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Plant physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545131/major-changes-in-microbial-diversity-and-community-composition-across-gut-sections-of-a-juvenile-panchlora-cockroach
#1
Erin A Gontang, Frank O Aylward, Camila Carlos, Tijana Glavina Del Rio, Mansi Chovatia, Alison Fern, Chien-Chi Lo, Stephanie A Malfatti, Susannah G Tringe, Cameron R Currie, Roberto Kolter
Investigations of gut microbiomes have shed light on the diversity and genetic content of these communities, and helped shape our understanding of how host-associated microorganisms influence host physiology, behavior, and health. Despite the importance of gut microbes to metazoans, our understanding of the changes in diversity and composition across the alimentary tract, and the source of the resident community are limited. Here, using community metagenomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we assess microbial community diversity and coding potential in the foregut, midgut, and hindgut of a juvenile Panchlora cockroach, which resides in the refuse piles of the leaf-cutter ant species Atta colombica...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545114/different-adaptation-strategies-of-two-citrus-scion-rootstock-combinations-in-response-to-drought-stress
#2
Joadson Dutra de Souza, Edson Mario de Andrade Silva, Mauricio Antônio Coelho Filho, Raphaël Morillon, Diego Bonatto, Fabienne Micheli, Abelmon da Silva Gesteira
Scion/rootstock interaction is important for plant development and for breeding programs. In this context, polyploid rootstocks presented several advantages, mainly in relation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we analyzed the response to drought of two different scion/rootstock combinations presenting different polyploidy: the diploid (2x) and autotetraploid (4x) Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia, Osbeck) rootstocks grafted with 2x Valencia Delta sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) scions, named V/2xRL and V/4xRL, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543362/commd1-a-multifunctional-regulatory-protein
#3
Mario Riera Romo
The COMMD Protein Family is highly conserved among multicellular eukaryotic organisms and many orthologs of human COMMD genes have been found in different species of plants, invertebrates, lower vertebrates and mammals. COMMD1 is the best characterized member of the family and is conserved among vertebrates. This protein represents a pleiotropic factor involved in the regulation of many cellular and physiological processes that include copper and cholesterol homeostasis, ionic transport, oxidative stress, protein aggregation, protein trafficking, NF-κB-mediated transcription, hypoxia induced transcription, DNA damage response and oncogenesis...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542778/human-pathogens-in-plant-biofilms-formation-physiology-and-detection
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542457/genet-specific-dna-methylation-probabilities-detected-in-a-spatial-epigenetic-analysis-of-a-clonal-plant-population
#5
Kiwako S Araki, Takuya Kubo, Hiroshi Kudoh
In sessile organisms such as plants, spatial genetic structures of populations show long-lasting patterns. These structures have been analyzed across diverse taxa to understand the processes that determine the genetic makeup of organismal populations. For many sessile organisms that mainly propagate via clonal spread, epigenetic status can vary between clonal individuals in the absence of genetic changes. However, fewer previous studies have explored the epigenetic properties in comparison to the genetic properties of natural plant populations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542267/discerning-morpho-anatomical-physiological-and-molecular-multiformity-in-cultivated-and-wild-genotypes-of-lentil-with-reconciliation-to-salinity-stress
#6
Dharmendra Singh, Chandan Kumar Singh, Shanti Kumari, Ram Sewak Singh Tomar, Sourabh Karwa, Rajendra Singh, Raja Bahadur Singh, Susheel Kumar Sarkar, Madan Pal
One hundred and sixty two genotypes of different Lens species were screened for salinity tolerance in hydroponics at 40, 80 and 120 mM sodium chloride (NaCl) for 30 d. The germination, seedling growth, biomass accumulation, seedling survivability, salinity scores, root and shoot anatomy, sodium ion (Na+), chloride ion (Cl-) and potassium ion (K+) concentrations, proline and antioxidant activities were measured to evaluate the performance of all the genotypes. The results were compared in respect of physiological (Na+, K+ and Cl-) and seed yield components obtained from field trials for salinity stress conducted during two years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541559/hydraulic-redistribution-under-moderate-drought-among-english-oak-european-beech-and-norway-spruce-determined-by-deuterium-isotope-labeling-in-a-split-root-experiment
#7
Benjamin D Hafner, Martina Tomasella, Karl-Heinz Häberle, Marc Goebel, Rainer Matyssek, Thorsten E E Grams
Hydraulic redistribution (HR) of soil water through plant roots is a crucial phenomenon improving the water balance of plants and ecosystems. It is mostly described under severe drought, and not yet studied under moderate drought. We tested the potential of HR under moderate drought, hypothesizing that (H1) tree species redistribute soil water in their roots even under moderate drought and that (H2) neighboring plants are supported with water provided by redistributing plants. Trees were planted in split-root systems with one individual (i...
May 24, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540554/understanding-brassinosteroid-regulated-mechanisms-to-improve-stress-tolerance-in-plants-a-critical-review
#8
Fahim Nawaz, Muhammad Naeem, Bilal Zulfiqar, Asim Akram, Muhammad Yasin Ashraf, Muhammad Raheel, Rana Nauman Shabbir, Rai Altaf Hussain, Irfan Anwar, Muhammad Aurangzaib
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal plant hormones involved in regulation of physiological and molecular processes to ameliorate various biotic and abiotic stresses. Exogenous application of BRs to improve stress tolerance in plants has recently become a high research priority. Several studies have revealed the involvement of these steroidal hormones in upregulation of stress-related defense genes and their cross talk with other metabolic pathways. This is likely to stimulate research on many unanswered questions regarding their role in enhancing the ability of plants to tolerate adverse environmental conditions...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540541/morphological-physiological-and-biochemical-responses-of-two-australian-biotypes-of-parthenium-hysterophorus-to-different-soil-moisture-regimes
#9
Ali Ahsan Bajwa, Bhagirath Singh Chauhan, Steve Adkins
Parthenium weed is a problematic invasive species in several countries around the world. Although it is considered to be a highly invasive species within Australia, not all biotypes of parthenium weed exhibit the same ability in regard to aggressive colonization and distribution. Differences among biotypes, particularly in regard to environmental ranges as a possible basis for this variation, have not always been elucidated. To determine whether drought tolerance could be a factor in biotype demographics, we quantified the biological responses of two Australian parthenium weed biotypes known to differ in invasive ability Clermont ("high") and Toogoolawah ("low") to 100, 75 and 50% of soil water holding capacity (WHC)...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539916/endophytic-fungi-piriformospora-indica-mediated-protection-of-host-from-arsenic-toxicity
#10
Shayan Mohd, Jagriti Shukla, Aparna S Kushwaha, Kapil Mandrah, Jai Shankar, Nidhi Arjaria, Prem N Saxena, Ram Narayan, Somendu K Roy, Manoj Kumar
Complex intercellular interaction is a common theme in plant-pathogen/symbiont relationship. Cellular physiology of both the partners is affected by abiotic stress. However, little is known about the degree of protection each offers to the other from different types of environmental stress. Our current study focused on the changes in response to toxic arsenic in the presence of an endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica that colonizes the paddy roots. The primary impact of arsenic was observed in the form of hyper-colonization of fungus in the host root and resulted in the recovery of its overall biomass, root damage, and chlorophyll due to arsenic toxicity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538685/the-effect-of-leaf-stacking-on-leaf-reflectance-and-vegetation-indices-measured-by-contact-probe-during-the-season
#11
Eva Neuwirthová, Zuzana Lhotáková, Jana Albrechtová
The aims of the study were: (i) to compare leaf reflectance in visible (VIS) (400-700 nm), near-infrared (NIR) (740-1140 nm) and short-wave infrared (SWIR) (2000-2400 nm) spectral ranges measured monthly by a contact probe on a single leaf and a stack of five leaves (measurement setup (MS)) of two broadleaved tree species during the vegetative season; and (ii) to test if and how selected vegetation indices differ under these two MS. In VIS, the pigment-related spectral region, the effect of MS on reflectance was negligible...
May 24, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537731/reaction-of-spring-barley-and-common-radish-on-the-introduction-of-ionic-liquids-containing-asymmetric-cations-to-the-soil
#12
Barbara Pawłowska, Arkadiusz Telesiński, Maciej Płatkowski, Michał Stręk, Martyna Śnioszek, Robert Biczak
The harmful effect of ionic liquids (ILs) on the environment is one of the important elements of scientific research conducted around the world. This study presents the effect of ionic liquids, containing the asymmetric cations benzyltrimethylammonium chloride [BenzTMA][Cl] and benzyltriethylammonium chloride[BenzTEA][Cl], on physiological and biochemical changes in common radish plants and spring barley seedlings. The examined ILs demonstrated low toxicity to higher plants. A compound that exhibiting higher phytotoxicity to these plant species was [BenzTMA][Cl]...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537463/plant-bax-inhibitor-1-interacts-with-atg6-to-regulate-autophagy-and-programmed-cell-death
#13
Guoyong Xu, Shanshan Wang, Shaojie Han, Ke Xie, Yan Wang, Jinlin Li, Yule Liu
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process and is involved in the regulation of programmed cell death during the plant immune response. However, mechanisms regulating autophagy and cell death are incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that plant Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1), a highly conserved cell death regulator, interacts with ATG6, a core autophagy-related protein. Silencing of BI-1 reduced the autophagic activity induced by both N gene-mediated resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and methyl viologen (MV), and enhanced N gene-mediated cell death...
May 24, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537416/glutathione-degradation
#14
Anand K Bachhawat, Amandeep Kaur
SIGNIFICANCE: Glutathione degradation has for long been thought to occur only on non-cytosolic pools. This is because there has been only one enzyme known to degrade glutathione (γ-glutamyltranspeptidase), and this localizes to either the plasma membrane (mammals, bacteria) or the vacuolar membrane (yeast, plants) and acts on extracellular or vacuolar pools. The last few years has seen the discovery of several new enzymes of glutathione degradation that function in the cytosol, throwing new light on glutathione degradation...
May 24, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537029/arsenic-accumulation-and-physiological-attributes-of-spinach-in-the-presence-of-amendments-an-implication-to-reduce-health-risk
#15
Muhammad Shahid, Marina Rafiq, Nabeel Khan Niazi, Camille Dumat, Saliha Shamshad, Sana Khalid, Irshad Bibi
The current study examined the effect of calcium (Ca) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on arsenic (As) uptake and toxicity to spinach (Spinacia oleracea) as well as assessed the potential human health risks. Spinach seedlings were exposed to three levels of As (25, 125, and 250 μM) alone or together with three levels of EDTA (25, 125, and 250 μM) and Ca (1, 5, and 10 mM). The effect of EDTA and Ca was assessed in terms of As contents in roots and shoots, hydrogen peroxide production, chlorophyll contents, and lipid peroxidation...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536792/cotton-gherf38-gene-is-involved-in-plant-response-to-salt-drought-and-aba
#16
Liufeng Ma, Longxing Hu, Jibiao Fan, Erick Amombo, A B M Khaldun, Yong Zheng, Liang Chen
ERF (ethylene-responsive factor) transcription factors play important roles in plant stress signaling transduction pathways. However, their specific roles during diverse abiotic stresses tolerance in Gossypium hirsutum are largely unknown. Here, a novel ERF transcription factor, designated GhERF38, homologous to AtERF38 in Arabidopsis, was isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L). GhERF38 expression was up-regulated by salt, drought and ABA treatments. Subcellular localization results indicated that GhERF38 was localized in the cell nucleus...
May 23, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536765/silicon-mediated-changes-in-radial-hydraulic-conductivity-and-cell-wall-stability-are-involved-in-silicon-induced-drought-resistance-in-tomato
#17
Bi-Li Cao, Lili Wang, Song Gao, Jie Xia, Kun Xu
Plants frequently experience drought stress. It is well known that silicon (Si) facilitates recovery from drought stress by improving drought resistance in plants. However, the effects of Si on the roots associated with the drought resistance in plants remain elusive. In this study, tomato (cv. 'Jinpeng 1(#)') was adopted to study the silicon-mediated drought avoidance and drought tolerance. The results showed that exogenous Si evidently influenced the drought-induced changes of the related indicators. Roots added with Si were more adaptable to drought stress...
May 23, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536588/a-novel-wheat-c-bzip-gene-tabzip14-b-participates-in-salt-and-freezing-tolerance-in-transgenic-plants
#18
Lina Zhang, Lichao Zhang, Chuan Xia, Lifeng Gao, Chenyang Hao, Guangyao Zhao, Jizeng Jia, Xiuying Kong
The group C-bZIP transcription factors (TFs) are involved in diverse biological processes, such as the regulation of seed storage protein (SSP) production and the responses to pathogen challenge and abiotic stress. However, our knowledge of the abiotic functions of group C-bZIP genes in wheat remains limited. Here, we present the function of a novel TabZIP14-B gene in wheat. This gene belongs to the group C-bZIP TFs and contains six exons and five introns; three haplotypes were identified among accessions of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536581/optimization-of-nitrogen-rate-and-planting-density-for-improving-yield-nitrogen-use-efficiency-and-lodging-resistance-in-oilseed-rape
#19
Shahbaz Khan, Sumera Anwar, Jie Kuai, Sana Ullah, Shah Fahad, Guangsheng Zhou
Yield and lodging related traits are essential for improving rapeseed production. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of plant density (D) and nitrogen (N) rates on morphological and physiological traits related to yield and lodging in rapeseed. We evaluated Huayouza 9 for two consecutive growing seasons (2014-2016) under three plant densities (LD, 10 plants m(-2); MD, 30 plants m(-2); HD, 60 plants m(-2)) and four N rates (0, 60, 120, and 180 kg ha(-1)). Experiment was laid out in split plot design using density as a main factor and N as sub-plot factor with three replications each...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536103/repression-of-cystathionine-%C3%AE-synthase-in-seeds-recruits-the-s-methylmethionine-cycle
#20
Hagai Cohen, Yael Hacham, Irina Panizel, Ilana Rogachev, Asaph Aharoni, Rachel Amir
S-methylmethionine (SMM) was previously suggested to participate in the metabolism of methionine in seeds. To further reveal its roles, we had previously produced transgenic Arabidopsis RNAi seeds with lower transcript expression of CYSTATHIONINE γ-SYNTHASE (AtCGS), methionine's main regulatory enzyme. Unexpectedly, these seeds accumulated significantly higher levels of methionine compared to control seeds through an as yet unknown mechanism. Here, transcript and metabolic analyses coupled with isotope-labeled [13C]SMM and [13C]methionine feeding experiments enabled us to reveal that SMM that were synthesized in rosette leaves of RNAi plants significantly contributed to the accumulation of methionine in their seeds at late stages of development...
May 23, 2017: Plant Physiology
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