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Hanxu Pan, Limin Wang, Rui Wang, Fang Xie, Jiankang Cao
'Friar' plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) fruit were stored at low (0°C), intermediate (5 and 15°C) and ambient temperature (25°C). Flesh translucency was evidenced as the main chilling injury (CI) symptom and the CI developed rapidly at 5 and 15°C but suppressed at 0°C. Modifications of cell wall pectin in 'Friar' plums were investigated during storage. Sodium carbonate-soluble pectin (SSP) was found to be predominant in the fruit but it decreased more rapidly at 5 and 15°C than 0°C. Nevertheless, SSP possessed abundant galactose, arabinose and rhamnose at 5 and 15°C...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Juan Vicente Muñoz-Sanz, Elena Zuriaga, María L Badenes, Carlos Romero
S-RNase based gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI) is a widespread prezygotic reproductive barrier in flowering plants. In the Solanaceae, Plantaginaceae and Rosaceae gametophytic SI is controlled by the pistil-specific S-RNases and the pollen S-locus F-box proteins but non-S-specific factors, namely modifiers, are also required. In apricot, Prunus armeniaca (Rosaceae), we previously mapped two pollen-part mutations that confer self-compatibility in cultivars Canino and Katy at the distal end of chromosome 3 (M-locus) unlinked to the S-locus...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Wanxu Wang, Ting Shi, Xiaopeng Ni, Yanshuai Xu, Shenchun Qu, Zhihong Gao
The microRNAs (miRNAs) comprise a broad class of non-coding small endogenous RNAs that are associated with many biological processes through the regulation of target genes, such as leaf morphogenesis and polarity, biotic and abiotic stress responses, root and flower development. We identified a miRNA that affects flower development, miR319a, in Prunus mume. The Pm-miR319a target, Pm-TCP4, was validated by 5'RACE. The higher expression of Pm-TCP4 in imperfect flowers showed that the Pm-TCP4 might promote pistil abortion...
October 16, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Philip Donkersley, Glenn Rhodes, Roger W Pickup, Kevin C Jones, Eileen F Power, Geraldine A Wright, Kenneth Wilson
Sufficiently diverse and abundant resources are essential for generalist consumers, and form an important part of a suite of conservation strategies for pollinators. Honey bees are generalist foragers and are dependent on diverse forage to adequately meet their nutritional needs. Through analysis of stored pollen (bee bread) samples obtained from 26 honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hives across NW-England, we quantified bee bread nutritional content and the plant species that produced these stores from pollen...
October 14, 2017: Oecologia
Jay A Rosenheim, Bradley S Higbee, Jonathan D Ackerman, Matthew H Meisner
Capturing the complementary strengths of observational and experimental research methods usually requires the researcher to gather separate experimental and observational data sets. In some cases, however, commercial agricultural practices produce the spatial and temporal mixing of 'treatments' independently of other possibly covarying factors that is normally achieved only with formal experimentation. The resulting 'pseudoexperiments' can provide strong evidence for causal relationships. Here, we analyze a large observational data set that creates a series of such pseudoexperiments to assess the effect of different commercial varieties of almond, Prunus dulcis (Mill...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Anna Davidson, David Da Silva, Theodore M DeJong
The branch construction of trees is based on phytomers, repetitive subunits defined as node + leaf + axillary meristem + internode. The rate at which phytomers are added to a shoot is termed the phyllochron, which is determined by genetics, endogenous regulation and environmental conditions. The phyllochron is fundamental to understanding the growth of plants. Most phyllochron studies on woody species are of young plants under controlled conditions without consideration for different types of shoots that are present in mature trees...
September 2017: AoB Plants
Sandra Martínez-Turiño, José de Jesús Pérez, Marta Hervás, Rosana Navajas, Sergio Ciordia, Namrata D Udeshi, Jeffrey Shabanowitz, Donald F Hunt, Juan Antonio García
Phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation are two widespread post-translational modifications (PTM), often affecting the same eukaryotic target protein. Plum pox virus (PPV) is a member of the genus Potyvirus that infects a wide range of plant species. O-GlcNAcylation of the capsid protein (CP) of PPV has been extensively studied, and some evidence about CP phosphorylation has been additionally reported. Here, we use proteomics analyses to demonstrate that PPV CP is phosphorylated in vivo at the N-terminus and the beginning of the core region...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Gyoung Hee Kim, Kyoung Youn Jo, Jong Sup Shin, Gil Ho Shin, Young Jin Koh
Scabs caused by Venturia carpophila greatly reduce the quality of the fruits of the Japanese apricot (Prunus mume) when the disease is not properly managed. The disease produces a superficial blemish that is unlikely to affect the overall yield of processed fruit, but reduce the value of fruit intended for the fresh market. Incidence rates of scab at sprayed and unsprayed orchards range from 0% to 21.5% and from 30.2% to 100%, respectively, in the major cultivation regions of Jeonnam Province during the growing season of 2009...
October 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Jiangmei Sun, Leiting Li, Peng Wang, Shaoling Zhang, Juyou Wu
BACKGROUND: Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase (LRR-RLK) is the largest gene family of receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs) and actively participates in regulating the growth, development, signal transduction, immunity, and stress responses of plants. However, the patterns of LRR-RLK gene family evolution in the five main Rosaceae species for which genome sequences are available have not yet been reported. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of LRR-RLK genes for five Rosaceae species: Fragaria vesca (strawberry), Malus domestica (apple), Pyrus bretschneideri (Chinese white pear), Prunus mume (mei), and Prunus persica (peach), which contained 201, 244, 427, 267, and 258 LRR-RLK genes, respectively...
October 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
Yi Zhang, Liangju Wang, Yongge Yuan, Jing Xu, Cong Tu, Connie Fisk, Weijian Zhang, Xin Chen, David Ritchie, Shuijin Hu
Orchard management practices such as weed control and irrigation are primarily aimed at maximizing fruit yields and economic profits. However, the impact of these practices on soil fertility and soil microbiology is often overlooked. We conducted a two-factor experimental manipulation of weed control by herbicide and trickle irrigation in a nutrient-poor peach (Prunus persica L. cv. Contender) orchard near Jackson Springs, North Carolina. After three and eight years of treatments, an array of soil fertility parameters were examined, including soil pH, soil N, P and cation nutrients, microbial biomass and respiration, N mineralization, and presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)...
October 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Zhengrong Zhang, Li Yuan, Xin Liu, Xuesen Chen, Xiaoyun Wang
As a family of transcription factors, DNA binding with one figure (Dof) proteins play important roles in various biological processes in plants. Here, a total of 60 putative apple (Malus domestica) Dof genes (MdDof) were identified and mapped to different chromosomes. Chromosomal distribution and synteny analysis indicated that the expansion of the MdDof genes came primarily from segmental and duplication events, and from whole genome duplication, which lead to more Dof members in apples than in other plants...
October 3, 2017: Gene
Laura Gobelius, Jeffrey Lewis, Lutz Ahrens
Fire training facilities and other areas suffer from serious per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) contamination in soil, surface water, and groundwater due to regular practices with PFAS-containing aqueous firefighting foams (AFFFs). Therefore, the uptake of 26 PFASs in plants and the contamination of soil and groundwater has been investigated at a fire training site at Stockholm Arlanda airport, Stockholm (Sweden) in 2016. Elevated ∑26PFAS levels were detected in soil and groundwater ranging from 16 to 160 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) and 1200-34 000 ng L(-1), respectively...
October 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Frank-M Chmielewski, Klaus-P Götz, Katharina C Weber, Susanne Moryson
Spring frost can be a limiting factor in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) production. Rising temperatures in spring force the development of buds, whereby their vulnerability to freezing temperatures continuously increases. With the beginning of blossom, flowers can resist only light frosts without any significant damage. In this study, we investigated the risk of spring frost damages during cherry blossom for historical and future climate conditions at two different sites in NE (Berlin) and SW Germany (Geisenheim)...
September 30, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
María Roca, José Julián Ríos, Alexandra Chahuaris, Antonio Pérez-Gálvez
Although several chlorophyll metabolites have been shown to exert prominent benefits to human health when consumed, the battery of linear chlorophyll derivatives (phyllobilins) presents in fruits is poorly understood. Yellow chlorophyll catabolites (YCCs) are a new kind of phyllobilins recently identified in senescent leaves, probably arising from an oxidative process of the terminal chlorophyll catabolites, NCCs (non-fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites). This work deals with the characterization by first time of this kind of phytochemicals in edible fruits...
October 2017: Food Research International
Alba C Mayta-Apaza, Daya Marasini, Franck Carbonero
Tart cherries are increasingly popular due to purported health benefits. This Prunus cesarus species is cultivated worldwide, and its market has increased significantly in the last two decades due to improvements in agricultural practices and food processing technology. Tart cherries are rich in polyphenols, with a very specific profile combining anthocyanins and flavonols (berries-like) and chlorogenic acid (coffee-like). Tart cherries have been suggested to exert several potentially beneficial health effects including: lowering blood pressure, modulating blood glucose, enhancing cognitive function, protecting against oxidative stress and reducing inflammation...
September 28, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Sara Caramia, Angela Gala Morena Gatius, Fabrizio Dal Piaz, Denis Gaja, Alejandro Hochkoeppler
The activity of Prunus dulcis (sweet almond) β-glucosidase at the expense of p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside at pH 6 was determined, both under steady-state and pre-steady-state conditions. Using crude enzyme preparations, competitive inhibition by 1-5 mM imidazole was observed under both kinetic conditions tested. However, when imidazole was added to reaction mixtures at 0.125-0.250 mM, we detected a significant enzyme activation. To further inspect this effect exerted by imidazole, β-glucosidase was purified to homogeneity...
July 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Sahil Kalia, Vijay K Bharti, Arup Giri, Bhuvnesh Kumar
Extreme climatic conditions and hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude hinders the growth and productivity of chickens. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of aqueous extract of Prunus armeniaca seeds on health, survivability, antioxidants, plasma biochemical parameters, and immune status of broiler chickens at high altitude. Phytochemical analysis of extract revealed the presence of high phenolics, flavonoids, and carotenoids contents. Before the in vivo study, in vitro efficacy evaluation indicated a significant protective effect of the extract in chicken peripheral blood lymphocytes...
November 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
Kristine A G Sotelo, Nazimah Hamid, Indrawati Oey, Chris Pook, Noemi Gutierrez-Maddox, Qianli Ma, Sze Ying Leong, Jun Lu
This study examined, for the first time, the effect of mild or moderate intensity pulsed electric field (PEF) processing on cherries, in particular changes in physicochemical properties, release of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and the potential growth of lactic acid bacteria. Cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100Hz and a constant pulse width of 20μs with different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5kV/cm. Titratable acidity and total soluble solids values of most PEF samples stored for 24h significantly decreased compared to other samples...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Antonio Mirto, Federica Iannuzzi, Petronia Carillo, Loredana F Ciarmiello, Pasqualina Woodrow, Amodio Fuggi
The failure of the antioxidant scavenging system in advanced ripening stages, causing oxidative stress, is one of the most important factor of fruit decay. Production of rich antioxidant fruit could represent a way to delay fruit senescence and preserve its characteristics. We investigated the antioxidant metabolites (ascorbate, glutathione, tocopherols, and polyphenols) and enzymes (ascorbic peroxidases, peroxidases and polyphenol oxidases) involved in the antioxidant response in forty-three accessions of sweet cherry fruits from Campania region...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Yun Zhao, Weiqi Dong, Ke Wang, Bo Zhang, Andrew C Allan, Kui Lin-Wang, Kunsong Chen, Changjie Xu
Anthocyanins provide nutritional benefits and are responsible for red coloration in many fruits. Light affects anthocyanin biosynthesis in peach (Prunus persica). However, some cultivars show differential sensitivity to light. In the present study, 'Hujingmilu (HJ),' a naturally deeply colored cultivar, and 'Yulu (YL),' showing low pigmentation, were used to study the mechanism underlying UV-light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. Both UVA and UVB induced fruit pigmentation of 'HJ,' but 'YL' was only sensitive to UVB...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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