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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346769/switching-on-depression-and-potentiation-in-the-cerebellum
#1
Andrew R Gallimore, Taegon Kim, Keiko Tanaka-Yamamoto, Erik De Schutter
Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the cerebellum are important for motor learning. However, the signaling mechanisms controlling whether LTD or LTP is induced in response to synaptic stimulation remain obscure. Using a unified model of LTD and LTP at the cerebellar parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapse, we delineate the coordinated pre- and postsynaptic signaling that determines the direction of plasticity. We show that LTP is the default response to PF stimulation above a well-defined frequency threshold...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346727/bioinspired-pressure-tolerant-asymmetric-slippery-surface-for-continuous-self-transport-of-gas-bubbles-in-aqueous-environment
#2
Chunhui Zhang, Bo Zhang, Hongyu Ma, Zhe Li, Xiao Xiao, Yuheng Zhang, Xinyu Cui, Cunming Yu, Moyuan Cao, Lei Jiang
Bio-surfaces with geometry-gradient structures or special wettabilities demonstrate intriguing performance in manipulating the behaviors of versatile fluids. By mimicking natural species, i.e., the cactus spine with a shape-gradient morphology and the Picher plant with a lubricated inner surface, we have successfully prepared an asymmetric slippery surface by following the processes of CO2-laser cutting, superhydrophobic modification, and the fluorinert infusion. The asymmetric morphology will cause the deformation of gas bubbles and subsequently engender an asymmetric driven force on them...
January 18, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346717/anterior-cruciate-ligament-tear-induces-a-sustained-loss-of-muscle-fiber-force-production
#3
Jonathan P Gumucio, Kristoffer B Sugg, Elizabeth R Sibilsky Enselman, Alexis C Konja, Logan R Eckhardt, Asheesh Bedi, Christopher L Mendias
INTRODUCTION: Patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears have persistent quadriceps strength deficits that are thought to be due to altered neurophysiological function. Our goal was to determine the changes in muscle fiber contractility independent of the ability of motor neurons to activate fibers. METHODS: We obtained quadriceps biopsies of patients undergoing ACL reconstruction, and additional biopsies one, two, and six months after surgery. Muscles fiber contractility was assessed in vitro, along with whole muscle strength testing...
January 18, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346685/metabolic-flux-engineering-of-cembratrien-ol-production-in-both-the-glandular-trichome-and-leaf-mesophyll-in-nicotiana-tabacum
#4
Hongying Zhang, Songtao Zhang, Yongxia Yang, Hongfang Jia, Hong Cui
Cembratrien-ol synthase (CBTS) catalyses the first step in cembranoid biosynthesis, producing cembratrien-ols in plant trichomes. In our previous study, microarray transcriptomes between leaves with trichomes and leaves without trichomes showed that a NtCBTS2 gene was expressed exclusively and abundantly in trichomes. Here, two NtCBTS2 isogenes (NtCBTS2a and NtCBTS2b), derived from a diploid genome donor, N. sylvestris, were identified from N. tabacum. Both genes were expressed primarily in trichomes, with relatively decreased transcription in flowers and stems, faint expression in roots, and no expression was detected in leaves lacking trichomes...
January 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346656/host-responses-to-intestinal-nematodes
#5
Koubun Yasuda, Kenji Nakanishi
Helminth infection remains common in developing countries, where residents who suffer from the consequences of such infections can develop serious physical and mental disorders and often persist in the face of serious economic problems. Intestinal nematode infection induces the development of Th2-type immune responses including the B cell IgE response; additionally, this infection induces an increase in the numbers and activation of various types of effector cells, such as mast cells, eosinophils and basophils, as well as the induction of goblet cell hyperplasia, antimicrobial peptide production and smooth muscle contraction, all of which contribute to expel nematodes...
January 13, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346648/esrb-negatively-regulates-expression-of-the-glutamine-sythetase-glna-in-the-fish-pathogen-edwardsiella-piscicida
#6
Yunpeng Guan, Kaiyu Yin, Mian Zhou, Minjun Yang, Yuanxing Zhang, Xiaohong Liu, Qiyao Wang
Edwardsiella piscicida is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen invading a wide range of fish species. Response regulator EsrB is essential for activation of type III and type VI secretion systems (T3/T6SS). In this study, proteomes of the wild type E. piscicida EIB202 and a ΔesrB mutant strains were compared to identify the regulon components of EsrB cultured in DMEM allowing T3/T6SS expression. As a result, 19 proteins showed different expression, which were identified to be associated with T3/T6SS, related to amino acid transport and metabolism, and energy production...
January 15, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346642/rnase7-but-not-psoriasin-nor-spla2-iia-associates-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-during-airway-epithelial-cells-infection
#7
Flor Torres-Juarez, Lousseine Touqui, Juan Leon-Contreras, Cesar Rivas-Santiago, Jose A Enciso-Moreno, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Bruno Rivas-Santiago
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Innate immunity is the first line of defense against Mtb and malfunctions in any of its components is associated with the susceptibility to the disease. Epithelial products, such as host defence peptides (HDP) are the first molecules produced to counteract the infection. Although a wide variety of HDP are produced by epithelial cells only few of them have been studied during Mtb infection. Here, we assessed the expression and production of the HDPs: psoriasin, sPLA2-IIA and RNase 7 in airway epithelial cells (NCI-H292), type II pneumocytes (A549 cells) and monocytes-derived macrophages from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (bMDM) and from the human cell line THP1(MDM) after Mtb in vitro infection...
January 16, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346620/combating-global-antibiotic-resistance-emerging-one-health-concerns-in-lower-and-middle-income-countries
#8
Maya Nadimpalli, Elisabeth Delarocque-Astagneau, David C Love, Lance B Price, Bich-Tram Huynh, Jean-Marc Collard, Kruy Sun Lay, Laurence Borand, Awa Ndir, Timothy R Walsh, Didier Guillemot
Antibiotic misuse in lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) contributes to the development of antibiotic resistance that can disseminate globally. Strategies specific to LMICs that seek to reduce antibiotic misuse by humans, but simultaneously improve antibiotic access, have been proposed. However, most approaches to date have not considered the growing impact of animal and environmental reservoirs of antibiotic resistance, which threaten to exacerbate the antibiotic resistance crisis in LMICs. In particular, current strategies do not prioritize the impacts of increased antibiotic use for terrestrial food-animal and aquaculture production, inadequate food safety, and widespread environmental pollution...
January 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346611/combined-roles-of-atp-and-small-hairpin-rna-in-the-activation-of-rig-i-revealed-by-solution-based-analysis
#9
Neelam Shah, Simone A Beckham, Jacqueline A Wilce, Matthew C J Wilce
RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene-I) is a cytosolic innate immune protein that senses viral dsRNA with a 5'-triphosphate overhang. Upon interaction with dsRNA a de-repression of the RIG-I CARD domains takes place that ultimately leads to the production of type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here we investigate the RIG-I conformational rearrangement upon interaction with an activating 5'-triphosphate-10-base pair dsRNA hairpin loop (10bp) compared with a less active 5'-triphosphate-8-base pair dsRNA hairpin loop (8bp)...
January 13, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346609/decreased-serum-levels-of-ghrelin-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-premenopausal-women-with-metabolic-syndrome
#10
Masoumeh Jabbari, Sorayya Kheirouri, Mohammad Alizadeh
Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between serum levels of ghrelin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) with MetS and its components in premenopausal women. Methods: 43 patients with MetS and 43 healthy controls participated in this study. Participants' body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, BDNF and ghrelin determined...
January 12, 2018: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346608/on-demand-intraoperative-3-dimensional-printing-of-custom-cranioplastic-prostheses
#11
Alexander I Evins, John Dutton, Sayem S Imam, Amal O Dadi, Tao Xu, Du Cheng, Philip E Stieg, Antonio Bernardo
BACKGROUND: Currently, implantation of patient-specific cranial prostheses requires reoperation after a period for design and formulation by a third-party manufacturer. Recently, 3-dimensional (3D) printing via fused deposition modeling has demonstrated increased ease of use, rapid production time, and significantly reduced costs, enabling expanded potential for surgical application. Three-dimensional printing may allow neurosurgeons to remove bone, perform a rapid intraoperative scan of the opening, and 3D print custom cranioplastic prostheses during the remainder of the procedure...
January 13, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346581/melatonin-attenuates-lung-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-via-inhibition-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation
#12
Ming-Liang Wang, Chun-Hua Wei, Wen-Dong Wang, Jia-Shun Wang, Jun Zhang, Jian-Jun Wang
OBJECTIVES: Lung ischaemia-reperfusion injury is a complex pathophysiological process due to the production of reactive oxygen species and the generation of inflammatory reaction. We investigated the protective effects and the corresponding mechanism of melatonin (MT), a potent free-radical scavenger, on lung injury induced by ischaemia-reperfusion in a mouse model. METHODS: Adult male C57BL/6J mice (n = 30) were randomly and equally allocated into 5 groups: sham controls, IR, IR + 10 mg/kg MT, IR + 20 mg/kg MT and IR + 30 mg/kg MT...
January 15, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346560/aggregation-and-travelling-wave-dynamics-in-a-two-population-model-of-cancer-cell-growth-and-invasion
#13
Vasiliki Bitsouni, Dumitru Trucu, Mark A J Chaplain, Raluca Eftimie
Cells adhere to each other and to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through protein molecules on the surface of the cells. The breaking and forming of adhesive bonds, a process critical in cancer invasion and metastasis, can be influenced by the mutation of cancer cells. In this paper, we develop a nonlocal mathematical model describing cancer cell invasion and movement as a result of integrin-controlled cell-cell adhesion and cell-matrix adhesion, for two cancer cell populations with different levels of mutation...
January 15, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346521/the-intracellular-and-intercellular-cross-talk-during-subsidiary-cell-formation-in-zea-mays-existing-and-novel-components-orchestrating-cell-polarization-and-asymmetric-division
#14
P Apostolakos, P Livanos, E Giannoutsou, E Panteris, B Galatis
Background: Formation of stomatal complexes in Poaceae is the outcome of three asymmetric and one symmetric cell division occurring in particular leaf protodermal cells. In this definite sequence of cell division events, the generation of subsidiary cells is of particular importance and constitutes an attractive model for studying local intercellular stimulation. In brief, an induction stimulus emitted by the guard cell mother cells (GMCs) triggers a series of polarization events in their laterally adjacent protodermal cells...
January 15, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346513/pancancer-analysis-identifies-prognostic-high-apobec1-expression-level-implicated-in-cancer-in-frame-insertions-and-deletions
#15
Ahmadreza Niavarani, Asieh Shahrabi Farahani, Maryam Sharafkhah, Minoo Rassoulzadegan
Genome insertions and deletions (indels) show tremendous functional impacts despite they are much less common than single nucleotide variants, which are at the center of studies assessing cancer mutational signatures. We studied 8,891 tumor samples of 32 types from The Cancer Genome Atlas in order to explore those genes which are potentially implicated in cancer indels. Survival analysis identified in-frame indels as the most important variants predicting adverse outcome. Transcriptome-wide association study identified 16 genes overexpressed in both tumor samples and tumor types with high number of in-frame indels, of whom four (APOBEC1, BCL2L15, FOXL1, and PDX1) were identified with gene products distributed within the nucleus...
January 13, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346506/small-and-surrounded-population-size-and-land-use-intensity-interact-to-determine-reliance-on-autonomous-selfing-in-a-monocarpic-plant
#16
Rachel B Spigler
Background and Aims: Habitat fragmentation has transformed landscapes globally, leaving remnants embedded within a complex matrix that is rapidly becoming more developed. For many plant populations, the associated factors of decreased size and intensification of land use surrounding them are expected to increase pollen limitation ('PL'), unless autonomous self-pollination provides reproductive assurance ('RA'). Decreased pollinator visitation is often assumed to drive these patterns, but other, less studied mechanisms might include increased heterospecific pollen transfer or decreased conspecific pollen availability via florivory...
January 15, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346496/melanopsin-system-dysfunction-in-smith-magenis-syndrome-patients
#17
Mirella Telles Salgueiro Barboni, Clarissa Bueno, Balázs Vince Nagy, Patrícia Lobo Maia, Kallene Summer Moreira Vidal, Rosana Cardoso Alves, Russel J Reiter, Fernanda Gaspar do Amaral, José Cipolla-Neto, Dora Fix Ventura
Purpose: Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) causes sleep disturbance that is related to an abnormal melatonin profile. It is not clear how the genomic disorder leads to a disturbed synchronization of the sleep/wake rhythm in SMS patients. To evaluate the integrity of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell (ipRGC)/melanopsin system, the transducers of the light-inhibitory effect on pineal melatonin synthesis, we recorded pupillary light responses (PLR) in SMS patients. Methods: Subjects were SMS patients (n = 5), with molecular diagnosis and melatonin levels measured for 24 hours and healthy controls (n = 4)...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346453/yearly-fluctuations-of-flower-landscape-in-a-mediterranean-scrubland-consequences-for-floral-resource-availability
#18
Víctor Flo, Jordi Bosch, Xavier Arnan, Clara Primante, Ana M Martín González, Helena Barril-Graells, Anselm Rodrigo
Species flower production and flowering phenology vary from year to year due to extrinsic factors. Inter-annual variability in flowering patterns may have important consequences for attractiveness to pollinators, and ultimately, plant reproductive output. To understand the consequences of flowering pattern variability, a community approach is necessary because pollinator flower choice is highly dependent on flower context. Our objectives were: 1) To quantify yearly variability in flower density and phenology; 2) To evaluate whether changes in flowering patterns result in significant changes in pollen/nectar composition...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346441/a-portable-system-for-processing-donated-whole-blood-into-high-quality-components-without-centrifugation
#19
Sean C Gifford, Briony C Strachan, Hui Xia, Eszter Vörös, Kian Torabian, Taylor A Tomasino, Gary D Griffin, Benjamin Lichtiger, Fleur M Aung, Sergey S Shevkoplyas
BACKGROUND: The use of centrifugation-based approaches for processing donated blood into components is routine in the industrialized world, as disparate storage conditions require the rapid separation of 'whole blood' into distinct red blood cell (RBC), platelet, and plasma products. However, the logistical complications and potential cellular damage associated with centrifugation/apheresis manufacturing of blood products are well documented. The objective of this study was to evaluate a proof-of-concept system for whole blood processing, which does not employ electromechanical parts, is easily portable, and can be operated immediately after donation with minimal human labor...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346438/colonization-of-the-cervicovaginal-space-with-gardnerella-vaginalis-leads-to-local-inflammation-and-cervical-remodeling-in-pregnant-mice
#20
Luz-Jeannette Sierra, Amy G Brown, Guillermo O Barilá, Lauren Anton, Carrie E Barnum, Snehal S Shetye, Louis J Soslowsky, Michal A Elovitz
The role of the cervicovaginal (CV) microbiome in regulating cervical function during pregnancy is poorly understood. Gardnerella vaginalis (G. vaginalis) is the most common bacteria associated with the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV). While BV has been associated with preterm birth (PTB), clinical trials targeting BV do not decrease PTB rates. It remains unknown if G. vaginalis is capable of triggering molecular, biomechanical and cellular events that could lead to PTB. The objective of this study was to determine if cervicovaginal colonization with G...
2018: PloS One
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