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Tree fruit

Li Zhou, Shaowen Quan, Hang Xu, Li Ma, Jianxin Niu
Flower induction is an essential stage in walnut ( Juglans regia L.) trees, directly affecting yield, yield stability, fruit quality and commodity value. The objective of this study was to identify miRNAs related to female flower induction via high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. A total of 123 miRNAs were identified including 51 known miRNAs and 72 novel miRNAs. Differential expression was observed in 19 of the known miRNAs and 34 of the novel miRNAs. Twelve miRNAs were confirmed by RT-qPCR...
May 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Chang Yeol Yang, Junheon Kim, Hyeong-Hwan Kim
The ambrosia beetle, Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), infests physiologically stressed apple and peach trees in Korea. Dispersing females utilize the degradation product ethanol and host-related volatiles to locate and colonize new host trees. We examined the extent to which 12 chemicals emitted from fruit trees act synergistically with ethanol to attract X. saxesenii. The addition of benzaldehyde to ethanol significantly increased beetle attraction, although benzaldehyde was not attractive by itself...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Niki Mougiou, Fotini Trikka, Emmanouil Trantas, Filippos Ververidis, Antonios Makris, Anagnostis Argiriou, Konstantinos E Vlachonasios
Olive tree is one of the most valuable crops cultivated for its oil that is rich in antioxidants. The beneficial effects of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol (HT), the most abundant and the most powerful antioxidant respectively, as well as tyrosol, HT's precursor molecule, are well studied however their biosynthetic pathways are not yet clarified. The transcriptome analysis of the young olive fruit, cultivar "Koroneiki", revealed transcripts of all the enzymes used to reconstitute the biosynthetic pathway of tyrosol and HT in other organisms...
May 5, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Mikiko Watanabe, Elena Gangitano, Davide Francomano, Eliana Addessi, Raffaella Toscano, Daniela Costantini, Dario Tuccinardi, Stefania Mariani, Sabrina Basciani, Giovanni Spera, Lucio Gnessi, Carla Lubrano
There is a widely acknowledged association between insulin resistance and obesity/type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and insulin sensitizing treatments have proved effective in preventing diabetes and inducing weight loss. Obesity and T2DM are also associated with increased inflammation. Mangosteen is a tropical tree, whose fruits—known for their antioxidant properties—have been recently suggested having a possible further role in the treatment of obesity and T2DM. The objective of this pilot study has been to evaluate safety and efficacy of treatment with mangosteen extract on insulin resistance, weight management, and inflammatory status in obese female patients with insulin resistance...
May 9, 2018: Nutrients
Haiqiang Li, Hongsheng Pan, Dongmei Wang, Bing Liu, Jian Liu, Jianping Zhang, Yanhui Lu
With the recent increase in planting of fruit trees in southern Xinjiang, the intercropping of fruit trees and cotton has been widely adopted. From 2014 to 2016, a large-scale study was conducted in Aksu, an important agricultural area in southern Xinjiang, to compare the abundance and species composition of spider mites in cotton fields under jujube-cotton, apple-cotton, and cotton monocrop systems. The abundance of spider mites in cotton fields under both intercropping systems was generally higher than in the cotton monocrop...
May 5, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Yan Ma, Xingzhuang Wu, Qi Zhang, Vigna Giovanni, Xianjun Meng
Vacuum freeze-drying technology is a high technology content, a wide range of knowledge of technology in the field of drying technology is involved, it is also a method of the most complex drying equipment, the largest energy consumption, the highest cost of drying method, but due to the particularity of its dry goods: the freeze-drying food has the advantages of complex water performance is good, cooler and luster of freezing and drying food to maintain good products, less nutrient loss, light weight, easy to carry transportation, easy to long-term preservation, and on the quality is far superior to the obvious advantages of other dried food, making it become the forefront of drying technology research and development...
May 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Federico Vita, Flavio Antonio Franchina, Cosimo Taiti, Vittoria Locato, Giorgio Pennazza, Marco Santonico, Giorgia Purcaro, Laura De Gara, Stefano Mancuso, Luigi Mondello, Amedeo Alpi
The influences of various factors, including the symbiosis established with the roots of specific tree species, on the production of volatiles in the fruiting bodies of Tuber magnatum have not been investigated yet. Volatiles in T. magnatum fruiting bodies were quantitatively and qualitatively determined by both PTR-MS and GC-MS in order to compare the accuracy of the two methods. An electronic nose was also used to characterize truffle samples. The influence of environmental changes on the antioxidant capabilities of fruiting bodies was also determined...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Luis Noguera-Artiaga, David Pérez-López, Armando Burgos-Hernández, Aneta Wojdyło, Ángel A Carbonell-Barrachina
The current water scarcity forces farmers to adopt new irrigation strategies to save water without jeopardizing the fruit yield and quality. In this study, the influence of 3 regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) treatments and 3 rootstocks on the functional quality of pistachios were studied. The functional parameters studied included, polyphenols, triterpenoids, and inhibition of α-amylase. The results showed that P. terebinthus and P. atlantica rootstocks led to pistachio kernels with higher contents of polyphenols and triterpenoids (mainly betulinic acid with 111 and 102 µg g-1 , respectively) than pistachios obtained using P...
September 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Haifang Yang, Hye-Ji Kim, Houbin Chen, Yong Lu, Xingyu Lu, Congcong Wang, Biyan Zhou
Litchi is one of the most important subtropical evergreen fruit trees in southern Asia. Previous studies indicated that high-temperature conditions encourage growth of rudimentary leaves in panicles and suppress flowering. We have demonstrated that methyl viologen dichloride hydrate (MV) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) promoted flowering in litchi partially by inhibiting the growth of rudimentary leaves via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). In the present study, we examined the microstructure and ultrastructure, programmed cell death (PCD) ratio, nuclei morphology of the rudimentary leaves, and the expression of senescence-related genes after the treatment with ROS or NO...
2018: Horticulture Research
Na An, Sheng Fan, Yibin Wang, Lizhi Zhang, Cai Gao, Dong Zhang, Mingyu Han
Recently, the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which play important roles in various complex biological processes, have received more attention in plants. However, little information is available on lncRNAs in woody fruit trees and their potential regulatory roles remain poorly understood, especially in apple. Here, a total of 1726 high-confidence lncRNAs (hc-lncRNAs) were identified in different tissues including young fruits, shoot tips, stem phloem and root tips using high-throughput sequencing. These lncRNAs are distributed across all 17 apple chromosomes, and >85% come from intergenic regions...
May 4, 2018: Gene
Richard E Feldman, Irma Žemaitė, Abraham J Miller-Rushing
Monitoring plant and animal phenology is a critical step to anticipating and predicting changes in species interactions and biodiversity. Because phenology necessarily involves frequent and repeated observations over time, citizen scientists have become a vital part of collecting phenological data. However, there is still concern over the accuracy and precision of citizen science data. It is possible that training citizen scientists can improve data quality though there are few comparisons of trained and untrained citizen scientists in the ability of each to accurately and precisely measure phenology...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Ania T Deutscher, Catherine M Burke, Aaron E Darling, Markus Riegler, Olivia L Reynolds, Toni A Chapman
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota affects tephritid (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit fly development, physiology, behavior, and thus the quality of flies mass-reared for the sterile insect technique (SIT), a target-specific, sustainable, environmentally benign form of pest management. The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Tephritidae), is a significant horticultural pest in Australia and can be managed with SIT. Little is known about the impacts that laboratory-adaptation (domestication) and mass-rearing have on the tephritid larval gut microbiome...
May 5, 2018: Microbiome
Hong Lan Huang, Lu Zhang, Li Ming Jia, Yue-Long Liang, Jun Huo Cai
To examine the reproduction fitness coefficients and individual-level fitness of Toona ciliata var. pubescens, their sexual reproduction and natural regeneration were investigated during 2006-2016, with four natural populations in Jiulianshan National Reserve as test objects. The results showed that there were only 2-10 trees for the natural populations of T. ciliata var. pubescens with a small initial number of fruiting plants (3-9 trees), which were from the initial fruiting plants or their first/second generation...
April 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Kok Jun Liew, Lily Lim, Hui Ying Woo, Kok-Gan Chan, Mohd Shahir Shamsir, Kian Mau Goh
Beta-glucosidase (BGL) is an important industrial enzyme for food, waste and biofuel processing. Jeotgalibacillus is an understudied halophilic genus, and no beta-glucosidase from this genus has been reported. A novel beta-glucosidase gene (1344 bp) from J. malaysiensis DSM 28777T was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The recombinant protein, referred to as BglD5, consists of a total 447 amino acids. BglD5 purified using a Ni-NTA column has an apparent molecular mass of 52 kDa. It achieved the highest activity at pH 7 and 65 °C...
April 30, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Fabiana M Corrêa, Óscar M Chaves, Rodrigo C Printes, Helena P Romanowski
Wild primates that live in urban areas face extreme threats that are less frequent in nonurban fragments, such as the presence of dangerous matrix elements (e.g., roads, power lines, buildings, and a high density of domestic dogs near food patches), that could influence their movements, feeding behavior, and survival. However, the scarcity of studies addressing this issue hinders our understanding of the behavioral adjustments that favor the survival of primates in urban areas. For 12 months, we studied a six-individual group of brown howlers (Alouatta guariba clamitans) in an urban fragment to determine (i) their diet richness and its relationships with food availability, (ii) their daily path length (DPL) and the matrix elements used during movement, and (iii) the main ecological drivers of the DPL...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Martin J Gilbert, Michael J Samways
Scirtothrips aurantii Faure (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a major pest of citrus fruit in subtropical southern Africa. Population monitoring is an important aspect of S. aurantii control, but additional information is required on its phenology. Dispersal of mature larvae onto the soil surface from the tree canopy, and emergence of adults, were assessed using dispersal/emergence (D/E) traps in an untreated citrus orchard in South Africa. Overall, 90.7% of adult Thysanoptera emerging from soil / leaf litter beneath the citrus trees were S...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Xi Cheng, Xueqiang Su, Abdullah Muhammad, Manli Li, Jinyun Zhang, Yanming Sun, Guohui Li, Qing Jin, Yongping Cai, Yi Lin
Stone cells content and size are the key factors determining the internal quality of the pear fruit. Synthesis of lignin and thickening of secondary cell wall are the keys to the development of stone cells. The polymerization of monolignols and secondary cell wall formation requires the participation of dirigent proteins (DIRs). In recent years, DIR family have been studied in higher plants, but lack of comprehensive study in the pear DIR ( PbDIR ) family. This study focuses on the identification and analysis of PbDIR family for the first time...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Jannicke Gallinger, Jürgen Gross
Plant sap feeding insects like psyllids are known to be vectors of phloem dwelling bacteria (' Candidatus Phytoplasma' and ' Ca . Liberibacter'), plant pathogens which cause severe diseases and economically important crop damage. Some univoltine psyllid species have a particular life cycle, within one generation they alternate two times between different host plant species. The plum psyllid Cacopsylla pruni , the vector of European Stone Fruit Yellows (ESFY), one of the most serious pests in European fruit production, migrates to stone fruit orchards ( Prunus spp...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yun Xie, Xuewen Wang
Fruit yield is an important trait for horticultural crops. However, the limited fruit yield of Camellia chekiangoleosa, a novel promising oil tree, restricts the production of oil. The breeding improvement is little due to its long generation time and lack of available genomic sequence. We identified distinct fruit count phenotypes, high-yield (HY) and low-yield (LY). To understand the underlying genetic basis, we focused on global gene discovery and expression levels in floral buds, which affect fruit count...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dongfeng Jia, Xiaoqing Gong, Mingjun Li, Chao Li, Tingting Sun, Fengwang Ma
Plant height is an important trait for fruit trees. The dwarf characteristic is commonly associated with highly efficient fruit production, a major objective when breeding for apple ( Malus domestica ). We studied the function of MdNAC1 , a novel NAC transcription factor (TF) gene in apple related to plant dwarfing. Localized primarily to the nucleus, MdNAC1 has transcriptional activity in yeast cells. Overexpression of the gene results in a dwarf phenotype in transgenic apple plants. Their reduction in size is manifested by shorter, thinner stems and roots, and a smaller leaf area...
April 27, 2018: Genes
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