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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109167/cell-cycle-tailored-targeting-of-metastatic-melanoma-challenges-opportunities
#1
Nikolas K Haass, Brian Gabrielli
The advent of targeted therapies of metastatic melanoma, such as MAPK pathway inhibitors and immune checkpoint antagonists, has turned dermato-oncology from the 'bad guy' to the 'poster child' in oncology. Current targeted therapies are effective; although here is a clear need to develop combination therapies to delay the onset of resistance. Many anti-melanoma drugs impact on the cell cycle but are also dependent on certain cell cycle phases resulting in cell cycle phase-specific drug insensitivity. Here, we raise the question: Have combination trials been abandoned prematurely as ineffective possibly only because drug scheduling was not optimized? Firstly, if both drugs of a combination hit targets in the same melanoma cell, cell cycle-mediated drug insensitivity should be taken into account when planning combination therapies, timing of dosing schedules and choice of drug therapies in solid tumors...
January 21, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109077/simultaneous-but-not-consecutive-combination-with-folinate-salts-potentiates-5-fluorouracil-antitumor-activity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#2
Antonello Di, Paola Orlandi, Teresa Di, Romano Danesi, Guido Bocci
The combination of folinate salts to 5-fluoruracil (5-FU)-based schedules is an established clinical routine in the landscape of the colorectal cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacological differences between the sequential administration of folinate salts (1 h before, as in clinical routine) followed by 5-FU and the simultaneous administration of both drugs. Proliferation and apoptotic assays were performed on human colon cancer cells exposed to 5-FU, calcium (CaLV) or disodium (NaLV) levofolinate or their simultaneous and sequential combination for 24 and 72h...
January 20, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108980/the-influence-of-macrophages-on-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-therapy-passive-or-aggressive-agents
#3
REVIEW
Fiona Carty, Bernard P Mahon, Karen English
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have emerged as promising cell therapies for multiple conditions based on demonstrations of their potent immunomodulatory and regenerative capacities in models of inflammatory disease. Understanding the effects of MSC on T cells has dominated the majority of work carried out in this field to date, however, recently a number of studies have shown that the therapeutic effect of MSC requires the presence of macrophages. It is timely to review the mechanisms and manner by which MSC modulate macrophage populations in order to better design MSC therapies and clinical studies...
January 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108820/prevention-of-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-the-role-of-neurokinin-1-nk1-receptor-antagonists
#4
Snežana M Bošnjak, Richard J Gralla, Lee Schwartzberg
Chemotherapy-induced nausea (CIN) has a significant negative impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. The use of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists (RAs) has reduced the risk of vomiting, but (except for palonosetron) their effect on nausea, especially delayed nausea, is limited. This article reviews the role of NK1RAs when combined with 5-HT3RA-dexamethasone in CIN prophylaxis. Aprepitant has not shown consistent superiority over a two-drug (ondansetron-dexamethasone) combination in nausea control after cisplatin- or anthracycline-cyclophosphamide (AC)-based highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC)...
January 20, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108800/impact-of-treatment-with-tnf-antagonists-on-total-cholesterol-in-patients-with-ankylosing-spondylitis-and-psoriatic-arthritis
#5
Jose Ramon Maneiro, Alejandro Souto, Juan J Gomez-Reino
The objective of the study was to analyze the impact of TNF antagonists (TNFa) on the total cholesterol and triglycerides on ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). In this single-centre observational study of AS and PsA patients, differences in triglyceride and total cholesterol levels and frequency of hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia at 3 and 6 months were analysed in patients treated and not treated with TNFa. General estimation equations and linear regression analysis were used to investigate associations between disease activity and lipid levels and to identify predictors of change...
January 20, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108545/bombesin-antagonist-based-radiotherapy-of-prostate-cancer-combined-with-wst-11-vascular-targeted-photodynamic-therapy
#6
Kwanghee Kim, Hanwen Zhang, Stephen LaRosa, Sylvia Jebiwott, Pooja Desai, Simon Y Kimm, Avigdor J Scherz, Joseph A O'Donoghue, Wolfgang A Weber, Jonathan Coleman
PURPOSE: DOTA-AR, a bombesin-antagonist peptide, has potential clinical application for targeted imaging and therapy in Gastrin Releasing Peptide receptor (GRPr) positive malignancies when conjugated with a radioisotope such as 90Y. This therapeutic potential is limited by the fast washout of the conjugates from the target tumors. WST-11 (Weizmann STeba-11 drug; a negatively charged water-soluble palladium-bacteriochlorophyll derivative, Tookad® Soluble) Vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) is a local ablation approach recently approved for use in early stage prostate cancer...
January 20, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108512/constitutive-notch3-signaling-promotes-the-growth-of-basal-breast-cancers
#7
Lisa Choy, Thijs Hagenbeek, Margaret Solon, Dorothy M French, David Finkle, Amy Shelton, Rayna Venook, Matthew J Brauer, Christian W Siebel
Notch ligands signal through one of four receptors on neighboring cells to mediate cell-cell communication and control cell fate, proliferation and survival. Although aberrant Notch activation has been implicated in numerous malignancies, including breast cancer, the importance of individual receptors in distinct breast cancer subtypes and the mechanisms of receptor activation remain unclear. Using a novel antibody to detect active NOTCH3, we report here that NOTCH3 signals constitutively in a panel of basal breast cancer cell lines and in more than one-third of basal tumors...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108510/bone-metastasis-of-prostate-cancer-can-be-therapeutically-targeted-at-the-tbx2-wnt-signaling-axis
#8
Srinivas Nandana, Manisha Tripathi, Peng Duan, Chia-Yi Chu, Rajeev Mishra, Chunyan Liu, Renjie Jin, Hironobu Yamashita, Majd Zayzafoon, Neil A Bhowmick, Haiyen E Zhau, Robert J Matusik, Leland W K Chung
Identification of factors that mediate visceral and bone metastatic spread and subsequent bone remodeling events is highly relevant to successful therapeutic intervention in advanced human prostate cancer (PCa). TBX2, a T-box family transcription factor that negatively regulates cell cycle inhibitor p21, plays critical roles during embryonic development, and recent studies have highlighted its role in cancer. Here we report that TBX2 is overexpressed in human PCa specimens and bone metastases from xenograft mouse models of human PCa...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108356/lipid-a-structural-modifications-in-extreme-conditions-and-identification-of-unique-modifying-enzymes-to-define-the-toll-like-receptor-4-structure-activity-relationship
#9
REVIEW
Alison J Scott, Benjamin L Oyler, David R Goodlett, Robert K Ernst
Strategies utilizing Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonists for treatment of cancer, infectious diseases, and other targets report promising results. Potent TLR4 antagonists are also gaining attention as therapeutic leads. Though some principles for TLR4 modulation by lipid A have been described, a thorough understanding of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) is lacking. Only through a complete definition of lipid A-TLR4 SAR is it possible to predict TLR4 signaling effects of discrete lipid A structures, rendering them more pharmacologically relevant...
January 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108245/japanese-guidelines-for-childhood-asthma-2017
#10
REVIEW
Hirokazu Arakawa, Yuhei Hamasaki, Yoichi Kohno, Motohiro Ebisawa, Naomi Kondo, Sankei Nishima, Toshiyuki Nishimuta, Akihiro Morikawa
The Japanese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Diseases 2017 (JAGL 2017) includes a minor revision of the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for the Treatment and Management of Asthma 2012 (JPGL 2012) by the Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology. The section on child asthma in JAGL 2017 provides information on how to diagnose asthma between infancy and adolescence (0-15 years of age). It makes recommendations for best practices in the management of childhood asthma, including management of acute exacerbations and non-pharmacological and pharmacological management...
January 18, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107783/lorcaserin-suppresses-oxycodone-self-administration-and-relapse-vulnerability-in-rats
#11
Harshini Neelakantan, Erica D Holliday, Robert G Fox, Sonja J Stutz, Sandra D Comer, Margaret Haney, Noelle C Anastasio, Frederick Gerard Moeller, Kathryn A Cunningham
Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a major public health problem. High relapse rates and poor treatment retention continue to pose major challenges in OUD treatment. Of the abused opioids, oxycodone is well described to maintain self-administration and evoke the durable conditioned responses ("cue reactivity") that result from pairing of opioid-related stimuli (e.g., paraphernalia) with repeated abuse. Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission, particularly through the 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR), regulates psychostimulant reward and cue reactivity, and in the present experiments, we investigated the hypothesis that the selective 5-HT2CR agonist lorcaserin, which is FDA-approved for the treatment of obesity, will suppress oxycodone self-administration and oxycodone-associated cue reactivity in rats...
January 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107779/effects-of-mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonists-on-the-progression-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#12
Li-Jing Sun, Yan-Ni Sun, Jian-Ping Shan, Geng-Ru Jiang
AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the potential benefits and adverse effects of adding a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and/or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), as standard treatment in patients with DN. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We scanned the Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for human clinical trials published in English until June 2016, evaluating renal outcomes in patients with DN...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107753/role-of-central-opioid-on-the-antinociceptive-effect-of-sulfated-polysaccharide-from-the-red-seaweed-solieria-filiformis-in-induced-temporomandibular-joint-pain
#13
Ianna Wivianne Fernandes Araújo, Hellíada Vasconcelos Chaves, José Mário Pachêco, Danielle Rocha Val, Lorena Vasconcelos Vieira, Rodrigo Santos, Raul Sousa Freitas, Renata Line Rivanor, Valdécio Silvano Monteiro, Juliana Trindade Clemente-Napimoga, Mirna Marques Bezerra, Norma Maria Barros Benevides
This study aimed to investigate the effect of sulfated polysaccharide from red seaweed Solieria filiformis (Fraction F II) in the inflammatory hypernociception in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of rats. Male Wistar rats were pretreated (30min) with a subcutaneous injection (s.c.) of vehicle or FII (0.03, 0.3 or 3.0mg/kg) followed by intra-TMJ injection of 1.5% Formalin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, 225μg/TMJ). In other set of experiments rats were pretreated (15min) with an intrathecal injection of the non-selective opioid receptors Naloxone, or μ-opioid receptor antagonist CTOP, or δ-opioid receptor Naltridole hydrochloride, or κ-opioid receptor antagonist Nor-Binaltorphimine (Nor-BNI) followed by injection of FII (s...
January 17, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107659/high-frequency-oscillations-and-seizure-like-discharges-in-the-entorhinal-cortex-of-the-in-vitro-isolated-guinea-pig-brain
#14
Laura Uva, Davide Boido, Massimo Avoli, Marco de Curtis, Maxime Lévesque
We analyzed the patterns of seizure-like activity and associated high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) induced by the K(+) channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4AP, 50μM) or the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline methiodide (BMI, 50μM) in the in vitro isolated guinea pig brain preparation. Extracellular field recordings were obtained from the medial entorhinal cortex (EC) using glass pipettes or silicon probes; 4AP or BMI were applied through the basilar artery. Ripples (80-200Hz) or fast ripples (250-500Hz) occurred at higher rates shortly before ictal events induced by 4AP or BMI, respectively...
January 6, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107590/endocannabinoid-activation-of-cb1-receptors-contributes-to-long-lasting-reversal-of-neuropathic-pain-by-repetitive-spinal-cord-stimulation
#15
L Sun, L Tai, Q Qiu, R Mitchell, S Fleetwood-Walker, E A Joosten, C W Cheung
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been shown to be effective in the management of certain neuropathic pain conditions, however, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated repetitive SCS in a rodent neuropathic pain model, revealing long-lasting and incremental attenuation of hyperalgesia and a mechanism of action involving endocannabinoids. METHOD: Animals were implanted with monopolar electrodes at the time of partial sciatic nerve injury...
January 20, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107570/efficacy-and-safety-of-interleukin-17-antagonists-in-patients-with-plaque-psoriasis-a-meta-analysis-from-phase-3-randomized-controlled-trails
#16
Dan Wu, Si-Yuan Hou, Shuai Zhao, Lin-Xin Hou, Ting Jiao, Nan-Nan Xu, Ning Zhang
BACKGROUND: The interleukin-17 (IL-17) cytokine pathway plays a key role in the development of psoriasis. Antibodies targeting IL-17 or blocking its receptor may be a new therapeutic approach for psoriasis. To assist treatment selection in daily practice it is essential to understand the benefit and risk profile of IL-17 antagonists. OBJECTIVE: We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of IL-17 antagonists in patients with psoriasis. METHODS: We searched a number of databases for relevant randomized clinical trials (RCTs) published before May 2016...
January 20, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107257/perceived-stress-as-a-risk-factor-for-dyspepsia-a-register-based-cohort-study
#17
Ulrik Deding, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Henrik Bøggild
OBJECTIVE: Dyspepsia is a common condition and has a huge impact on quality of life and working capacity, but its causes are not well understood. An association between stress and dyspepsia has been debated for decades, but the issue has not been resolved. We examined the 3-year risk of redeeming a proton-pump inhibitor or an H2-receptor antagonist as a proxy of dyspepsia according to the level of perceived stress. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Perceived stress was measured in a general health survey of 16 124 Danes aged older than 16 years of age in 2010 using Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107061/the-evolution-of-reproductive-phenology-in-broadcast-spawners-and-the-maintenance-of-sexually-antagonistic-polymorphism
#18
Colin Olito, Dustin J Marshall, Tim Connallon
Reproductive phenology is a crucial life-history trait that evolves in response to external environmental conditions and frequency- and density-dependent interactions within species. Broadcast spawners-which represent a large fraction of aquatic biodiversity-evolve phenologies that balance strong density-dependent fertilization success against abiotic environmental conditions that are required for successful reproduction. The overall balance between these processes may be particularly complex in dioecious species, where selection on reproductive timing potentially differs between the sexes...
February 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106882/combination-of-iap-antagonist-and-ifn%C3%AE-activates-novel-caspase-10-and-ripk1-dependent-cell-death-pathways
#19
Maria C Tanzer, Nufail Khan, James A Rickard, Nima Etemadi, Najoua Lalaoui, Sukhdeep Kaur Spall, Joanne M Hildebrand, David Segal, Maria Miasari, Diep Chau, WendyWei-Lynn Wong, Mark McKinlay, Srinivas K Chunduru, Christopher A Benetatos, Stephen M Condon, James E Vince, Marco J Herold, John Silke
Peptido-mimetic inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) antagonists (Smac mimetics (SMs)) can kill tumour cells by depleting endogenous IAPs and thereby inducing tumour necrosis factor (TNF) production. We found that interferon-γ (IFNγ) synergises with SMs to kill cancer cells independently of TNF- and other cell death receptor signalling pathways. Surprisingly, CRISPR/Cas9 HT29 cells doubly deficient for caspase-8 and the necroptotic pathway mediators RIPK3 or MLKL were still sensitive to IFNγ/SM-induced killing...
January 20, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106777/neuroprotection-by-caffeine-in-hyperoxia-induced-neonatal-brain-injury
#20
Stefanie Endesfelder, Ulrike Weichelt, Evelyn Strauß, Anja Schlör, Marco Sifringer, Till Scheuer, Christoph Bührer, Thomas Schmitz
Sequelae of prematurity triggered by oxidative stress and free radical-mediated tissue damage have coined the term "oxygen radical disease of prematurity". Caffeine, a potent free radical scavenger and adenosine receptor antagonist, reduces rates of brain damage in preterm infants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of caffeine on oxidative stress markers, anti-oxidative response, inflammation, redox-sensitive transcription factors, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix following the induction of hyperoxia in neonatal rats...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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