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Phytochemicals

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913298/antihypertensive-effect-of-the-methanolic-extract-from-eruca-sativa-mill-brassicaceae-in-rats-muscarinic-receptor-linked-vasorelaxant-and-cardiotonic-effects
#1
Umme Salma, Taous Khan, Abdul Jabbar Shah
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Eruca sativa Mill., (Brassicaceae) is a popular remedy for the treatment of hypertension in Pakistan. However, direct effect of the extract and its fractions on blood pressure and vascular tone are unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: This investigation was aimed to explore the pharmacological base for the traditional use of E. sativa in hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In-vivo blood pressure study was carried out using normotensive and high salt-induced hypertensive rats under anaesthesia...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909490/heavy-metals-in-indigenous-preparations-used-for-sex-selection-during-pregnancy-in-india
#2
Abhijit Ganguli, Pragya Rai, Sarala Balachandran, Rakesh Gupta, Rashmi Sharma, Sutapa Bandyopadhyay Neogi
Indigenous preparations (IPs) have evoked a considerable interest in alleviating infections and chronic diseases and improving wellbeing. While such formulations have been a part of traditional practice in several countries and many have been reviewed scientifically for their claims, several of them until date remain to be investigated. A class of IPs for sex selection by Indian pregnant women exists with an aim of begetting a male offspring. In view of the leads obtained from our previous studies on detrimental effects of the newborn, for instance stillbirths and congenital malformations, we attempted to investigate the samples for heavy metal toxicity...
June 16, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909120/integrated-in-silico-in-vitro-strategy-for-screening-of-some-traditional-egyptian-plants-for-human-aromatase-inhibitors
#3
Hend M Dawood, Reham S Ibrahim, Eman Shawky, Hala M A Hammoda, Aly M Metwally
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aromatase enzyme (CYP19) is widely known as a critical target protein for treating hormone-dependent breast cancer. Natural products from traditional medicinal plants continue to be an active source of aromatase inhibitors. Meanwhile, high cost of experimental work and low hit rate associated with HTS have stimulated the implementation of in-silico virtual screening to resolve these pitfalls, where coupling of both classical wet lab procedure and VS may offer a more deepened access to bioactive compounds with less work and time waste...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908834/hormonally-active-phytochemicals-from-macroalgae-a-largely-untapped-source-of-ligands-to-deorphanize-nuclear-receptors-in-emerging-marine-animal-models
#4
REVIEW
Gabriel V Markov, Jean Girard, Vincent Laudet, Catherine Leblanc
Hormonally active phytochemicals (HAPs) are signaling molecules produced by plants that alter hormonal signaling in animals, due to consumption or environmental exposure. To date, HAPs have been investigated mainly in terrestrial ecosystems. To gain a full understanding of the origin and evolution of plant-animal interactions, it is necessary also to study these interactions in the marine environment, where the major photosynthetic lineages are very distant from the terrestrial plants. Here we focus on chemicals from red and brown macroalgae and point out their potential role as modulators of the endocrine system of aquatic animals through nuclear hormone receptors...
June 14, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908577/traditional-and-ethnobotanical-dermatology-practices-in-africa
#5
Ncoza C Dlova, Moses A Ollengo
More than 80% of the global population depends on traditional medicine for their basic primary health care needs. Africa has a well-established history of botanicals use. These include a vast array of compounds that can be used to treat various skin-related conditions. The rationale for the use of traditional medicine in skincare stems from the physical effects these compounds have on skin, such as the ability to control bleeding and speed up wound healing, as well as the potential to treat burns and other disorders of pigmentation...
May 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908309/anti-inflammatory-and-antibacterial-effects-of-thymus-sipyleus-boiss-subsp-sipyleus-boiss-var-sipyleus-l-essential-oil-against-rhinosinusitis-pathogens
#6
Fatih Demirci, Nursenem Karaca, Mehmet Tekin, Betül Demirci
Thymus sipyleus BOISS. subsp. sipyleus BOISS. var. sipyleus L. of the Lamiaceae, locally known as thyme scented lemon, which is an endemic taxon collected from Sivas in Anatolia, was investigated in this study due to its folk medicine use against rhinosinusitis. The aromatic characteristics of the plant material gave the idea for the detailed evaluation of the volatiles and essential oil thereof. Consequently, the oil was obtained by Clevenger type hydrodistillation followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analyses for phytochemical characterization...
June 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906656/variability-in-the-composition-of-phenolic-compounds-in-winter-dormant-salix-pyrolifolia-in-relation-to-plant-part-and-age
#7
Anu Lavola, Merja Maukonen, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto
The phenolic phytochemicals of winter-dormant Salix pyrolifolia were determined from the vegetative buds, and the bark and wood of different-aged twigs by HPLC-DAD and UHPLC-QTOF-MS analyses. All the plant parts were composed of salicylate glucosides and the other Salix-specific, simple phenolic glucosides as well as of phenolic acids, flavonoids and the high molecular-weight condensed tannins. The flavonoid composition was most diverse in buds and they also contained a large amount of chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid IUPAC), while salicylate glucosides and simple phenolic glucosides predominated in bark...
June 12, 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906557/pro-apoptotic-activity-of-new-triterpenoid-saponins-from-the-roots-of-albizia-adianthifolia-schumach-w-wight
#8
Olivier Placide Noté, Eutrophe Le Doux Kamto, Daniel Djou Toukea, Sarah Ali Aouazou, Joséphine Ngo Mbing, Christian Dominique Muller, Dominique Guillaume, Dieudonné Emmanuel Pegnyemb
As part of our study of the proapoptotic function of saponins from Cameroonian's Albizia genus, phytochemical investigation of the roots of Albizia adianthifolia led to the isolation of three new triterpenoid saponins, named adianthifoliosides GI (13). Their structures were established on the basis of extensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR (1 H-, 13 C NMR, DEPT, COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY and HMBC) and HRESIMS experiments, and by chemical evidence as 3-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-fucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-21-O-{(2E,6S)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-methyl-6-O-{4-O-[(2E,6S)-2,6-dimethyl-6-O-(β-D-quinovopyranosyl)octa-2,7-dienoyl]-(β-D-quinovopyranosyl)octa-2,7-dienoyl]}acacic acid-28-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-[5-O-acetyl-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 → 4)]-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (1), 3-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-fucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-21-O-{(2E,6S)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-methyl-6-O-{4-O-[(2E,6S)-2,6-dimethyl-6-O-(β-D-quinovopyranosyl)octa-2,7-dienoyl]-(β-D-quinovopyranosyl)octa-2,7-dienoyl]}acacic acid 28-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-[α-L-arabinofuranosyl-1 → 4)]-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (2), and 3-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-fucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-21-O-{(2E,6S)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-methyl-6-O-{4-O-[(2E,6S)-2,6-dimethyl-6-O-(β-D-quinovopyranosyl)octa-2,7-dienoyl]-4-O-[(2E,6S)-2,6-dimethyl-6-O-(β-D-quinovopyranosyl)octa-2,7-dienoyl]-β-D-quinovopyranosyl}-2,6-dimethylocta-2,7-dienoyl}acacic acid 28-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-[α-L-arabinofuranosyl-1 → 4)]-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (3)...
June 12, 2018: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904686/data-on-investigation-of-hypoglycemic-anti-cholesteremic-in-vivo-antioxidant-and-pancreatic-beta-cell-protective-effect-of-putranjiva-roxburghii-wall-bark-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#9
Kedar Kalyani Abhimanyu, Chaudhari Sanjay Ravindra, Rao Srinivasa Avanapu
The data existing in this article are associated to the antidiabetic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Putranjiva roxburghii Wall barks (EAPR) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats at a dose of 250 & 500 mg/kg by oral route for 21 days. The phytochemical screening of the extract was carried out by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (50 mg/kg; i.p), EAPR (250 & 500 mg/kg; b.wt) and standard Insulin (6 IU/animal; subcutaneous; o.i.d) were administered to the diabetic rats...
June 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904587/indole-3-carbinol-a-plant-hormone-combatting-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Ella Katz, Sophia Nisani, Daniel A Chamovitz
A diet rich in cruciferous vegetables such as cauliflower, broccoli, and cabbage has long been considered healthy, and various epidemiological studies suggest that the consumption of cruciferous vegetables contributes to a cancer-protecting diet. While these vegetables contain a vast array of phytochemicals, the mechanism by which these vegetables counteract cancer is still largely unresolved. Numerous in situ studies have implicated indole-3-carbinol, a breakdown product of the glucosinolate indole-3-ylmethylglucosinolate, as one of the phytochemicals with anti-cancer properties...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902661/a-feasibility-study-of-the-toxic-responses-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-hepatocytes-to-phytochemicals
#11
Tomáš Smutný, Riina Harjumäki, Liisa Kanninen, Marjo Yliperttula, Petr Pávek, Yan-Ru Lou
Herbal medicines have been increasingly used in the last three decades. Despite their popularity, safety issues with herbal products need to be addressed. We performed a feasibility study of the toxic responses of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes (iHep cells) to phytochemicals in comparison with hepatoblasoma-derived HepG2 cells and long-term human hepatocytes (LTHHs). The iHep cells expressed typical hepatocyte markers cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, and albumin despite the expression of immature markers α-fetoprotein and cytokeratin 19...
June 11, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901194/anti-angiogenic-activity-of-middle-east-medicinal-plants-of-the-lamiaceae-family
#12
Qasem Abdallah, Ibrahim Al-Deeb, Ammar Bader, Fayez Hamam, Kamel Saleh, Amin Abdulmajid
Angiogenesis plays a crucial role in malignant tumor progression and development. The present study aimed to identify lead plants with selective anti-angiogenic properties. A total of 26 methanolic extracts obtained from 18 plants growing in Saudi Arabia and Jordan that belong to the Lamiaceae family were screened for their cytotoxic and anti-angiogenic activities using MTT and rat aortic ring assays, respectively. Four novel extracts of Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav., Phlomis viscosa Poir, Salvia samuelssonii Rech...
June 12, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900888/antimicrobial-effect-of-dimethyl-sulfoxide-and-n-n-dimethylformamide-on-mycobacterium-abscessus-implications-for-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing
#13
Zara I Kirkwood, Beverley Cherie Millar, Damian G Downey, John E Moore
Background: The emergence of antimicrobial resistance globally has initiated the discovery of novel antibiotics and other antimicrobial substances. Many of these novel compounds may be found in phytochemicals, where these novel compounds are extremely difficult to redissolve for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, following extraction. The aim of this study was to examine the potential antimicrobial effects of the common solvents, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF), which are commonly employed as solvents of novel antimicrobial substances, with the nontuberculous Mycobacterium and Mycobacterium abscessus...
April 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899462/phytochemicals-mediated-production-of-hydrogen-peroxide-is-crucial-for-high-antibacterial-activity-of-honeydew-honey
#14
Marcela Bucekova, Monika Buriova, Ladislav Pekarik, Viktor Majtan, Juraj Majtan
Honeydew honey is increasingly valued due to its pronounced antibacterial potential; however, the underlying mechanism and compounds responsible for the strong antibacterial activity of honeydew honey are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition of bacterial growth of 23 honeydew honey samples. Activity of bee-derived glucose oxidase (GOX) enzyme, the content of defensin-1 (Def-1) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), and total polyphenol content were determined in the 23 honey samples...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897091/synthetic-biology-strategies-toward-heterologous-phytochemical-production
#15
REVIEW
Benjamin J Kotopka, Yanran Li, Christina D Smolke
Covering: 2006 to 2018Phytochemicals are important sources for the discovery and development of agricultural and pharmaceutical compounds, such as pesticides and medicines. However, these compounds are typically present in low abundance in nature, and the biosynthetic pathways for most phytochemicals are not fully elucidated. Heterologous production of phytochemicals in plant, bacterial, and yeast hosts has been pursued as a potential approach to address sourcing issues associated with many valuable phytochemicals, and more recently has been utilized as a tool to aid in the elucidation of plant biosynthetic pathways...
June 13, 2018: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896963/phytochemical-study-of-salvia-leriifolia-roots-rearranged-abietane-diterpenoids-with-antiprotozoal-activity
#16
Mahdi M Farimani, Bahareh Khodaei, Hanzaleh Moradi, Abbas Aliabadi, Samad N Ebrahimi, Maria De Mieri, Marcel Kaiser, Matthias Hamburger
Phytochemical investigation of the lipophilic extract of the roots of Salvia leriifolia resulted in the isolation of the new rearranged abietane diterpenoids leriifoliol (1) and leriifolione (2), together with 10 known diterpenoids. Structure elucidations were performed via extensive NMR and HRESIMS data, and the absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 3-5 were established by evaluation of experimental and calculated ECD spectra. The antiplasmodial activity of the new isolates was assayed against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896786/functional-characterization-of-cyp4g11-a-highly-conserved-enzyme-in-the-western-honey-bee-apis-mellifera
#17
Bernarda Calla, Marina MacLean, Ling-Hsiu Liao, Inderpreet Dhanjal, Claus Tittiger, Gary J Blomquist, May R Berenbaum
Determining the functionality of CYP4G11, the only CYP4G in the genome of the western honeybee Apis mellifera, can provide insight into its reduced CYP4 inventory. Toward this objective, CYP4G11 transcripts were quantified, and CYP4G11 was expressed as a fusion protein with housefly CPR in Sf9 cells. Transcript levels varied with age, task, and tissue type in a manner consistent with the need for cuticular hydrocarbon production to prevent desiccation or with comb wax production. Young larvae, with minimal need for desiccation protection, expressed CYP4G11 at very low levels...
June 12, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896105/anti-neuroinflammatory-potential-of-natural-products-in-attenuation-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Bushra Shal, Wei Ding, Hussain Ali, Yeong S Kim, Salman Khan
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with dementia and cognitive impairment most common in elderly population. Various pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed by numerous researcher, although, exact mechanism is not yet elucidated. Several studies have been indicated that neuroinflammation associated with deposition of amyloid- beta (Aβ) in brain is a major hallmark toward the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. So, there is a need to unravel the link of inflammatory process in neurodegeneration...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895799/innovative-natural-ingredients-based-multiple-emulsions-the-effect-on-human-skin-moisture-sebum-content-pore-size-and-pigmentation
#19
Ugne Cizauskaite, Jurga Bernatoniene
The increased interest in natural cosmetics has resulted in a higher market demand for preservative-free products based on herbal ingredients. An innovative W/O/W type emulsions containing herbal extracts were prepared directly; its cation form was induced by an ethanolic rosemary extract and stabilized using weak herbal gels. Due to the wide phytochemical composition of herbal extracts and the presence of alcohol in the emulsion system, which can cause skin irritation, sensitization or dryness when applied topically, the safety of the investigated drug delivery system is necessary...
June 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895490/what-s-in-the-box-authentication-of-echinacea-herbal-products-using-dna-metabarcoding-and-hptlc
#20
Ancuta Cristina Raclariu, Carmen Elena Ţebrencu, Mihael Cristin Ichim, Oana Teodora Ciupercǎ, Anne Krag Brysting, Hugo de Boer
BACKGROUND: Differences in regulatory policies between countries as well as a lack of appropriate standardized methods for the authentication and quality control of herbal products directly impact their quality and safety. Echinacea products are among the top-selling herbal products in Europe and the United States with indications for a broad range of ailments. The increased use of Echinacea species has led to concerns about adulterated products resulting from challenges in morphology-based identification, due to overlapping morphological variation, frequent hybridization between species, and deliberate adulteration...
May 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
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