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Asier Uribeetxebarria, Elisa Daniele, Alexandre Escolà, Jaume Arnó, José A Martínez-Casasnovas
The change from traditional to a more mechanized and technical agriculture has involved, in many cases, land transformations. This has supposed alteration of landforms and soils, with significant consequences. The effects of induced soil variability and the subsequent implications in site-specific crop management have not been sufficiently studied. The present work investigated the application of a resistivity soil sensor (Veris 3100), to map the apparent electrical conductivity (ECa), and detailed multispectral airborne images to analyse soil and crop spatial variability to assist in site-specific orchard management...
April 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Igor Koloniuk, Tatiana Sarkisova, Karel Petrzik, Ondřej Lenz, Jaroslava Přibylová, Jana Fránová, Josef Špak, Leonidas Lotos, Christina Beta, Asimina Katsiani, Thierry Candresse, Varvara I Maliogka
During their lifetime, perennial woody plants are expected to face multiple infection events. Furthermore, multiple genotypes of individual virus species may co-infect the same host. This may eventually lead to a situation where plants harbor complex communities of viral species/strains. Using high-throughput sequencing, we describe co-infection of sweet and sour cherry trees with diverse genomic variants of two closely related viruses, namely prunus virus F (PrVF) and cherry virus F (CVF). Both viruses are most homologous to members of the Fabavirus genus ( Secoviridae family)...
April 18, 2018: Viruses
Masashi Yanaki, Masayuki Kobayashi, Atsushi Aruga, Minoru Nomura, Makoto Ozaki
BACKGROUND/AIM: MK615 extracted from Prunus mume was reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. In this article, we examined the in vivo antitumor effect of MK615 (an extract from Japanese apricot) using mouse tumor xenografts and focusing on the downregulation of PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1), a ligand of programmed cell death-1, a surface protein of activated T cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: B16/BL6 melanoma cells were injected into C57BL/6 or BALB/c-nu/nu mice to establish lung metastasis...
April 1, 2018: Integrative Cancer Therapies
Jordi Morata, Fatima Marín, Jordi Payet, Josep M Casacuberta
Transposable elements are one of the main drivers of plant genome evolution. Transposon insertions can modify the gene coding capacity or the regulation of their expression, the latter being a more subtle effect, and therefore particularly useful for evolution. Transposons have been show to contain transcription factor binding sites that can be mobilized upon transposition with the potential to integrate new genes into transcriptional networks. MITEs are a type of non-coding DNA transposons that could be particularly suited as a vector to mobilize transcription factor binding sites and modify transcriptional networks during evolution...
April 5, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Chunhua Zhang, Ruchao Feng, Ruijuan Ma, Zhijun Shen, Zhixiang Cai, Zhizhong Song, Bin Peng, Mingliang Yu
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor family is a superfamily found in all eukaryotes that plays important roles in regulating growth and development. Over the past several decades, many bHLH superfamily genes have been identified and characterized in herbaceous and woody plants. However, the genes belonging to the bHLH superfamily in peach (Prunus persica) have not yet been comprehensively identified and characterized. Here, we identified 95 members of the bHLH superfamily in the peach genome, and these genes were classified into 19 subfamilies based on a phylogenetic comparison with bHLH proteins from Arabidopsis...
2018: PloS One
Sofia Correia, Rob E Schouten, Ana P Silva, Berta Gonçalves
[This corrects the article on p. 2166 in vol. 8, PMID: 29312407.].
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Cesar Petri, Nuria Alburquerque, Mohamed Faize, Ralph Scorza, Chris Dardick
In most woody fruit species, transformation and regeneration are difficult. However, European plum (Prunus domestica) has been shown to be amenable to genetic improvement technologies from classical hybridization, to genetic engineering, to rapid cycle crop breeding ('FasTrack' breeding). Since the first report on European plum transformation with marker genes in the early 90 s, numerous manuscripts have been published reporting the generation of new clones with agronomically interesting traits, such as pests, diseases and/or abiotic stress resistance, shorter juvenile period, dwarfing, continuous flowering, etc...
April 12, 2018: Transgenic Research
Beenu Tanwar, Rajni Modgil, Ankit Goyal
The present investigation was aimed to study the effect of detoxification on the nutrients and antinutrients of wild apricot kernel followed by its hypocholesterolemic effect in male Wistar albino rats. The results revealed a non-significant (p > 0.05) effect of detoxification on the proximate composition except total carbohydrates and protein content. However, detoxification led to a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in l-ascorbic acid (76.82%), β-carotene (25.90%), dietary fiber constituents (10.51-28...
April 12, 2018: Food & Function
Iván Francisco García-Tejero, Carlos José Ortega-Arévalo, Manuel Iglesias-Contreras, José Manuel Moreno, Luciene Souza, Simón Cuadros Tavira, Víctor Hugo Durán-Zuazo
Different tools are being implemented in order to improve the water management in agricultural irrigated areas of semiarid environments. Thermography has been progressively introduced as a promising technique for irrigation scheduling and the assessing of crop-water status, especially when deficit irrigation is being implemented. However, an important limitation is related to the cost of the actual cameras, this being a severe limitation to its practical usage by farmers and technicians. This work evaluates the potential and the robustness of a thermal imaging camera that is connected to smartphone (Flir One) recently developed by Flir Systems Inc...
March 31, 2018: Sensors
Melanie L Blackhall, Rachael Berry, Noel W Davies, Justin T Walls
The influence of process parameters on the extraction of anthocyanins from the edible portion of fresh, sweet cherry were investigated. The optimal extraction time and temperature were determined as 90 min and 37 °C, respectively. A solvent/solid ratio of 10 mL/g using 100% acidified solvent resulted in the greatest anthocyanin yield. No significant difference was observed between the use of methanol or ethanol as the extraction solvent. Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-MS analysis of the extract identified four anthocyanins, with cyanidin-3-rutinoside and peonidin-3-rutinoside accounting for over 95% of the anthocyanin content, while cyanidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-rutinoside accounted for the remaining 5%...
August 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Pengxian Yin, Feng Meng, Qing Liu, Rui An, Jing Cai, Guangyuan Du
A vulnerability curve (VC) describes the extent of xylem cavitation resistance. Centrifuges have been used to generate VCs for decades via static- and flow-centrifuge methods. Recently, the validity of the centrifuge techniques has been questioned. Researchers have hypothesized that the centrifuge techniques might yield unreliable VCs due to the open-vessel artifact. However, other researchers reject this hypothesis. The focus of the dispute is centred on whether exponential VCs are more reliable when the static-centrifuge method is used than with the flow-centrifuge method...
March 30, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Hina Firdous, Talib Hussain, Monika Singh, Syed Mohd Danish Rizvi, Afrasim Moin, Mohammad A Kamal
Liver ailments including alcoholic liver disease (ALD), still remain the main reason for morbidity & mortality worldwide. In fact, ALD is a multifactorial disease with complex pathophysiology which is linked to several types of liver damages including steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. This review emphasizes on 30 herbal medicinal plants with their extracts studied for protective effect against ALD and current scientific evidence of ALD cure by thirty Indian Materia Medica including Tilia Platyphyllos, Amomum subulatum, Carica papaya, Pogostemon patchouli, Commelina benghalensis, Bacopamonnieri, Pecan nut, Allium cepa, Beta Vulgaris, Adina cordifolia, Ocimum gratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Sida veronicaefolia, Chenopodium album, Korean red ginseng, Elephantopus scaber, Tecomella undulata, Prunus armeniaca, Sea tangle (Laminaria japonica), Emblica officinalis, Saccharum officinarum, Cocculus hirsutus, Cassia roxburghii, Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang, Phyllanthus amarus, Aegle marmelos, Agrimonia eupatoria, Flaveria trinervia, Curcuma longa and Garcinia indica...
March 30, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Adrian Łukowski, Robert Popek, Radosław Jagiełło, Ewa Mąderek, Piotr Karolewski
Woody plants growing along streets and construction sites play an important role in removing harmful particulate matter (PM). Researchers rarely consider the impact of different types and size fractions of PM deposited on the leaves on insect folivores. We determined differences in the accumulation of cement and roadside PM on the leaves of two Prunus species (P. padus and P. serotina) with different leaf surface structures. We also determined the effect of PM on the beetle Gonioctena quinquepunctata, the main pest of these plants...
March 30, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ester Hernández-Corroto, María Luisa Marina, María Concepción García
The long exposition to reactive species results in oxidative stress which has been related with the development of cancer and other serious diseases. Olea europaea and Prunus persica seeds present a high protein content and preliminary results demonstrated their high potency to obtain bioactive peptides. The protective effect against oxidative damage exerted by peptides released from Olea europaea and Prunus persica seeds has been evaluated in this work. Seed hydrolysates showed protection against oxidation through four different mechanisms: inhibition of the formation of hydroxyl radicals, scavenging of free radicals, reduction of oxidizing compounds, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation...
April 2018: Food Research International
Maria Florencia Basanta, Sergio Anibal Rizzo, Natalia Szerman, Sergio Ramón Vaudagna, Adriana Maria Descalzo, Lia Noemi Gerschenson, Carolina Daiana Pérez, Ana Maria Rojas
Fiber microparticles (MPCs) separately obtained from peel and pulp of Japanese plum residues contained co-extracted β-carotene, lutein, and α- and γ-tocopherols, as well as polyphenols (cyanidins, quercetin derivatives, pentameric proanthocyanidins). Peel and pulp MPCs were then separately evaluated as natural antioxidant additives (2.0% w/w level) in raw breast chicken patty, susceptible to oxidation. Their effect on technological properties was also analyzed. MPCs reduced in 50% the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in raw patties during 10-days storage at 4...
April 2018: Food Research International
Jerson Garita-Cambronero, Ana Palacio-Bielsa, Jaime Cubero
Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (Xap) causes bacterial spot of stone fruits and almond, an important disease that may reduce the yield and vigor of the trees, as well as the marketability of affected fruits. Xap, is within the Xanthomonas genus which has been intensively studied due its strain specialization and the host range complexity. Here, we have summarized the recent advances in our understanding of the complexities of Xap, including the studies of molecular features that resulted after comparative phenotypic and genomic analyses, in order to obtain a clearer overview of the bacterial behavior and their infection mechanisms in the context of the X...
March 25, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Zhiyong Zhang, XiaoKang Zhuo, Kai Zhao, Tangchun Zheng, Yu Han, Cunquan Yuan, Qixiang Zhang
Bud dormancy transition is a vital developmental process for perennial plant survival. The process is precisely regulated by diverse endogenous genetic factors and environmental cues, but the mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Prunus mume is an ideal crop for bud dormancy analysis because of its early spring-flowering characteristics and small sequenced genome. Here, we analyzed the transcriptome profiles at the three endodormancy stages and natural flush stage using RNA sequencing combined with phytohormone and sugar content measurements...
March 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Armelle Marais, Chantal Faure, Sébastien Theil, Thierry Candresse
With the increased use of high-throughput sequencing methods, new viruses infecting Prunus spp. are being discovered and characterized, especially in the family Betaflexiviridae. Double-stranded RNAs from symptomatic leaves of a Japanese apricot ( Prunus mume ) tree from Japan were purified and analyzed by Illumina sequencing. Blast comparisons of reconstructed contigs showed that the P. mume sample was infected by a putative novel virus with homologies to Cherry virus A (CVA) and to the newly described Currant virus A (CuVA), both members of genus Capillovirus ...
March 23, 2018: Viruses
K M Keane, S J Bailey, A Vanhatalo, A M Jones, G Howatson
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Montmorency tart cherry juice (MC) on nitric oxide (NO) biomarkers, vascular function and exercise performance. In a randomized, double blind, placebo (PLA) - controlled, crossover study, 10 trained cyclists (mean ± SD; V̇O2peak 59.0 ± 7.0 ml/kg/min) acutely ingested 30 mL of either MC or PLA following dietary restrictions of polyphenol-rich compounds, and completed 6 min moderate- and severe-intensity cycling bouts 1.5 h post ingestion on two occasions for each experimental condition...
March 22, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Dario Donno, Maria Gabriella Mellano, Marta De Biaggi, Isidoro Riondato, Ernest Naivonirina Rakotoniaina, Gabriele Loris Beccaro
European bird cherry ( Prunus padus L.) has been known since the Middle Ages for its medical/food use and high health-promoting value. This study aimed to assess the potential of these fruits as a source of bioactive compounds through the characterization of its physicochemical traits, nutraceutical properties, phytochemical composition via HPLC fingerprint, and antioxidant capacity. Fully ripened fruits of Prunus padus L. (Colorata cv) were collected in mid-July 2017 in Chieri, north-western Italy. The TPC (194...
March 22, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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