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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347977/expansion-of-cytochrome-p450-and-cathepsin-genes-in-the-generalist-herbivore-brown-marmorated-stink-bug
#1
Raman Bansal, Andy Michel
BACKGROUND: The brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) is an invasive pest in North America which causes severe economic losses on tree fruits, ornamentals, vegetables, and field crops. The H. halys is an extreme generalist and this feeding behaviour may have been a major contributor behind its establishment and successful adaptation in invasive habitats of North America. To develop an understanding into the mechanism of H. halys' generalist herbivory, here we specifically focused on genes putatively facilitating its adaptation on diverse host plants...
January 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346406/shea-vitellaria-paradoxa-gaertn-c-f-fruit-yield-assessment-and-management-by-farm-households-in-the-atacora-district-of-benin
#2
Koutchoukalo Aleza, Grace B Villamor, Benjamin Kofi Nyarko, Kperkouma Wala, Koffi Akpagana
Vitellaria paradoxa (Gaertn C. F.), or shea tree, remains one of the most valuable trees for farmers in the Atacora district of northern Benin, where rural communities depend on shea products for both food and income. To optimize productivity and management of shea agroforestry systems, or "parklands," accurate and up-to-date data are needed. For this purpose, we monitored120 fruiting shea trees for two years under three land-use scenarios and different soil groups in Atacora, coupled with a farm household survey to elicit information on decision making and management practices...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336286/oral-allergy-syndrome
#3
Nuray Bayar Muluk, Cemal Cingi
OBJECTIVES: To review oral allergy syndrome (OAS). METHODS: We searched several medical literature data bases with the following key words: "oral allergy syndrome," "OAS," "pollen-food allergy syndrome," "PFAS," "allergy," "diagnosis," "treatment." RESULTS: Oral allergy syndrome (OAS), also called "pollen-food allergy syndrome," is a type of food allergy brought about by flavors, nuts, raw fruit, and vegetables. The most well-known symptoms are mouth and throat itching, which starts rapidly after a food is placed in the mouth, and that, as a rule, continues for just a couple of minutes after the food has been swallowed...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335506/transcriptome-profiling-during-mangrove-viviparity-in-response-to-abscisic-acid
#4
Liwei Hong, Wenyue Su, Yuanye Zhang, Congting Ye, Yingjia Shen, Qingshun Q Li
Mangrove plants adapt to coastal tidal mudflats with specially evolved viviparity seed development. However, very little is known about the genetic and molecular mechanisms of mangrove viviparity. Here, we tested a hypothesis that plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a significant role in precocious germination of viviparous Kandelia obovata seeds by exogenous applications. Through transcriptome analysis of ABA treated seeds, it was found that ABA repressed mangrove fruit growth and development, and there were thousands of genes differentially expressed...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325154/growth-and-carbon-balance-are-differently-regulated-by-tree-and-shoot-fruiting-contexts-an-integrative-study-on-apple-genotypes-with-contrasted-bearing-patterns
#5
Benoît Pallas, Sylvie Bluy, Jérôme Ngao, Sébastien Martinez, Anne Clément-Vidal, Jean-Jacques Kelner, Evelyne Costes
In plants, carbon source-sink relationships are assumed to affect their reproductive effort. In fruit trees, carbon source-sink relationships are likely to be involved in their fruiting behavior. In apple, a large variability in fruiting behaviors exists, from regular to biennial, which has been related to the within-tree synchronization vs desynchronization of floral induction in buds. In this study, we analyzed if carbon assimilation, availability and fluxes as well as shoot growth differ in apple genotypes with contrasted behaviors...
January 9, 2018: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320450/nitrogen-nutrition-of-fruit-trees-to-reconcile-productivity-and-environmental-concerns
#6
Corina Carranca, Gustavo Brunetto, Massimo Tagliavini
Although perennial fruit crops represent 1% of global agricultural land, they are of a great economic importance in world trade and in the economy of many regions. The perennial woody nature of fruit trees, their physiological stages of growth, the root distribution pattern, and the presence of herbaceous vegetation in alleys make orchard systems efficient in the use and recycling of nitrogen (N). The present paper intends to review the existing literature on N nutrition of young and mature deciduous and evergreen fruit trees with special emphasis to temperate and Mediterranean climates...
January 10, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319514/characterization-of-bacteriocin-producing-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-native-fruits-of-ecuadorian-amazon
#7
Karina Garzón, Clara Ortega, Gabriela N Tenea
Tropical, wild-type fruits are considered biodiverse "hotspots" of microorganisms with possible functional characteristics to be investigated. In this study, several native lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of Ecuadorian Amazon showing highly inhibitory potential were identified and characterized. Based on carbohydrate fermentation profile and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, seven strains were assigned as Lactobacillus plantarum and one strain as Weissella confusa. Using agar-well diffusion method the active synthetized components released in the neutralized and hydroxide peroxide eliminated cell-free supernatant were inhibited by proteolytic enzymes, while the activity was maintained stable after the treatment with catalase, lysozyme, α-amylase and lipase suggesting their proteinaceous nature...
December 4, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315919/prevalence-and-longitudinal-trends-of-food-allergy-during-childhood-and-adolescence-results-of-the-isle-of-wight-birth-cohort-study
#8
D Venkataraman, M Erlewyn-Lajeunesse, R J Kurukulaaratchy, S Potter, G Roberts, S Matthews, S Hasan Arshad
BACKGROUND: The prevalence and time trends of food allergy change during childhood depending on the age of the child and the type of food. OBJECTIVE: To study prevalence and longitudinal trends in food allergy from birth to 18 years in an unselected birth cohort in the Isle of Wight. METHOD: Information on food allergy was collected at ages 1, 2, 4, 10 and 18 years from the Isle of Wight Birth Cohort (n = 1456). Skin prick testing (SPT) was performed at the age of 1 and 2 years in symptomatic children...
January 8, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315644/solar-uv-light-regulates-flavonoid-metabolism-in-apple-malus-x-domestica
#9
Rebecca A Henry-Kirk, Blue Plunkett, Miriam Hall, Tony McGhie, Andrew C Allan, Jason J Wargent, Richard V Espley
Ultraviolet-B light (UV-B) is one environmental signal perceived by plants that affects the flavonoid pathway and influences the levels of anthocyanins, flavonols and proanthocyanidins. To understand the mechanisms underlying UV exposure, apple trees were grown under spectral filters that altered transmission of solar UV light. Fruit analysis showed that UV induced changes in physiology, metabolism and gene expression levels during development over a season. These changes were sustained after storage. Under low UV ripening was delayed, fruit size decreased, and anthocyanin and flavonols were reduced...
January 6, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309513/modelling-temporal-variation-of-parameters-used-in-two-photosynthesis-models-influence-of-fruit-load-and-girdling-on-leaf-photosynthesis-in-fruit-bearing-branches-of-apple
#10
Magalie Poirier-Pocovi, Jérémy Lothier, Gerhard Buck-Sorlin
Background and Aims: Several studies have found seasonal and temporal variability in leaf photosynthesis parameters in different crops. This variability depends upon the environment, the developmental stage of the plant and the presence or absence of sinks. Girdling involves the removal of the bark and phloem down to the youngest xylem all around the stem and prevents export of photoassimilates out of the stem. The load of developing fruits has often been reported to influence the individual net leaf photosynthesis rate (Pn) in tree crops...
January 4, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304388/phloem-transport-in-gymnosperms-a-question-of-pressure-and-resistance
#11
REVIEW
Johannes Liesche, Alexander Schulz
Even in the highest trees, carbon is efficiently distributed from leaves to heterotrophic tissues like fruit, flowers and roots. This long-distance transport happens in the highly specialized sieve elements of the phloem. In gymnosperms, sieve element anatomy appears to be less suited for mass flow of phloem sap than that of angiosperms. This review covers available data on gymnosperm phloem to evaluate if it functions differently from that of angiosperms. Although current evidence suggests that, despite a higher pathway resistance, a single source-to-sink turgor pressure gradient can drive mass flow, several questions remain unanswered...
January 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301271/monitoring-the-attack-incidences-and-damage-caused-by-the-almond-bark-beetle-scolytus-amygdali-in-almond-orchards
#12
Asma Zeiri, Muhammad Z Ahmed, Andrew G S Cuthbertson, Mohamed Braham, Mohamed Braham
The almond bark beetle, Scolytus amygdali Geurin-Meneville, is responsible for significant loss of fruit production in almond orchards throughout the world. Here, we studied the damage and the incidences of S. amygdali attack on two different scales: (1) at the level of a single tree; and (2) in an entire orchard. Our results revealed no differences in attack level among four orientations (east, west, south and north sides) for the whole tree. However, the bark that was facing west side in the direction of the prevailing wind was found to be the most suitable for females to initiate attack in Stratum S2...
January 1, 2018: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299990/aqueous-extract-of-argania-spinosa-l-fruits-ameliorates-diabetes-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#13
Mohamed Eddouks, Hebi Morad
INTRODUCTION: The argan tree (Argania spinosa L.) is an endemic species from south-western Morocco. Argan-based preparations have been widely used in Moroccan traditional medicine for their biological properties including diabetes especially argan oil. However, the antihypergycemic effect of the pericarp of A. spinosa fruit has never been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a single dose and daily oral administration for seven days of aqueous extract of pericarp of Argania spinosa fruit (A...
January 3, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299572/phenolic-profiles-of-eight-olive-cultivars-from-algeria-effect-of-bactrocera-oleae-attack
#14
Lynda Medjkouh, Abderezak Tamendjari, Rita C Alves, Rahima Laribi, M Beatriz P P Oliveira
Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae R.) is the most harmful pest of olive trees (O. europaea) affecting their fruit development and oil production. Olive fruits have characteristic phenolic compounds, important for plant defense against pathogens and insects, and with many biological activities, they contribute to the high value of this crop. In this study, olives from 8 cultivars (Abani, Aellah, Blanquette de Guelma, Chemlal, Ferkani, Limli, Rougette de Mitidja and Souidi) with different degrees of fly infestation (0%, not attacked; 100%, all attacked; and real attack %) and different maturation indices were sampled and analysed...
January 4, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287099/the-impact-of-an-extreme-climatic-disturbance-and-different-fertilization-treatments-on-plant-development-phenology-and-yield-of-two-cultivar-groups-of-solanum-betaceum-cav
#15
Joffre V Tandazo-Yunga, Mario X Ruiz-González, Jacqueline R Rojas, Edwin D Capa-Mora, Jaime Prohens, José D Alejandro, Pablo G Acosta-Quezada
Changing climatic conditions impose a challenge both to biodiversity and food security. The effects of climate change affect different aspects of the plant or crop, such as morphological and phenological aspects, as well as yield. The effects of greenhouse conditions might be comparable in some cases to a permanent extreme disturbance in climate and weather, thus, contributing to our knowledge on climate change impacts on plant species. We have investigated the differences for 23 traits in two cultivar groups of an Andean traditional crop, Solanum betaceum, under two different environmental conditions that correspond to the traditional practices in the open field and three cultural managements under greenhouse conditions (no fertilization or control, organic, and mineral)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285722/determination-of-heavy-metals-in-almonds-and-mistletoe-as-a-parasite-growing-on-the-almond-tree-using-icp-oes-or-icp-ms
#16
Veysi Kamar, Rukiye Dağalp, Mustafa Taştekin
In this study, the elements of Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sr, Pb, Ti, and Zn were determined in the leaves, fruits, and branches of mistletoe, (Viscum albüm L.), used as a medicinal plant, and in the leaves, branches and barks of almond tree which mistletoe grows on. The aim of the study is to investigate whether the mistletoe are more absorbent than the almond tree in terms of the heavy metal contents and the determination of the amount of the elements penetrated into the mistletoe from the almond tree...
December 28, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284137/grapefruit-and-its-biomedical-antigenotoxic-and-chemopreventive-properties
#17
REVIEW
José Melesio Cristóbal-Luna, Isela Álvarez-González, Eduardo Madrigal-Bujaidar, Germán Chamorro Cevallos
Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Mcfad) is a perenifolium tree 5-6 m high with a fruit of about 15 cm in diameter, protected by the peel we can find about 11-14 segments (carpels), each of which is surrounded by a membrane and each containing the juice sacs, as well as the seeds. The fruit is made up of numerous compounds, and is known to have nutritive value because of the presence of various vitamins and minerals, among other chemicals. The fruit is also used in the field of gastronomy. Information has been accumulated regarding the participation of the fruit structures in a variety of biomedical, antigenotoxic and chemopreventive effects, surely related with the presence of the numerous chemicals that have been determined to constitute the fruit...
December 25, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277643/revealing-critical-mechanisms-of-br-mediated-apple-nursery-tree-growth-using-itraq-based-proteomic-analysis
#18
Liwei Zheng, Juanjuan Ma, Lizhi Zhang, Cai Gao, Dong Zhang, Caiping Zhao, Mingyu Han
Brassinosteroid is identified as an important hormone. However, information about brassinosteroid has not been fully elucidated, and few studies concerned its role in apple. The aim of this work was to study the role of brassinosteroid for apple tree growth. In our study, the effect of brassinosteroid on apple nursery tree was analyzed. The biomass, cell size and xylem content of apple nursery tree were obviously evaluated by brassinosteroid treatment; mineral elements contents, photosynthesis indexes, carbohydrate level and hormone contents were significantly high in brassinosteroid treated trees...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259616/pacyp78a9-a-cytochrome-p450-regulates-fruit-size-in-sweet-cherry-prunus-avium-l
#19
Xiliang Qi, Congli Liu, Lulu Song, Yuhong Li, Ming Li
Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is an important fruit crop in which fruit size is strongly associated with commercial value; few genes associated with fruit size have, however, been identified in sweet cherry. Members of the CYP78A subfamily, a group of important cytochrome P450s, have been found to be involved in controlling seed size and development in Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, soybean, and tomato. However, the influence of CYP78A members in controlling organ size and the underlying molecular mechanisms in sweet cherry and other fruit trees remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258418/ectopically-expressing-mdpip1-3-an-aquaporin-gene-increased-fruit-size-and-enhanced-drought-tolerance-of-transgenic-tomatoes
#20
Lin Wang, Qing-Tian Li, Qiong Lei, Chao Feng, Xiaodong Zheng, Fangfang Zhou, Lingzi Li, Xuan Liu, Zhi Wang, Jin Kong
BACKGROUND: Water deficit severely reduces apple growth and production, is detrimental to fruit quality and size. This problem is exacerbated as global warming is implicated in producing more severe drought stress. Thus water-efficiency has becomes the major target for apple breeding. A desired apple tree can absorb and transport water efficiently, which not only confers improved drought tolerance, but also guarantees fruit size for higher income returns. Aquaporins, as water channels, control water transportation across membranes and can regulate water flow by changing their amount and activity...
December 19, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
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