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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930157/getting-more-power-from-your-flowers-multi-functional-flower-strips-enhance-pollinators-and-pest-control-agents-in-apple-orchards
#1
Alistair John Campbell, Andrew Wilby, Peter Sutton, Felix Wäckers
Flower strips are commonly recommended to boost biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services (e.g., pollination and pest control) on farmland. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regards the extent to which they deliver on these aims. Here, we tested the efficacy of flower strips that targeted different subsets of beneficial arthropods (pollinators and natural enemies) and their ecosystem services in cider apple orchards. Treatments included mixes that specifically targeted: (1) pollinators ('concealed-nectar plants'); (2) natural enemies ('open-nectar plants'); or (3) both groups concurrently (i...
September 20, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929226/transcriptome-profiling-of-fully-open-flowers-in-a-frost-tolerant-almond-genotype-in-response-to-freezing-stress
#2
Batool Hosseinpour, Sadegh Sepahvand, Kazem Kamali Aliabad, MohammadReza Bakhtiarizadeh, Ali Imani, Reza Assareh, Seyed Alireza Salami
Spring frost is a major limiting abiotic stress for the cultivation of almonds [Prunus dulcis (Mill.)] in Mediterranean areas or the Middle East. Spring frost, in particular, damages almond fully open flowers, resulting to significant reduction in yield. Little is known about the genetic factors expressed after frost stress in Prunus spp. as well as in almond fully open flowers. Here, we provide the molecular signature of pistils of fully open flowers from a frost-tolerant almond genotype. The level of frost tolerance in this genotype was determined for all three flowering stages and was confirmed by comparing it to two other cultivars using several physiological analyses...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926992/the-native-fruit-geoffroea-decorticans-from-arid-northern-chile-phenolic-composition-antioxidant-activities-and-in-vitro-inhibition-of-pro-inflammatory-and-metabolic-syndrome-associated-enzymes
#3
Felipe Jiménez-Aspee, Cristina Theoduloz, Maria Del Pilar C Soriano, Maider Ugalde-Arbizu, Maria Rosa Alberto, Iris Catiana Zampini, Maria Inés Isla, Mario J Simirigiotis, Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann
The native tree Geoffroea decorticans (chañar) grows in the arid lands of northern Chile. It has been used as a food plant since prehistoric times. Phenolic-enriched extracts (PEEs) of Chilean chañar fruits were assessed for their chemical composition, antioxidant properties and inhibition of pro-inflammatory and metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes. Phenolic profiles were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. The PEEs of G. decorticans showed a strong effect towards the enzymes COX-1/COX-2, with inhibition percentages ranging from inactive to 92...
September 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925346/the-effect-of-winter-length-on-duration-of-dormancy-and-survival-of-specialized-herbivorous-rhagoletis-fruit-flies-from-high-elevation-environments-with-acyclic-climatic-variability
#4
J Rull, E Tadeo, R Lasa, M Aluja
Dormancy can be defined as a state of suppressed development allowing insects to cope with adverse conditions and plant phenology. Among specialized herbivorous insects exploiting seasonal resources, diapause frequently evolves as a strategy to adjust to predictable plant seasonal cycles. To cope with acyclic and unpredictable climatic events, it has been found for some insects that a proportion of the population undergoes prolonged dormancy. We compared the response of three species in the Rhagoletis cingulata species group exploiting plants differing in fruiting phenology from environments varying in frequency and timing of acyclic climatic catastrophic events (frost during flowering and fruit set) and varying also in the time of the onset of the rainy season...
September 19, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921771/iron-deficiency-stress-can-induce-mxnas1-protein-expression-to-facilitate-iron-redistribution-in-malus-xiaojinensis
#5
Chaohua Sun, Mudan Yuan, Longmei Zhai, Duyue Li, Xinzhong Zhang, Ting Wu, Xuefeng Xu, Yi Wang, Zhenhai Han
Iron (Fe) is a vital trace element in plants and deficiency of this element in apple trees can reduce fruit quality. Nicotianamine (NA) is known to play an important role in Fe transport and endogenous hormone balance. In the present study, we investigated the role of a nicotianamine synthase 1 gene (MxNas1) in an apple species, Malus xiaojinensis, that has an Fe-efficient genotype than other apple species and ecotypes. To characterize the response of M. xiaojinensis to Fe-deficiency, we used quantitative Q-PCR to determine the level of expression of MxNas1 and western blot to measure protein levels...
September 16, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915793/the-cacao-criollo-genome-v2-0-an-improved-version-of-the-genome-for-genetic-and-functional-genomic-studies
#6
X Argout, G Martin, G Droc, O Fouet, K Labadie, E Rivals, J M Aury, C Lanaud
BACKGROUND: Theobroma cacao L., native to the Amazonian basin of South America, is an economically important fruit tree crop for tropical countries as a source of chocolate. The first draft genome of the species, from a Criollo cultivar, was published in 2011. Although a useful resource, some improvements are possible, including identifying misassemblies, reducing the number of scaffolds and gaps, and anchoring un-anchored sequences to the 10 chromosomes. METHODS: We used a NGS-based approach to significantly improve the assembly of the Belizian Criollo B97-61/B2 genome...
September 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906457/antibacterial-properties-of-flavonoids-from-kino-of-the-eucalypt-tree-corymbia-torelliana
#7
Motahareh Nobakht, Stephen J Trueman, Helen M Wallace, Peter R Brooks, Klrissa J Streeter, Mohammad Katouli
Traditional medicine and ecological cues can both help to reveal bioactive natural compounds. Indigenous Australians have long used kino from trunks of the eucalypt tree, Corymbia citriodora, in traditional medicine. A closely related eucalypt, C. torelliana, produces a fruit resin with antimicrobial properties that is highly attractive to stingless bees. We tested the antimicrobial activity of extracts from kino of C. citriodora, C. torelliana × C. citriodora, and C. torelliana against three Gram-negative and two Gram-positive bacteria and the unicellular fungus, Candida albicans...
September 14, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900303/exploring-priming-responses-involved-in-peach-fruit-acclimation-to-cold-stress
#8
Georgia Tanou, Ioannis S Minas, Federico Scossa, Maya Belghazi, Aliki Xanthopoulou, Ioannis Ganopoulos, Panagiotis Madesis, Alisdair Fernie, Athanassios Molassiotis
Cold storage of fruit may induce the physiological disorder chilling injury (CI); however, the molecular basis of CI development remains largely unexplored. Simulated conditions of CI priming and suppression provided an interesting experimental system to study cold response in fruit. Peaches (cv. June Gold) at the commercial harvest (CH) or tree-ripe (TR) stages were immediately exposed to cold treatment (40 d, 0 °C) and an additional group of CH fruits were pre-conditioned 48 h at 20 °C prior to low-temperature exposure (pre-conditioning, PC)...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900201/deep-sequencing-reveals-the-first-fabavirus-infecting-peach
#9
Yan He, Li Cai, Lingling Zhou, Zuokun Yang, Ni Hong, Guoping Wang, Shifang Li, Wenxing Xu
A disease causing smaller and cracked fruit affects peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch], resulting in significant decreases in yield and quality. In this study, peach tree leaves showing typical symptoms were subjected to deep sequencing of small RNAs for a complete survey of presumed causal viral pathogens. The results revealed two known viroids (Hop stunt viroid and Peach latent mosaic viroid), two known viruses (Apple chlorotic leaf spot trichovirus and Plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated virus) and a novel virus provisionally named Peach leaf pitting-associated virus (PLPaV)...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894949/diet-and-feeding-ecology-of-the-western-hoolock-gibbon-hoolock-hoolock-in-a-tropical-forest-fragment-of-northeast-india
#10
Mrigakhi Borah, Ashalata Devi, Awadhesh Kumar
Forest fragmentation alters plant species diversity and composition, and causes diverse affects on the feeding behavior of wild primates. We investigated the feeding behavior and diet of two groups of western hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) inhabiting a small isolated forest patch (21 km(2)) in Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, Northeast India, over a year using focal animal sampling. H. hoolock adults spent, on average, 35.2% of their total annual activity budget on feeding, and fed on young leaves, mature leaves, flowers, fruits, petioles, buds and also on animal matter...
September 11, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890721/development-and-application-of-transcriptome-derived-microsatellites-in-actinidia-eriantha-actinidiaceae
#11
Rui Guo, Jacob B Landis, Michael J Moore, Aiping Meng, Shuguang Jian, Xiaohong Yao, Hengchang Wang
Actinidia eriantha Benth. is a diploid perennial woody vine native to China and is recognized as a valuable species for commercial kiwifruit improvement with high levels of ascorbic acid as well as having been used in traditional Chinese medicine. Due to the lack of genomic resources for the species, microsatellite markers for population genetics studies are scarce. In this study, RNASeq was conducted on fruit tissue of A. eriantha, yielding 5,678,129 reads with a total output of 3.41 Gb. De novo assembly yielded 69,783 non-redundant unigenes (41...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888089/antidiabetic-potential-of-polyphenolic-rich-fraction-of-tamarindus-indica-seed-coat-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-rats
#12
Santosh Singh Bhadoriya, Aditya Ganeshpurkar, Ravi Pratap Singh Bhadoriya, Sanjeev Kumar Sahu, Jay Ram Patel
BACKGROUND: Tamarindus is a monotypic genus and belongs to the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), Tamarindus indica L., commonly known as Tamarind tree is one of the most important multipurpose tropical fruit tree species in the India, Sudan, Nigeria, Bangladesh and entire subcontinent. METHODS: Hydroethanolic seed coat extract of Tamarindus indica (HETI) was assessed for presence of phytoconstituents and selection of optimum dose through acute and sub acute toxicity study...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887644/habitat-fragmentation-leads-to-reduced-pollinator-visitation-fruit-production-and-recruitment-in-urban-mangrove-forests
#13
Tyge D Hermansen, Todd E Minchinton, David J Ayre
Mangrove forests worldwide undergo anthropogenic fragmentation that may threaten their existence, and yet there have been few tests of the effects of fragmentation on demographic processes critical for mangrove regeneration. Predicting the effects of habitat fragmentation on mangroves is problematic as pollinators may move more freely across water than terrestrial habitat, and propagules can be widely dispersed by water. Here, within each of two estuaries, we compared pollinator diversity and activity, reproductive effort and output, and rates of recruitment for sets of three large (>1500 trees), medium (300-500) and small (<50) stands...
September 8, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882548/pleistocene-fossil-woods-from-the-okote-member-site-fwjj-14-in-the-ileret-region-koobi-fora-formation-northern-kenya
#14
Marion K Bamford
On the eastern side of Lake Turkana in northern Kenya are extensive Plio-Pleistocene deposits containing a rich diversity of fossil mammals, hominins and flora within the radiometrically dated tuffaceous, lacustrine and fluvial sequence. Reconstruction of this landscape and paleoenvironment are part of an ongoing multinational and multidisciplinary human evolution project in the eastern Turkana Basin. Today there is a huge lake in the Rift Valley but it has fluctuated since the early Pliocene. Silicified wood is fairly common in some areas of the Koobi Fora Formation...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878801/crispr-cas9-a-practical-approach-in-date-palm-genome-editing
#15
REVIEW
Muhammad N Sattar, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad N Tahir, Muhammad S Shahid, Muhammad Khurshid, Abdullatif A Al-Khateeb, Suliman A Al-Khateeb
The genetic modifications through breeding of crop plants have long been used to improve the yield and quality. However, precise genome editing (GE) could be a very useful supplementary tool for improvement of crop plants by targeted genome modifications. Various GE techniques including ZFNs (zinc finger nucleases), TALENs (transcription activator-like effector nucleases), and most recently clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9)-based approaches have been successfully employed for various crop plants including fruit trees...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878169/enhancement-of-antioxidant-systems-and-storability-of-two-plum-cultivars-by-preharvest-treatments-with-salicylates
#16
Alejandra Martínez-Esplá, María Serrano, Daniel Valero, Domingo Martínez-Romero, Salvador Castillo, Pedro J Zapata
In this research the effect of salicylic acid (SA), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), and methylsalicylate (MeSA) treatments, applied as a foliar spray during on-tree plum development, on fruit quality attributes, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes at harvest and after long-term cold storage was evaluated in two plum cultivars ("Black Splendor", BS, and "Royal Rosa", RR). At harvest, plum quality parameters, such as weight, total phenolics (including anthocyanins, in BS), total carotenoids, and antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds were found at higher levels in plums from SA-, ASA-, and MeSA-treated trees than in those from control trees...
September 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877369/diet-and-feeding-behavior-of-a-group-of-42-phayre-s-langurs-in-a-seasonal-habitat-in-mt-gaoligong-yunnan-china
#17
Chi Ma, Peng-Fei Fan, Zhong-Yuan Zhang, Jia-Hong Li, Xiao-Chun Shi, Wen Xiao
In habitats such as temperate evergreen forests, fruit, and seed productivity is reported to exhibit marked changes in seasonal availability, such that fruit is most available in summer and seeds are most available in autumn. Primates living in these habitats, therefore, are expected to adjust their diets in response to the spatial and temporal variation in these food resources. We studied the diet and feeding behavior of a group of 42 Phayre's langurs (Trachypithecus phayrei) living in a northern (24°48'N) montane habitat (1,700-2,350 m) in Mt...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877248/flying-foxes-create-extensive-seed-shadows-and-enhance-germination-success-of-pioneer-plant-species-in-deforested-madagascan-landscapes
#18
Ryszard Oleksy, Luca Giuggioli, Thomas J McKetterick, Paul A Racey, Gareth Jones
Seed dispersal plays a significant role in forest regeneration and maintenance. Flying foxes are often posited as effective long-distance seed dispersers due to their large home ranges and ability to disperse seeds when flying. We evaluate the importance of the Madagascan flying fox Pteropus rufus in the maintenance and regeneration of forests in one of the world's priority conservation areas. We tested germination success of over 20,000 seeds from the figs Ficus polita, F. grevei and F. lutea extracted from bat faeces and ripe fruits under progressively more natural conditions, ranging from petri-dishes to outdoor environments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873619/long-term-field-evaluation-of-the-changes-in-fruit-and-olive-oil-chemical-compositions-after-agronomic-application-of-olive-mill-wastewater-with-rock-phosphate
#19
Meriem Tekaya, Sinda El-Gharbi, Hechmi Chehab, Faouzi Attia, Mohamed Hammami, Beligh Mechri
The objectives of this study were to determine the long-term effects of agronomic application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) with rock phosphate (RP) in a field of olive trees, on olive fruits and oil quality. The results revealed that olive fruits of OMW-RP amended plants had higher contents of polyphenols and mannitol indicating that agronomic application of OMW with RP generated an oxidative stress. Land spreading of OMW with RP altered the relative proportions of individual sugars in leaves and fruits. Consequently, the oil content decreased significantly, and a marked decrease in the contents of carotenoids and chlorophylls was also observed...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870075/cerium-dioxide-mediated-signal-on-off-by-resonance-energy-transfer-on-a-lab-on-paper-device-for-ultrasensitive-detection-of-lead-ions
#20
Yuzhen Huang, Li Li, Yan Zhang, Lina Zhang, Shenguang Ge, Hao Li, Jinghua Yu
In this report, a 3D microfluidic lab-on-paper device for ultrasensitive detection of lead cation was designed using phoenix tree fruit-shaped CeO2 nanoparticles (PFCeO2 NPs) as the catalyst and 50 nm silver NPs (Ag NPs) as the quencher. First, snowflake-like Ag NPs were grown on the paper working electrode through an in situ growth method and used as a matrix for DNAzymes that were specific for lead ions (Pb(2+)). After the addition of Ag NP-labeled substrate strands, the Ag NPs restrained the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) intensity of luminol greatly through the resonance energy transfer from luminol to Ag NPs...
September 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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