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Plant physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214935/promotive-role-of-5-aminolevulinic-acid-on-chromium-induced-morphological-photosynthetic-and-oxidative-changes-in-cauliflower-brassica-oleracea-botrytis-l
#1
Rehan Ahmad, Shafaqat Ali, Fakhir Hannan, Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Iqbal, Zaidul Hassan, Nudrat Aisha Akram, Saliha Maqbool, Farhat Abbas
Chromium (Cr) is among the most toxic pollutants in the environment that adversely affect the living organisms and physiological processes in different plants. The present study investigated the effect of 15 mg L(-1) of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) on morpho-physiological attributes of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis L.) under different Cr concentrations (0, 10, 100, and 200 μM) in the growth medium. The results showed that Cr stress decreased the growth, biomass, photosynthetic, and gas exchange parameters...
February 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214706/influence-of-oxygen-partial-pressure-on-the-characteristics-of-human-hepatocarcinoma-cells
#2
Jenifer Trepiana, Susana Meijide, Rosaura Navarro, M Luisa Hernández, José Ignacio Ruiz-Sanz, M Begoña Ruiz-Larrea
Most of the in vitro studies using liver cell lines have been performed under atmospheric oxygen partial pressure (21% O2). However, the oxygen concentrations in the liver and cancer cells are far from this value. In the present study, we have evaluated the influence of oxygen on 1) the tumor cell lines features (growth, steady-state ROS levels, GSH content, activities of antioxidant enzymes, p66 Shc and SOD expressions, metalloproteinases secretion, migration, invasion, and adhesion) of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, and b) the response of the cells to an oxidant stimulus (aqueous leaf extract of the V...
February 13, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214581/oxadiargyl-induced-conformational-transition-of-cystatin-isolated-from-yellow-mustard-seeds-biophysical-and-biochemical-approach
#3
Azaj Ahmed, Anas Shamsi, Bilqees Bano
Phytocystatins are thiol proteinase inhibitors crucial due to their inhibitory activity in plants. These play important roles in improving crop yield, protection against insects and pathogens and modulation of apoptosis. In this chemical era, various pesticides are being used globally to increase the crop biomass. These pesticides accumulate in plant body and produce harmful effects on plants itself by interacting with essential proteins. In this present study, we have monitored the interaction of a herbicide; oxadiargyl, with phytocystatin isolated from yellow mustard seeds (YMP) by employing spectroscopic techniques viz...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214372/canonical-and-cellular-pathways-timing-gamete-release-in-acropora-digitifera-okinawa-japan
#4
Y Rosenberg, T Doniger, S Harii, F Sinniger, O Levy
Natural light cycles are important for synchronizing behavioral and physiological rhythms over varying time-periods in both plants and animals. An endogenous clock, regulated by positive and negative elements, interacting in feedback loops, control these rhythms. Many corals exhibit diel cycles of polyp expansion and contraction entrained by solar light patterns and monthly cycles of spawning or planulation that correspond to nocturnal lunar light cycles. However, despite considerable interest in studies of coral reproduction, there is currently not enough molecular information about the cellular pathways involved with synchronizing spawning/planulation in broadcast spawners and brooders...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213625/8-nitro-cgmp-a-novel-protein-reactive-cnmp-and-its-emerging-roles-in-autophagy
#5
Hirokazu Arimoto, Daiki Takahashi
Nitric oxide (NO) raises the intracellular 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) level through the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase and, in the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reacts with biomolecules to produce nitrated cGMP derivatives. 8-Nitro-cGMP was the first endogenous cGMP derivative discovered in mammalian cells (2007) and was later found in plant cells. Among the six nitrogen atoms in this molecule, the one in the nitro group (NO2) comes from NO. This chapter asserts that this newly found cGMP is undoubtedly one of the major physiological cNMPs...
February 18, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212614/transcriptomic-profiling-provides-molecular-insights-into-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-adventitious-rooting-in-mung-bean-seedlings
#6
Shi-Weng Li, Yan Leng, Rui-Fang Shi
BACKGROUND: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been known to function as a signalling molecule involved in the modulation of various physiological processes in plants. H2O2 has been shown to act as a promoter during adventitious root formation in hypocotyl cuttings. In this study, RNA-Seq was performed to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying H2O2-induced adventitious rooting. RESULTS: RNA-Seq data revealed that H2O2 treatment greatly increased the numbers of clean reads and expressed genes and abundance of gene expression relative to the water treatment...
February 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211530/factors-affecting-leaf-selection-by-foregut-fermenting-proboscis-monkeys-new-insight-from-in-vitro-digestibility-and-toughness-of-leaves
#7
Ikki Matsuda, Marcus Clauss, Augustine Tuuga, John Sugau, Goro Hanya, Takakazu Yumoto, Henry Bernard, Jürgen Hummel
Free-living animals must make dietary choices in terms of chemical and physical properties, depending on their digestive physiology and availability of food resources. Here we comprehensively evaluated the dietary choices of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) consuming young leaves. We analysed the data for leaf toughness and digestibility measured by an in vitro gas production method, in addition to previously reported data on nutrient composition. Leaf toughness, in general, negatively correlated with the crude protein content, one of the most important nutritional factors affecting food selection by leaf-eating primates...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211527/depth-specific-fluctuations-of-gene-expression-and-protein-abundance-modulate-the-photophysiology-in-the-seagrass-posidonia-oceanica
#8
Gabriele Procaccini, Miriam Ruocco, Lázaro Marín-Guirao, Emanuela Dattolo, Christophe Brunet, Daniela D'Esposito, Chiara Lauritano, Silvia Mazzuca, Ilia Anna Serra, Letizia Bernardo, Amalia Piro, Sven Beer, Mats Björk, Martin Gullström, Pimchanok Buapet, Lina M Rasmusson, Paulo Felisberto, Sylvie Gobert, John W Runcie, João Silva, Irene Olivé, Monya M Costa, Isabel Barrote, Rui Santos
Here we present the results of a multiple organizational level analysis conceived to identify acclimative/adaptive strategies exhibited by the seagrass Posidonia oceanica to the daily fluctuations in the light environment, at contrasting depths. We assessed changes in photophysiological parameters, leaf respiration, pigments, and protein and mRNA expression levels. The results show that the diel oscillations of P. oceanica photophysiological and respiratory responses were related to transcripts and proteins expression of the genes involved in those processes and that there was a response asynchrony between shallow and deep plants probably caused by the strong differences in the light environment...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209457/metabolomic-approach-reveals-the-biochemical-mechanisms-underlying-drought-stress-tolerance-in-thyme
#9
Parviz Moradi, Brian Ford-Lloyd, Jeremy Pritchard
Thyme as a perennial herb has been recognized globally for its antimicrobial, antiseptic and spasmolytic effects. In this investigation, we have used non-targeted metabolite and volatile profiling combined with the morpho-physiological parameters in order to understand the responses at the metabolite and physiological level in drought sensitive and tolerant thyme plant populations. The results at the metabolic level identified the significantly affected metabolites. Significant metabolites belonging to different chemical classes consisting amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids and lipids have been compared in tolerant and sensitive plants...
February 13, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208805/defense-responses-in-grapevine-cv-mourv%C3%A3-dre-after-inoculation-with-the-botryosphaeria-dieback-pathogens-neofusicoccum-parvum-and-diplodia-seriata-and-their-relationship-with-flowering
#10
Alessandro Spagnolo, Vincenzo Mondello, Philippe Larignon, Sandra Villaume, Fanja Rabenoelina, Christophe Clément, Florence Fontaine
As a result of the increasing economic impact of grapevine trunk diseases on viticulture worldwide, efficient and viable control strategies are urgently needed. However, understanding both plant-pathogen interactions and plant physiological changes related to these diseases is fundamental to such an achievement. In this study, we analyzed the effect of inoculation with the Botryosphaeria dieback fungal agents, Neofusicoccum parvum and Diplodia seriata, with and without inflorescence removal at the onset of G stage (separated clusters), I stage (flowering) and M stage (veraison)...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208739/a-guide-to-the-variability-of-flavonoids-in-brassica-oleracea
#11
REVIEW
Vera Mageney, Susanne Neugart, Dirk C Albach
Flavonoids represent a typical secondary metabolite class present in cruciferous vegetables. Their potential as natural antioxidants has raised considerable scientific interest. Impacts on the human body after food consumption as well as their effect as pharmaceutical supplements are therefore under investigation. Their numerous physiological functions make them a promising tool for breeding purposes. General methods for flavonoid analysis are well established, though new compounds are still being identified...
February 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208645/polyphenol-oxidases-in-crops-biochemical-physiological-and-genetic-aspects
#12
Francesca Taranto, Antonella Pasqualone, Giacomo Mangini, Pasquale Tripodi, Monica Marilena Miazzi, Stefano Pavan, Cinzia Montemurro
Enzymatic browning is a colour reaction occurring in plants, including cereals, fruit and horticultural crops, due to oxidation during postharvest processing and storage. This has a negative impact on the colour, flavour, nutritional properties and shelf life of food products. Browning is usually caused by polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), following cell damage caused by senescence, wounding and the attack of pests and pathogens. Several studies indicated that PPOs play a role in plant immunity, and emerging evidence suggested that PPOs might also be involved in other physiological processes...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208630/cocoa-and-grape-seed-byproducts-as-a-source-of-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-proanthocyanidins
#13
María De La Luz Cádiz-Gurrea, Isabel Borrás-Linares, Jesús Lozano-Sánchez, Jorge Joven, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Antonio Segura-Carretero
Phenolic compounds, which are secondary plant metabolites, are considered an integral part of the human diet. Physiological properties of dietary polyphenols have come to the attention in recent years. Especially, proanthocyanidins (ranging from dimers to decamers) have demonstrated potential interactions with biological systems, such as antiviral, antibacterial, molluscicidal, enzyme-inhibiting, antioxidant, and radical-scavenging properties. Agroindustry produces a considerable amount of phenolic-rich sources, and the ability of polyphenolic structures to interacts with other molecules in living organisms confers their beneficial properties...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207889/genetic-variation-of-maturity-groups-and-four-e-genes-in-the-chinese-soybean-mini-core-collection
#14
Jicun Li, Xiaobo Wang, Wenwen Song, Xinyang Huang, Jing Zhou, Haiyan Zeng, Shi Sun, Hongchang Jia, Wenbin Li, Xinan Zhou, Suzhen Li, Pengyin Chen, Cunxiang Wu, Yong Guo, Tianfu Han, Lijuan Qiu
The mini core collection (MCC) has been established by streamlining core collection (CC) chosen from China National Genebank including 23,587 soybean (Glycine max) accessions by morphological traits and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Few studies have been focused on the maturity that has been considered as one of the most critical traits for the determination of the adaptation-growing region of the soybean. In the current study, two hundred and ninty-nine accessions of MCC planted for two years at four locations namely in Heihe, Harbin, Jining and Wuhan cities in China were used to assess the variation of maturity in MCC and identify the integrated effect of 4 E loci on flowering and maturity time in soybean...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207822/identification-classification-and-transcription-profiles-of-the-b-type-response-regulator-family-in-pear
#15
Junbei Ni, Songling Bai, Ling Gao, Minjie Qian, Linbing Zhong, Yuanwen Teng
Type-B response regulators (B-RRs) are transcription factors that function in the final step of two-component signaling systems. In model plants, B-RRs have been shown to play important roles in cytokinin signal transduction. However, the functions of B-RRs in pear have not been well studied. In this report, we conducted a genome-wide analysis and identified 11 putative genes encoding B-PpRR proteins based on the published genome sequence of Pyrus bretschneideri. A phylogenetic tree of the B-PpRR family was constructed, and the motif distribution, chromosome localization, and gene structure of B-PpRR family genes were determined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207764/didehydrophenylalanine-an-abundant-modification-in-the-beta-subunit-of-plant-polygalacturonases
#16
Kjell Sergeant, Bruno Printz, Annelie Gutsch, Marc Behr, Jenny Renaut, Jean-Francois Hausman
The structure and the activity of proteins are often regulated by transient or stable post- translational modifications (PTM). Different from well-known, abundant modifications such as phosphorylation and glycosylation some modifications are limited to one or a few proteins across a broad range of related species. Although few examples of the latter type are known, the evolutionary conservation of these modifications and the enzymes responsible for their synthesis suggest an important physiological role. Here, the first observation of a new, fold-directing PTM is described...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207158/integration-of-chlorophyll-a-fluorescence-and-photorespirometry-techniques-to-understand-production-dynamics-in-macroaglal-communities
#17
Leigh W Tait, Ian Hawes, David R Schiel
Global declines of macroalgal beds in coastal waters have prompted a plethora of studies attempting to understand the drivers of change within dynamic nearshore ecosystems. Photosynthetic measurements are good tools for assessing the consequences of numerous stressors of macroalgae, but there is somewhat of a disconnection between studies that focus on organism-specific ecophysiological responses and those that address causes and consequences of shifts in macroalgal productivity. Our goal is to highlight the applications of two complementary tools for measuring photosynthesis - variable chlorophyll-a fluorescence and photorespirometry - and provide guidance for the integration of physiology and ecology to understand the drivers of change in macroalgal communities...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204955/inactivation-of-non-canonical-cyclic-nucleotides-hydrolysis-and-transport
#18
Erich H Schneider, Roland Seifert
This chapter addresses cNMP hydrolysis by phosphodiesterases (PDEs) and export by multidrug resistance associated proteins (MRPs). Both mechanisms are well-established for the canonical cNMPs, cAMP, and cGMP. Increasing evidence shows that non-canonical cNMPs (specifically cCMP, cUMP) are also PDE and MRP substrates. Hydrolysis of cUMP is achieved by PDE 3A, 3B, and 9A, which possibly explains the cUMP-degrading activities previously reported for heart, adipose tissue, and brain. Regarding cCMP, the only known "conventional" (class I) PDE that hydrolyzes cCMP is PDE7A...
February 16, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204874/effects-of-calcium-at-toxic-concentrations-of-cadmium-in-plants
#19
REVIEW
Danlian Huang, Xiaomin Gong, Yunguo Liu, Guangming Zeng, Cui Lai, Hassan Bashir, Lu Zhou, Dafei Wang, Piao Xu, Min Cheng, Jia Wan
This review provides new insight that calcium plays important roles in plant growth, heavy metal accumulation and translocation, photosynthesis, oxidative damage and signal transduction under cadmium stress. Increasing heavy metal pollution problems have raised word-wide concerns. Cadmium (Cd), being a highly toxic metal, poses potential risks both to ecosystems and human health. Compared with conventional technologies, phytoremediation, being cost-efficient, highly stable and environment-friendly, is believed to be a promising green technology for Cd decontamination...
February 15, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202597/histone-lysine-to-methionine-mutations-reduce-histone-methylation-and-cause-developmental-pleiotropy
#20
Dean Sanders, Shuiming Qian, Rachael Fieweger, Li Lu, James A Dowell, John M Denu, Xuehua Zhong
Epigenetic modifications play critical roles in diverse biological processes. Histone lysine to methionine (K-to-M) mutations act as gain-of-function mutations to inhibit a wide range of histone methyltransferases and are thought to promote tumorigenesis. However, it is largely unknown whether K-to-M mutations impact development at the whole organismal level. Using Arabidopsis as a model system, we discovered that a transgene exogenously expressing histone 3 lysine 36 to methionine mutation (K36M) acts in a dominant negative manner to cause global reduction of H3K36 methylation...
February 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
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