
#20
Myungjong Kim, Younggwan Kim, Joohong Yoo, Jun Wang, Hoirin Kim
This paper addresses the problem of recognizing the speech uttered by patients with dysarthria, which is a motor speech disorder impeding the physical production of speech. Patients with dysarthria have articulatory limitation, and therefore, they often have trouble in pronouncing certain sounds, resulting in undesirable phonetic variation. Modern automatic speech recognition systems designed for regular speakers are ineffective for dysarthric sufferers due to the phonetic variation. To capture the phonetic variation, Kullback-Leibler divergence based hidden Markov model (KL-HMM) is adopted, where the emission probability of state is parametrized by a categorical distribution using phoneme posterior probabilities obtained from a deep neural network-based acoustic model...
March 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
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