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Saturated fats

Kumari M Rathnayake, Michelle Weech, Kim G Jackson, Julie A Lovegrove
Background: Elevated postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations, impaired vascular function, and hypertension are important independent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in women. However, the effects of meal fat composition on postprandial lipemia and vascular function in postmenopausal women are unknown. Objective: This study investigated the impact of sequential meals rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), or n-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on postprandial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD; primary outcome measure), vascular function, and associated CVD risk biomarkers (secondary outcomes) in postmenopausal women...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Charles Cai, Taimur Ahmad, Gloria B Valencia, Jacob V Aranda, Jiliu Xu, Kay D Beharry
OBJECTIVES: Extremely low gestational age neonates with chronic lung disease requiring oxygen therapy frequently experience fluctuations in arterial oxygen saturation or intermittent hypoxia (IH). These infants are at risk for multi-organ developmental delay, reduced growth, and short stature. The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) system, an important hormonal regulator of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, promotes neonatal growth and development. We tested the hypothesis that increasing episodes of IH delay neonatal growth by influencing the GH/IGF-I axis...
March 8, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Hayley A Young, David Benton
As the influence of diet on health may take place over a period of decades, there is a need for biomarkers that help to identify those aspects of nutrition that have either a positive or a negative influence. The evidence is considered that heart-rate variability (HRV) (the time differences between one beat and the next) can be used to indicate the potential health benefits of food items. Reduced HRV is associated with the development of numerous conditions for example, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, inflammation, obesity and psychiatric disorders...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Kayo Kurotani, Palitha Karunapema, Kapila Jayaratne, Masao Sato, Takuya Hayashi, Hiroshi Kajio, Shoji Fukuda, Hisao Hara, Osamu Okazaki, Achala Upendra Jayatilleke, Daisuke Nonaka, Mitsuhiko Noda, Tetsuya Mizoue
The differences in the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases between Sri Lankan and Japanese populations might be explained by the differences in their diet, especially fat. To test the hypothesis that the fatty acid (FA) compositions differ between Sri Lankan and Japanese populations and that high concentrations of n-3 polyunsaturated FAs and linoleic acid are associated with a low level of arteriosclerosis, the authors compared the circulating FA compositions between Sri Lankan and Japanese populations and examined the association of the circulating FA composition with arterial stiffness in each population...
February 2018: Nutrition Research
Volker Vieth, Ronald Schulz, Walter Heindel, Heidi Pfeiffer, Boris Buerke, Andreas Schmeling, Christian Ottow
PURPOSE: To explore the possibility of determining majority via a morphology-based examination of the epiphyseal-diaphyseal fusion by 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a prospective cross-sectional study developing and applying a new stage classification was conducted. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 344 male and 350 female volunteers of German nationality between the ages of 12-24 years were scanned between May 2013 and June 2015. A 3.0 T MRI scanner was used, acquiring a T1-weighted (T1-w) turbo spin-echo sequence (TSE) and a T2-weighted (T2-w) TSE sequence with fat suppression by spectral pre-saturation with inversion recovery (SPIR)...
March 13, 2018: European Radiology
Lanny Lestiani, Dian Novita Chandra, Kirsi Laitinen, Fransisca Diah Ambarwati, Päivi Kuusisto, Widjaja Lukito
Indonesians have a high intake of saturated fats, a key contributing dietary factor to elevated blood cholesterol concentrations. We investigated the cholesterol lowering efficacy of a smoothie drink with 2 grams of plant stanols as esters to lower serum total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in hypercholesterolemic Indonesian adults. The double-blind randomized placebo controlled parallel design study involved 99 subjects. Fifty subjects received control drink and dietary advice, and 49 subjects received intervention drink (Nutrive Benecol®) and dietary advice...
2018: Cholesterol
Carly Griffiths, Lisa Harnack, Mark A Pereira
OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of nutrient intake calculations from leading nutrition tracking applications (apps). DESIGN: Nutrient intake estimates from thirty 24 h dietary recalls collected using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) were compared with intake calculations from these recalls entered by the researcher into five free nutrition tracking apps. Apps were selected from the Apple App Store based on consumer popularity from the list of free 'Health and Fitness' apps classified as a nutrition tracking apps...
March 14, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Melissa Ventura Marra, Sowmyanarayanan V Thuppal, Elizabeth J Johnson, Regan L Bailey
Proactive nutrition screening is an effective public health strategy for identifying and targeting individuals who could benefit from making dietary improvements for primary and secondary prevention of disease. The Dietary Screening Tool (DST) was developed and validated to assess nutritional risk among rural older adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility and validity of the DST to identify nutritional risk in middle-aged adults. This cross-sectional study in middle-aged adults (45-64 year olds, n = 87) who reside in Appalachia, examined nutritional status using an online health survey, biochemical measures, anthropometry, and three representative 24-h dietary recalls...
March 12, 2018: Nutrients
Tandra R Chakraborty, Victoria Gomez, Debasis Adhikari, Sanjoy Chakraborty
OBJECTIVE: To determine the hormonal changes that occur as a result of the long-term intake of a very-high-fat diet (VHFD) that leads to simultaneous changes in the islets of Langerhans and adipocyte cell size. METHODS: Male mice were fed with a normal chow diet (ND, n = 15) and a VHFD (n = 30) for 2, 12, and 24 weeks. Body weight, food intake, caloric intake (fat [saturated and unsaturated], protein, and carbohydrate), hormone levels (leptin and insulin), and islet of Langerhans/adipocyte size were quantitatively recorded...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
P Gómez-Cortés, A Cívico, M A de la Fuente, N Núñez Sánchez, F Peña Blanco, A L Martínez Marín
Milk fat composition can be modulated by the inclusion of lipid supplements in ruminant diets. An interaction between the lipid supplement and the forage to concentrate ratio or the type of forage in the rations may affect milk fat composition. However, little is known about the effects of the starch-to-non-forage NDF ratio in the concentrate and lipid supplementation of goat diets. The aim of this work was to determine the role of dietary carbohydrates in goats rations supplemented with linseed oil on animal performance and milk fatty acid (FA) profile...
March 12, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Sümeyye Güzel, Alev Keser, Şükrü Hatun
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the nutritional values of some low-nutrition packaged foods widely sold in supermarkets and encouraged for consumption. METHODS: The study used 435 packaged foods from six hypermarkets with high sale capacities in Ankara to analyze their contents of energy/total fat/saturated fat/carbohydrate/sugar/salt based on label information. RESULTS: Among the products in the scope of the study, the highest values were found in chocolates for fat (33...
March 10, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Shengxin Liu, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Sabita S Soedamah-Muthu, Annemieke M W Spijkerman, Ivonne Sluijs
PURPOSE: The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the substituting macronutrients. METHODS: 37,421 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) cohort were included in this study...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Kara M Whitaker, Katherine H Ingram, Duke Appiah, Wanda K Nicholson, Wendy L Bennett, Cora E Lewis, Jared P Reis, Pamela J Schreiner, Erica P Gunderson
PURPOSE: To assess the associations of pre-pregnancy cardiorespiratory fitness, moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), and time spent watching television with subsequent development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: Participants were 1,333 women enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study who did not have diabetes either at baseline (1985-86) or prior to births occurring after baseline. Baseline fitness was estimated using a graded symptom-limited maximal exercise treadmill test and expressed in metabolic equivalent (MET) units...
March 8, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Shiori Ito, Toshio Hosaka, Wataru Yano, Takahiro Itou, Misako Yasumura, Yukari Shimizu, Hideyuki Kobayashi, Takashi Nakagawa, Keisuke Inoue, Sohei Tanabe, Takuma Kondo, Hitoshi Ishida
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) exert their antidiabetic effects by promoting urinary glucose excretion. Nutrition therapy is obviously important, but little is known about the interactions between SGLT2i agents and carbohydrate restriction. Therefore, we studied these interactions using an obese diabetic animal model. KK-Ay mice were pair-fed normal chow [NC; carbohydrate: fat: protein = 65:15:20], low carbohydrate [LC; 43:42:15] or severely carbohydrate restricted diets [SR; 12:45:43] for 12 weeks...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Marcos Vinicius Antunes de Lemos, Elisa Peripolli, Mariana Piatto Berton, Fabiele Loise Braga Feitosa, Bianca Ferreira Olivieri, Nedenia Bonvino Stafuzza, Rafael Lara Tonussi, Sabrina Kluska, Hermenegildo Lucas Justino Chiaia, Lenise Mueller, Adrielli Mathias Ferrinho, Angelica Simone Cravo Prereira, Henrique Nunes de Oliveira, Lucia Galvão de Albuquerque, Fernando Baldi
The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the copy number variation regions (CNVRs) and fatty acid profile phenotypes for saturated (SFA), monosaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA), ω6 and ω3 fatty acids, PUFA/SFA and ω6/ω3 ratios, as well as for their sums, in Nellore cattle (Bos primigenius indicus). A total of 963 males were finished in feedlot and slaughtered with approximately 2 years of age. Animals were genotyped with the BovineHD BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA, USA)...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Genetics
Nini H Sissener
'Are we what we eat?' Yes and no. Although dietary fat affects body fat, there are many modifying mechanisms. In Atlantic salmon, there is a high level of retention of the n-3 fatty acid (FA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) relative to the dietary content, whereas saturated FAs never seem to increase above a specified level, which is probably an adaptation to low and fluctuating body temperature. Net production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and especially DHA occurs in salmon when dietary levels are low; however, this synthesis is not sufficient to maintain EPA and DHA at similar tissue levels to those of a traditional fish oil-fed farmed salmon...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Brent J Sinclair, Katie E Marshall
Temperate, polar and alpine insects generally do not feed over winter and hence must manage their energy stores to fuel their metabolism over winter and to meet the energetic demands of development and reproduction in the spring. In this Review, we give an overview of the accumulation, use and conservation of fat reserves in overwintering insects and discuss the ways insects modify fats to facilitate their selective consumption or conservation. Many insects are in diapause and have depressed metabolic rates over winter; together with low temperatures, this means that lipid stores are likely to be consumed predominantly in the autumn and spring, when temperatures are higher but insects remain dormant...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Katarzyna Turek, Jacek Domagała, Monika Wszołek
BACKGROUND: Yogurt is a dairy product with a high nutritional value. However, like all milk products, it contains milk fat and is rich in saturated fatty acids. It would be desirable to enrich dairy products in poly- unsaturated fatty acids to increase dietary intake amongst consumers and improve their health. Also, some LAB bacteria are able to produce CLA and CLnA isomers from linoleic and linolenic acids. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical properties and fatty acid profile of yogurt with the addition of 3...
January 2018: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
Huimin Lin, Caixia Fu, Stephan Kannengiesser, Shu Cheng, Jun Shen, Haipeng Dong, Fuhua Yan
BACKGROUND: The coexistence of hepatic iron and fat is common in patients with hyperferritinemia, which plays an interactive and aggressive role in the progression of diseases (fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinomas). PURPOSE: To evaluate a modified high-speed T2 -corrected multi-echo, single voxel spectroscopy sequence (HISTOV) for liver iron concentration (LIC) quantification in patients with hyperferritinemia, with simultaneous fat fraction (FF) estimation...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
E Bandali, Y Wang, Y Lan, M A Rogers, S A Shapses
In vivo studies measuring true fractional calcium (Ca) absorption have shown that dietary fat is a significant predictor of absorption and is influenced by luminal pH levels. However, whether changes in Ca bioaccessibility (CaB) can explain the effects on absorption has not been examined. In the current study, we examined two high fat diets enriched in either monounsaturated fatty acids or saturated fatty acids (SFA), and a low-fat diet (LFD), each with 50 mg Ca, and measured CaB at different intestinal regions during normal acidic or higher (pH = 7) gastrointestinal conditions using an in vitro gastrointestinal model...
March 7, 2018: Food & Function
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