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Plant physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351591/could-seasonally-deteriorating-environments-favour-the-evolution-of-autogamous-selfing-and-a-drought-escape-physiology-through-indirect-selection-a-test-of-the-time-limitation-hypothesis-using-artificial-selection-in-clarkia
#1
Simon K Emms, Alisa A Hove, Leah S Dudley, Susan J Mazer, Amy S Verhoeven
Background and Aims: The evolution of selfing from outcrossing may be the most common transition in plant reproductive systems and is associated with a variety of ecological circumstances and life history strategies. The most widely discussed explanation for these associations is the reproductive assurance hypothesis - the proposition that selfing is favoured because it increases female fitness when outcross pollen receipt is limited. Here an alternative explanation, the time limitation hypothesis, is addressed, one scenario of which proposes that selfing may evolve as a correlated response to selection for a faster life cycle in seasonally deteriorating environments...
January 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351575/waterlogging-tolerance-tissue-nitrogen-and-oxygen-transport-in-the-forage-legume-melilotus-siculus-a-comparison-of-nodulated-and-nitrate-fed-plants
#2
Dennis Konnerup, Guillermo Toro, Ole Pedersen, Timothy David Colmer
Background and Aims: Soil waterlogging adversely impacts most plants. Melilotus siculus is a waterlogging-tolerant annual forage legume, but data were lacking for the effects of root-zone hypoxia on nodulated plants reliant on N2 fixation. The aim was to compare the waterlogging tolerance and physiology of M. siculus reliant on N2 fixation or with access to NO3-. Methods: A factorial experiment imposed treatments of water level (drained or waterlogged), rhizobia (nil or inoculated) and mineral N supply (nil or 11 mm NO3-) for 21 d on plants in pots of vermiculite in a glasshouse...
January 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350812/a-unified-framework-of-plant-adaptive-strategies-to-drought-crossing-scales-and-disciplines
#3
Florence Volaire
Plant adaptation to drought has been extensively studied at many scales from ecology to molecular biology across a large range of model species. However, the conceptual frameworks underpinning the definition of plant strategies, and the terminology used across the different disciplines and scales are not analogous. 'Drought resistance' for instance refers to plant responses as different as the maintenance of growth and productivity in crops, to the survival and recovery in perennial woody or grassland species...
January 19, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350248/natural-variation-and-genetic-make-up-of-leaf-blade-area-in-spring-barley
#4
Ahmad M Alqudah, Helmy M Youssef, Andreas Graner, Thorsten Schnurbusch
GWAS analysis for leaf blade area (LA) revealed intriguing genomic regions associated with putatively novel QTL and known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. Despite long-standing studies in the morpho-physiological characters of leaf blade area (LA) in cereal crops, advanced genetic studies to explore its natural variation are lacking. The importance of modifying LA in improving cereal grain yield and the genes controlling leaf traits have been well studied in rice but not in temperate cereals...
January 19, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350244/autophagy-related-atg-11-atg9-and-the-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-control-atg2-mediated-formation-of-autophagosomes-in-arabidopsis
#5
Sangwoo Kang, Kwang Deok Shin, Jeong Hun Kim, Taijoon Chung
Using quantitative assays for autophagy, we analyzed 4 classes of atg mutants, discovered new atg2 phenotypes and ATG gene interactions, and proposed a model of autophagosome formation in plants. Plant and other eukaryotic cells use autophagy to target cytoplasmic constituents for degradation in the vacuole. Autophagy is regulated and executed by a conserved set of proteins called autophagy-related (ATG). In Arabidopsis, several groups of ATG proteins have been characterized using genetic approaches. However, the genetic interactions between ATG genes have not been established and the relationship between different ATG groups in plants remains unclear...
January 19, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349608/comparative-transcriptomics-uncovers-differences-in-photoautotrophic-versus-photoheterotrophic-modes-of-nutrition-in-relation-to-secondary-metabolites-biosynthesis-in-swertia-chirayita
#6
Tarun Pal, Jibesh Kumar Padhan, Pawan Kumar, Hemant Sood, Rajinder S Chauhan
Swertia chirayita is a high-value medicinal herb exhibiting antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, anticancer, antiediematogenic and antipyretic properties. Scarcity of its plant material has necessitated in vitro production of therapeutic metabolites; however, their yields were low compared to field grown plants. Possible reasons for this could be differences in physiological and biochemical processes between plants grown in photoautotrophic versus photoheterotrophic modes of nutrition. Comparative transcriptomes of S...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348716/cylindrocarpon-destructans-ilyonectria-radicicola-species-complex-%C3%A2-causative-agent-of-ginseng-root-rot-disease-and%C3%A2-rusty%C3%A2-symptoms
#7
REVIEW
Mohamed El-Agamy Farh, Yeon-Ju Kim, Yu-Jin Kim, Deok-Chun Yang
Cylindrocarpon destructans/Ilyonectria radicicola is thought to cause both rusty symptom and root-rot disease of American and Korean ginseng. Root-rot disease poses a more serious threat to ginseng roots than rusty symptoms, which we argue result from the plant defense response to pathogen attack. Therefore, strains causing rotten root are characterized as more aggressive than strains causing rusty symptoms. In this review, we state 1- the molecular evidence indicating that the root-rot causing strains are genetically distinct considering them as a separate species of Ilyonectria, namely I...
January 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348657/an-ethylene-response-factor-mxerf4-functions-as-a-repressor-of-fe-acquisition-in-malus-xiaojinensis
#8
Wei Liu, Ting Wu, Qiwei Li, Xinzhong Zhang, Xuefeng Xu, Tianhong Li, Zhenhai Han, Yi Wang
Iron (Fe) is an essential element for plants; however, its availability is limited as it forms insoluble complexes in the soil. Consequently, plants have developed mechanisms to adapt to low Fe conditions. We demonstrate that ethylene is involved in Fe deficiency-induced physiological responses in Malus xiaojinensis, and describe the identification of MxERF4 as a protein-protein interaction partner with the MxFIT transcription factor, which is involved in the iron deficiency response. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MxERF4 acts as an MxFIT interaction partner to suppresses the expression of the Fe transporter MxIRT1, by binding directly to its promoter, requiring the EAR motif of the MxERF4 protein...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348626/arabidopsis-serine-threonine-tyrosine-protein-kinase-phosphorylates-oil-body-proteins-that-regulate-oil-content-in-the-seeds
#9
Iyappan Ramachandiran, Anitha Vijayakumar, Visvanathan Ramya, Ram Rajasekharan
Protein phosphorylation is an important post-translational modification that can regulate the protein function. The current knowledge on the phosphorylation status of plant oil body (OB) proteins is inadequate. This present study identifies the distinct physiological substrates of Arabidopsis serine/threonine/tyrosine protein kinase (STYK) and its role in seed oil accumulation; the role of Arabidopsis OLE1, a major seed OB protein has also been elucidated. In vitro kinase assay followed by mass spectrometry identifies residue that are phosphorylated by STYK...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348082/nephrotoxic-effects-of-valeriana-wallichii
#10
Naveed Ullah, Mir Azam Khan, Abdur Rauf, Taous Khan, Ghulam Murtaza, Salimullah Khan, Ismail Shah
Aminoglycosides are the commonly used antibiotics against Gram negative bacteria. Their clinical applications are limited due to nephrotoxic side effects. Therefore, the current study was undertaken in an attempt to increase the use of these drugs without causing nephrotoxicity by exploring the nephroprotective effects of a medicinal plant with high flavonoid contents and strong antioxidant properties, namely Valeriana wallichii. A daily dose of 200mg/kg of the extract derived from V. wallichii was employed for a period of three weeks...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348067/physiological-response-and-transcription-profiling-analysis-reveals-the-role-of-h2s-in-alleviating-excess-nitrate-stress-tolerance-in-tomato-roots
#11
Zhaolai Guo, Yuanlin Liang, Jinping Yan, En Yang, Kunzhi Li, Huini Xu
Soil secondary salinization caused by excess nitrate addition is one of the major obstacles in greenhouse vegetable production. Excess nitrate inhibited the growth of tomato plants, while application of 100 μM H2S donor NaHS efficiently increased the plant height, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root, root length, endogenous H2S contents and L-cysteine desulfhydrases activities. NaHS altered the oxidative status of nitrate-stressed plants as inferred by changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and lipid peroxidation accompanied by regulation of the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX)...
January 11, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348059/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-a-superabsorbent-fertilizer-composite-for-maximizing-the-nutrient-and-water-use-efficiency-in-forestry-plantations
#12
E Tubert, V A Vitali, M S Alvarez, F A Tubert, I Baroli, G Amodeo
Reducing fertilizer use is a priority in the quest for sustainable forestry systems. In short rotation Eucalyptus plantations, NPK pellets are routinely added to the seedling's top soil layer at planting, potentially leading to increased seedling mortality, nutrient loss and environmental degradation. To address this triple challenge, the development of efficient fertilization practices is essential. In the present work, we synthesized a crosslinked acrylic-cellulosic superabsorbent composite (SAPH-BAL) containing small amounts of specific nutrients integrated in the polymer matrix...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346685/metabolic-flux-engineering-of-cembratrien-ol-production-in-both-the-glandular-trichome-and-leaf-mesophyll-in-nicotiana-tabacum
#13
Hongying Zhang, Songtao Zhang, Yongxia Yang, Hongfang Jia, Hong Cui
Cembratrien-ol synthase (CBTS) catalyses the first step in cembranoid biosynthesis, producing cembratrien-ols in plant trichomes. In our previous study, microarray transcriptomes between leaves with trichomes and leaves without trichomes showed that a NtCBTS2 gene was expressed exclusively and abundantly in trichomes. Here, two NtCBTS2 isogenes (NtCBTS2a and NtCBTS2b), derived from a diploid genome donor, N. sylvestris, were identified from N. tabacum. Both genes were expressed primarily in trichomes, with relatively decreased transcription in flowers and stems, faint expression in roots, and no expression was detected in leaves lacking trichomes...
January 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346271/-bacterial-toxins-section-in-the-journal-toxins-a-fantastic-multidisciplinary-interplay-between-bacterial-pathogenicity-mechanisms-physiological-processes-genomic-evolution-and-subsequent-development-of-identification-methods-efficient-treatment-and-prevention
#14
EDITORIAL
Michel R Popoff
Toxins are powerful pathogenicity factors produced by certain bacteria, fungi, animals, and plants which mediate drastic interactions of these pathogens on the organism host[...].
January 18, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345907/effects-of-plant-sterols-and-or-%C3%AE-cryptoxanthin-at-physiological-serum-concentrations-on-suicidal-erythrocyte-death
#15
Andrea Alvarez-Sala, Gabriel López-García, Alessandro Attanzio, Luisa Tesoriere, Antonio Cilla, Reyes Barbera, Amparo Alegria
The eryptotic and hemolytic effects of a phytosterol (PS) mixture (β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol) and/or β-cryptoxanthin (β-Cx) at physiological serum concentration and their effect against oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBOOH) (75 and 300 µM) were evaluated. β-Cryptoxanthin produced an increase in eryptotic cells, cell volume, hemolysis and glutathione depletion (GSH), without ROS overproduction and intracellular Ca2+ influx. Co-incubation of both bioactive compounds protected against β-Cx-induced eryptosis...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345307/competitive-ability-stress-tolerance-and-plant-interactions-along-stress-gradients
#16
Man Qi, Tao Sun, SuFeng Xue, Wei Yang, DongDong Shao, Javier Martínez-López
Exceptions to the generality of the stress-gradient hypothesis (SGH) may be reconciled by considering species-specific traits and stress tolerance strategies. Studies have tested stress tolerance and competitive ability in mediating interaction outcomes, but few have incorporated this to predict how species interactions shift between competition and facilitation along stress gradients. We used field surveys, salt tolerance and competition experiments to develop a predictive model interspecific interaction shifts across salinity stress gradients...
January 18, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344914/high-lithium-tolerance-of-apocynum-venetum-seeds-during-germination
#17
Li Jiang, Lei Wang, Chang-Yan Tian
Identification and use of lithium (Li) accumulator plants is a promising strategy to remediate Li-contaminated soil. Apocynum venetum is reported as a Li accumulator. However, its tolerance to Li salt during germination is still unknown. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two Li salts on seed germination of A. venetum. At the same concentrations, germination percentages in LiCl solution were higher than that in Li2CO3 solution. At 25 °C, seeds germinated to 4-90% at 0-400 mmol L-1 LiCl and 3-91% at 0-150 mmol L-1 Li2CO3...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344412/ginseng-an-nonnegligible-natural-remedy-for-healthy-aging
#18
REVIEW
Yong Yang, Changhong Ren, Yuan Zhang, XiaoDan Wu
Aging is an irreversible physiological process that affects all humans. Numerous theories have been proposed to regarding the process from a Western medicine perspective; however, ancient Chinese medicine practices and theories have increasingly gained attention, particularly ginseng, a grass that has been studied for the anti-aging properties of its active constituents. This review seeks to analyze current data on ginseng and its anti-aging properties. The plant species, characteristics, and active ingredients will be introduced...
December 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341729/printing-non-euclidean-solids
#19
Giuseppe Zurlo, Lev Truskinovsky
Geometrically frustrated solids with a non-Euclidean reference metric are ubiquitous in biology and are becoming increasingly relevant in technological applications. Often they acquire a targeted configuration of incompatibility through the surface accretion of mass as in tree growth or dam construction. We use the mechanics of incompatible surface growth to show that geometrical frustration developing during deposition can be fine-tuned to ensure a particular behavior of the system in physiological (or working) conditions...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341031/getting-more-than-you-paid-for-unauthorized-natural-substances-in-herbal-food-supplements-on-eu-market
#20
Marijana Zovko Končić
As the population in the industrialized world develops preference for what is perceived as a natural and holistic way of disease treatment, the popularity and the number of food supplements on the market, including herbal ones, is experiencing an unprecedented rise. However, unlike herbal medicinal products, intended for treating or preventing disease, current legislation classifies food supplements as products intended for achieving nutritional or physiological effect and to supplement the normal diet. Accordingly, most food supplements are not to be associated with specific health claims...
January 16, 2018: Planta Medica
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