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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933070/transcriptional-responses-in-root-and-leaf-of-prunus-persica-under-drought-stress-using-rna-sequencing
#1
Najla Ksouri, Sergio Jiménez, Christina E Wells, Bruno Contreras-Moreira, Yolanda Gogorcena
Prunus persica L. Batsch, or peach, is one of the most important crops and it is widely established in irrigated arid and semi-arid regions. However, due to variations in the climate and the increased aridity, drought has become a major constraint, causing crop losses worldwide. The use of drought-tolerant rootstocks in modern fruit production appears to be a useful method of alleviating water deficit problems. However, the transcriptomic variation and the major molecular mechanisms that underlie the adaptation of drought-tolerant rootstocks to water shortage remain unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922629/a-collection-of-european-sweet-cherry-phenology-data-for-assessing-climate-change
#2
Bénédicte Wenden, José Antonio Campoy, Julien Lecourt, Gregorio López Ortega, Michael Blanke, Sanja Radičević, Elisabeth Schüller, Andreas Spornberger, Danilo Christen, Hugo Magein, Daniela Giovannini, Carlos Campillo, Svetoslav Malchev, José Miguel Peris, Mekjell Meland, Rolf Stehr, Gérard Charlot, José Quero-García
Professional and scientific networks built around the production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) led to the collection of phenology data for a wide range of cultivars grown in experimental sites characterized by highly contrasted climatic conditions. We present a dataset of flowering and maturity dates, recorded each year for one tree when available, or the average of several trees for each cultivar, over a period of 37 years (1978-2015). Such a dataset is extremely valuable for characterizing the phenological response to climate change, and the plasticity of the different cultivars' behaviour under different environmental conditions...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893758/multiple-browsers-structure-tree-recruitment-in-logged-temperate-forests
#3
Edward K Faison, Stephen DeStefano, David R Foster, Joshua M Rapp, Justin A Compton
Historical extirpations have resulted in depauperate large herbivore assemblages in many northern forests. In eastern North America, most forests are inhabited by a single wild ungulate species, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and relationships between deer densities and impacts on forest regeneration are correspondingly well documented. Recent recolonizations by moose (Alces americanus) in northeastern regions complicate established deer density thresholds and predictions of browsing impacts on forest dynamics because size and foraging differences between the two animals suggest a lack of functional redundancy...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888579/non-target-effects-of-fungicides-on-nectar-inhabiting-fungi-of-almond-flowers
#4
Robert N Schaeffer, Rachel L Vannette, Claire Brittain, Neal M Williams, Tadashi Fukami
Nectar mediates interactions between plants and pollinators in natural and agricultural systems. Specialized microorganisms are common nectar inhabitants, and potentially important mediators of plant-pollinator interactions. However, their diversity and role in mediating pollination services in agricultural systems are poorly characterized. Moreover, agrochemicals are commonly applied to minimize crop damage, but may present ecological consequences for non-target organisms. Assessment of ecological risk has tended to focus on beneficial macroorganisms such as pollinators, with less attention paid to microorganisms...
November 26, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878597/the-sweet-cherry-prunus-avium-flowering-locus-t-gene-is-expressed-during-floral-bud-determination-and-can-promote-flowering-in-a-winter-annual-arabidopsis-accession
#5
Antonia Yarur, Esteban Soto, Gabriel León, Andrea Miyasaka Almeida
FT gene is expressed in leaves and buds and is involved in floral meristem determination and bud development in sweet cherry. In woody fruit perennial trees, floral determination, dormancy and bloom, depends on perception of different environmental and endogenous cues which converge to a systemic signaling gene known as FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). In long-day flowering plants, FT is expressed in the leaves on long days. The protein travels through the phloem to the shoot apical meristem, where it induces flower determination...
December 2016: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870897/a-forest-tent-caterpillar-outbreak-increased-resource-levels-and-seedling-growth-in-a-northern-hardwood-forest
#6
Danaë M A Rozendaal, Richard K Kobe
In closed-canopy forests, gap formation and closure are thought to be major drivers of forest dynamics. Crown defoliation by insects, however, may also influence understory resource levels and thus forest dynamics. We evaluate the effect of a forest tent caterpillar outbreak on understory light availability, soil nutrient levels and tree seedling height growth in six sites with contrasting levels of canopy defoliation in a hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. We compared resource levels and seedling growth of six hardwood species before, during and in the three years after the outbreak (2008-2012)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865352/plum-polyphenols-inhibit-colorectal-aberrant-crypt-foci-formation-in-rats-potential-role-of-the-mir-143-protein-kinase-b-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-axis
#7
Nivedita Banerjee, Hyemee Kim, Stephen T Talcott, Nancy D Turner, David H Byrne, Susanne U Mertens-Talcott
The nutritional prevention of aberrant crypt foci by polyphenols may be a crucial step to dietary cancer prevention. The objective of this study was to determine the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the anti-inflammatory and antitumorigenic properties of plum (Prunus salicina L.) polyphenols, including chlorogenic acid and neochlorogenic acid, in azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rats. The hypothesis was that plum polyphenolics suppress AOM-induced aberrant crypt foci formation through alterations in the protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and relative micro-RNA expressions...
October 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857718/variance-genetic-control-and-spatial-phenotypic-plasticity-of-morphological-and-phenological-traits-in-prunus-spinosa-and-its-large-fruited-forms-p-x-fruticans
#8
Kristine Vander Mijnsbrugge, Arion Turcsán, Leander Depypere, Marijke Steenackers
Prunus spinosa is a highly esteemed shrub in forest and landscape plantings. Shrubs with larger organs occur often and are considered either as large fruited forms of P. spinosa or as P. x fruticans, involving a hybridization process with the ancient cultivated P. insititia (crop-to-wild gene flow). As climate change may augment hybridization processes in the future, a hybrid origin is important to detect. In addition, studying crop-to-wild gene flow can give insights in putative consequences for the wild populations...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843064/tracing-the-source-of-sedimentary-organic-carbon-in-the-loess-plateau-of-china-an-integrated-elemental-ratio-stable-carbon-signatures-and-radioactive-isotopes-approach
#9
Chun Liu, Yuting Dong, Zhongwu Li, Xiaofeng Chang, Xiaodong Nie, Lin Liu, Haibing Xiao, Hassan Bashir
Soil erosion, which will induce the redistribution of soil and associated soil organic carbon (SOC) on the Earth's surface, is of critically importance for biogeochemical cycling of essential elements and terrestrial carbon sequestration. Despite the importance of soil erosion, surprisingly few studies have evaluated the sources of eroded carbon (C). This study used natural abundance levels of the stable isotope signature ((13)C) and radioactive isotopes ((137)Cs and (210)Pbex), along with elements ratio (C/N) based on a two end member mixing model to qualitatively and quantitatively identify the sources of sedimentary OC retained by check dam in the Qiaozigou small watershed in the Loess Plateau, China...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824331/genome-wide-association-study-of-12-agronomic-traits-in-peach
#10
Ke Cao, Zhengkui Zhou, Qi Wang, Jian Guo, Pei Zhao, Gengrui Zhu, Weichao Fang, Changwen Chen, Xinwei Wang, Xiaoli Wang, Zhixi Tian, Lirong Wang
Peach (Prunus persica L.) is a highly valuable crop species and is recognized by molecular researchers as a model fruit for the Rosaceae family. Using whole-genome sequencing data generated from 129 peach accessions, here we perform a comprehensive genome-wide association study for 12 key agronomic traits. We show that among the 10 qualitative traits investigated, nine exhibit consistent and more precise association signals than previously identified by linkage analysis. For two of the qualitative traits, we describe candidate genes, one potentially involved in cell death and another predicted to encode an auxin-efflux carrier, that are highly associated with fruit shape and non-acidity, respectively...
November 8, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821356/combined-effect-of-antagonistic-yeast-and-modified-atmosphere-to-control-penicillium-expansum-infection-in-sweet-cherries-cv-ambrun%C3%A3-s
#11
E de Paiva, M J Serradilla, S Ruiz-Moyano, M G Córdoba, M C Villalobos, R Casquete, A Hernández
Fruit decay caused by pathogenic moulds is a major concern in the postharvest quality and shelf life of fruit. Blue mould decay is caused by Penicillium expansum (P. expansum) and is one of the most important postharvest diseases in cherries (Prunus avium L.). Synthetic fungicides are the main medium used to control pathogenic moulds. However, alternative approaches are available for developing safer technologies to control postharvest disease. An integrated approach that combines biological control, using antagonistic yeasts and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with cold storage is a promising alternative to synthetic fungicide treatment...
October 29, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815695/high-throughput-sequencing-reveals-a-novel-fabavirus-infecting-sweet-cherry
#12
D E V Villamor, S S Pillai, K C Eastwell
The genus Fabavirus currently consists of five species represented by viruses that infect a wide range of hosts but none reported from temperate climate fruit trees. A virus with genomic features resembling fabaviruses (tentatively named Prunus virus F, PrVF) was revealed by high throughput sequencing of extracts from a sweet cherry tree (Prunus avium). PrVF was subsequently shown to be graft transmissible and further identified in three other non-symptomatic Prunus spp. from different geographical locations...
November 4, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813555/cloning-and-bioinformatic-analysis-of-transcription-factor-myb10-from-the-red-leaf-peach
#13
X Q Wang, J Han, Y Wen, W B Jiang, J G Fang, B B Zhang, R J Ma
In higher plants, the transcription factor MYB10 is an important regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. In order to study its role in the development of red coloration in peach leaves, the full-length MYB10 complementary DNA sequence of the red-leaf peach cultivar 'Tsukuba No. 5' (Prunus persica f. atropurpurea) was successfully cloned using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The sequence was assigned the GenBank accession No. KP315904. Bioinformatic analysis identified the complete MYB10 open reading frame, consisting of 678 bp encoding 225 amino acids...
October 24, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812831/carotenoids-phenolic-profile-mineral-content-and-antioxidant-properties-in-flesh-and-peel-of-prunus-persica-fruits-during-two-maturation-stages
#14
Samia Dabbou, Samira Maatallah, Antonella Castagna, Monia Guizani, Wala Sghaeir, Hichem Hajlaloui, Annamaria Ranieri
Carotenoids and phenolic profile, antioxidant activity as well as concentrations of selected macronutrients (K, N, Mg, Ca and Na) and micronutrients (Zn, Cu and Mn) in flesh and peel of peach fruit were recorded at two harvest dates. Predominant mineral was potassium, followed by calcium, magnesium and sodium. The concentration of most micronutrients was greater in the peel than in the flesh especially in early season. The concentration of most elements in flesh and peel decreased during fruit maturation. Total carotenoids content varied with respect to the cultivar...
November 3, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807436/artificial-neural-network-genetic-algorithm-as-powerful-tool-to-predict-and-optimize-in-vitro-proliferation-mineral-medium-for-g-%C3%A3-n15-rootstock
#15
Mohammad M Arab, Abbas Yadollahi, Abdolali Shojaeiyan, Hamed Ahmadi
One of the major obstacles to the micropropagation of Prunus rootstocks has, up until now, been the lack of a suitable tissue culture medium. Therefore, reformulation of culture media or modification of the mineral content might be a breakthrough to improve in vitro multiplication of G × N15 (garnem). We found artificial neural network in combination of genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) as a very precise and powerful modeling system for optimizing the culture medium, So that modeling the effects of MS mineral salts ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], Ca(2+), K(+), [Formula: see text], Mg(2+), and Cl(-)) on in vitro multiplication parameters (the number of microshoots per explant, average length of microshoots, weight of calluses derived from the base of stem explants, and quality index of plantlets) of G × N15...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798765/prunin-is-a-highly-potent-flavonoid-from-prunus-davidiana-stems-that-inhibits-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-and-stimulates-glucose-uptake-in-insulin-resistant-hepg2-cells
#16
Hyun Ah Jung, Md Yousof Ali, Himanshu Kumar Bhakta, Byung-Sun Min, Jae Sue Choi
Prunin is the main flavonoid in Prunus davidiana stems and improves hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro anti-diabetic potential of prunin via the inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), α-glucosidase, peroxynitrite (ONOO(-))-mediated tyrosine nitration, and stimulation of glucose uptake in insulin-resistant hepatocytes. In addition, a molecular docking simulation was performed to predict specific prunin binding modes during PTP1B inhibition...
October 31, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785649/leaf-diseases-drive-the-janzen-connell-mechanism-regardless-of-light-conditions-a-3-year-field-study
#17
Bayandala, Kazuhiko Masaka, Kenji Seiwa
In forests, negative density/distance-dependent seedling mortality (NDD) caused by natural enemies plays a key role in maintaining species diversity [Janzen-Connell (J-C) model]. However, the relative importance of natural enemies in mediating NDD under heterogeneous light conditions has remained unclear. We examined the relative importance of pathogens (i.e., soil pathogens, leaf diseases) on seedling performance in forest understories (FUs) and gaps (gaps) during a 3-year period (results of first year of our study have been previously reported)...
October 26, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783077/apricot-and-other-seed-stones-amygdalin-content-and-the-potential-to-obtain-antioxidant-angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-inhibitor-and-hypocholesterolemic-peptides
#18
M C García, E González-García, R Vásquez-Villanueva, M L Marina
Stones from olives and Prunus genus fruits are cheap and sustainable sources of proteins and could be potential sources of bioactive peptides. The main limitation to the use of these seeds is the presence of amygdalin. This work proposes to determine amygdalin in olive and Prunus seeds and in protein isolates obtained from them. Moreover, antioxidant, angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, and hypocholesterolemic properties will be evaluated in hydrolysates obtained from these seeds. Despite some seeds contained amygdalin, all protein isolates were free of this substance...
October 26, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775125/bioactive-and-functional-properties-of-sour-cherry-juice-prunus-cerasus
#19
Guillermo Cásedas, Francisco Les, Maria Pilar Gómez-Serranillos, Carine Smith, Víctor López
Sour cherry juice (Prunus cerasus) is consumed as a nutritional supplement claiming health effects. The aim of the study was to evaluate the different properties of sour cherry juice in terms of antioxidant activity and inhibition of target enzymes in the central nervous system and diabetes. The content of polyphenols and anthocyanins was quantified. Different experiments were carried out to determine the radical scavenging properties of the juice. The activity of sour cherry juice was also tested in physiological relevant enzymes of the central nervous system (acetylcholinesterase, monoamine oxidase A, tyrosinase) and others involved in type 2 diabetes (α-glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase-4)...
October 24, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766652/characterization-of-autochthonous-sweet-cherry-cultivars-prunus-avium-l-of-southern-italy-for-fruit-quality-bioactive-compounds-and-antioxidant-activity
#20
Antonio Di Matteo, Rosa Russo, Giulia Graziani, Alberto Ritieni, Claudio Di Vaio
BACKGROUND: Characterizing germplasm collections of autochthonous cultivars for fruit quality traits could be a successful approach for selection, improvement of organoleptic quality and levels of antioxidants of crop produce, and development of new market opportunities and coherent strategies for conservation and valorization. The aim of the study was the evaluation of fruit physicochemical traits as well as the content of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant capacity in 25 sweet cherry autochthonous cultivars...
October 20, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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