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Plant physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728120/cadmium-and-high-temperature-effects-on-brain-and-behaviour-of-lymantria-dispar-l-caterpillars-originating-from-polluted-and-less-polluted-forests
#1
Vesna Perić-Mataruga, Branka Petković, Larisa Ilijin, Marija Mrdaković, Slađana Dronjak Čučaković, Dajana Todorović, Milena Vlahović
Insects brain as a part of nervous system is the first-line of fast stress response that integrate stress signals to regulate all aspects of insect physiology and behaviour. The cadmium (Cd) bioaccumulation factor (BF), activity of the neurotoxicity biomarker acetylcholinesterase (AChE), dopamine content, expression and amount of Hsp70 in the brain and locomotor activity were evaluated in the 4th instar of Lymantria dispar L. caterpillars fed a Cd supplemented diet and reared in an optimal temperature regime (23 °C) and/or exposed to high temperature (28 °C)...
July 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727205/drivers-of-woody-canopy-water-content-responses-to-drought-in-a-mediterranean-type-ecosystem
#2
Tarin Paz-Kagan, Gregory P Asner
Severe droughts increase physiological stress in woody plant species, which can lead to mortality, fundamentally altering the composition, structure, and biogeography of forests in many regions. Little is known, however, about the factors determining the physiological response of woody plants to drought at landscape scales. Our objective was to understand woody plant species responses to ongoing changes in climate, using remotely sensed canopy water content (CWC) as an indicator of plant physiological and phenological status...
July 20, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726715/overexpression-of-the-osimp-gene-increases-the-accumulation-of-inositol-and-confers-enhanced-cold-tolerance-in-tobacco-through-modulation-of-the-antioxidant-enzymes-activities
#3
Rong-Xiang Zhang, Li-Jun Qin, De-Gang Zhao
Inositol is a cyclic polyol that is involved in various physiological processes, including signal transduction and stress adaptation in plants. l-myo-inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) is one of the metal-dependent phosphatase family members and catalyzes the last reaction step of biosynthesis of inositol. Although increased IMPase activity induced by abiotic stress has been reported in chickpea plants, the role and regulation of the IMP gene in rice (Oryza sativa L.) remains poorly understood. In the present work, we obtained a full-length cDNA sequence coding IMPase in the cold tolerant rice landraces in Gaogonggui, which is named as OsIMP...
July 20, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726644/arabidopsis-calmodulin-like-protein-cml36-is-a-calcium-ca-2-sensor-that-interacts-with-the-plasma-membrane-ca-2-atpase-isoform-aca8-and-stimulates-its-activity
#4
Alessandra Astegno, Maria Cristina Bonza, Rosario Vallone, Valentina La Verde, Mariapina D'Onofrio, Laura Luoni, Barbara Molesini, Paola Dominici
Calmodulin-like (CML) proteins are major EF hand-containing, calcium (Ca(2+))-binding proteins with crucial roles in plant development and in coordinating plant stress tolerance. Given their abundance in plants, the properties of Ca(2+) sensors and identification of novel target proteins of CMLs deserve special attention. To this end, we recombinantly produced and biochemically characterized CML36 from Arabidopsis thaliana We analyzed Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) binding to the individual EF hands, observed metal-induced conformational changes, and identified a physiologically relevant target...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726641/a-plant-fungal-type-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase-located-in-the-parasite-mitochondrion-ensures-glucose-independent-survival-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#5
Richard Nitzsche, Özlem Günay-Esiyok, Maximilian Tischer, Vyacheslav Zagoriy, Nishith Gupta
Toxoplasma gondii is considered as one of the most successful intracellular pathogens, because it can reproduce in varied nutritional milieus, encountered in diverse host-cell types of essentially any warm-blooded organism. Our earlier work has demonstrated that the acute (tachyzoite) stage of T. gondii depends on cooperativity of glucose and glutamine catabolism to meet biosynthetic demands. Either of these two nutrients can sustain the parasite survival; however, what determines the metabolic plasticity has not been resolved yet...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726228/microwave-irradiation-and-citric-acid-assisted-seed-germination-and-phytoextraction-of-nickel-ni-by-brassica-napus-l-morpho-physiological-and-biochemical-alterations-under-ni-stress
#6
Mujahid Farid, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Rizwan, Rashid Saeed, Hafiz Muhammad Tauqeer, Rasham Sallah-Ud-Din, Ahmed Azam, Nighat Raza
The complex bio-geochemistry of soil allows pollutant to persist for a longer period of time which further decreased the fertility and natural composition of land. Nickel, an inorganic pollutant, coming from a wide range of industrial and manufacturing units possesses serious threat to soil degradation and crop productivity around the world. The present study was carried to evaluate the combined role of microwave irradiation (MR) and citric acid (CA) on the phytoextraction potential of Brassica napus L. under Ni stress...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726213/how-mechanisms-explain-interfield-cooperation-biological-chemical-study-of-plant-growth-hormones-in-utrecht-and-pasadena-1930-1938
#7
Caterina Schürch
This article examines to what extent a particular case of cross-disciplinary research in the 1930s was structured by mechanistic reasoning. For this purpose, it identifies the interfield theories that allowed biologists and chemists to use each other's techniques and findings, and that provided the basis for the experiments performed to identify plant growth hormones and to learn more about their role in the mechanism of plant growth. In 1930, chemists and biologists in Utrecht and Pasadena began to cooperatively study plant growth...
September 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725364/interspecific-variation-in-persistence-of-buried-weed-seeds-follows-trade-offs-among-physiological-chemical-and-physical-seed-defenses
#8
Adam S Davis, Xianhui Fu, Brian J Schutte, Mark A Berhow, James W Dalling
Soil seedbanks drive infestations of annual weeds, yet weed management focuses largely on seedling mortality. As weed seedbanks increasingly become reservoirs of herbicide resistance, species-specific seedbank management approaches will be essential to weed control. However, the development of seedbank management strategies can only develop from an understanding of how seed traits affect persistence.We quantified interspecific trade-offs among physiological, chemical, and physical traits of weed seeds and their persistence in the soil seedbank in a common garden study...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725233/g-quadruplex-in-plants-a-ubiquitous-regulatory-element-and-its-biological-relevance
#9
REVIEW
Vikas Yadav, Hemansi, Nayun Kim, Narendra Tuteja, Puja Yadav
G quadruplexes (G4) are higher-order DNA and RNA secondary structures formed by G-rich sequences that are built around tetrads of hydrogen-bonded guanine bases. Potential G4 quadruplex sequences have been identified in G-rich eukaryotic non-telomeric and telomeric genomic regions. Upon function, G4 formation is known to involve in chromatin remodeling, gene regulation and has been associated with genomic instability, genetic diseases and cancer progression. The natural role and biological validation of G4 structures is starting to be explored, and is of particular interest for the therapeutic interventions for human diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725003/distribution-of-salicifoline-in-freeze-fixed-stems-of-magnolia-kobus-as-observed-by-cryo-tof-sims
#10
Wakaba Okumura, Dan Aoki, Yasuyuki Matsushita, Masato Yoshida, Kazuhiko Fukushima
Alkaloids are basic nitrogen-containing chemicals that have important physiological and pharmacological characteristics. Many vascular plant species contain alkaloids, and their roles in planta are of interest. However, the detailed distribution of alkaloids remains unclear because of their low water solubility and low concentrations in plants. In this study, we visualized the distribution of salicifoline, a water-soluble quaternary ammonium alkaloid, in the freeze-fixed stems of Magnolia kobus by cryo time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724950/nanocapsules-containing-neem-azadirachta-indica-oil-development-characterization-and-toxicity-evaluation
#11
Tatiane Pasquoto-Stigliani, Estefânia V R Campos, Jhones L Oliveira, Camila M G Silva, Natalia Bilesky-José, Mariana Guilger, Johann Troost, Halley C Oliveira, Renata Stolf-Moreira, Leonardo F Fraceto, Renata de Lima
In this study, we prepared, characterized, and performed toxicity analyses of poly(ε-caprolactone) nanocapsules loaded with neem oil. Three formulations were prepared by the emulsion/solvent evaporation method. The nanocapsules showed a mean size distribution around 400 nm, with polydispersity below 0.2 and were stable for 120 days. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity results showed an increase in toxicity of the oleic acid + neem formulations according to the amount of oleic acid used. The minimum inhibitory concentrations demonstrated that all the formulations containing neem oil were active...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722164/a-unifying-explanation-for-variation-in-ozone-sensitivity-among-woody-plants
#12
Zhaozhong Feng, Patrick Büker, Håkan Pleijel, Lisa Emberson, Per Erik Karlsson, Johan Uddling
Tropospheric ozone is considered the most detrimental air pollutant for vegetation at the global scale, with negative consequences for both provisioning and climate regulating ecosystem services. In spite of recent developments in ozone exposure metrics, from a concentration-based to a more physiologically relevant stomatal flux-based index, large scale ozone risk assessment is still complicated by a large and unexplained variation in ozone sensitivity among tree species. Here we explored whether the variation in ozone sensitivity among woody species can be linked to interspecific variation in leaf morphology...
July 19, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722115/transcriptional-profiling-of-mechanically-and-genetically-sink-limited-soybeans
#13
Anne V Brown, Karen A Hudson
The absence of a reproductive sink causes physiological and morphological changes in soybean plants. These include increased accumulation of nitrogen and starch in the leaves and delayed leaf senescence. To identify transcriptional changes that occur in leaves of these sink-limited plants, we used RNAseq to compare gene expression levels in trifoliate leaves from depodded and ms6 male sterile soybean plants and control plants. In both sink-limited tissues, we observed a deferral of the expression of senescence-associated genes and a continued expression of genes associated with leaf maturity...
July 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722113/specialised-stomatal-humidity-responses-underpin-ecological-diversity-in-c3-bromeliads
#14
Jamie Males, Howard Griffiths
The Neotropical Bromeliaceae display an extraordinary level of ecological variety, with species differing widely in habit, photosynthetic pathway, and growth form. Divergences in stomatal structure and function, hitherto understudied in treatments of bromeliad evolutionary physiology, could have been critical to the generation of variety in ecophysiological strategies among the bromeliads. Since humidity is a key factor in bromeliad niches, we focussed on stomatal responses to vapour pressure deficit (VPD)...
July 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721563/terrestrial-adaptation-of-green-algae-klebsormidium-and-zygnema-charophyta-involves-diversity-in-photosynthetic-traits-but-not-in-co2-acquisition
#15
Mattia Pierangelini, David Ryšánek, Ingeborg Lang, Wolfram Adlassnig, Andreas Holzinger
The basal streptophyte Klebsormidium and the advanced Zygnema show adaptation to terrestrialization. Differences are found in photoprotection and resistance to short-term light changes, but not in CO 2 acquisition. Streptophyte green algae colonized land about 450-500 million years ago giving origin to terrestrial plants. We aim to understand how their physiological adaptations are linked to the ecological conditions (light, water and CO2) characterizing modern terrestrial habitats. A new Klebsormidium isolate from a strongly acidic environment of a former copper mine (Schwarzwand, Austria) is investigated, in comparison to Klebsormidium cf...
July 18, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720730/drought-stress-results-in-a-compartment-specific-restructuring-of-the-rice-root-associated-microbiomes
#16
Christian Santos-Medellín, Joseph Edwards, Zachary Liechty, Bao Nguyen, Venkatesan Sundaresan
Plant roots support complex microbial communities that can influence plant growth, nutrition, and health. While extensive characterizations of the composition and spatial compartmentalization of these communities have been performed in different plant species, there is relatively little known about the impact of abiotic stresses on the root microbiota. Here, we have used rice as a model to explore the responses of root microbiomes to drought stress. Using four distinct genotypes, grown in soils from three different fields, we tracked the drought-induced changes in microbial composition in the rhizosphere (the soil immediately surrounding the root), the endosphere (the root interior), and unplanted soils...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719628/salt-tolerant-and-sensitive-alfalfa-medicago-sativa-cultivars-have-large-variations-in-defense-responses-to-the-lepidopteran-insect-spodoptera-litura-under-normal-and-salt-stress-condition
#17
Yunting Lei, Qing Liu, Christian Hettenhausen, Guoyan Cao, Qing Tan, Weiye Zhao, Honghui Lin, Jianqiang Wu
In nature, plants are often exposed to multiple stress factors at the same time. Yet, little is known about how plants modulate their physiology to counteract simultaneous abiotic and biotic stresses, such as soil salinity and insect herbivory. In this study, insect performance bioassays, phytohormone measurements, quantification of transcripts, and protein determination were employed to study the phenotypic variations of two alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cultivars in response to insect Spodoptera litura feeding under normal and salt stress condition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719623/moderate-irrigation-intervals-facilitate-establishment-of-two-desert-shrubs-in-the-taklimakan-desert-highway-shelterbelt-in-china
#18
Congjuan Li, Xiang Shi, Osama Abdalla Mohamad, Jie Gao, Xinwen Xu, Yijun Xie
BACKGROUND: Water influences various physiological and ecological processes of plants in different ecosystems, especially in desert ecosystems. The purpose of this study is to investigate the response of physiological and morphological acclimation of two shrubs Haloxylon ammodendron and Calligonum mongolicunl to variations in irrigation intervals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The irrigation frequency was set as 1-, 2-, 4-, 8- and 12-week intervals respectively from March to October during 2012-2014 to investigate the response of physiological and morphological acclimation of two desert shrubs Haloxylon ammodendron and Calligonum mongolicunl to variations in the irrigation system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718909/maturation-related-changes-of-carrot-lignins
#19
Judith Schäfer, Bernhard Trierweiler, Mirko Bunzel
BACKGROUND: Lignified cell walls are important factors for textural and physiological properties of plant-based foods. However, carrot lignins and their modifications during maturation are poorly described. The objective of this study was to describe carrot lignins in detail and to study lignin structural alterations at later stages of maturity. RESULTS: Klason and acetyl bromide soluble lignin contents of insoluble fibers of carrots harvested at different times (26, 29, and 35 weeks after seeding) ranged between 46...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718009/relative-salinity-tolerance-of-rice-cultivars-native-to-north-east-india-a-physiological-biochemical-and-molecular-perspective
#20
Takhellambam Omisun, Smita Sahoo, Bedabrata Saha, Sanjib Kumar Panda
Salinity is the second most prevalent abiotic stress faced by plants, and rice is not an exception. Through this study, it has been tried upon, to study the relative salinity tolerance of eight local varieties of North East India. Preliminary screening was based on their dose- and time-dependent physiological responses to salinity stress. Among the cultivars, Tampha was found to be relatively more tolerant, whereas MSE9 the most sensitive. To further ascertain their tolerance capacity, MDA and H2O2 content was determined, which also confirmed the tolerance level of the two cultivars...
July 17, 2017: Protoplasma
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