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Plant physiology

Xiaoli Wang, Xiaofeng Cai, Chenxi Xu, Quanhua Wang, Shaojun Dai
Plant drought tolerance is a complex trait that requires a global view to understand its underlying mechanism. The proteomic aspects of plant drought response have been extensively investigated in model plants, crops and wood plants. In this review, we summarize recent proteomic studies on drought response in leaves to reveal the common and specialized drought-responsive mechanisms in different plants. Although drought-responsive proteins exhibit various patterns depending on plant species, genotypes and stress intensity, proteomic analyses show that dominant changes occurred in sensing and signal transduction, reactive oxygen species scavenging, osmotic regulation, gene expression, protein synthesis/turnover, cell structure modulation, as well as carbohydrate and energy metabolism...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chao-Jun Lu, Bao-Yu Tian, Yi Cao, Cheng-Gang Zou, Ke-Qin Zhang
Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a diverse class of transcription factors, which are involved in regulating a large number of physiological events in metazoans. However, the function of NRs is poorly understood in plant-parasitic nematodes. Here, members of the NR1J+K group of NRs in nematodes, including the free-living and plant parasites, were examined and phylogenetically analyzed. We found that the number of members of the NR1J+K group in plant-parasitic nematodes was less than that in the free-living nematodes, suggesting this reduction of NR1J+K group members in plant parasites maybe arose during the separation of the free-living and intermediately plant parasitic nematodes (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
A G Balliana, B B Moura, R C Inckot, C Bona
Hydrocarbons are the main components of diesel oil and are toxic for the majority of plants. A few plant species, known as phytoremediators, are tolerant of hydrocarbons and can survive the stressful conditions of soils contaminated with diesel oil. Canavalia ensiformis, a plant species that is well distributed throughout the tropics, possesses advantageous features for a potential resistance to soil contamination, such as fast growth and a deep root system. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the tolerance of C...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Martin Jopcik, Jana Moravcikova, Ildiko Matusikova, Miroslav Bauer, Miroslav Rajninec, Jana Libantova
Chitinase gene from the carnivorous plant, Drosera rotundifolia , was cloned and functionally characterised. Plant chitinases are believed to play an important role in the developmental and physiological processes and in responses to biotic and abiotic stress. In addition, there is growing evidence that carnivorous plants can use them to digest insect prey. In this study, a full-length genomic clone consisting of the 1665-bp chitinase gene (gDrChit) and adjacent promoter region of the 698 bp in length were isolated from Drosera rotundifolia L...
October 19, 2016: Planta
Caiyun He, Guori Gao, Jianguo Zhang, Aiguo Duan, Hongmei Luo
BACKGROUND: Low temperature is one of the crucial environmental factors limiting the productivity and distribution of plants. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.), a well recognized multipurpose plant species, live successfully in in cold desert regions. But their molecular mechanisms underlying cold tolerance are not well understood. METHODS: Physiological and biochemical responses to low-temperature stress were studied in seedlings of sea buckthorn. Differentially expressed protein spots were analyzed using multiplexing fluorescent two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight/time-of-flight (TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), the concentration of phytohormone was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a spectrophotometric assay was used to measure enzymatic reactions...
2016: Proteome Science
Kuba Marciniak, Mirosław Kiedrowski, Danuta Gajewska, Andrzej Deptała, Dariusz Włodarek
The development of colorectal carcinoma is a multistep process of accumulation of mutations and epigenetic changes associated with DNA repair, proliferation, apoptosis, intra- and extracellular signaling, adhesion and other physiological functions of cells and tissues. A long period of development, high colorectal carcinoma-related mortality as well as significant social and economic costs due to this condition are prerequisites for seeking efficient methods of cancer prevention, including nutritional approach...
October 19, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Yong-Jian Wang, Xue-Ping Shi, Xiao-Jing Wu, Xue-Feng Meng, Peng-Cheng Wang, Zhi-Xiang Zhou, Fang-Li Luo, Fei-Hai Yu
The availabilities of light and soil water resources usually spatially co-vary in natural habitats, and the spatial pattern of such co-variation may affect the benefits of physiological integration between connected ramets of clonal plants. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew connected or disconnected ramet pairs [consisting of a proximal (relatively old) and a distal (relative young) ramet] of a rhizomatous herb Iris japonica in four heterogeneous environments differing in patch arrangement (reciprocal vs...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Stefano Papazian, Eliezer Khaling, Christelle Bonnet, Steve Lassueur, Philippe Reymond, Thomas Moritz, James Blande, Benedicte Riber Albrectsen
Plants have evolved adaptive mechanisms that allow them to tolerate a continuous range of abiotic and biotic stressors. Tropospheric ozone (O3), a global anthropogenic pollutant, directly affects living organisms and ecosystems, including plant-herbivore interactions. In this study, we investigate the stress responses of wild black mustard (Brassica nigra) exposed consecutively to O3 and the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae. Transcriptomics and metabolomics data were evaluated using multivariate, correlation, and network analyses for the O3 and herbivory responses...
October 6, 2016: Plant Physiology
Marta Pintó-Marijuan, Alba Cotado, Eva Fleta-Soriano, Sergi Munné-Bosch
Plants are known for their high capacity to acclimatise to fluctuating environmental conditions. A wide range of environmental conditions can lead to suboptimal physiological efficiency. However, recent studies have shown that plants can withstand repeated periods of stress. To find out how they do it, we studied photosynthetic adjustments to repeated water stress in Aptenia cordifolia: a facultative, invasive CAM species. Plants were subjected to three cycles of water deficit, and photosynthetic parameters and chloroplast antioxidants were quantified to gain an understanding of the mechanisms by which they cope with repeated stress periods...
October 18, 2016: Photosynthesis Research
Tripti Sharma, Ingo Dreyer, Leon Kochian, Miguel A Piñeros
About a decade ago, members of a new protein family of anion channels were discovered on the basis of their ability to confer on plants the tolerance toward toxic aluminum ions in the soil. The efflux of Al(3+)-chelating malate anions through these channels is stimulated by external Al(3+) ions. This feature of a few proteins determined the name of the entire protein family as Aluminum-activated Malate Transporters (ALMT). Meanwhile, after several years of research, it is known that the physiological roles of ALMTs go far beyond Al-detoxification...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Maria Rachele Ceccarini, Michela Codini, Samuela Cataldi, Samuele Vannini, Andrea Lazzarini, Alessandro Floridi, Massimo Moretti, Milena Villarini, Bernard Fioretti, Tommaso Beccari, Elisabetta Albi
BACKGROUND: Sphingomyelin plays very important roles in cell function under physiological and pathological conditions. Physical and chemical stimuli produce reactive oxygen species that stimulate acid sphingomyelinase to induce apoptosis. Antioxidant plants of the traditional Chinese Pharmacopoeia, such as Lycium Barbarum and Lycium Chinense, have become increasingly popular in Western countries. We investigated the effects of Lycium Chinense on acid sphingomyelinase and sphingomyelin species in relation to gene expression...
October 19, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
Feifei Cheng, Anzhou Ma, Guoqiang Zhuang, Rupert G Fray
In order to cope with pathogens, plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to sense pathogenic attacks and to induce defence responses. The N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum sensing in bacteria regulates diverse physiological processes including those involved in pathogenicity. In this work, we study the interactions between AHL-producing transgenic tobacco plants and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 11528 (P. syringae 11528). Both a reduced incidence of disease and decrease in the growth of P...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
J Gonzalo N Irisarri, Justin D Derner, Lauren M Porensky, David J Augustine, Justin L Reeves, Kevin E Mueller
Grazing intensity elicits changes in the composition of plant functional groups in both shortgrass steppe (SGS) and northern mixed-grass prairie (NMP) in North America. How these grazing intensity-induced changes control aboveground net primary production (ANPP) responses to precipitation remains a central open question, especially in light of predicted climate changes. Here, we evaluated effects of four levels (none, light, moderate, and heavy) of long-term (>30 yr) grazing intensity in SGS and NMP on: (1) ANPP; (2) precipitation-use efficiency (PUE, ANPP : precipitation); and (3) precipitation marginal response (PMR; slope of a linear regression model between ANPP and precipitation)...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Daniela Pelclova, Vladimir Zdimal, Petr Kacer, Martin Komarc, Zdenka Fenclova, Stepanka Vlckova, Nadezda Zikova, Jaroslav Schwarz, Otakar Makes, Tomas Navratil, Sergey Zakharov, Dhimiter Bello
Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2) is a commercially important nanomaterial used in numerous applications. Experimental studies with nanotitania have documented lung injury and inflammation, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity. Production workers in TiO2 manufacturing with a high proportion of nanoparticles and a mixture of other air pollutants, such as gases and organic aerosols, had increased markers of oxidative stress, including DNA and protein damage, as well as lipid peroxidation in their exhaled breath condensate (EBC) compared to unexposed controls...
October 18, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Derong Lin, Mengshi Xiao, Jingjing Zhao, Zhuohao Li, Baoshan Xing, Xindan Li, Maozhu Kong, Liangyu Li, Qing Zhang, Yaowen Liu, Hong Chen, Wen Qin, Hejun Wu, Saiyan Chen
In this paper, the biosynthesis process of phenolic compounds in plants is summarized, which include the shikimate, pentose phosphate and phenylpropanoid pathways. Plant phenolic compounds can act as antioxidants, structural polymers (lignin), attractants (flavonoids and carotenoids), UV screens (flavonoids), signal compounds (salicylic acid, flavonoids) and defense response chemicals (tannins, phytoalexins). From a human physiological standpoint, phenolic compounds are vital in defense responses, such as anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities...
October 15, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xiefeng Ye, Tianxiao Ling, Yanfeng Xue, Cunfa Xu, Wei Zhou, Liangbin Hu, Jian Chen, Zhiqi Shi
Thymol is a famous plant-derived compound that has been widely used in pharmacy due to its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. However, the modulation of intrinsic plant physiology by thymol remains unclear. It is a significant challenge to confer plant tolerance to Cd (cadmium) stress. In the present study physiological, histochemical, and biochemical methods were applied to investigate thymol-induced Cd tolerance in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) seedlings. Thymol was able to alleviate Cd-induced growth inhibition of tobacco seedlings in both dose- and time-dependent manners...
October 14, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Lillian Oglesby, Anthony Ananga, James Obuya, Joel Ochieng, Ernst Cebert, Violeta Tsolova
The skin color of grape berry is very important in the wine industry. The red color results from the synthesis and accumulation of anthocyanins, which is regulated by transcription factors belonging to the MYB family. The transcription factors that activate the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes have been isolated in model plants. However, the genetic basis of color variation is species-specific and its understanding is relevant in many crop species. This study reports the isolation of MybA1, and MYBCS-1 genes from muscadine grapes for the first time...
October 12, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Xiaotao Ding, Yuping Jiang, Lizhong He, Qiang Zhou, Jizhu Yu, Dafeng Hui, Danfeng Huang
To investigate the physiological responses of plants to high root-zone temperature (HT, 35 °C) stress mitigated by exogenous glutathione (GSH), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings were exposed to HT with or without GSH treatment for 4 days and following with 4 days of recovery. Plant physiological variables, growth, and gene expression related to antioxidant enzymes and Calvin cycle were quantified. The results showed that HT significantly decreased GSH content, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and related gene expression, shoot height, stem diameter, as well as dry weight...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Melanie Morales, Sergi Munné-Bosch
Trade-offs between growth, reproduction, and defence have been documented. Oxidative stress is one of the physiological mechanisms that underlie trade-offs at the cellular and organ levels. The diversity of plant life forms and the complexity of scaling up limit our knowledge of oxidative stress as a universal mediator of life-history trade-offs at the organism level. Joint efforts by plant physiologists and ecologists will undoubtedly provide novel insights into this topic in the near future.
October 14, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Antonio López-Orenes, María C Bueso, Héctor M Conesa, Antonio A Calderón, María A Ferrer
Soil pollution by heavy metals/metalloids (HMMs) is a problem worldwide. To prevent dispersion of contaminated particles by erosion, the maintenance of a vegetative cover is needed. Successful plant establishment in multi-polluted soils can be hampered not only by HMM toxicities, but also by soil nutrient deficiencies and the co-occurrence of abiotic stresses. Some plant species are able to thrive under these multi-stress scenarios often linked to marked fluctuations in environmental factors. This study aimed to investigate the metabolic adjustments involved in Zygophyllum fabago acclimative responses to conditions prevailing in HMM-enriched mine-tailings piles, during Mediterranean spring and summer...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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