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Tree fruit

Nereida Melguizo-Ruiz, Gerardo Jiménez-Navarro, Jordi Moya-Laraño
Facilitative or positive interactions are ubiquitous in nature and play a fundamental role in the configuration of ecological communities. In particular, habitat modification and niche construction, in which one organism locally modifies abiotic conditions and favours other organisms by buffering the effects of adverse environmental factors, are among the most relevant facilitative interactions. In line with this, 'keystone structures', which provide resources, refuge, or advantageous services decisive for other species, may allow the coexistence of various species and thus considerably contribute to diversity maintenance...
2016: PeerJ
Andernice Zanetti, Robson C Ferreira, Myrna G Serrano, Carmen S A Takata, Marta Campaner, Marcia Attias, Wanderley de Souza, Marta M G Teixeira, Erney P Camargo
The genus Phytomonas includes trypanosomatids transmitted to the fruits, latex, and phloem of vascular plants by hemipterans. We inferred the phylogenetic relationships of plant and insect isolates assigned to the previously defined genetic groups A-F and H of Phytomonas, particularly those from groups A, C and E comprising flagellates of Solanaceae fruits. Phylogenetic analyses using glycosomal Glyceraldehyde Phosphate Dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) and Small Subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) genes strongly supported the monophyly of the genus Phytomonas and its division into seven main infrageneric phylogenetic lineages (Phy clades)...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
David I Shapiro-Ilan, Ted E Cottrell, Russell F Mizell, Dan L Horton
The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa (Say 1823), is a major pest of stone fruit trees in North America. Current management relies upon preventative control using broad-spectrum chemical insecticides, primarily chlorpyrifos, applied in the late summer or early fall. However, due to missed applications, poor application timing, or other factors, high levels of S. exitiosa infestation may still occur and persist through the following spring. Curative treatments applied in the spring to established infestations would limit damage to the tree and prevent the next generation of S...
September 2016: Journal of Nematology
Barbara U Daufanamae, Richard C Franklin, Jackie Eagers
INTRODUCTION: Unintentional injuries (injuries for which there is no evidence of a predetermined intent) are one of the leading causes of death worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although evidence demonstrates unintentional injuries are preventable it is a public health challenge for many LMICs such as the Solomon Islands. Occupational therapists are well placed to contribute to injury prevention, as they have specialised skills to analyse the accessibility and safety of the environments within which people conduct their daily occupations...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
Guilherme V T Ribeiro, Alberto L Teixido, Newton P U Barbosa, Fernando A O Silveira
Sampling biases permeate ecological research and result in knowledge gaps that have vital consequences for conservation planning. The consequences of knowledge gaps on species identity and distribution (the Wallacean and Linnean shortfalls, respectively) have become apparent recently, but we know little about the extent that research biases and knowledge gaps on traits that influence species' niches (the Hutchinsonian shortfall) affect conservation policy. To examine whether knowledge of species' traits based on seed ecology is geographically, phylogenetically, and ecologically biased, we retrieved research data on seed germination, seed dormancy, seed dispersal, seed banks, seed predation, and seed removal from a database of 847 papers, 1648 species, and 5322 cases...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Cristiane C Denardin, Leo A M Martins, Mariana M Parisi, Moema Queiroz Vieira, Silvia R Terra, Florencia M Barbé-Tuana, Radovan Borojevic, Márcia Vizzotto, Tatiana Emanuelli, Fátima Costa Rodrigues Guma
Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are the major source of collagen I in liver fibrosis. Eugenia uniflora L. is a tree species that is widely distributed in South America. E. uniflora L. fruit-popularly known as pitanga-has been shown to exert beneficial properties. Autophagy contributes to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and survival under stress situation, but it has also been suggested to be an alternative cell death pathway. Mitochondria play a pivotal role on signaling cell death. Mitophagy of damaged mitochondria is an important cell defense mechanism against organelle-mediated cell death signaling...
October 15, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Nawal Zhar, Khalid Naamani, Abdelhi Dihazi, Fatima Jaiti, Abderrahim El Keroumi
Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels is an endemic forest tree for Morocco. The phytochemical compounds evaluation of four different morphotypes of their fruit pulps was investigated. The total content of sugar, protein and phenolic compounds were monitored during three different stages of maturation in the semi-continental (Mejji) and littoral regions (R'zwa). Total sugars, proteins, phenolics increased up to the ripe stage of all argan fruit morphotypes in the two regions. Spherical shape had higher sugar and protein content than other morphotypes...
July 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Ruth Dolado, Catherine Cooke, Francesc S Beltran
For group-living primates, social organization hinges upon multiple factors, including group size, group cohesion, and the group's age and sex composition. Fission-fusion dynamics reduce the risks of living in a large group, which can include feeding competition related to the seasonality of resources. Here we report on the group dynamics (i.e. formation of parties) of a population of red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) located in Sentier Nature forest, South Loango National Park, Gabon, and examine the role of fruit availability in episodes of fission-fusion and shifting range use during the peak fruiting season of 2014...
October 12, 2016: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
Valentine Thiry, Danica J Stark, Benoît Goossens, Jean-Louis Slachmuylder, Régine Vercauteren Drubbel, Martine Vercauteren
The choice of a sleeping site is crucial for primates and may influence their survival. In this study, we investigated several tree characteristics influencing the sleeping site selection by proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) along Kinabatangan River, in Sabah, Malaysia. We identified 81 sleeping trees used by one-male and all-male social groups from November 2011 to January 2012. We recorded 15 variables for each tree. Within sleeping sites, sleeping trees were taller, had a larger trunk, with larger and higher first branches than surrounding trees...
October 12, 2016: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
Juan Liu, XueJiao Zhang, YueKun Yang, Ni Hong, GuoPing Wang, Aiming Wang, LiPing Wang
BACKGROUND: Heat treatment (known as thermotherapy) together with in vitro culture of shoot meristem tips is a commonly used technology to obtain virus-free germplasm for the effective control of virus diseases in fruit trees. RNA silencing as an antiviral defense mechanism has been implicated in this process. To understand if high temperature-mediated acceleration of the host antiviral gene silencing system in the meristem tip facilitates virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNA) accumulation to reduce the viral RNA titer in the fruit tree meristem tip cells, we used the Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV)-Pyrus pyrifolia pathosystem to explore the possible roles of vsiRNA in thermotherapy...
October 6, 2016: Virology Journal
Wim G M Bastiaanssen, Pasquale Steduto
Scarce water resources are one of the major constraints to achieve more food production. Food production needs therefore also to be evaluated in terms of water consumption, besides the conventional unit of land. Crop Water Productivity (CWP) is defined as the crop yield per unit of water evaporated. Contrary to crop yield, local benchmark values for CWP do not exist. This paper shows how operational earth observation satellites can measure CWP indirectly on a pixel-by-pixel basis, which provides an opportunity to define local, regional and global benchmark values...
October 3, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Changyong Ma, Jiancun Liao, Pengfei Fan
The Cao Vit gibbon (Nomascus nasutus) has only one population with about 110 individuals living in a degraded karst forest along the China-Vietnam border. Investigation of food choice in relation to chemical nutrition will offer important insights into its conservation. We studied the food choice of two groups of Cao Vit gibbons using instantaneous scan sampling in Bangliang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi, China, over 4 years, and analyzed the chemical components (total nitrogen, TN; water-soluble sugar, WSS; crude fat, CF; neutral detergent fiber, NDF; acid detergent fiber, ADF; acid detergent lignin, ADL; condensed tannin, CT; and ash) of 48 food plant parts and 22 non-food plant parts...
October 5, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Charles H Janson
There is considerable controversy about the existence, extent and adaptive value of integrated multimodal memory in non-human animals. Building on prior results showing that wild capuchin monkeys in Argentina appear to recall both the location and amount of food at patches they had previously visited, I tested whether they also track and use elapsed time as a basis for decisions about which feeding patches to visit. I presented them with an experimental array of eight feeding sites, at each of which food rewards increased with increasing elapsed time since the previous visit, similar to the pattern of ripe fruit accumulation in natural feeding trees...
October 12, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Dianne Velasco, Josh Hough, Mallikarjuna Aradhya, Jeffrey Ross-Ibarra
The domesticated almond [Prunus dulcis (L.) Batsch] and peach [P. persica (Mill.) D. A. Webb] originate on opposite sides of Asia and were independently domesticated approximately 5000 years ago. While interfertile, they possess alternate mating systems and differ in a number of morphological and physiological traits. Here we evaluated patterns of genome-wide diversity in both almond and peach to better understand the impacts of mating system, adaptation, and domestication on the evolution of these taxa. Almond has ~7X the genetic diversity of peach, and high genome-wide FST values support their status as separate species...
October 5, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
X Luo, Z Li, Z Sun, X Wan
Pecan (Carya illinoensis) has been introduced to East China for over one hundred years, but its planting is still only occurring at a small scale. The key limiting factor is its low yield. To enhance the yield pecan in East China, two pecan cultivars, Mahan and Western, were examined. Twenty traits describing phasic development, yield, nut quality, and cultural practice were investigated. We found that pecan cultivar Mahan gives a higher yield and nut quality than cultivar Western. We recommend interplanting of cultivar Pawnee to act as a pollinator tree...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Sergio Díaz Infante, Carlos Lara, María Del Coro Arizmendi, Luis E Eguiarte, Juan Francisco Ornelas
BACKGROUND: Relationships between floral biology and pollinator behavior are important to understanding species diversity of hemiparasitic Psittacanthus mistletoes (c. 120 species). We aimed to investigate trait divergence linked to pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation (RI) in two hummingbird-pollinated and bird-dispersed Psittacanthus species with range overlap. METHODS: We investigated the phylogenetic relationships, floral biology, pollinator assemblages, seed dispersers and host usage, and the breeding system and female reproductive success of two sympatric populations of P...
2016: PeerJ
Julien Engel, Louise Brousseau, Christopher Baraloto
The tropical rainforest of Amazonia is one of the most species-rich ecosystems on earth, with an estimated 16000 tree species. Due to this high diversity, botanical identification of trees in the Amazon is difficult, even to genus, often requiring the assistance of parataxonomists or taxonomic specialists. Advances in informatics tools offer a promising opportunity to develop user-friendly electronic keys to improve Amazonian tree identification. Here, we introduce an original multi-access electronic key for the identification of 389 tree genera occurring in French Guiana terra-firme forests, based on a set of 79 morphological characters related to vegetative, floral and fruit characters...
2016: PhytoKeys
José G A S Júnior, Henrique D M Coutinho, Ticiana C C Boris, Janyketchuly S Cristo, Nara L F Pereira, Fernando G Figueiredo, Francisco A B Cunha, Pedro E A Aquino, Polyana A C Nascimento, Francisco J C Mesquita, Paulo H F Moreira, Sáskia T B Coutinho, Ivon T Souza, Gabriela C Teixeira, Najla M N Ferreira, Eleonora O Farina, Cícero M G Torres, Vanderlan N Holanda, Vandbergue S Pereira, Maria I F Guedes
INTRODUCTION: Annona coriacea Mart. (araticum) is a widely distributed tree in the cerrado. Its value is attributed principally to the consumption of its fruit which possesses a large nutritive potential. The objective was to identify the chemical profile and evaluate the antimicrobial and cytoprotective activity of the hydroethanol extract of A. coriacea Mart. (HEAC) leaves against the toxicity of mercury chloride. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The characterization of components was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
D Musuyu Muganza, B Fruth, J Lami Nzunzu, E Tuenter, K Foubert, P Cos, L Maes, R Cimanga Kanyanga, V Exarchou, S Apers, L Pieters
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Nkundo people (Nkundo area of Bolongo, Mai-Ndombe district, Bandundu Province, DR Congo) use various plant parts of the tree Greenwayodendron suaveolens (Engl. & Diels) Verdc. (syn. Polyalthia suaveolens Engl. & Diels) (Annonaceae) against malaria, but its antiprotozoal constituents are not known. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The crude 80% ethanol extract from the fruits, leaves, root bark and stem bark and 16 fractions were assessed in vitro for their antiprotozoal activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei, T...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Katsutoshi Nishino, Misao Shiro, Ryuki Okura, Kazuya Oizumi, Toru Fujita, Takahiro Sasamori, Norihiro Tokitoh, Akiyoshi Yamada, Chihiro Tanaka, Muneyoshi Yamaguchi, Syuntaro Hiradate, Nobuhiro Hirai
Tricholoma matsutake, a basidiomycete, forms ectomycorrhizas with Pinus densiflora as the host tree. Its fruiting body, "matsutake" in Japanese, is an edible and highly prized mushroom, and it grows in a circle called a fairy ring. Beneath the fairy ring of T. matsutake, a whitish mycelium-soil aggregated zone, called "shiro" in Japanese, develops. The front of the shiro, an active mycorrhizal zone, functions to gather nutrients from the soil and roots to nourish the fairy ring. Bacteria and sporulating fungi decrease from the shiro front, whereas they increase inside and outside the shiro front...
October 3, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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