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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161081/diet-obesity-and-asthma
#1
Lisa G Wood
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many developed countries as Western dietary patterns have been widely adopted. These diets are characterized by excess energy intake as well as regular consumption of processed or "fast" foods and limited consumption of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains. The result is a high intake of saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, and sodium; and a low intake of fiber, vitamins, and other phytochemicals. This type of poor-quality diet has been associated with increased risk of chronic inflammatory diseases, including asthma...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160568/nerve-detection-using-optical-spectroscopy-an-evaluation-in-four-different-models-in-human-and-swine-in-vivo-and-post-mortem
#2
Gerrit C Langhout, Torre M Bydlon, Marjolein van der Voort, Manfred Müller, Jeroen Kortsmit, Gerald Lucassen, Andrea J R Balthasar, Geert-Jan van Geffen, Thorsten Steinfeldt, Henricus J C M Sterenborg, Benno H W Hendriks, Theo J M Ruers
OBJECTIVE: Identification of peripheral nerve tissue is crucial in both surgery and regional anesthesia. Recently, optical tissue identification methods are presented to facilitate nerve identification in transcutaneous procedures and surgery. Optimization and validation of such techniques require large datasets. The use of alternative models to human in vivo, like human post mortem, or swine may be suitable to test, optimize and validate new optical techniques. However, differences in tissue characteristics and thus optical properties, like oxygen saturation and tissue perfusion are to be expected...
November 21, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159947/flexible-water-excitation-for-fat-free-mri-at-3t-using-lipid-insensitive-binomial-off-resonant-rf-excitation-libre-pulses
#3
Jessica A M Bastiaansen, Matthias Stuber
PURPOSE: To develop a robust and flexible low power water excitation pulse that enables effective fat suppression at high magnetic field strength. METHODS: A water excitation method that uses spatially non-selective pulses was optimized in numerical simulations, and implemented and tested in phantoms and healthy volunteers at 3T. The lipid insensitive binomial off-resonant excitation (LIBRE) pulse comprises two low power rectangular subpulses that have a variable frequency offset, phase offset and duration...
November 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159212/data-on-the-expression-of-pepck-in-hepg2-hepatocytes-transfected-with-mir-195
#4
Won-Mo Yang, Kyung-Ho Min, Se-Whan Park, Wan Lee
Dietary fats rich in saturated fatty acid (SFA) increase the risk of metabolic diseases, and certain microRNAs (miRNAs) dysregulated by SFA are associated with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. A previous study found that miR-195 is increased by SFA and impairs hepatic insulin signaling through the suppression of INSR (Yang et al., 2014) [1]. This article reports accompanying data to determine the effect of miR-195 on the expression of PEPCK, a key player in hepatic gluconeogenesis...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159015/meals-for-good-an-innovative-community-project-to-provide-healthy-meals-to-children-in-early-care-and-education-programs-through-food-bank-catering
#5
Leah R Carpenter, Teresa M Smith, Katherine Stern, Lisa Weissenburger-Moser Boyd, Cristy Geno Rasmussen, Kelly Schaffer, Julie Shuell, Karen Broussard, Amy L Yaroch
Innovative approaches to childhood obesity prevention are warranted in early care and education (ECE) settings, since intervening early among youth is recommended to promote and maintain healthy behaviors. The objective of the Meals for Good pilot was to explore feasibility of implementing a food bank-based catering model to ECE programs to provide more nutritious meals, compared to meals brought from home (a parent-prepared model). In 2014-2015, a 12-month project was implemented by a food bank in central Florida in four privately-owned ECE programs...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156823/differential-activation-of-fyn-kinase-distinguishes-saturated-and-unsaturated-fats-in-mouse-macrophages
#6
Elena Tarabra, Ting-Wen An Lee, Victor A Zammit, Manu Vatish, Eijiro Yamada, Jeffrey E Pessin, Claire C Bastie
Diet-induced obesity is associated with increased adipose tissue activated macrophages. Yet, how macrophages integrate fatty acid (FA) signals remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that Fyn deficiency (fynKO) protects against high fat diet-induced adipose tissue macrophage accumulation. Herein, we show that inflammatory markers and reactive oxygen species are not induced in fynKO bone marrow-derived macrophages exposed to the saturated FA palmitate, suggesting that Fyn regulates macrophage function in response to FA signals...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154466/%C3%AE-fosb-regulates-rosiglitazone-induced-milk-fat-synthesis-and-cell-survival
#7
Xuefeng Wei, Hui Li, Guangwei Zhao, Jiameng Yang, Lihui Li, Yongzhen Huang, Xianyong Lan, Yun Ma, Huiling Zheng, Hong Chen
Rosiglitazone induces adipogenesis in adipocyte and regulates cell survival and differentiation in number of cell types. However, whether PPARγ regulates the synthesis of milk fat and cell survival in goat mammary gland remains unknown. Rosiglitazone strongly enhanced cellular triacylglycerol content and accumulation of lipid droplet in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC). Furthermore, ΔFosB decreased the expression of PPARγ at both mRNA and protein levels, and rosiglitazone-induced milk fat synthesis was abolished by ΔFosB overexpression...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153397/embolic-stroke-due-to-carotidynia-potentially-associated-with-moving-carotid-artery-caused-by-swallowing
#8
Yoshitaka Yamaguchi, Mikito Hayakawa, Naoto Kinoshita, Chiaki Yokota, Toshiya Ishihara, Kazunori Toyoda
A 63-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis discontinued her medication for rheumatoid arthritis with prednisolone and azathioprine. One month later, she was admitted because of consciousness disturbance and right hemiparesis. Diffusion-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple hyperintensities in her left frontal and parietal lobes. She also developed high fever and left neck pain. Carotid ultrasonography showed calcified plaque with vessel wall swelling at the bifurcation of the left common carotid artery (LCCA) and surrounding hypoechoic soft tissue...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153042/the-relationship-of-saturated-fats-and-coronary-heart-disease-fa-c-t-or-fiction-a-commentary
#9
Mark Houston
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152478/changes-in-dietary-patterns-and-body-composition-within-12-months-of-liver-transplantation
#10
Simone M McCoy, Katrina L Campbell, Annie-Claude M Lassemillante, Matthew P Wallen, Jonathan Fawcett, Maree Jarrett, Graeme A Macdonald, Ingrid J Hickman
Background: Cardiometabolic risk factors are increasing in liver transplant recipients (LTR). Influencing dietary factors have not been assessed. The aim of this observational study was to assess changes in weight, metabolic function, dietary intake and eating behaviours in the first year after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Methods: Consecutive recruitment of 17 patients (14 males) awaiting OLT at a single tertiary hospital. Dietary intake, food behaviours and anthropometry were recorded at baseline, and 6 and 12 months post-transplant...
October 2017: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149874/observation-and-assessment-of-the-nutritional-quality-of-out-of-school-foods-popular-with-secondary-school-pupils-at-lunchtime
#11
Fiona Crawford, Dionne Mackison, John D Mooney, Anne Ellaway
BACKGROUND: The contemporary Scottish diet is unhealthy and a risk factor for poor health outcomes including obesity. Over a third of Scottish children are at risk of being overweight or obese, and there have been calls to strengthen the evidence base on the role of the food retail environment around schools in influencing the consumption of unhealthy foods. METHODS: We examined the food retail environment around five secondary schools in Glasgow city, Scotland...
November 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149184/health-effects-of-saturated-and-trans-fatty-acid-intake-in-children-and-adolescents-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Lisa Te Morenga, Jason M Montez
BACKGROUND: Elevated cholesterol has been linked to cardiovascular disease in adults and preclinical markers of atherosclerosis in children, thus reducing saturated (SFA) and trans-fatty acids (TFA) intake from an early age may help to reduce cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. The aim of this review is to examine the evidence for health effects associated with reducing SFA and TFA intake in free-living children, adolescents and young adults between 2 to 19 years of age...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148120/mapping-brown-adipose-tissue-based-on-fat-water-fraction-provided-by-z-spectral-imaging
#13
Alessandro Scotti, Rong-Wen Tain, Weiguo Li, Victoria Gil, Chong Wee Liew, Kejia Cai
BACKGROUND: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has a great relevance in metabolic diseases and has been shown to be reduced in obesity and insulin resistance patients. Currently, Dixon MRI is used to calculate fat-water fraction (FWF) and differentiate BAT from white adipose tissue (WAT). However, it may fail in areas of phase wrapping and introduce fat-water swapping artifacts. PURPOSE: To investigate the capacity of the Z-spectrum imaging (ZSI) for the identification of BAT in vivo...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147102/the-relationships-between-muscle-fiber-characteristics-intramuscular-fat-content-and-fatty-acid-compositions-in-m-longissimus-lumborum-of-hanwoo-steers
#14
Seon-Tea Joo, Sung-Hyun Joo, Young-Hwa Hwang
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle fiber characteristics, intramuscular fat (IMF) content, and fatty acids composition in longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle from Hanwoo steers. The LL muscles were obtained from four quality grades (QG) carcasses and subjected to histochemical analysis. There were significant (p<0.05) differences in fiber number percentage (FNP) and fiber area percentage (FAP) of muscle fiber types among muscles from four QGs. Both FNP and FAP of type I increased while those of type IIB decreased with increasing QG from QG 2 to QG 1(++) (p<0...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145330/pathologic-femoral-fracture-due-to-tenofovir-induced-fanconi-syndrome-in-patient-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-a-case-report
#15
You-Sung Suh, Dong-Il Chun, Sung-Woo Choi, Hwan-Woong Lee, Jae-Hwi Nho, Soon-Hyo Kwon, Jae-Ho Cho, Sung Hun Won
RATIONALE: We report a case of a hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive patient with preexisting bone disease who developed tenofovir-induced Fanconi syndrome and subsequently sustained pathologic fracture. To our best knowledge, this is the first report in the English literature about pathologic femoral fracture due to tenofovir-induced Fanconi syndrome in patient with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The present report describes detailed our experience with the diagnosis of pathologic femoral fracture due to tenofovir-induced Fanconi syndrome and treatment...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142651/prevention-of-insulin-resistance-by-dietary-intervention-among-pregnant-mothers-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Masoomeh Goodarzi-Khoigani, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy Mahmoodabad, Mohammad Hossein Baghiani Moghadam, Azadeh Nadjarzadeh, Farahnaz Mardanian, Hossein Fallahzadeh, Azam Dadkhah-Tirani
Background: Chronic insulin resistance (IR) is a basic part of the pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus. Nutrition significantly impacts IR and weight loss reduces insulin levels, whereas weight gain increases the concentrations. Therefore, we surveyed the effect of nutrition intervention on IR in pregnant women and whether this effect is irrespective of weight gaining in accordance with Institute of Medicine limits. Methods: This prospective, randomized clinical trial was carried out among 150 primiparous pregnant mothers in fifteen health centers, five hospitals, and 15 private obstetrical offices in Isfahan...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141990/rna-sequencing-of-drosophila-melanogaster-head-tissue-on-high-sugar-and-high-fat-diets
#17
Wayne Hemphill, Osvaldo Rivera, Matthew Talbert
Obesity has been shown to increase risk for cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. In addition, it has been implicated in aggravation of neurological conditions such as Alzheimer's. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, a physiological state mimicking diet-induced obesity can be induced by subjecting fruit flies to a solid medium disproportionately higher in sugar than protein or that has been supplemented with a rich source of saturated fat. These flies can exhibit increased circulating glucose levels, increased triglyceride content, insulin-like peptide resistance, and behavior indicative of neurological decline...
November 15, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141784/effects-of-sodium-reduction-and-the%C3%A2-dash%C3%A2-diet-in-relation-to-baseline%C3%A2-blood-pressure
#18
Stephen P Juraschek, Edgar R Miller, Connie M Weaver, Lawrence J Appel
BACKGROUND: Both sodium reduction and the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet, a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products, and reduced in saturated fat and cholesterol, lower blood pressure. The separate and combined effects of these dietary interventions by baseline blood pressure (BP) has not been reported. OBJECTIVES: The authors compared the effects of low versus high sodium, DASH versus control, and both (low sodium-DASH vs...
November 4, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141191/microbial-lipids-and-added-value-metabolites-production-by-yarrowia-lipolytica-from-pork-lard
#19
Marlene Lopes, Andreia S Gomes, Carla M Silva, Isabel Belo
Yarrowia lipolytica is a suitable microbial platform to convert low-value hydrophobic substrates into microbial oils and other important metabolites. In this work, this yeast species was used to simultaneously synthetize ex novo lipids and produce citric acid and lipase from animal fat (pork lard) adding higher value to the low-cost fatty substrate. The effect of pH, lard concentration, arabic gum concentration and oxygen mass transfer rate (OTR) on lipids accumulation on Y. lipolytica batch cultures was assessed by an experimental design based on Taguchi method...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141135/the-fatty-acid-composition-of-lamb-liver-muscle-and-adipose-tissues-in-response-to-rumen-protected-conjugated-linoleic-acid-cla-supplementation-is-tissue-dependent
#20
Stefano Schiavon, Matteo Bergamaschi, Erika Pellattiero, Alberto Simonetto, Franco Tagliapietra
The tissue-specific response to rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid supply (rpCLA) of liver, two muscles and three adipose tissues of heavy lambs was studied. Twenty-four lambs, 8 months old, divided into 4 groups of 6, were fed at libitum on a ration supplemented without or with a mixture of rpCLA. Silica and hydrogenated soybean oil was the rpCLA coating matrix. The lambs were slaughtered at 11 months of age. Tissues were collected and analysed for their FA profiles. The dietary rpCLA supplement had no influence on carcass fatness nor on the fat content of the liver and tissues, and had little influence on the FA profiles of these tissues...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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