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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110513/effect-of-methylnaltrexone-and-naloxone-on-esophageal-motor-function-in-man
#1
E Scarpellini, A Pauwels, R Vos, N Rommel, J Tack
BACKGROUND: Endogenous opioids (EO) acting on μ-opiod receptors in central and enteric nervous system (ENS) control gastrointestinal motility but it is still unclear whether EO in ENS may control esophageal function in man, thus we will study the effects of methylnaltrexone (MNTX), a peripherally selective, and naloxone (NA), a non-selective μ-opiod receptor antagonist, on esophageal motility in healthy subjects. METHODS: Fifteen HV (6 M; 34.1 ± 0.6 years; BMI: 22...
January 22, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110424/effects-of-caffeine-on-fractional-flow-reserve-values-measured-using-intravenous-adenosine-triphosphate
#2
Masafumi Nakayama, Taishiro Chikamori, Takashi Uchiyama, Yo Kimura, Nobuhiro Hijikata, Ryosuke Ito, Mikio Yuhara, Hideaki Sato, Yuichi Kobori, Akira Yamashina
We investigated the effects of caffeine intake on fractional flow reserve (FFR) values measured using intravenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP) before cardiac catheterization. Caffeine is a competitive antagonist for adenosine receptors; however, it is unclear whether this antagonism affects FFR values. Patients were evenly randomized into 2 groups preceding the FFR study. In the caffeine group (n = 15), participants were given coffee containing 222 mg of caffeine 2 h before the catheterization. In the non-caffeine group (n = 15), participants were instructed not to take any caffeine-containing drinks or foods for at least 12 h before the catheterization...
January 21, 2017: Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110421/dendritic-cell-immune-responses-in-hiv-1-controllers
#3
REVIEW
Enrique Martin-Gayo, Xu G Yu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Robust HIV-1-specific CD8 T cell responses are currently regarded as the main correlate of immune defense in rare individuals who achieve natural, drug-free control of HIV-1; however, the mechanisms that support evolution of such powerful immune responses are not well understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized innate immune cells critical for immune recognition, immune regulation, and immune induction, but their possible contribution to HIV-1 immune defense in controllers remains ill-defined...
January 21, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110394/chimeric-antigen-receptor-car-t-cells-lessons-learned-from-targeting-of-cd19-in-b-cell-malignancies
#4
Kevin A Hay, Cameron J Turtle
Adoptive immunotherapy with chimeric antigen receptor-modified (CAR)-T cells is a rapidly growing therapeutic approach to treating patients with refractory cancer, with over 100 clinical trials in various malignancies in progress. The enthusiasm for CAR-T cells has been driven by the clinical success of CD19-targeted CAR-T cell therapy in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and the promising data in B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Despite the success of targeting CD19 with CAR-T cells in early clinical studies, many challenges remain to improve outcomes, reduce toxicity, and determine the appropriate settings for CAR-T cell immunotherapy...
January 21, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110389/a-novel-lectin-from-artocarpus-lingnanensis-induces-proliferation-and-th1-th2-cytokine-secretion-through-cd45-signaling-pathway-in-human-t-lymphocytes
#5
Bo Cui, Lu Li, Qiyan Zeng, Faquan Lin, Lijun Yin, Liejun Liao, Min Huang, Jingping Wang
Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins and have been used for purification and characterization of glycoproteins. In this study, a novel 58.9-kDa tetrameric lectin from Artocarpus lingnanensis seeds was purified, characterized, and its mitogenic potential was evaluated. The hemagglutination inhibition assay indicated that Artocarpus lingnanensis lectin (ALL) showed specificity toward galactose. ALL was effectively purified in a single-step using affinity chromatography on a galactose-Sepharose column. ALL showed pH optima between 5...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110354/molecular-modelling-approaches-for-the-analysis-of-histamine-receptors-and-their-interaction-with-ligands
#6
Andrea Strasser, Hans-Joachim Wittmann
Several experimental techniques to analyse histamine receptors are available, e.g. pharmacological characterisation of known or new compounds by different types of assays or mutagenesis studies. To obtain insights into the histamine receptors on a molecular and structural level, crystal structures have to be determined and molecular modelling studies have to be performed. It is widely accepted to generate homology models of the receptor of interest based on an appropriate crystal structure as a template and to refine the resulting models by molecular dynamic simulations...
January 22, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110353/a-role-for-sigma-receptors-in-stimulant-self-administration-and-addiction
#7
Jonathan L Katz, Takato Hiranita, Weimin C Hong, Martin O Job, Christopher R McCurdy
Sigma receptors (σRs) are structurally unique proteins that function intracellularly as chaperones. Historically, σRs have been implicated as modulators of psychomotor stimulant effects and have at times been proposed as potential avenues for modifying stimulant abuse. However, the influence of ligands for σRs on the effects of stimulants, such as cocaine or methamphetamine, in various preclinical procedures related to drug abuse has been varied. The present paper reviews the effects of σR agonists and antagonists in three particularly relevant procedures: stimulant discrimination, place conditioning, and self-administration...
January 22, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110332/role-of-insulin-in-placental-transport-of-nutrients-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#8
María Ruiz-Palacios, Antonio José Ruiz-Alcaraz, María Sanchez-Campillo, Elvira Larqué
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased fetal adiposity, which may increase the risk of obesity in adulthood. The placenta has insulin receptors and maternal insulin can activate its signaling pathways, affecting the transport of nutrients to the fetus. However, the effects of diet or insulin treatment on the placental pathophysiology of GDM are unknown. SUMMARY: There are very few studies on possible defects in the insulin signaling pathway in the GDM placenta...
January 21, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110331/distinct-benefit-of-overall-survival-between-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-harboring-egfr-exon-19-deletion-and-exon-21-l858r-substitution
#9
Nobuyuki Koyama, Yasutaka Watanabe, Yuki Iwai, Rumi Kawamura, Chihiro Miwa, Yoshiaki Nagai, Koichi Hagiwara, Shinichiro Koyama
BACKGROUND: Exon 19 deletion (Del19) and exon 21 L858R substitution (L858R), which account for 90% of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations as common mutations, are associated with favorable outcomes with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) compared with other uncommon EGFR mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, whether there are differences in overall survival (OS) between patients with these common EGFR mutations remains controversial. METHODS: The subjects studied were 74 NSCLC patients with common EGFR mutations treated with gefitinib or erlotinib...
January 21, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110316/insensitivity-of-pi3k-akt-gsk3-signaling-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-age-related-macular-degeneration-patients
#10
Liu Xunxian, Yao Zemin
Our recent studies with cultured retinal pigment epithelium cells suggested that overexpression of interleukin 17 receptor C (IL-17RC), a phenomenon observed in peripheral blood and chorioretinal tissues with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), was associated with altered activation of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). We wondered whether or not altered PI3K, Akt, and GSK3 activities could be detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from AMD patients...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110280/her2-gene-protein-assay-is-useful-to-determine-her2-status-and-evaluate-her2-heterogeneity-in-her2-equivocal-breast-cancer
#11
Yanjun Hou, Hiroaki Nitta, Zaibo Li
OBJECTIVES: Approximately 15% of breast cancers show equivocal human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) results on HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and are reflexed for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). However, some cases remain equivocal. In this study, we evaluated these double-equivocal cases by using a novel gene protein assay (GPA), which can simultaneously assess HER2 gene copy number and protein on a single slide using bright-field microscopy. METHODS: GPA was performed on 42 HER2 IHC and FISH double-equivocal cases...
January 21, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110235/relationship-between-expression-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-and-the-proliferation-of-prolactinomas
#12
Nan Li Ya, ZhiQuan Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Prolactinomas are the most common functional hormone-producing pituitary lesions, accounting for 30-40% of all pituitary tumors, while in autopsy series their incidence reaches 50%. However, patients with prolactinoma had a higher recurrence percentage and rate than patients with acromegaly or Cushing's disease. Furthermore, prolactinomas have the highest rate of recurrence post-surgery as compared with other pituitary adenomas. At present, this behavior of prolactinoma is largely unexplained, but may be related to definition of cure, or to more frequent microscopic tumor infiltration into normal pituitary tissue, which is not removed at surgery...
December 14, 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110215/neuroprotective-action-of-n-acetyl-serotonin-in-oxidative-stress-induced-apoptosis-through-the-activation-of-both-trkb-creb-bdnf-pathway-and-akt-nrf2-antioxidant-enzyme-in-neuronal-cells
#13
Jae-Myung Yoo, Bo Dam Lee, Dai-Eun Sok, Jin Yuel Ma, Mee Ree Kim
N-acetyl serotonin (NAS) as a melatonin precursor has neuroprotective actions. Nonetheless, it is not clarified how NAS protects neuronal cells against oxidative stress. Recently, we have reported that N-palmitoyl serotonins possessed properties of antioxidants and neuroprotection. Based on those, we hypothesized that NAS, a N-acyl serotonin, may have similar actions in oxidative stress-induced neuronal cells, and examined the effects of NAS based on in vitro and in vivo tests. NAS dose-dependently inhibited oxidative stress-induced cell death in HT-22 cells...
January 6, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110206/an-epstein-barr-virus-susceptible-immature-t-cell-line-will4-established-from-a-patient-with-t-lymphoblastic-lymphoma-bearing-cd21-and-a-clonal-ebv-genome
#14
Hiroki Hosoi, Ken-Ichi Imadome, Shinobu Tamura, Kodai Kuriyama, Shogo Murata, Yusuke Yamashita, Toshiki Mushino, Takehiro Oiwa, Hiroshi Kobata, Akinori Nishikawa, Hideki Nakakuma, Nobuyoshi Hanaoka, Yasushi Isobe, Kouichi Ohshima, Takashi Sonoki
We managed a patient with an Epstein-Barr virus-associated T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. Mediastinal tumor cells at initial admission were positive for CD4, CD8, and TdT. Interestingly, a lymph node at necropsy was compatible for a CD4-positive peripheral T-cell lymphoma without CD8 and TdT expression, suggesting a different phenotype from the mediastinal tumor. Tumor cells in pleural effusion continued to proliferate in in vitro and were designated as WILL4. WILL4 cells were positive for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD21, T-cell receptor (TcR) αβ, and TdT, indicating a similar phenotype to thymocytes...
January 15, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110184/structural-analysis-of-binding-functionality-of-folic-acid-peg-dendrimers-against-folate-receptor
#15
Diana Sampogna-Mireles, Ingrid D Araya-Durán, Valeria Márquez-Miranda, Jesús A Valencia-Gallegos, Fernando D González-Nilo
Dendrimers functionalized with folic acid (FA) are drug delivery systems that can selectively target cancer cells with folate receptors (FR-α) overexpression. Incorporation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) can enhance dendrimers solubility and pharmacokinetics, but ligand-receptor binding must not be affected. In this work we characterized, at atomic level, the binding functionality of conventional site-specific dendrimers conjugated with FA with PEG 750 or PEG 3350 as a linker. After Molecular Dynamics simulation, we observed that both PEG's did not interfere over ligand-receptor binding functionality...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110170/tailoring-polymeric-hybrid-micelles-with-lymph-node-targeting-ability-to-improve-the-potency-of-cancer-vaccines
#16
Qin Zeng, Hanmei Li, Hao Jiang, Jiao Yu, Ying Wang, Huan Ke, Tao Gong, Zhirong Zhang, Xun Sun
It has been widely accepted that lymph nodes (LNs) are critical targets of cancer vaccines and particles sized between 10 and 100 nm with a neutral or negative surface charge are preferred for lymphatic transfer after subcutaneous or intradermal injection. However their limited uptake by antigen presenting cells (APCs) and inadequate retention within LNs undoubtedly restrains their strength on activating T cell immunity. Here, we address this issue by tailoring the physicochemical properties of polymeric hybrid micelles (HMs), which are self-assembled from two amphiphilic diblock copolymers, poly-(ethylene glycol) phosphorethanolamine (PEG-PE) and polyethylenimine-stearic acid conjugate (PSA) via hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions...
January 11, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110122/17%C3%AE-estradiol-enhances-sulforaphane-cardioprotection-against-oxidative-stress
#17
Cristina Angeloni, Gabriella Teti, Maria Cristina Barbalace, Marco Malaguti, Mirella Falconi, Silvana Hrelia
The lower incidence of ischemic heart disease in female with respect to male gender suggests the possibility that female sex hormones could have specific effects in cardiovascular protection. 17β-Estradiol is the predominant premenopausal circulating form of estrogen and has a protective role on the cardiovascular system. Recent evidences suggest that gender can influence the response to cardiovascular medications; therefore, we hypothesized that sex hormones could also modulate the cardioprotective effects of nutraceutical compounds, such as the isothiocyanate sulforaphane, present in Brassica vegetables...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110121/s100a12-friend-or-foe-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#18
Vahid Bagheri
In humans, S100A12 (also named Calgranulin C and EN-RAGE) is mainly expressed and secreted by neutrophil granulocytes. Extracellular S100A12 is involved in innate immune responses against microorganisms and parasites. S100A12 is a ligand for the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), which is a cell surface receptor on macrophages, endothelium, and lymphocytes. In a recent study, Realegeno et al. showed that S100A12 exerts antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium leprae in infected human macrophages...
January 18, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110120/effects-of-two-different-dialytic-treatments-on-inflammatory-markers-in-people-with-end-stage-renal-disease-with-and-without-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#19
Giuseppe Derosa, Carmelo Libetta, Pasquale Esposito, Ilaria Borettaz, Carmine Tinelli, Angela D'angelo, Pamela Maffioli
This study was aimed to evaluate the effects on some inflammatory markers of two dialytic treatments [bicarbonate dialysis (BHD) and hemodiafiltration (HDF)] in patients with severe chronic kidney disease. We evaluated: blood glucose, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index, homocistein (Hcs), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fibrinogen, lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], metalloproteinases-2, and -9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9), and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE). Considering the all sample, we observed a decrease of sRAGE with BHD, but not with HDF...
January 18, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110103/the-retromer-complex-system-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-ad-influence-of-age
#20
Jin Chu, Domenico Praticò
Deficiencies of the retrograde transport mediated by the retromer complex have been described in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Genetic manipulation of retromer modulates brain amyloidosis in Tg2576 mice. However, whether the complex is altered during the development of the AD-like phenotype remains unknown. In this study we assayed the expression levels of the vacuolar sorting protein 35 (VPS35), VPS26, VPS29, and its cargo proteins, cation independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, sortilin-related receptor in brains of Tg2576 and controls at the ages of 3, 8, and 14 months...
January 3, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
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