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Phytochemicals

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932939/plant-defense-and-herbivore-counter-defense-benzoxazinoids-and-insect-herbivores
#1
REVIEW
Felipe C Wouters, Blair Blanchette, Jonathan Gershenzon, Daniel G Vassão
Benzoxazinoids are a class of indole-derived plant chemical defenses comprising compounds with a 2-hydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one skeleton and their derivatives. These phytochemicals are widespread in grasses, including important cereal crops such as maize, wheat and rye, as well as a few dicot species, and display a wide range of antifeedant, insecticidal, antimicrobial, and allelopathic activities. Although their overall effects against insect herbivores are frequently reported, much less is known about how their modes of action specifically influence insect physiology...
2016: Phytochemistry Reviews: Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931683/in-silico-pass-analysis-and-determination-of-antimycobacterial-antifungal-and-antioxidant-efficacies-of-maslinic-acid-in-an-extract-rich-in-pentacyclic-triterpenoids
#2
Prasad G Jamkhande, Shahbaz K Pathan, Shailesh J Wadher
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Microbial infections such as tuberculosis is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Plant-derived phytochemicals have a long history of providing much-needed novel therapeutics. Triterpenoids are among the prominent phytochemicals that possess numerous biological activities. Among them is maslinic acid (MA), a biologically active olean-type pentacyclic triterpenoid. In search of a novel antimicrobial agent, we aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of MA. METHODS: Antibacterial and antifungal activity was evaluated through the agar well diffusion method...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931028/sustained-effects-of-neonatal-systemic-lipopolysaccharide-on-il-1%C3%AE-and-nrf2-in-adult-rat-substantia-nigra-are-partly-normalized-by-a-spirulina-enriched-diet
#3
Jaspal Patil, Ashok Matte, Hans Nissbrandt, Carina Mallard, Mats Sandberg
BACKGROUND/AIM: Neonatal infection can sensitize the adult substantia nigra (SN) to secondary insults, causing a decrease in antioxidant capacity which may lead to Parkinson's disease in adults. We studied the prolonged effect of systemic infection by (i.p.) administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on interleukin (IL)-1β, the antioxidant regulator nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)-1α in rat SN...
December 9, 2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930975/adaptogenic-herb-ginseng-panax-as-medical-food-status-quo-and-future-prospects
#4
REVIEW
Seema Patel, Abdur Rauf
Ginseng, an herbaceous plant, belonging to the family Araliaceae is a traditional medicinal herb. Also, it is emerging as a functional food and potent adjunct medicine. Saponin ginsenosides (protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol) are the signature phytochemicals of this plant. With the surfacing of scientific validations, ginseng is gaining unprecedented attention from consumers as well as researchers. As a number of drug-herb interaction-caused health issues have emerged, the medicinal relevance of this plant has been critically assessed here...
December 5, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930927/arsenic-affects-the-production-of-glucosinolate-thiol-and-phytochemical-compounds-a-comparison-of-two-brassica-cultivars
#5
Chandana Pandey, Rehna Augustine, Medha Panthri, Ismat Zia, Naveen C Bisht, Meetu Gupta
Arsenic (As), a non-essential metalloid, severely affects the normal functioning of plants, animals and humans. Plants play a crucial role in metabolic, physiological and numerous detoxification mechanisms to cope up with As induced stress. This study aimed to examine the differential response in two Brassica juncea cultivars, Varuna and Pusa Jagannath (PJn) exposed to different doses of As (50, 150, 300 μM) for 48 h duration. Change in morphological traits, concentration of individual as well as total GSL, sulfur related thiol proteins, sulfur content, and phytochemicals were analyzed in both cultivars...
November 30, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927886/biostability-of-the-proanthocyanidins-dentin-complex-and-adhesion-studies
#6
A A Leme-Kraus, B Aydin, C M P Vidal, R M Phansalkar, J W Nam, J McAlpine, G F Pauli, S Chen, A K Bedran-Russo
Oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPACs) are potent and renewable natural bioactives possible to be refined into chemically standardized mixtures for biological applications. Herein, we found that multiscale interactions of OPACs with the dentin matrix create tight biointerfaces with hydrophobic methacrylate adhesives on wet surfaces. An enriched mixture of OPACs, with a known phytochemical profile, was produced from grape seed crude extract (Vitis vinifera; enriched grape seed extract [e-GSE]) and applied to dentin matrices to determine changes to the mechanical properties and biodegradability of the dentin matrix and favorable resin adhesion mechanisms...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927194/melastoma-malabathricum-linn-attenuates-complete-freund-s-adjuvant-induced-chronic-inflammation-in-wistar-rats-via-inflammation-response
#7
Vikas Kumar, Prakash Chandra Bhatt, Mahfoozur Rahman, Dinesh Kumar Patel, Nikunj Sethi, Atul Kumar, Nikhil Kumar Sachan, Gaurav Kaithwas, F A Al-Abbasi, Firoz Anwar, Amita Verma
BACKGROUND: Natural products use for arthritis treatment is gaining importance in the medical worldt. Various studies reports medical importance of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. (MM) (Melastomataceae), also known as "putki," has a broad range of health benefits, for its free radical scavenging constituents. The current investigation scrutinizes the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of MM against adjuvant-induced arthritis in experimental rats. METHODS: High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) was used for estimation of phytochemical-constituents present in the MM extract...
December 7, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925471/lc-ms-ms-and-gc-ms-analyses-of-biologically-active-extracts-and-fractions-from-tunisian-juniperus-phoenice-leaves
#8
Henda Keskes, Sahla Belhadj, Lobna Jlail, Abdelfattah El Feki, Mohamed Damak, Sami Sayadi, Noureddine Allouche
CONTEXT: Despite some studies related to Juniperus phoenicea L. (Cupressaceae), phytochemical and biological investigations of this plant remain unexplored. OBJECTIVE: This work is the first report dealing with the identification and characterization of volatile components and flavonoids in hexane and methanol extracts from J. phoenicea leaves Materials and methods: Antioxidant activity of hexane, and methanol extracts from J. phoenicea leaves were determined by DPPH-radical scavenging assay...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919625/an-insight-study-on-hptlc-fingerprinting-of-mukia-maderaspatana-mechanism-of-bioactive-constituents-in-metal-nanoparticle-synthesis-and-its-activity-against-human-pathogens
#9
G Karthiga Devi, K Sathish Kumar, R Parthiban, K Kalishwarlal
The present work reports the development of a Simple, rapid and eco-friendly route for the biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacterial pathogens in the wound infected area. The synthesis was done using Mukia maderasapatna plant extract as a reducing agent. FT-IR analysis reported that the methanol extract was found to contain maximum number of functional groups which is responsible for the reduction of metal ions to metal nanoparticles...
December 2, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919166/phytochemical-profiles-and-antioxidant-activity-of-27-cultivars-of-tea
#10
Liang Zeng, Liyong Luo, Hongjun Li, Ruihai Liu
Tea, rich in phytochemicals, has been suggested to have human health benefits. The phenolic profiles, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of 27 tea cultivars were determined. Wide ranges of variation were found in analyzed cultivars for the contents of water-soluble phenolics (121.6-223.7 mg/g dry weight (DW)), total catechins (TC) (90.5-177.2 mg/g DW), antioxidant activities (PSC values 627.3-2332.3 μmol of vitamin C equiv/g DW, ORAC values (1865.1-3489.3 μmol of vitamin C equiv/g DW), CAA values (37...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918833/effects-of-lead-phytochemicals-of-radix-scutellariae-on-acanthamoeba
#11
Pauline Cho, Guangsen Shi, Maurice Yap, Maureen V Boost
Purpose: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), which is associated with noncompliant use of contact lenses, remains difficult to treat due to delayed diagnosis and paucity of therapeutic agents. Although improvements in activity against Acanthamoeba infection have been achieved in disinfecting solutions for soft contact lenses, such modifications have not been extended to those for special rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses, which are increasingly used for myopia control in children. Phytochemicals present in herbs used for traditional Chinese medicine may be effective as therapeutic or preventive agents...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918436/characterization-of-chemical-compounds-with-antioxidant-and-cytotoxic-activities-in-bougainvillea-x-buttiana-holttum-and-standl-var-rose-extracts
#12
Rodolfo Abarca-Vargas, Carlos F Peña Malacara, Vera L Petricevich
Bougainvillea is widely used in traditional Mexican medicine to treat several diseases. This study was designed to characterize the chemical constituents of B. x buttiana extracts with antioxidant and cytotoxic activities using different solvents. The extraction solvents used were as follows: distilled water (dH₂O), methanol (MeOH), acetone (DMK), ethanol (EtOH), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), dichloromethane (DCM), and hexane (Hex) (100%) at an extraction temperature of 26 °C. Analysis of bioactive compounds present in the B...
December 2, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918057/functional-bioactive-biochemical-and-physicochemical-properties-of-the-dolichos-lablab-bean
#13
Hosam M Habib, Serah W Theuri, Ehab E Kheadr, Fedah E Mohamed
The underutilized Kenyan variety of Dolichos lablab bean seeds serves as a good source of nutrients. This study was undertaken for the first time to address the limited knowledge regarding the bioactive, biochemical, physicochemical, and functional properties of Dolichos lablab beans. Proximate analysis, mineral, total and free amino acid profiles, total protein, total dietary and profile of fiber, carotenoids and fat soluble vitamins, total phenolics, and total flavonoids were evaluated. The results clearly show that Dolichos lablab beans contain many health-promoting components, such as fiber, proteins, minerals, and numerous phytochemicals endowed with useful biological activities, that allow it to contribute in a relevant way to the daily intake of these nutrients...
December 5, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917660/phytochemical-investigations-on-artemisia-alba-turra-growing-in-the-north-east-of-italy
#14
Gregorio Peron, Valeria Baldan, Stefania Sut, Marta Faggian, Lorenzo Roccabruna, Daniele Zanini, Paolo Manzini, Filippo Maggi, Stefano Dall'Acqua
Artemisia alba Turra (Asteraceae) is an Euro-Mediterranean plant used in Veneto (North-East of Italy) as traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. A. alba is a taxonomically problematic species, characterised by common polymorphism leading to a quite high variability in secondary metabolites content. Nonetheless, the phytochemical knowledge on its phytoconstituents, especially non-volatile components, is limited. In the present paper, the phytochemical composition of a tincture obtained from the aerial parts of A...
December 5, 2016: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916782/cytotoxic-homoisoflavonoids-from-ophiopogon-japonicus-tubers
#15
Nguyen Hai Dang, Nguyen Dinh Chung, Ha Manh Tuan, Nguyen Tuan Hiep, Nguyen Tien Dat
A phytochemical fractionation of a methanol extract of Ophiopogon japonicus tubers led to the isolation of a new homoisoflavanone, homoisopogon A (1), and three new homoisoflavanes, homoisopogon B-D (2-4). Their chemical structures were elucidated by mass, NMR, and CD spectroscopic methods. Homoisopogon A (1) exhibited potent cytotoxicity against LU-1, KB, and SK-Mel-2 cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.51 to 0.66 μM.
December 3, 2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916587/genetic-toxicity-of-epimedium-koreanum-nakai
#16
Youn-Hwan Hwang, Hey Jin Yang, Nam-Hui Yim, Jin Yeul Ma
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In Eastern Asia, E. koreanum Nakai (EKN) has traditionally been used as an aphrodisiac herbal medicine. However, there was no available information for its genotoxicity. This study was conducted to evaluate the genotoxic potentials of EKN. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The phytochemicals of EKN were identified using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Three standard battery of genotoxicity assay for bacterial reverse mutation, mammalian chromosomal aberration and in vivo micronuclei formation was employed...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916421/protective-potential-of-averrhoa-bilimbi-fruits-in-ameliorating-the-hepatic-key-enzymes-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#17
Surya B Kurup, Mini S
BACK GROUND: Diabetes is a mutifactorial disease which leads to several complications. Currently available drug regimens for management of diabetes have certain drawbacks. Need for safer and effective medicines from natural sources having potent antidiabetic activity. Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. (Oxalidaceae) is a medicinal plant and is reported to possess hypoglycemic activity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antidiabetic potential of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
December 1, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915455/overexpression-of-atedt1-promotes-root-elongation-and-affects-medicinal-secondary-metabolite-biosynthesis-in-roots-of-transgenic-salvia-miltiorrhiza
#18
Yu Liu, Geng Sun, Zhaohui Zhong, Linyi Ji, Yong Zhang, Jianping Zhou, Xuelian Zheng, Kejun Deng
Medicinal secondary metabolites (salvianolic acids and tanshinones) are valuable natural bioactive compounds in Salvia miltiorrhiza and have widespread applications. Improvement of medicinal secondary metabolite accumulation through biotechnology is necessary and urgent to satisfy their increasing demand. Herein, it was demonstrated that the overexpression of the transcription factor Arabidopsis thaliana-enhanced drought tolerance 1 (AtEDT1) could affect medicinal secondary metabolite accumulation. In this study, we observed that the transgenic lines significantly conferred drought tolerance phenotype...
December 3, 2016: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914812/protective-effects-of-gomisin-n-against-hepatic-steatosis-through-ampk-activation
#19
Ye-Rang Yun, Ji-Hyun Kim, Ji Ha Kim, Myeong Ho Jung
Gomisin N (GN) is a phytochemical derived from Schisandra chinensis. It has been reported to exert a protective effect against hepatic steatosis by attenuating endoplasmic recticulum (ER) stress. However, the detailed mechanism by which GN inhibits hepatic steatosis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we examined whether GN activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and exerts therapeutic effects on liver X receptor (LXR)- or palmitic acid (PA)-induced triglyceride (TG) accumulation in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, in vivo protective effects of GN against hepatic steatosis were assessed in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice...
November 30, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914532/identification-of-antioxidant-activity-of-two-new-aromatic-ring-butyrolactone-derivatives-from-dictamnus-dasycarpus-turcz
#20
Li-Na Guo, Yue-Hu Pei, Fei-Xiang Xie, Lei Liu, Huan Cong, Hong-Xia Cui, Xiao-Li Wang, Wen-Jing Li, Bai-Yu Jian, Ji-Cheng Liu
The present study carried out a phytochemical investigation on the root barks of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz, leading to the isolation and characterization of two new aromatic ring butyrolactone derivatives, dasycarpusphenol acid A (1) and dasycarpusphenol acid B (2). Their structures were elucidated by using spectroscopic techniques and HR-FAB-MS. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited antioxidant activity, with their IC50 values being 28.95 and 41.76 mg·mL(-1), respectively.
November 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
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