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Plant physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936282/metabolomic-data-suggest-regulation-of-black-howler-monkey-alouatta-pigra-diet-composition-at-the-molecular-level
#1
Katherine R Amato, Alexander Ulanov, Kou-San Ju, Paul A Garber
In addition to macronutrients, foods consist of a complex set of chemical compounds that can influence dietary selectivity and consumer physiology. Metabolomics allow us to describe this complexity by quantifying all small molecules, or metabolites, in a food item. In this study we use GC-MS based metabolomics to describe the metabolite profiles of foods consumed by one population of Mexican black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) over a 10-month period. Our data indicate that each food exhibited a distinct metabolite profile, and the average weekly intake of metabolites such as neochlorogenic acid and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) was correlated with the consumption of certain plant parts...
December 9, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936160/a-cbl-interacting-protein-kinase-tacipk2-confers-drought-tolerance-in-transgenic-tobacco-plants-through-regulating-the-stomatal-movement
#2
Yan Wang, Tao Sun, Tingting Li, Meng Wang, Guangxiao Yang, Guangyuan He
In plants, the CBL-CIPK signaling pathways play key roles in the response to abiotic stresses. However, functional studies of CIPKs in the important staple crop wheat are very rare. In this study, we identified a CIPK gene from wheat, designated TaCIPK2. Expression analysis results showed that TaCIPK2 could be up-regulated in wheat leaves by polyethylene glycol, abscisic acid and H2O2 treatments. Subcellular localization analyses revealed that TaCIPK2 was present in whole wheat epidermal cells. A yeast two-hybrid assay indicated that TaCIPK2 interacted with TaCBL1, 2, 3 and 4 in vitro...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935412/rice-oserf71-mediated-root-modification-affects-shoot-drought-tolerance
#3
Dong-Keun Lee, Suin Yoon, Youn Shic Kim, Ju-Kon Kim
Drought is the most serious problem that impedes crop development and productivity worldwide. Although several studies have documented the root architecture adaption for drought tolerance, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our latest study demonstrated that overexpression of the OsERF71 in rice roots under drought conditions modifies root structure including larger aerenchyma and radial root growth, and thereby, protects the rice plants from drought stresses. The OsERF71-mediated root modifications are caused by combinatory overexpression of general stress-inducible, cell wall-associated and lignin biosynthesis genes that contribute to drought tolerance...
December 9, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935411/climacteric-ripening-of-apple-fruit-is-regulated-by-transcriptional-circuits-stimulated-by-cross-talks-between-ethylene-and-auxin
#4
Nicola Busatto, Alice Tadiello, Livio Trainotti, Fabrizio Costa
Apple is a fleshy fruit distinguished by a climacteric type of ripening, since most of the relevant physiological changes are triggered and governed by the action of ethylene. After its production, this hormone is perceived by a series of receptors to regulate, through a signaling cascade, downstream ethylene related genes. The possibility to control the effect of ethylene opened new horizons to the improvement of the postharvest fruit quality. To this end, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an ethylene antagonist, is routinely used to modulate the ripening progression increasing storage life...
December 9, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935162/vulnerability-of-eastern-us-tree-species-to-climate-change
#5
Brendan M Rogers, Patrick Jantz, Scott J Goetz
Climate change is expected to alter the distribution of tree species because of critical environmental tolerances related to growth, mortality, reproduction, disturbances, and biotic interactions. How this is realized in 21st century remains uncertain, in large part due to limitations on plant migration and the impacts of landscape fragmentation. Understanding these changes is of particular concern for forest management, which requires information at an appropriately fine spatial resolution. Here we provide a framework and application for tree species vulnerability to climate change in the eastern US that accounts for influential drivers of future distributions...
December 9, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935060/mtmapkk4-is-an-essential-gene-for-growth-and-reproduction-of-medicago-truncatula
#6
Tao Chen, Bo Zhou, Liujian Duan, Hui Zhu, Zhongming Zhang
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are universal signalling modules in eukaryotes, including yeasts, animals and plants. They are involved in responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses, hormones, cell division and developmental processes. A MAPK cascade is composed of three functionally tiered protein kinases, namely MAPK, MAPK kinases (MAPKKs) and MAPK kinase kinases (MAPKKKs). These kinases have been intensively studied for their roles in developmental and physiological processes in various organisms...
December 9, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935048/height-related-scaling-of-phloem-anatomy-and-the-evolution-of-sieve-element-end-wall-types-in-woody-plants
#7
Johannes Liesche, Marcelo R Pace, Qiyu Xu, Yongqing Li, Shaolin Chen
In the sieve elements (SEs) of the phloem, carbohydrates are transported throughout the whole plant from their site of production to sites of consumption or storage. SE structure, especially of the pore-rich end walls, has a direct effect on translocation efficiency. Differences in pore size and other features were interpreted as an evolutionary trend towards reduced hydraulic resistance. However, this has never been confirmed. Anatomical data of 447 species of woody angiosperms and gymnosperms were used for a phylogenetic analysis of end wall types, calculation of hydraulic resistance and correlation analysis with morphological and physiological variables...
December 9, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934866/chickpea-transcription-factor-catlp1-interacts-with-protein-kinases-modulates-ros-accumulation-and-promotes-aba-mediated-stomatal-closure
#8
Vijay Wardhan, Aarti Pandey, Subhra Chakraborty, Niranjan Chakraborty
Tubby and Tubby-like proteins (TLPs), in mammals, play critical roles in neural development, while its function in plants is largely unknown. We previously demonstrated that the chickpea TLP, CaTLP1, participates in osmotic stress response and might be associated with ABA-dependent network. However, how CaTLP1 is connected to ABA signaling remains unclear. The CaTLP1 was found to be engaged in ABA-mediated gene expression and stomatal closure. Complementation of the yeast yap1 mutant with CaTLP1 revealed its role in ROS scavenging...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933456/penicillin-v-acylases-from-gram-negative-bacteria-degrade-n-acylhomoserine-lactones-and-attenuate-virulence-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#9
Avinash Vellore Sunder, Putri Dwi Utari, Sureshkumar Ramasamy, Ronald van Merkerk, Wim Quax, Archana Pundle
Virulence pathways in gram-negative pathogenic bacteria are regulated by quorum sensing mechanisms, through the production and sensing of N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecules. Enzymatic degradation of AHLs leading to attenuation of virulence (quorum quenching) could pave the way for the development of new antibacterials. Penicillin V acylases (PVAs) belong to the Ntn hydrolase superfamily, together with AHL acylases. PVAs are exploited widely in the pharmaceutical industry, but their role in the natural physiology of their native microbes is not clearly understood...
December 8, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933319/a-metabolic-widget-adjusts-the-phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent-fructose-influx-in-pseudomonas-putida
#10
Max Chavarría, Ángel Goñi-Moreno, Víctor de Lorenzo, Pablo I Nikel
Fructose uptake in the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida occurs through a canonical phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent sugar transport system (PTS(Fru)). The logic of the genetic circuit that rules its functioning is puzzling: the transcription of the fruBKA operon, encoding all the components of PTS(Fru), can escape the repression exerted by the catabolite repressor/activator protein Cra solely in the presence of intracellular fructose-1-P, an agonist formed only when fructose has been already transported...
November 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933086/genotypic-differences-in-phosphorus-efficiency-and-the-performance-of-physiological-characteristics-in-response-to-low-phosphorus-stress-of-soybean-in-southwest-of-china
#11
Tao Zhou, Yongli Du, Shoaib Ahmed, Ting Liu, Menglu Ren, Weiguo Liu, Wenyu Yang
Southwest of China is one of the major soybean (Glycine max L.) production regions in China with low availability of soil phosphorus (P). Whereas little information is available on P-efficient soybean genotypes in this region, even though using P-efficient soybean genotypes is a sustainable P management strategy for enhancing yield and P use efficiency. To assess the genetic variation on P use efficiency, 274 soybean genotypes were employed to compare the yields and P acquisition potentials in the field. Additionally, 10 representational genotypes (5 P-efficient genotypes and 5 P-inefficient genotypes) were grown in hydroponic media containing low P treatment (0...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933085/plant-physiological-morphological-and-yield-related-responses-to-night-temperature-changes-across-different-species-and-plant-functional-types
#12
Panpan Jing, Dan Wang, Chunwu Zhu, Jiquan Chen
Land surface temperature over the past decades has shown a faster warming trend during the night than during the day. Extremely low night temperatures have occurred frequently due to the influence of land-sea thermal difference, topography and climate change. This asymmetric night temperature change is expected to affect plant ecophysiology and growth, as the plant carbon consumption processes could be affected more than the assimilation processes because photosynthesis in most plants occurs during the daytime whereas plant respiration occurs throughout the day...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932939/plant-defense-and-herbivore-counter-defense-benzoxazinoids-and-insect-herbivores
#13
REVIEW
Felipe C Wouters, Blair Blanchette, Jonathan Gershenzon, Daniel G Vassão
Benzoxazinoids are a class of indole-derived plant chemical defenses comprising compounds with a 2-hydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one skeleton and their derivatives. These phytochemicals are widespread in grasses, including important cereal crops such as maize, wheat and rye, as well as a few dicot species, and display a wide range of antifeedant, insecticidal, antimicrobial, and allelopathic activities. Although their overall effects against insect herbivores are frequently reported, much less is known about how their modes of action specifically influence insect physiology...
2016: Phytochemistry Reviews: Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931714/host-plant-growth-promotion-and-cadmium-detoxification-in-solanum-nigrum-mediated-by-endophytic-fungi
#14
Abdur Rahim Khan, Ihsan Ullah, Muhammad Waqas, Gun-Seok Park, Abdul Latif Khan, Sung-Jun Hong, Rehman Ullah, Byung Kwon Jung, Chang Eon Park, Shafiq Ur-Rehman, In-Jung Lee, Jae-Ho Shin
Current investigation conducted to evaluate the associated fungal endophyte interactions of a Cd hyper-accumulator Solanum nigrum Korean ecotype under varying concentrations of Cd. Two indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) producing fungal strains, RSF-4L and RSF-6L, isolated from the leaves of S. nigrum, were initially screened for Cd tolerance and accumulation potential. In terms of dry biomass production, the strain RSF-6L showed higher tolerance and accumulation capacity for Cd toxicity in comparison to RSF-4L. Therefore, RSF-6L was applied in vivo to S...
February 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930927/arsenic-affects-the-production-of-glucosinolate-thiol-and-phytochemical-compounds-a-comparison-of-two-brassica-cultivars
#15
Chandana Pandey, Rehna Augustine, Medha Panthri, Ismat Zia, Naveen C Bisht, Meetu Gupta
Arsenic (As), a non-essential metalloid, severely affects the normal functioning of plants, animals and humans. Plants play a crucial role in metabolic, physiological and numerous detoxification mechanisms to cope up with As induced stress. This study aimed to examine the differential response in two Brassica juncea cultivars, Varuna and Pusa Jagannath (PJn) exposed to different doses of As (50, 150, 300 μM) for 48 h duration. Change in morphological traits, concentration of individual as well as total GSL, sulfur related thiol proteins, sulfur content, and phytochemicals were analyzed in both cultivars...
November 30, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929111/oxylipins-produced-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-promote-biofilm-formation-and-virulence
#16
Eriel Martínez, Javier Campos-Gómez
The oxygenation of unsaturated fatty acids by dioxygenases occurs in all kingdoms of life and produces physiologically important lipids called oxylipins. The biological roles of oxylipins have been extensively studied in animals, plants, algae and fungi, but remain largely unidentified in prokaryotes. The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa displays a diol synthase activity that transforms several monounsaturated fatty acids into mono- and di-hydroxylated derivatives. Here we show that oxylipins derived from this activity inhibit flagellum-driven motility and upregulate type IV pilus-dependent twitching motility of P...
December 8, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929095/the-sphingolipid-biosynthetic-enzyme-sphingolipid-delta8-desaturase-is-important-for-chilling-resistance-of-tomato
#17
Ying Zhou, Lanting Zeng, Xiumin Fu, Xin Mei, Sihua Cheng, Yinyin Liao, Rufang Deng, Xinlan Xu, Yueming Jiang, Xuewu Duan, Susanne Baldermann, Ziyin Yang
The physiological functions of sphingolipids in animals have been intensively studied, while less attention has been paid to their roles in plants. Here, we reveal the involvement of sphingolipid delta8 desaturase (SlSLD) in the chilling resistance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom). We used the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach to knock-down SlSLD expression in tomato leaves, and then evaluated chilling resistance. Changes in leaf cell structure under a chilling treatment were observed by transmission electron microscopy...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927999/elevated-temperature-drives-a-shift-from-selfing-to-outcrossing-in-the-insect-pollinated-legume-faba-bean-vicia-faba
#18
Jacob Bishop, Hannah E Jones, Donal M O'Sullivan, Simon G Potts
Climate change can threaten the reproductive success of plants, both directly, through physiological damage during increasingly extreme weather events, and indirectly, through disruption of plant-pollinator interactions. To explore how plant-pollinator interactions are modified by extreme weather, we exposed faba bean (Vicia faba) plants to elevated temperature for 5 d during flowering, simulating a heatwave. We then moved the plants to flight cages with either bumblebees or no pollinators, or to two field sites, where plants were enclosed in mesh bags or pollinated by wild insect communities...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926860/l-met-activates-arabidopsis-glr-ca-2-channels-upstream-of-ros-production-and-regulates-stomatal-movement
#19
Dongdong Kong, Heng-Cheng Hu, Eiji Okuma, Yuree Lee, Hui Sun Lee, Shintaro Munemasa, Daeshik Cho, Chuanli Ju, Leah Pedoeim, Barbara Rodriguez, Juan Wang, Wonpil Im, Yoshiyuki Murata, Zhen-Ming Pei, June M Kwak
Plant glutamate receptor homologs (GLRs) have long been proposed to function as ligand-gated Ca(2+) channels, but no in planta evidence has been provided. Here, we present genetic evidence that Arabidopsis GLR3.1 and GLR3.5 form Ca(2+) channels activated by L-methionine (L-Met) at physiological concentrations and regulate stomatal apertures and plant growth. The glr3.1/3.5 mutations resulted in a lower cytosolic Ca(2+) level, defective Ca(2+)-induced stomatal closure, and Ca(2+)-deficient growth disorder, all of which involved L-Met...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925635/fatigue-detection-using-phase-space-warping
#20
Abdullatif Alwasel, Marcus Yung, Eihab Abdel-Rahman, Richard P Wells, Carl T Haas
A novel application of Phase-Space Warping (PSW) method to detect fatigue in the musculoskeletal system is presented. Experimental kinematic, force, and physiological signals are used to produce a fatigue metric. The metric is produced using time-delay embedding and PSW methods. Results showed that by using force and kinematic signals, an overall estimate of the muscle group state can be achieved. Further, when using electromyography (EMG) signals the fatigue metric can be used as a tool to evaluate muscles activation and load sharing patterns for individual muscles...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
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