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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163865/associations-between-neurocognitive-functioning-and-social-and-occupational-resilience-among-south-african-women-exposed-to-childhood-trauma
#1
C A Denckla, N S Consedine, G Spies, M Cherner, D C Henderson, K C Koenen, S Seedat
Background: Prior research on adaptation after early trauma among black South African women typically assessed resilience in ways that lacked contextual specificity. In addition, the neurocognitive correlates of social and occupational resilience have not been investigated. Objective: The primary aim of this exploratory study was to identify domains of neurocognitive functioning associated with social and occupational resilience, defined as functioning at a level beyond what would be expected given exposure to childhood trauma...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163329/dystonic-dysarthria-in-wilson-disease-efficacy-of-zolpidem
#2
Aurélia Poujois, Michaela Pernon, Jean-Marc Trocello, France Woimant
Wilson disease (WD) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by copper overload in the liver and the brain. Neurological presentations are mainly related to the accumulation of copper in the basal ganglia, the brainstem, and the cerebellum. Dysarthria is a frequent symptom, with dystonic, spastic, or parkinsonian components and is usually resistant to medical or voice rehabilitation therapies. Here, we report the case of a patient with WD diagnosed at the age of 12, who presented a severe and constant dysarthria from dystonic origin which was unresponsive to benzodiazepines and anticholinergic drugs...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163320/morpheme-based-reading-and-writing-in-spanish-children-with-dyslexia
#3
Paz Suárez-Coalla, Cristina Martínez-García, Fernando Cuetos
It has been well documented that morphemic structure (roots and affixes) have an impact in reading, but effects seem to depend on the reading experience of readers and lexical characteristics of the stimuli. Specifically, it has been reported that morphemes constitute reading units for developing readers and children with dyslexia when they encounter a new word. In addition, recent studies have stated that the effect of morphology is also present in spelling, as morphological information facilitates spelling accuracy and influences handwriting times...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163245/the-training-of-morphological-decomposition-in-word-processing-and-its-effects-on-literacy-skills
#4
Irit Bar-Kochva, Marcus Hasselhorn
This study set out to examine the effects of a morpheme-based training on reading and spelling in fifth and sixth graders (N = 47), who present poor literacy skills and speak German as a second language. A computerized training, consisting of a visual lexical decision task (comprising 2,880 items, presented in 12 sessions), was designed to encourage fast morphological analysis in word processing. The children were divided between two groups: the one underwent a morpheme-based training, in which word-stems of inflections and derivations were presented for a limited duration, while their pre- and suffixes remained on screen until response...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161949/learning-letters-with-the-whole-body-visuomotor-versus-visual-teaching-in-kindergarten
#5
Florence Bara, Nathalie Bonneton-Botté
What constitutes effective teaching of letter learning in early school years is still uncertain. We assessed the impact of a teacher-implemented visuomotor intervention program to teach 5-year-olds' cursive letter knowledge. We compared a program in which letters were explored with the arm and whole body, with a typical visual training program. Children were tested before and after the intervention with different measures of letter knowledge. We showed a greater improvement in letter recognition following the visuomotor intervention, compared with the visual intervention...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161150/cognitive-impairment-in-schizophrenia-and-depression-a-comparison-of-stability-and-course
#6
Peter Neu, Tina Gooren, Ulrike Niebuhr, Peter Schlattmann
Cognitive deficits are clinically relevant features in schizophrenia and depression, yet little comparative data on changes in both disorders is available. This study compares cognitive performance of inpatients with schizophrenia (N = 52) and unipolar major depression (N = 67) during psychiatric treatment, assessing performance twice: after admission to hospital (acute) and prior to discharge (postacute) on average seven weeks later. A group of healthy controls was tested at comparable intervals. Data was analyzed using a multivariate linear model...
November 21, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161113/disseminability-of-computerized-cognitive-training-performance-across-coaches
#7
Ashley S Fournier-Goodnight, Jason M Ashford, Kellie N Clark, Karen Martin-Elbahesh, Kristina K Hardy, Thomas E Merchant, Sima Jeha, Robert J Ogg, Hui Zhang, Lei Wang, Heather M Conklin
Cogmed is a computerized cognitive intervention utilizing coaches who receive standardized instruction in analyzing training indices and tailoring feedback to remotely monitor participant's performance. The goal of this study was to examine adherence, satisfaction, and efficacy of Cogmed across coaches. Survivors of pediatric brain tumors and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (N = 68) were randomized to intervention (Cogmed) or waitlist control. The intervention group was matched with one of two coaches. Cognitive assessments were completed before and after intervention, and participants and caregivers in the intervention group completed satisfaction surveys...
November 21, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160019/comparison-of-animal-action-and-phonemic-fluency-in-aphasia
#8
Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah, Lisa Milman
BACKGROUND: The ability to generate words that follow certain constraints, or verbal fluency, is a sensitive indicator of neurocognitive impairment, and is impacted by a variety of variables. AIMS: To investigate the effect of post-stroke aphasia, elicitation category and linguistic variables on verbal fluency performance. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Twenty-eight persons with aphasia (PWA) with a single left-hemisphere lesion and 40 age-matched neurotypical community-dwelling adults were administered three verbal fluency tasks: two semantic (animals and actions) and one phonemic (the letters F, A and S)...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159849/spoken-sentence-production-in-college-students-with-dyslexia-working-memory-and-vocabulary-effects
#9
Rebecca Wiseheart, Lori J P Altmann
BACKGROUND: Individuals with dyslexia demonstrate syntactic difficulties on tasks of language comprehension, yet little is known about spoken language production in this population. AIMS: To investigate whether spoken sentence production in college students with dyslexia is less proficient than in typical readers, and to determine whether group differences can be attributable to cognitive differences between groups. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Fifty-one college students with and without dyslexia were asked to produce sentences from stimuli comprising a verb and two nouns...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159059/triangulation-of-language-cognitive-impairments-naming-errors-and-their-neural-bases-post-stroke
#10
Ajay D Halai, Anna M Woollams, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
In order to gain a better understanding of aphasia one must consider the complex combinations of language impairments along with the pattern of paraphasias. Despite the fact that both deficits and paraphasias feature in diagnostic criteria, most research has focused only on the lesion correlates of language deficits, with minimal attention on the pattern of patients' paraphasias. In this study, we used a data-driven approach (principal component analysis - PCA) to fuse patient impairments and their pattern of errors into one unified model of chronic post-stroke aphasia...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159048/resting-state-connectivity-and-executive-functions-after-pediatric-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#11
Salome Kornfeld, Rui Yuan, Bharat B Biswal, Sebastian Grunt, Sandeep Kamal, Juan Antonio Delgado Rodríguez, Mária Regényi, Roland Wiest, Christian Weisstanner, Claus Kiefer, Maja Steinlin, Regula Everts
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the relationship between core executive functions and frontoparietal network connections at rest between children who had suffered an arterial ischemic stroke and typically developing peers. Methods: Children diagnosed with arterial ischemic stroke more than two years previously and typically developing controls were included. Executive function (EF) measures comprised inhibition (Go-NoGo task), fluency (category fluency task), processing speed (processing speed tasks), divided attention, working memory (letter-number sequencing), conceptual reasoning (matrices) and EF in everyday life (questionnaire)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154273/association-between-%C3%AE-klotho-and-deep-white-matter-lesions-in-the-brain-a-pilot-case-control-study-using-brain-mri
#12
Nagato Kuriyama, Etsuko Ozaki, Toshiki Mizuno, Masafumi Ihara, Shigeto Mizuno, Teruhide Koyama, Daisuke Matsui, Isao Watanabe, Kentaro Akazawa, Kazuo Takeda, Akihiro Takada, Masaaki Inaba, Shinsuke Yamada, Koka Motoyama, Wakiko Takeshita, Komei Iwai, Kanae Hashiguchi, Daiki Kobayashi, Masaki Kondo, Aiko Tamura, Kei Yamada, Masanori Nakagawa, Yoshiyuki Watanabe
BACKGROUND: The anti-aging protein, α-Klotho, may be involved in cognitive decline and has potential as a surrogate marker that reflects dementia. However, the role of α-Klotho in the brain has not been sufficiently investigated. OBJECTIVE: Here, we investigated the association between α-Klotho and cognitive decline that is associated with cerebral deep white matter lesions (DWMLs). METHODS: Two hundred-eighty participants (187 males and 93 females, mean age: 70...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151723/home-environmental-and-behavioral-risk-indices-for-reading-achievement
#13
Jeanette Taylor, Chelsea R Ennis, Sara A Hart, Amy J Mikolajewski, Christopher Schatschneider
The goal of this study was to identify home environmental and temperament/behavior variables that best predict standardized reading comprehension scores among school-aged children. Data from 269 children aged 9-16 (M = 12.08; SD = 1.62) were used in discriminant function analyses to create the Home and Behavior indices. Family income was controlled in each index. The final Home and Behavior models each classified around 75% of cases correctly (reading comprehension at grade level vs. not). Each index was then used to predict other outcomes related to reading...
July 2017: Learning and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149692/acute-stress-affects-prospective-memory-functions-via-associative-memory-processes
#14
Ágnes Szőllősi, Péter Pajkossy, Gyula Demeter, Szabolcs Kéri, Mihály Racsmány
Recent findings suggest that acute stress can improve the execution of delayed intentions (prospective memory, PM). However, it is unclear whether this improvement can be explained by altered executive control processes or by altered associative memory functioning. To investigate this issue, we used physical-psychosocial stressors to induce acute stress in laboratory settings. Then participants completed event- and time-based PM tasks requiring the different contribution of control processes and a control task (letter fluency) frequently used to measure executive functions...
November 14, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149110/-does-omega-3-supplementation-after-the-age-of-65-influence-cognitive-function-results-of-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
J Baleztena, M Arana, M Bes-Rastrollo, M C Castellanos, M J Gozalo, M Ruiz-Canela
BACKGROUND: The percentage of the older population is progressively increasing as are diseases associated with aging such as cognitive decline (CD) and dementia. Observational epidemiological studies suggest that diets rich in omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (w3-PUFA) might reduce the risk of CD and dementia. The main objective was to assess whether there is sufficient scientific evidence about the relationship between w3-PUFA supplementation in patients aged 65 or older and cognitive performance...
November 17, 2017: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146683/pcsk9-variants-ldl-cholesterol-and-neurocognitive-impairment-the-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-regards-study
#16
Matthew T Mefford, Robert S Rosenson, Mary Cushman, Michael E Farkouh, Leslie A McClure, Virginia G Wadley, Marguerite R Irvin, Vera A Bittner, Monika M Safford, Ransi Somaratne, Keri L Monda, Paul Muntner, Emily B Levitan
Background -Despite concerns about adverse neurocognitive events raised by prior trials, pharmacologic PCSK9 inhibition was not associated with neurocognitive effects in a recent phase 3 randomized trial. PCSK9 loss-of-function (LOF) variants that result in life-long exposure to low LDL-C can provide information on the potential long-term effects of low LDL-C on neurocognitive impairment and decline. Methods -We investigated the association between PCSK9 LOF variants and neurocognitive impairment and decline among African-American REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study participants with (n=241) and without (n=10,454) C697X or Y142X LOF variants...
November 16, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145761/non-fluent-speech-following-stroke-is-caused-by-impaired-efference-copy
#17
Lynda Feenaughty, Alexandra Basilakos, Leonardo Bonilha, Dirk-Bart den Ouden, Chris Rorden, Brielle Stark, Julius Fridriksson
Efference copy is a cognitive mechanism argued to be critical for initiating and monitoring speech: however, the extent to which breakdown of efference copy mechanisms impact speech production is unclear. This study examined the best mechanistic predictors of non-fluent speech among 88 stroke survivors. Objective speech fluency measures were subjected to a principal component analysis (PCA). The primary PCA factor was then entered into a multiple stepwise linear regression analysis as the dependent variable, with a set of independent mechanistic variables...
November 17, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143475/amygdala-sub-regional-functional-connectivity-predicts-anxiety-in-children-with-reading-disorder
#18
Katie Davis, Amy E Margolis, Lauren Thomas, Zhiyong Huo, Rachel Marsh
Pediatric reading disorder (RD) is associated with an increased risk of anxiety symptoms, yet understudied are the neurobiological factors that might underlie anxiety in children with RD. Given the role of the amygdala in anxiety, we assessed resting state functional connectivity of amygdalar subregions in children with RD to identify functional correlates of anxiety and reading impairment. We collected resting state functional MRI data from 22 children with RD and 21 typically developing (TD) children, ages 7 to 13 years...
November 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143136/investigation-of-arginine-a-specific-cysteine-proteinase-gene-expression-profiling-in-clinical-porphyromonas-gingivalis-isolates-against-photokilling-action-of-the-photo-activated-disinfection
#19
Maryam Pourhajibagher, Roghayeh Ghorbanzadeh, Abbas Bahador
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a significant root canal pathogen capable of causing endodontic infections, which during their treatment may receive sub-lethal doses of photo-activated disinfection (sPAD). As sPAD can influence microbial virulence, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of sPAD on gene expression level of arginine A-specific cysteine proteinase (rgpA), as one of the underlying virulence factors involved in the development of endodontic infection via P. gingivalis strains. To find out the sPAD against 16 clinical isolates of PAD-resistant P...
November 15, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140499/simple-arithmetic-not-so-simple-for-highly-math-anxious-individuals
#20
Hyesang Chang, Lisa Sprute, Erin A Maloney, Sian L Beilock, Marc G Berman
Fluency with simple arithmetic, typically achieved in early elementary school, is thought to be one of the building blocks of mathematical competence. Behavioral studies with adults indicate that math anxiety (feelings of tension or apprehension about math) is associated with poor performance on cognitively demanding math problems. However, it remains unclear whether there are fundamental differences in how high and low math anxious individuals approach overlearned simple arithmetic problems that are less reliant on cognitive control...
November 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
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