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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161589/mitosis-sans-mitosis-the-mitotic-oscillator-in-differentiation
#1
Miranda Stratton, Tim Stearns
Differentiation and proliferation are usually considered to be antagonistic partners in development. However, in a recent issue of Science, Al Jord et al. (2017) show that key regulators of the mitotic cycle are redeployed in differentiating multiciliated cells to promote ciliogenesis without mitotic progression.
November 20, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161458/proton-pump-inhibitors-for-functional-dyspepsia
#2
REVIEW
Maria Ines Pinto-Sanchez, Yuhong Yuan, Ahmed Hassan, Premysl Bercik, Paul Moayyedi
BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia (FD or non-ulcer dyspepsia) is defined as continuous or frequently recurring epigastric pain or discomfort for which no organic cause can be found. Acid suppressive therapy, including proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), has been proposed as a therapeutic option in FD, but its efficacy remains controversial. While PPIs are generally considered safe and well tolerated, they have been associated with adverse events, especially in the long term. For this reason, decisions on whether to initiate or continue PPI therapy should be made based on an appropriate clinical indication...
November 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161387/reversal-of-residual-neuromuscular-block-complications-associated-with-perioperative-management-of-muscle-relaxation
#3
J M Hunter
The use of anticholinesterases to reverse residual neuromuscular block at the end of surgery became routine practice in the 1950s. These drugs could only be used when recovery from block was established [two twitches of the train-of-four (TOF) count detectable] and concern was expressed about their cholinergic side-effects. By the 1990s, it was recognized that failure to reverse residual block adequately to a TOF ratio (TOFR) >0.7 was associated with increased risk of postoperative pulmonary complications (POPCs) following the long-acting non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug (NDNMBD) pancuronium...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161274/bacillus-spp-a-bio-control-agent-enhances-the-activity-of-antioxidant-defense-enzymes-in-rice-against-pyricularia-oryzae
#4
Afroz Rais, Zahra Jabeen, Faluk Shair, Fauzia Yusuf Hafeez, Muhammad Nadeem Hassan
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are found to control the plant diseases by adopting various mechanisms. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) is an important defensive strategy manifested by plants against numerous pathogens especially infecting at aerial parts. Rhizobacteria elicit ISR by inducing different pathways in plants through production of various metabolites. In the present study, potential of Bacillus spp. KFP-5, KFP-7, KFP-17 was assessed to induce antioxidant enzymes against Pyricularia oryzae infection in rice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161255/neurogenic-mediators-contribute-to-local-edema-induced-by-micrurus-lemniscatus-venom
#5
Luciana Lyra Casais-E-Silva, Catarina Teixeira
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Micrurus is one of the four snake genera of medical importance in Brazil. Coral snakes have a broad geographic distribution from the southern United States to Argentina. Micrurine envenomation is characterized by neurotoxic symptoms leading to dyspnea and death. Moreover, various local manifestations, including edema formation, have been described in patients bitten by different species of Micrurus. Thus, we investigated the ability of Micrurus lemniscatus venom (MLV) to induce local edema...
November 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161023/in-vivo-neurochemical-profile-of-selectively-bred-high-responder-and-low-responder-rats-reveals-baseline-cocaine-and-novelty-evoked-differences-in-monoaminergic-systems
#6
Omar S Mabrouk, John L Han, Jenny-Marie T Wong, Huda Akil, Robert T Kennedy, Shelly B Flagel
Relative to bred low-responder (bLR) rats, bred high-responder (bHR) rats have an exaggerated locomotor response to a novel environment, are more risk-taking, more impulsive, and more likely to exhibit compulsive drug-seeking behaviors. These phenotypic differences in addiction-related behaviors and temperament have previously been associated with differences in neurotransmitter signaling, including the mesolimbic dopamine system. In the current study, we applied advanced in vivo microdialysis sampling in the nucleus accumbens of bHRs/bLRs to assess differences in basal and stimulated neurochemical efflux more broadly...
November 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160905/regulated-recruitment-of-srgap1-modulates-rhoa-signaling-for-contractility-during-epithelial-junction-maturation
#7
Xuan Liang, Sajini Kiru, Guillermo A Gomez, Alpha S Yap
Adherens junctions in epithelia are contractile structures, where coupling of adhesion to the actomyosin cytoskeleton generates mechanical tension for morphogenesis and homeostasis. In established monolayers, junctional contractility is supported by the interplay between cell signals and scaffolding proteins. However, less is known about how contractile junctions develop, especially during the establishment of epithelial monolayers. Here we show that junctional tension increases concomitant with accumulation of actomyosin networks as Caco-2 epithelia become confluent...
November 21, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160857/synergistic-effects-of-danshen-salvia-miltiorrhizae-radix-et-rhizoma-and-sanqi-notoginseng-radix-et-rhizoma-combination-in-angiogenesis-behavior-in-eahy-926-cells
#8
Xian Zhou, Valentina Razmovski-Naumovski, Antony Kam, Dennis Chang, Chunguang Li, Alan Bensoussan, Kelvin Chan
Background: This study investigated the combination effects of the Danshen and Sanqi herb pair on angiogenesis in vitro. Methods: Nine combination ratios of Danshen-Sanqi extracts (DS-SQ) were screened for their angiogenic effects in the human vascular endothelial EAhy 926 cell line via cell proliferation, cell migration and tube formation activities against the damage to the cells exerted by DL-homocysteine (Hcy) and adenosine (Ado). The type of interaction (synergistic, antagonistic, additive) between Danshen and Sanqi was analyzed using combination index (CI) and isobologram models...
November 21, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160765/antithrombotic-treatment-in-peripheral-artery-disease
#9
Dan-Mircea Olinic, Dan Alexandru Tataru, Calin Homorodean, Mihail Spinu, Maria Olinic
This review treats antithrombotic use for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). In asymptomatic patients, there are no scientific data to support single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) for primary prophylaxis. In symptomatic PAD, SAPT with aspirin or clopidogrel is indicated. The efficacy of aspirin is controversial. Clopidogrel may be preferred over aspirin. Ticagrelor is not superior to clopidogrel in reducing major adverse cardiovascular events and major adverse limb events, but lowers the risk of ischaemic stroke...
November 21, 2017: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160716/-and-ecarlottones-uncommon-chalconoids-from-fissistigma-latifolium-with-pro-apoptotic-activity
#10
Charlotte Gény, Alma Abou Samra, Pascal Retailleau, Bogdan I Iorga, Hristo Nedev, Khalijah Awang, Fanny Roussi, Marc Litaudon, Vincent Dumontet
Four new compounds, (+)- and (-)-ecarlottone (1), (±)-fislatifolione (5), (±)-isofislatifolione (6), and (±)-fislatifolic acid (7), and the known desmethoxyyangonin (2), didymocarpin-A (3), and dehydrodidymocarpin-A (4) were isolated from the stem bark of Fissistigma latifolium, by means of bioassay-guided purification using an in vitro affinity displacement assay based on the modulation of Bcl-xL/Bak and Mcl-1/Bid interactions. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by NMR spectroscopic data analysis, and the absolute configurations of compounds (+)-1 and (-)-1 were assigned by comparison of experimental and computed ECD spectra...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160524/a-fatal-case-of-tuberculous-meningitis-in-a-child-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-a-diagnostic-challenge
#11
Zumrut Sahbudak Bal, Pinar Yazici, Semra Sen, Cenk Eraslan, Cengiz Cavusoglu, Bulent Karapinar, Fadil Vardar
The prognosis of tuberculous meningitis, a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, depends on the stage of treatment initiation. We report a fatal case of tuberculous meningitis. The patient had received successive tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists and abatacept to treat juvenile idiopathic arthritis, with negative results for polymerase chain reaction and acid-fast bacilli on smear, had normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) adenosine deaminase and glucose levels. Six weeks post-admission, the CSF culture demonstrated Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160416/agonistic-activity-of-tamoxifen-a-selective-estrogen-receptor-modulator-serm-on-arthritic-ovariectomized-mice
#12
L A S Silva, F B Felix, J M D Araujo, E V Souza, E A Camargo, R Grespan
Arthritis is positively associated with the decline of sex hormones, especially estrogen. Tamoxifen (TMX) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator, possessing agonist or antagonistic activity in different tissues. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of TMX on the zymosan-induced arthritis model. Female Swiss normal and ovariectomized (OVX) mice were divided into groups and treated for five days with TMX (0.3, 0.9 or 2.7 mg/kg) or 17-β-estradiol (E2, 50 µg/kg). On the fifth day, arthritis was induced and 4 h later, leukocyte migration into joint cavities was evaluated...
November 13, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160173/gene-delivery-to-joints-by-intra-articular-injection
#13
Christopher H Evans, Steven Craig Ghivizzani, Paul D Robbins
Most forms of arthritis are incurable, difficult to treat and a major cause of disability in western countries. Better local treatment of arthritis is impaired by the pharmacokinetics of the joint that make it very difficult to deliver drugs to joints at sustained, therapeutic concentrations. This is especially true of biologic drugs, such as proteins and RNA, many of which show great promise in pre-clinical studies. Gene transfer provides a strategy for overcoming this limitation. The basic concept is to deliver cDNAs encoding therapeutic products by direct intra-articular injection, leading to sustained, endogenous synthesis of the gene products within the joint...
November 21, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160119/a-review-of-the-infection-pathogenesis-and-prophylaxis-recommendations-in-patients-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#14
Tamar Tadmor, Manfred Welslau, Iwoma Hus
The majority of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) will obtain an infectious complication at some point during their disease, accounting for up to an estimated 60% of deaths in CLL. Patients are predisposed to infection due to inherent immune defects related to the primary disease, and as a result of therapy. The range of infectious complications has evolved alongside therapeutic advances in the treatment of CLL. More recently several novel targeted therapeutic compounds have been introduced in CLL, whose unique safety profiles will probably have an impact on the prophylaxis and management of infectious complications in these patients Areas covered: This review describes the pathogenesis of infections due to intrinsic CLL or therapy-related immunosuppression, and deals with the importance of proactive and reactive infection management as a key focus of patient care...
November 21, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159902/histamine-enhanced-contractile-responses-of-gastric-smooth-muscle-via-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-the-syrian-hamster
#15
S Naganuma, T Shiina, S Yasuda, Y Suzuki, Y Shimizu
BACKGROUND: Gastric motility is controlled by the autonomic and enteric nervous systems and by interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). Although histamine is known to be released from enterochromaffin-like cells in the gastric mucosa, its regulatory roles in gastric motility are still controversial. Therefore, we investigated the functional roles of histamine in gastric motility. METHODS: Stomach preparations from hamsters were used because the stomach of hamsters can be easily separated into the forestomach and the glandular stomach...
November 21, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159869/acute-intermittent-hypoxia-with-concurrent-hypercapnia-evokes-p2x-and-trpv1-receptor-dependent-sensory-long-term-facilitation-in-na%C3%A3-ve-carotid-bodies
#16
Arijit Roy, Melissa M J Farnham, Fatemeh Derakhshan, Paul M Pilowsky, Richard J A Wilson
Apneas constitute an acute existential threat to neonates and adults. In large part, this threat is detected by the carotid bodies, the primary peripheral chemoreceptors, and combatted by arousal and acute cardiorespiratory responses, including increased sympathetic output. Similar responses occur with repeated apneas but they continue beyond the last apnea and can persist for hours (i.e. ventilatory and sympathetic LTF). These long-term effects may be adaptive during acute episodic apnea, but may prolong hypertension causing chronic cardiovascular impairment...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159836/mechanisms-of-calcium-sequestration-by-isolated-malpighian-tubules-of-the-house-cricket-acheta-domesticus
#17
Austin Browne, Michael J O'Donnell
Hemolymph calcium homeostasis in insects is achieved by the Malpighian tubules, primarily by sequestering excess Ca(2+) within internal calcium stores (Ca-rich granules) most often located within type I (principal) tubule cells. Using both the scanning ion-selective electrode technique and the Ramsay secretion assay this study provides the first measurements of basolateral and transepithelial Ca(2+) fluxes across the Malpighian tubules of an Orthopteran insect, the house cricket Acheta domesticus. Ca(2+) transport was specific to midtubule segments, where 97% of the Ca(2+) entering the tubule is sequestered within intracellular calcium stores and the remaining 3% is secreted into the lumen...
November 21, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159829/calcium-hydroxide-regulates-transcription-of-the-bone-sialoprotein-gene-via-a-calcium-sensing-receptor-in-osteoblast-like-ros-17-2-8-cells
#18
Shuang Wang, Keisuke Noda, Yuanyuan Yang, Zhengyan Shen, Zhen Chen, Yorimasa Ogata
Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a glycoprotein associated with mineralized tissues. In this study, we investigated the regulation of Bsp transcription by calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ] in rat osteosarcoma-derived osteoblast-like ROS 17/2.8 cells and stromal bone marrow cells. Application of Ca(OH)2 (0.4 mM) increased the levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and BspmRNAs at 3 and 6 h and the level of BSP protein at 12 h. Transient transfection analyses were performed using chimeric constructs encompassing different regions of the rat Bsp gene promoter ligated to a luciferase reporter gene...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Oral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159581/inhibition-of-salivary-secretion-by-tolterodine-transdermal-patch
#19
Ji-Yeong Byeon, Young-Hoon Kim, Se-Hyung Kim, Choong-Min Lee, Chang-Ik Choi, Jung-Woo Bae, Choon-Gon Jang, Seok-Yong Lee, Yun Jeong Lee
Tolterodine, a nonselective muscarinic antagonist available only as immediate release (IR) or extended release (ER) oral formulations, is used for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB). This study aimed to compare the efficacy and extent of dry mouth adverse effects of tolterodine transdermal patch to the oral formulation. The two formulations have been examined through the muscarinic receptor binding tests conducted in bladder and salivary gland tissues and the salivary secretion tests conducted in rats...
November 20, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159328/efficient-cross-coupling-of-aryl-alkenyl-triflates-with-acyclic-secondary-alkylboronic-acids
#20
Tengda Si, Bowen Li, Wenrui Xiong, Bin Xu, Wenjun Tang
Aryl-secondary alkyl cross-coupling with aryl sulfonate esters as coupling partners remains a significant challenge. Efficient cross-coupling between aryl/alkenyl triflates and acyclic secondary alkylboronic acids is realized for the first time to provide a series of sterically congested acyclic secondary alkyl arenes/olefins in good to excellent yields. The employment of sterically bulky P,P[double bond, length as m-dash]O ligand L1/L2 is crucial for the high yields and selectivities. The method has enabled a concise and 4-step synthesis of a key intermediate of male contraceptive agent and PAF antagonist gossypol...
November 21, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
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