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Clinical neuropsychiatry

J Stone
The history of functional neurologic disorders in the 20th century from the point of view of the neurologist is U-shaped. A flurry of interest between the 1880s and early 1920s gave way to lack of interest, skepticism, and concern about misdiagnosis. This was mirrored by increasing professional and geographic divisions between neurology and psychiatry after the First World War. In the 1990s the advent of imaging and other technology highlighted the positive nature of a functional diagnosis. Having been closer in the early 20th century but later more separate, these disorders are now once again the subject of academic and clinical interest, although arguably still very much on the fringes of neurology and neuropsychiatry...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Thaíse Campos Mondin, Taiane de Azevedo Cardoso, Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza, Karen Jansen, Pedro Vieira da Silva Magalhães, Flávio Kapczinski, Ricardo Azevedo da Silva
BACKGROUND: It is known that sleep disturbance has been considered a trait-marker of mood disorders. However, the role of disruptions in biological rhythms, such as eating, activity, and social patterns, needs to be better understood. AIM: To assess the differences in biological rhythms in subjects with bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and healthy controls. We also tested the association between disruptions of biological rhythms and circadian preferences...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Bizu Gelaye, Ijala Wilson, Hanna Y Berhane, Negussie Deyessa, Yonas Bahretibeb, Dawit Wondimagegn, Teshome Shibre Kelkile, Yemane Berhane, Jesse R Fann, Michelle A Williams
BACKGROUND: The Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) is an ultra-brief questionnaire widely used by researchers and clinicians to detect major depressive disorder (MDD). Despite its individual and societal impact, MDD is often undetected and untreated particularly among sub-Saharan Africans. We conducted this study to evaluate the reliability and validity of using the PHQ-2 as a screen for MDD among Ethiopian adults. METHODS: A total of 926 adults attending outpatient departments in a major referral hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia participated in this study...
October 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Ana Cristina Simões E Silva, Janaina Matos Moreira, Roberta Maia Castro Romanelli, Antonio Lucio Teixeira
Before 2007, Zika virus (ZIKV) was generally considered as an arbovirus of low clinical relevance, causing a mild self-limiting febrile illness in tropical Africa and Southeast Asia. Currently, a large, ongoing outbreak of ZIKV that started in Brazil in 2015 is spreading across the Americas. Virus infection during pregnancy has been potentially linked to congenital malformations, including microcephaly. In addition to congenital malformations, a temporal association between ZIKV infection and an increase in cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome is currently being observed in several countries...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
A Perry, K Gordon-Smith, A Di Florio, L Forty, N Craddock, L Jones, I Jones
BACKGROUND: Women with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of postpartum psychosis. Adverse childhood life events have been associated with depression in the postpartum period, but have been little studied in relation to postpartum psychosis. In this study we investigated whether adverse childhood life events are associated with postpartum psychosis in a large sample of women with bipolar I disorder. METHODS: Participants were 432 parous women with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder recruited into the Bipolar Disorder Research Network (www...
June 27, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
James A Bourgeois
OBJECTIVES: Clinical neuropsychologists benefit from clinical currency in recently ascertained neuropsychiatric illness, such as fragile X premutation (FXPM) disorders. The author reviewed the clinical literature through 2016 for neuropsychiatric phenotypes in FXPM disorders, including patients with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). METHODS: A PubMed search using the search terms 'Fragile X,' 'Premutation,' 'Carriers,' 'Psychiatric,' 'Dementia,' 'Mood,' and 'Anxiety' for citations in the clinical literature through 2016 was reviewed for studies specifically examining the neuropsychiatric phenotype in FXPM patients...
August 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Michael Trimble
Neuropsychiatry has had different meanings at different times in the history of clinical neuroscience. In this article, the origins of what has become today's neuropsychiatry are briefly explored, hopefully revealing a number of pioneers of the discipline, some of the names being familiar to many readers, others however being less recognized or even unknown to those who today would wish to carry the moniker of a neuropsychiatrist. It explores the rise of what I refer to as modern or today's neuropsychiatry, and empathizes a phenomenological approach to clinical understanding, and the fact that neuropsychiatry it is a discipline in its own right and not just a wing of psychiatry or a bridge between neurology and psychiatry...
June 2016: CNS Spectrums
P Luna-Lario, N Ojeda, J Tirapu-Ustarroz, J Pena
AIMS: To analyze the impact of acquired brain injury towards the community integration (professional career, disability, and dependence) in a sample of people affected by vascular, traumatic and tumor etiology acquired brain damage, over a two year time period after the original injury, and also to examine what sociodemographic variables, premorbid and injury related clinical data can predict the level of the person's integration into the community. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 106 adults sample suffering from acquired brain injury who were attended by the Neuropsychology and Neuropsychiatry Department at Hospital of Navarra (Spain) affected by memory deficit as their main sequel...
June 16, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
Olamijulo A Fatiregun, Andrew T Olagunju, Adebayo R Erinfolami, Omolara A Fatiregun, Olubunmi A Arogunmati, Joseph D Adeyemi
The coexistence of anxiety disorders among women with breast cancer has been linked with delay in diagnosis, treatment abandonment, and poor quality of life. This study investigated anxiety disorders with their determinants among 200 participants with histological diagnosis of breast cancer. A questionnaire was designed to elicit sociodemographic and clinical factors, while the schedule for clinical assessment in neuropsychiatry (SCAN) was used to ascertain the presence of anxiety disorders. The mean age of participants was 49...
September 2016: Journal of Psychosocial Oncology
Karishma R Kulkarni, Rashmi Arasappa, Krishna M Prasad, Amit Zutshi, Prabhat K Chand, Kesavan Muralidharan, Pratima Murthy
OBJECTIVE: Despite its long history as a psychiatric diagnosis, little is known about the sociodemographic and clinical profile of persistent delusional disorder (PDD) or its subtypes, treatment response, and outcomes, particularly in India. We examined the clinical characteristics and course of PDD in patients presenting to a tertiary neuropsychiatry center in India. METHOD: A retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with PDD (ICD-10) between January 2000 and May 2014 was conducted...
2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
M Heslin, J M Lappin, K Donoghue, B Lomas, U Reininghaus, A Onyejiaka, T Croudace, P B Jones, R M Murray, P Fearon, G A Doody, P Dazzan, T J Craig, C Morgan
We aimed to investigate long-term outcomes in psychotic major depression patients compared to schizophrenia and bipolar/manic psychosis patients, in an incidence sample, while accounting for diagnostic change. Based on Aetiology and Ethnicity in Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses (ÆSOP and ÆSOP-10), a first episode psychosis cohort was followed-up 10years after first presentation. The Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, WHO Life Chart and Global Assessment of Functioning were used to assess clinical, social and service use outcomes...
October 2016: Schizophrenia Research
M Carotenuto, M Esposito, S Cortese, D Laino, A Verrotti
AIM: Although there have been frequent clinical reports about sleep disturbances in children with learning disabilities, no data are available about the prevalence of sleep disturbances in children with developmental dyslexia (DD). This study evaluated sleep disturbances in children with DD referred to a hospital clinic and compared their scores with healthy controls. METHODS: We consecutively enrolled 147 children (66% male) aged 10.26 ± 2.63 years who were referred by clinical paediatricians to the Clinic for Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry at the Second University of Naples with DD and 766 children without DD (60% male) aged 10...
September 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Joseph J Loizzo
Meditation research has begun to clarify the brain effects and mechanisms of contemplative practices while generating a range of typologies and explanatory models to guide further study. This comparative review explores a neglected area relevant to current research: the validity of a traditional central nervous system (CNS) model that coevolved with the practices most studied today and that provides the first comprehensive neural-based typology and mechanistic framework of contemplative practices. The subtle body model, popularly known as the chakra system from Indian yoga, was and is used as a map of CNS function in traditional Indian and Tibetan medicine, neuropsychiatry, and neuropsychology...
June 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Collins Esiwe, Sarah Baillon, Aniruddha Rajkonwar, James Lindesay, Nelson Lo, Michael Dennis
BACKGROUND: depression is common in people with poor physical health, particularly within the acute medical in-patient setting. Co-morbid depression contributes to poor outcomes, and screening for depression in acute medical in-patients has been advocated. The Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) has been validated in a variety of general hospital patient groups, but not previously in older acute medical in-patients. METHODS: one hundred and eighteen patients aged 65 and older on acute medical wards were assessed using a standardised diagnostic interview (Present State Examination-Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry) to identify depression according to ICD-10 criteria...
July 2016: Age and Ageing
Alan C Logan, Felice N Jacka, Jeffrey M Craig, Susan L Prescott
Relationships between gastrointestinal viscera and human emotions have been documented by virtually all medical traditions known to date. The focus on this relationship has waxed and waned through the centuries, with noted surges in interest driven by cultural forces. Here we explore some of this history and the emerging trends in experimental and clinical research. In particular, we pay specific attention to how the hygiene hypothesis and emerging research on traditional dietary patterns has helped re-ignite interest in the use of microbes to support mental health...
May 31, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Enrico Premi, Vera Gualeni, Paolo Costa, Maura Cosseddu, Roberto Gasparotti, Alessandro Padovani, Barbara Borroni
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is characterized by executive dysfunctions, behavioral disturbances, language deficits and extrapyramidal symptoms. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration-modified Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (FTLD modified-CDR) has been proposed to measure disease severity in behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD). No tools of global disease severity are available in the other FTLD phenotypes [primary progressive aphasias (PPAs), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and corticobasal syndrome (CBS)]. This would be strategic as outcome measures in clinical trials...
April 16, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Ruaidhri McCormack
The aim of this quality improvement (QI) project was to improve the uptake and comprehensiveness of bedside cognitive testing amongst liaison psychiatrists over an eight month period. The baseline measurement involved an audit of the practice of the neuropsychiatry liaison team over six months at the 840 bed St Thomas's Hospital in London, UK. Of 35 referrals, 21 patients were able, and suitable, for cognitive testing based on the referral data and clinical interview. Fourteen (66.6%) of these patients had an Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE), while 5 (23...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
Yue Pei, Aman Asif-Malik, Juan J Canales
Biogenic amines are a collection of endogenous molecules that play pivotal roles as neurotransmitters and hormones. In addition to the "classical" biogenic amines resulting from decarboxylation of aromatic acids, including dopamine (DA), norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin (5-HT), and histamine, other biogenic amines, present at much lower concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS), and hence referred to as "trace" amines (TAs), are now recognized to play significant neurophysiological and behavioral functions...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Adam Osman, Stefano Seri, Andrea E Cavanna
Neuropsychiatry services provide specialist input into the assessment and management of behavioral symptoms associated with a range of neurological conditions, including epilepsy. Despite the centrality of epilepsy to neuropsychiatry and the recent expansion of neuropsychiatry service provision, little is known about the clinical characteristics of patients with epilepsy who are routinely seen by a specialist neuropsychiatry service. This retrospective study filled this gap by retrospectively evaluating a naturalistic series of 60 consecutive patients with epilepsy referred to and assessed within a neuropsychiatry setting...
May 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Andrea E Cavanna, Stefano Seri
OBJECTIVE: The discipline of clinical neuropsychiatry currently provides specialised services for a number of conditions that cross the traditional boundaries of neurology and psychiatry, including non-epileptic attack disorder. Neurophysiological investigations have an important role within neuropsychiatry services, with video-electroencephalography (EEG) telemetry being the gold standard investigation for the differential diagnosis between epileptic seizures and non-epileptic attacks...
August 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
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