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Phonetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924946/listeners-are-maximally-flexible-in-updating-phonetic-beliefs-over-time
#1
David Saltzman, Emily Myers
Perceptual learning serves as a mechanism for listenexrs to adapt to novel phonetic information. Distributional tracking theories posit that this adaptation occurs as a result of listeners accumulating talker-specific distributional information about the phonetic category in question (Kleinschmidt & Jaeger, 2015, Psychological Review, 122). What is not known is how listeners build these talker-specific distributions; that is, if they aggregate all information received over a certain time period, or if they rely more heavily upon the most recent information received and down-weight older, consolidated information...
September 18, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915783/prediction-of-agreement-and-phonetic-overlap-shape-sublexical-identification
#2
Andrea E Martin, Philip J Monahan, Arthur G Samuel
The mapping between the physical speech signal and our internal representations is rarely straightforward. When faced with uncertainty, higher-order information is used to parse the signal and because of this, the lexicon and some aspects of sentential context have been shown to modulate the identification of ambiguous phonetic segments. Here, using a phoneme identification task (i.e., participants judged whether they heard [o] or [a] at the end of an adjective in a noun-adjective sequence), we asked whether grammatical gender cues influence phonetic identification and if this influence is shaped by the phonetic properties of the agreeing elements...
September 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915782/voicing-assimilation-in-czech-and-slovak-speakers-of-english-interactions-of-segmental-context-language-and-strength-of-foreign-accent
#3
Radek Skarnitzl, Pavel Šturm
This study focuses on voicing assimilation across word boundaries in the speech of second language (L2) users. We compare native speakers of British English to speakers of two West Slavic languages, Czech and Slovak, which, despite their many similarities, differ with respect to voicing assimilation rules. Word-final voicing was analysed in 30 speakers, using the static value of voicing percentage and the voicing profile method. The results of linear mixed-effects modelling suggest an effect of first language (L1) transfer in all L2 English speaker groups, with the tendency to assimilate being correlated with the strength of foreign accent...
September 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901779/initial-consonant-deletion-in-bilingual-spanish-english-speaking-children-with-speech-sound-disorders
#4
Leah Fabiano-Smith, Suzanne Lea Cuzner
The purpose of this study was to utilize a theoretical model of bilingual speech sound production as a framework for analyzing the speech of bilingual children with speech sound disorders. In order to distinguish speech difference from speech disorder, we examined between-language interaction on initial consonant deletion, an error pattern found cross-linguistically in the speech of children with speech sound disorders. Thirteen monolingual English-speaking and bilingual Spanish-and English-speaking preschoolers with speech sound disorders were audio-recorded during a single word picture-naming task and their recordings were phonetically transcribed...
September 13, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890602/learning-a-talker-or-learning-an-accent-acoustic-similarity-constrains-generalization-of-foreign-accent-adaptation-to-new-talkers
#5
Xin Xie, Emily B Myers
Past research has revealed that native listeners use top-down information to adjust the mapping from speech sounds to phonetic categories. Such phonetic adjustments help listeners adapt to foreign-accented speech. However, the mechanism by which talker-specific adaptation generalizes to other talkers is poorly understood. Here we asked what conditions induce crosstalker generalization in talker accent adaptation. Native-English listeners were exposed to Mandarin-accented words, produced by a single talker or multiple talkers...
December 2017: Journal of Memory and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886431/the-effect-of-phonetic-complexity-on-the-speed-of-single-word-productions-in-adults-who-do-and-do-not-stutter
#6
Courtney T Byrd, Geoffrey A Coalson, Jie Yang, Kirsten Moriarty
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of phonetic complexity as measured by the Word Complexity Measure (WCM) on the speed of single-word production in adults who do (AWS, n=15) and do not stutter (AWNS, n=15). METHOD: Participants were required to name pictures of high versus low phonetic complexity and balanced for lexical properties. Speech reaction time was recorded from initial presentation of the picture to verbal response of participant for each word type...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867553/cepstral-analysis-of-normal-and-pathological-voice-in-spanish-adults-smoothed-cepstral-peak-prominence-in-sustained-vowels-versus-connected-speech
#7
Jonathan Delgado-Hernández, Nieves M León-Gómez, Laura M Izquierdo-Arteaga, Yanira Llanos-Fumero
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: In recent years, the use of cepstral measures for acoustic evaluation of voice has increased. One of the most investigated parameters is smoothed cepstral peak prominence (CPPs). The objectives of this paper are to establish the usefulness of this acoustic measure in the objective evaluation of alterations of the voice in Spanish and to determine what type of voice sample (sustained vowels or connected speech) is the most sensitive in evaluating the severity of dysphonia...
August 31, 2017: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863611/phonetic-enhancement-of-mandarin-vowels-and-tones-infant-directed-speech-and-lombard-speech
#8
Ping Tang, Nan Xu Rattanasone, Ivan Yuen, Katherine Demuth
Speech units are reported to be hyperarticulated in both infant-directed speech (IDS) and Lombard speech. Since these two registers have typically been studied separately, it is unclear if the same speech units are hyperarticulated in the same manner between these registers. The aim of the present study is to compare the effect of register on vowel and tone modification in the tonal language Mandarin Chinese. Vowel and tone productions were produced by 15 Mandarin-speaking mothers during interactions with their 12-month-old infants during a play session (IDS), in conversation with a Mandarin-speaking adult in a 70 dBA eight-talker babble noise environment (Lombard speech), and in a quiet environment (adult-directed speech)...
August 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863560/which-epenthetic-vowel-phonetic-categories-versus-acoustic-detail-in-perceptual-vowel-epenthesis
#9
Adriana Guevara-Rukoz, Isabelle Lin, Masahiro Morii, Yasuyo Minagawa, Emmanuel Dupoux, Sharon Peperkamp
This study aims to quantify the relative contributions of phonetic categories and acoustic detail on phonotactically induced perceptual vowel epenthesis in Japanese listeners. A vowel identification task tested whether a vowel was perceived within illegal consonant clusters and, if so, which vowel was heard. Cross-spliced stimuli were used in which vowel coarticulation present in the cluster did not match the quality of the flanking vowel. Two clusters were used, /hp/ and /kp/, the former containing larger amounts of resonances of the preceding vowel...
August 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857633/practice-makes-perfect-the-pedagogic-value-of-online-independent-phonetic-transcription-practice-for-speech-and-language-therapy-students
#10
Jill Titterington, Sally Bates
Accuracy of phonetic transcription is a core skill for speech and language therapists (SLTs) worldwide (Howard & Heselwood, 2002). The current study investigates the value of weekly independent online phonetic transcription tasks to support development of this skill in year one SLT students. Using a mixed methods observational design, students enrolled in a year one phonetics module completed 10 weekly homework activities in phonetic transcription on a stand-alone tutorial site (WebFon (Bates, Matthews & Eagles, 2010)) and 5 weekly online quizzes (the 'Ulster Set' (Titterington, unpublished))...
August 31, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852917/perceptual-training-of-second-language-vowels-does-musical-ability-play-a-role
#11
Payam Ghaffarvand Mokari, Stefan Werner
The present study attempts to extend the research on the effects of phonetic training on the production and perception of second-language (L2) vowels. We also examined whether success in learning L2 vowels through high-variability intensive phonetic training is related to the learners' general musical abilities. Forty Azerbaijani learners of Standard Southern British English participated in a pre-test/training/post-test setting. Discrimination and production tests were used in pre- and post-tests. The participants' musical ability was evaluated through three musical aptitude tests...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843209/stream-segregation-of-concurrent-speech-and-the-verbal-transformation-effect-influence-of-fundamental-frequency-and-lateralization-cues
#12
Marcin Stachurski, Robert J Summers, Brian Roberts
Repeating a recorded word produces verbal transformations (VTs); perceptual regrouping of acoustic-phonetic elements may contribute to this effect. The influence of fundamental frequency (F0) and lateralization grouping cues was explored by presenting two concurrent sequences of the same word resynthesized on different F0s (100 and 178 Hz). In experiment 1, listeners monitored both sequences simultaneously, reporting for each any change in stimulus identity. Three lateralization conditions were used - diotic, ±680-μs interaural time difference, and dichotic...
August 2, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840520/five-mechanisms-of-sound-symbolic-association
#13
David M Sidhu, Penny M Pexman
Sound symbolism refers to an association between phonemes and stimuli containing particular perceptual and/or semantic elements (e.g., objects of a certain size or shape). Some of the best-known examples include the mil/mal effect (Sapir, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 12, 225-239, 1929) and the maluma/takete effect (Köhler, 1929). Interest in this topic has been on the rise within psychology, and studies have demonstrated that sound symbolic effects are relevant for many facets of cognition, including language, action, memory, and categorization...
August 24, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839071/intonational-speech-prosody-encoding-in-the-human-auditory-cortex
#14
C Tang, L S Hamilton, E F Chang
Speakers of all human languages regularly use intonational pitch to convey linguistic meaning, such as to emphasize a particular word. Listeners extract pitch movements from speech and evaluate the shape of intonation contours independent of each speaker's pitch range. We used high-density electrocorticography to record neural population activity directly from the brain surface while participants listened to sentences that varied in intonational pitch contour, phonetic content, and speaker. Cortical activity at single electrodes over the human superior temporal gyrus selectively represented intonation contours...
August 25, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821019/stimulus-characteristics-of-single-word-tests-of-children-s-speech-sound-production
#15
Toby Macrae
Purpose: This clinical focus article provides readers with a description of the stimulus characteristics of 12 popular tests of speech sound production. Method: Using significance testing and descriptive analyses, stimulus items were compared in terms of the number of opportunities for production of all consonant singletons, clusters, and rhotic and nonrhotic vowels of Standard American English; phonetic/phonological and structural complexity; and the presence of bound morphemes...
August 18, 2017: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818692/suppression-of-irrelevant-sounds-during-auditory-working-memory
#16
Jyrki Ahveninen, Larry J Seidman, Wei-Tang Chang, Matti Hämäläinen, Samantha Huang
Auditory working memory (WM) processing in everyday acoustic environments depends on our ability to maintain relevant information online in our minds, and to suppress interference caused by competing incoming stimuli. A challenge in communication settings is that the relevant content and irrelevant inputs may emanate from a common source, such as a talkative conversationalist. An open question is how the WM system deals with such interference. Will the distracters become inadvertently filtered before processing for meaning because the primary WM operations deplete all available processing resources? Or are they suppressed post perceptually, through an active control process? We tested these alternative hypotheses by measuring magnetoencephalography (MEG), EEG, and functional MRI (fMRI) during a phonetic auditory continuous performance task...
August 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806417/phonetic-complexity-affects-children-s-mandarin-tone-production-accuracy-in-disyllabic-words-a-perceptual-study
#17
Puisan Wong, Winifred Strange
This is the first study to examine the effect of phonetic contexts on children's lexical tone production. Mandarin tones in disyllabic words produced by forty-four 2- to 6-year-old children and twelve mothers were low-pass filtered to eliminate lexical information. Native Mandarin-speaking adults categorized the tones based on the pitch information in the filtered stimuli. All mothers' tones were categorized with ceiling accuracy. Counter to the findings in most previous studies on children's tone acquisition and the prevailing assumption in models of speech development that children acquire suprasegmental features much earlier than segmental features, this study found that children as old as six years of age have not mastered the production of Mandarin tones...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806311/evaluation-of-maximal-speech-intelligibility-with-vibrant-soundbridge-in-patients-with-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#18
Hyun-Jin Lee, Jeon Mi Lee, Jae Young Choi, Jinsei Jung
OBJECTIVE: The study investigated improvements in maximal speech intelligibility after Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) implantation and analyzed the effect of the hearing loss pattern on maximal speech intelligibility represented by a phonetically balanced word score (PBmax). The effect of middle ear implants on PBmax has not been evaluated yet. STUDY DESIGN: Study. SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center. PATIENTS/INTERVENTIONS: Sixty patients who underwent VSB from December 2011 to January 2016 were retrospectively reviewed...
October 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803218/do-you-hear-feather-when-listening-to-rain-lexical-tone-activation-during-unconscious-translation-evidence-from-mandarin-english-bilinguals
#19
Xin Wang, Juan Wang, Jeffrey G Malins
Although lexical tone is a highly prevalent phonetic cue in human languages, its role in bilingual spoken word recognition is not well understood. The present study investigates whether and how adult bilinguals, who use pitch contours to disambiguate lexical items in one language but not the other, access a tonal L1 when exclusively processing a non-tonal L2. Using the visual world paradigm, we show that Mandarin-English listeners automatically activated Mandarin translation equivalents of English target words such as 'rain' (Mandarin 'yu3'), and consequently were distracted by competitors whose segments and tones overlapped with the translations of English target words ('feather', also 'yu3' in Mandarin)...
August 10, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802788/auditory-perceptual-evaluation-of-dysphonia-a-comparison-between-narrow-and-broad-terminology-systems
#20
Jenny Iwarsson, Anne Bingen-Jakobsen, Ditte Søbæk Johansen, Inge Ernst Kølle, Solveig Gunvor Pedersen, Stine Løvind Thorsen, Niels Reinholt Petersen
OBJECTIVE: In auditory-perceptual voice analysis, a multiparameter approach and a more reductionist approach may be compared with narrow and broad phonetic transcription and used interchangeably, depending on the purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the perspectives of a translation of the terminology used in the multiparameter Danish Dysphonia Assessment (DDA) approach into the five-parameter GRBAS system. METHODS: Voice samples illustrating type and grade of the voice qualities included in DDA were rated by five speech language pathologists using the GRBAS system with the aim of estimating inter- and intrarater reliability...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
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