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Danielle Oliveira Dos Anjos, Eliomara Sousa Sobral Alves, Vinicius Tomaz Gonçalves, Sheila Suarez Fontes, Mateus Lima Nogueira, Ana Márcia Suarez-Fontes, João Batista Neves da Costa, Fabricio Rios-Santos, Marcos André Vannier-Santos
Natural products comprise valuable sources for new antiparasitic drugs. Here we tested the effects of a novel β-lapachone derivative on Trypanosoma cruzi parasite survival and proliferation and used microscopy and cytometry techniques to approach the mechanism(s) underlying parasite death. The selectivity index determination indicate that the compound trypanocidal activity was over ten-fold more cytotoxic to epimastigotes than to macrophages or splenocytes. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the R72 β-lapachone derivative affected the T...
October 12, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Seung Jae Lee, Eun-Mi Jeong, Ah Young Ki, Kyung-Seo Oh, Joseph Kwon, Jae-Hyuk Jeong, Nam-Jin Chung
High salinity is a major abiotic stress that affects the growth and development of plants. This type of stress can influence flowering, the production of crops, defense mechanisms and other physiological processes. Previous studies have attempted to elucidate salt-tolerance mechanisms to improve plant growth and productivity in the presence of sodium chloride. One such plant that has been studied in detail is Salicornia, a well-known halophyte, which has adapted to grow in the presence of high salt. To further the understanding of how Salicornia grows and develops under high saline conditions, Salicornia herbacea (S...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Canlan Jiang, Yuefei Ji, Yuanyuan Shi, Jifei Chen, Tianming Cai
Widespread occurrence of fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs) in surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment has been reported and their remediation is essentially needed. Sulfate radical (SO4(-)) based advanced oxidation processes (SR-AOPs) are promising technologies for soil and groundwater remediation. In this study, the degradation kinetics, mechanisms, and effects of natural water matrices on heat-activated persulfate (PS) oxidation of FQs were systematically investigated. Experimental results clearly demonstrated that 92% of CIP was removed within 180 min (pH = 7, 60 °C)...
October 12, 2016: Water Research
Penghui Du, He Zhao, Chenming Liu, Qingguo Huang, Hongbin Cao
The transformation of captopril (CAP), a widely-used thiol drug, was studied with the presence of dissolved model humic constituents (HCs) in a laccase-catalyzed system. Reaction products were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry and condensed fukui function computation. CAP reacted with different model HCs in the enzymatic system for 1 h, ranging from 75% (syringic acid) to 96% (p-coumaric acid). In the absence of HCs, only 15% of CAP was removed through self-coupling...
October 14, 2016: Water Research
Megumi Funakoshi-Tago, Kentaro Ohsawa, Toshiyuki Ishikawa, Fumika Nakamura, Fumihito Ueda, Yuji Narukawa, Fumiyuki Kiuchi, Hiroomi Tamura, Kenji Tago, Tadashi Kasahara
Flavonoids, particularly those derived from plants, harbor biological effects such as anti-inflammation and the inhibition of cancer progression. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 10 kinds of flavonoids isolated from Nepalese propolis on the LPS signaling pathway in order to clarify their anti-inflammatory activities. Five types of flavonoids: isoliquiritigenin, chrysin, 3',4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxydalbergione, 4-methoxydalbergion, and cearoin, markedly inhibited inflammatory responses including LPS-induced NO production by suppressing the expression of iNOS mRNA and LPS-induced mRNA expression of TNFα and CCL2...
October 19, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Margret Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur A Thorsteinsdottir, Finnur F Eiriksson, Hrafnhildur L Runolfsdottir, Inger M Sch Agustsdottir, Steinunn Oddsdottir, Baldur B Sigurdsson, Hordur K Hardarson, Nilesh R Kamble, Snorri Th Sigurdsson, Vidar O Edvardsson, Runolfur Palsson
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder that leads to excessive urinary excretion of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (DHA), causing nephrolithiasis and chronic kidney disease. Treatment with allopurinol or febuxostat reduces DHA production and attenuates the renal manifestations. Assessment of DHA crystalluria by urine microscopy is used for therapeutic monitoring, but lacks sensitivity. We report a high-throughput assay based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for quantification of urinary DHA...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Bin Wang, Qian Chen, Lixiao Shen, Shasha Zhao, Weiyi Pang, Jun Zhang
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are commonly used in industrial applications and consumer products, and their potential health impacts are of concern, especially for vulnerable population like fetuses. However, in utero exposure to PFASs and health implications are far from fully characterized in China. To fill in the gap, we analyzed 10 PFASs in cord plasma samples (N=687) collected in Shanghai between 2011 and 2012, one of the regions widely polluted with PFASs in China. A questionnaire survey on maternal and diet-related factors was conducted...
October 19, 2016: Environment International
Sineewanlaya Wichit, Pauline Ferraris, Valérie Choumet, Dorothée Missé
Arboviruses such as Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika viruses represent a major public health problem due to globalization and propagation of susceptible vectors worldwide. Arthropod vector-derived salivary factors have the capacity to modulate human cells function by enhancing or suppressing viral replication and, therefore, modify the establishment of local and systemic viral infection. Here, we discuss how mosquito saliva may interfere with Dengue virus (DENV) infection in humans. Identification of saliva factors that enhance infectivity will allow the production of vector-based vaccines and therapeutics that would interfere with viral transmission by targeting arthropod saliva components...
October 19, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Bryan A Johnson, Heather L Aloor, Cary A Moody
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) exhibit constitutive activation of ATM and ATR DNA damage response (DDR) pathways, which are required for productive viral replication. Expression of HPV31 E7 alone is sufficient to activate the DDR through an unknown mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that the E7 Rb binding domain is required to increase levels of many DDR proteins, including ATM, Chk2, Chk1, the MRN components MRE11, Rad50, and NBS1, as well as the homologous recombination repair proteins BRCA1 and Rad51. Interestingly, we have found that the increase in these DNA repair proteins does not occur solely at the level of transcription, but that E7 broadly increases the half-life of these DDR factors, a phenotype that is lost in the E7 Rb binding mutant...
October 19, 2016: Virology
Marco Muth, Stefanie Rothkötter, Steven Paprosch, Reiner P Schmid, Klaus Schnitzlein
Lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of triglycerides yields glycerol and free fatty-acids, provided that the enzyme is non-regioselective. For an Sn-1,3 regioselective enzyme, such as lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus, the final product is no longer glycerol but Sn-2 monoglyceride instead. However, surface active molecules generated by lipolysis may have a detrimental effect on the interfacial biocatalysis since it is known that low molecular weight surfactants can displace proteins from interfaces. By using drop profile analysis tensiometry, we evaluated the interfacial properties of the lipase-generated molecules and their competitive effect on the adsorption behavior of the lipase and on the proceeding lipolysis...
October 12, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Yang Wu, Xueyong Li, Xiaowen Shi, Yingfei Zhan, Hu Tu, Yumin Du, Hongbing Deng, Linbin Jiang
When an efficient automated coating machine is used to process layer-by-layer (LBL) deposited nanofibrous mats, it causes an obvious planar effect on the surface of the mats, which can be eliminated through ultimate immersion. During this process, chitosan (CS) - rectorite (REC) intercalated composite films are built on the surface of cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibrous mats by a coating machine. Then, the immersion process is utilized to allow positively charged CS or CS-REC intercalated composites to uniformly assemble on the surface of negatively charged CA nanofibers...
October 17, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Vania Polesello, Luisa Zupin, Roberto Di Lenarda, Matteo Biasotto, Gabriele Pozzato, Giulia Ottaviani, Margherita Gobbo, Sergio Crovella, Ludovica Segat
OBJECTIVES: The aetiology of Oral Lichen Planus (OLP), a chronic inflammatory disease of oral mucosa, is not yet well understood. Since innate immunity may be hypothesized as involved in the susceptibility to OLP, we studied human beta defensin 1 (hBD-1) an antimicrobial peptide constitutively expressed in the saliva, looking at functional genetic variants possibly able to diminish hBD-1 production an consequently conferring major susceptibility to OLP. DESIGN: We analysed three DEFB1 polymorphisms at 5' UTR, -52G>A (rs1799946), -44C>G (rs1800972), -20G>A (rs11362) and two DEFB1 polymorphisms at 3'UTR, c*5G>A (rs1047031), c*87A>G (rs1800971), with the aim of correlating these genetic variants and hBD-1 salivary level in a group of OLP patients and in healthy subjects...
October 12, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
Nancy M Lee, Cevat Erisken, Thomas Iskratsch, Michael Sheetz, William N Levine, Helen H Lu
Physiologically relevant models of wound healing are essential for understanding the biology of connective tissue repair and healing. They can also be used to identify key cellular processes and matrix characteristics critical for the design of soft tissue grafts. Modeling the various stages of repair post tendon injury, polymer meshes of varying fiber diameter (nano-1 (390 nm) < nano-2 (740 nm) < micro (1420 nm)) were produced. Alignment was also introduced in the nano-2 group to model matrix undergoing biological healing rather than scar formation...
October 12, 2016: Biomaterials
Limin Xiang, Yihai Wang, Xiaomin Yi, Xiangjiu He
Phytochemical investigations of the rhizome of Tupistra chinensis led to the isolation of ten new furostanol saponins along with fourteen known spirostanols. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods, including IR, NMR, MS, and GC analyses. The antiproliferative effects against FaDu and Detroit 562 cell lines and inhibitory activities on nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 were assayed for all the isolated compounds...
October 19, 2016: Steroids
Paula Sosenski, Sergio Ramos-Castro, César A Domínguez, Karina Boege, Juan Fornoni
The evolution of monomorphisms from heterostylous ancestors has been related with the presence of homostyly and the loss of self-incompatibility allowing the occurrence of selfing, which could be advantageous under pollinator limitation. However, flowers of some monomorphic species show herkogamy, attraction and rewarding traits that presumably favour cross-pollination and/or a mixed mating system. This study evaluated the contributions of pollinators, breeding system and floral traits to the reproduction of Turnera velutina, a herkogamous monomorphic species...
October 22, 2016: Plant Biology
Y H Cho, M E Craig, A S Januszewski, P Benitez-Aguirre, S Hing, A J Jenkins, K C Donaghue
AIM: To test the hypothesis that non-invasive skin autofluorescence, a measure of advanced glycation end products, would provide a surrogate measure of long-term glycaemia and be associated with early markers of microvascular complications in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Forearm skin autofluorescence (arbitrary units) was measured in a cross-sectional study of 135 adolescents with Type 1 diabetes [mean ± sd age 15.6 ± 2.1 years, diabetes duration 8...
October 22, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
L C Perkin, E N Elpidina, B Oppert
Tribolium castaneum is a major agriculture pest damaging stored grains and cereal products. The T. castaneum genome contains 26 cysteine peptidase genes, mostly cathepsins L and B, and seven have a major role in digestion. We targeted the expression of the most highly expressed cathepsin L gene on chromosome 10, TC011001, by RNA interference (RNAi), using double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) constructs of different regions of the gene (3', middle, 5' and entire coding regions). RNA sequencing and quantitation (RNA-seq) was used to evaluate knockdown and specificity amongst the treatments...
October 22, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
Aleksandra Swida-Barteczka, Katarzyna Kruszka, Aleksandra Grabowska, Andrzej Pacak, Artur Jarmolowski, Marzena Kurowska, Iwona Szarejko, Zofia Szweykowska-Kulinska
MicroRNAs are short molecules of 21-24 nt in length. They are present in all eukaryotic organisms and regulate gene expression by guiding posttranscriptional silencing of mRNAs. In plants, they are key players in signal transduction, growth and development, and in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an economically important monocotyledonous crop plant. Drought is the world's main cause of loss in cereal production. We have constructed a high-throughput Real-Time RT-qPCR platform for parallel determination of 159 barley primary microRNAs' levels...
October 21, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Muhammad Imran Rahim, Andreas Weizbauer, Florian Evertz, Andrea Hoffmann, Manfred Rohde, Birgit Glasmacher, Henning Windhagen, Gerhard Gross, Jan-Marten Seitz, Peter P Mueller
Magnesium alloys are presently under investigation as promising biodegradable implant materials with osteoconductive properties. To study the molecular mechanisms involved, the potential contribution of soluble magnesium corrosion products to the stimulation of osteoblastic cell differentiation was examined. However, no evidence for the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation could be obtained when cultured mesenchymal precursor cells were differentiated in the presence of metallic magnesium or in cell culture medium containing elevated magnesium ion levels...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Qiyue Xia, Hongxia Li, Ying Liu, Kai Xiao
Despite the increasing biomedical applications of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), their toxicological effects need to be thoroughly understood. In the present study, the genotoxic potential of commercially available AuNPs with varying size (5 nm, 20 nm and 50 nm) were assessed using a battery of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays. In the comet assay, 20 nm and 50 nm AuNPs did not induce obvious DNA damage in HepG2 cells at the tested concentrations, whereas 5 nm NPs induced a dose-dependent increment in DNA damage after 24 h exposure...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
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