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Kai Zhao, Yuzhen Zhou, Sagheer Ahmad, Zongda Xu, Yushu Li, Weiru Yang, Tangren Cheng, Jia Wang, Qixiang Zhang
Dormancy Associated MADS-box genes are SVP/MADs-box members and supposed to play crucial roles in plant dormancy of perennial species. In Prunus mume , PmDAM6 has been previously identified to induce plant dormancy. In the current study, six PmDAMs were cloned in P. mume and functionally analyzed in yeast and tobacco to detect the roles of the genes paralogous to PmDAM6 . The expression patterns together with sequence similarities indicate that PmDAMs are divided into two sub-clades within SVP group. Moreover, PmDAMs are verified to take part in the development of different plant organs, specifically the flower buds, in some intricate patterns...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wee L Yee, Peter S Chapman
Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran; Diptera: Tephritidae), occurs in unmanaged cherries (Prunus spp.) across dry climates in Washington State and other regions in western United States and Canada. To help explain the fly's distribution in arid climates, we determined the effects of adding water to bare and grass-covered soils on pupal survival rates and adult emergence patterns of R. indifferens in central Washington. Water was added ('irrigated') or not to bare soil and grass-covered soil in cylinders pressed into the ground...
February 9, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Min Chen, Xiao Liu, Shenghui Jiang, Binbin Wen, Chao Yang, Wei Xiao, Xiling Fu, Dongmei Li, Xiude Chen, Dongsheng Gao, Ling Li
Peach is an ideal species for fruit tree research because of its small, fully sequenced genome. Chloroplast development is dependent on the tight cooperation between the nuclear and plastid genomes, and is regulated by GLK transcription factors. In this work, the pigment content was monitored and the chloroplast-to-chromoplast conversion during the fruit ripening was visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Localization and expression analyses showed that PpGLK1 was located in the nucleus and expressed mainly in the leaves and fruit skin...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lin Lv, Ximei Huo, Luhua Wen, Zhihong Gao, Muhammad Khalil-Ur-Rehman
Bud dormancy release is regulated by gibberellins (GAs). DELLA proteins are highly conserved and act as negative regulators in GA signaling pathway. The present study established a relationship between PmRGL2 in Japanese apricot and GA4 levels during dormancy release of floral buds. Overexpression of PmRGL2 in poplar delayed the onset of bud dormancy and resulted in dwarf plants, relative to wild-type trees. PmRGL2 exhibited higher expression during ecodormancy and relatively lower expression during endodormancy...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Anamika Sharma, Robin Joshi, Shiv Kumar, Rohit Sharma, Rajneesh, Yogendra Padwad, Mahesh Gupta
The present investigation assessed the potential of Prunus cerasoides fruit extract (PCFE) in alleviation of inflammatory stress in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages as well as in concanavalin A (Con A)-activated splenic lymphocytes. We observed a strong inhibition in production of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α/IL-6/IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and NF-kB in macrophages treated with PCFE...
February 10, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
Estefanía González-García, María Concepción García, María Luisa Marina
Prunus genus fruit seeds are sources of highly angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptides. The presence of peptides IYSPH, IYTPH, IFSPR, and VAIP seems to be related to this activity but no previous work has demonstrated the direct relationship between the concentration of these peptides and the antihypertensive activity of hydrolysates. This work describes the development of a method for the quantification of these peptides in Prunus seeds hydrolysates based on capillary liquid chromatography-IT-MS/MS...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Zhenbao Zhu, Cui Zhao, Jianhua Yi, Leqi Cui, Ning Liu, Yungang Cao, Eric Andrew Decker
BACKGROUND: Vegetable proteins are increasingly used to stabilize oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions. However, emulsions are thermodynamically unstable. Recently, high-intensity ultrasound (US) has been used to enhance the stability of emulsions. For these reasons, and considering almond (Prunus dulcis L.) is a good source of high quality proteins, the aim of the work was to investigate the effect of US treatment on the stability of pre-emulsification O/W emulsions coated by almond protein isolate (API)...
February 10, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Lu Li, Eunson Hwang, Hien T T Ngo, Pei Lin, Wei Gao, Ying Liu, Tae-Hoo Yi
Cherry blossoms have attracted attention as an ingredient with potential for use in skincare products. However, no skin photoaging-related research has been performed with this plant. In the present study, cherry blossom extract (CBE) at 1, 10, and 100 μg/mL was investigated for its skin anti-photoaging effects in UVB-irradiated normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) cells in vitro. Our results showed that CBE markedly increased type I procollagen during UVB exposure via two pathways. Firstly, transcription activator protein-1 expression and MAP kinases were downregulated, consequently reducing the production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3...
February 8, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Piotr Robakowski, Ernest Bielinis, Kerrie Sendall
This study addressed whether competition under different light environments was reflected by changes in leaf absorbed light energy partitioning, photosynthetic efficiency, relative growth rate and biomass allocation in invasive and native competitors. Additionally, a potential allelopathic effect of mulching with invasive Prunus serotina leaves on native Quercus petraea growth and photosynthesis was tested. The effect of light environment on leaf absorbed light energy partitioning and photosynthetic characteristics was more pronounced than the effects of interspecific competition and allelopathy...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Mitra Rahmati, José M Mirás-Avalos, Pierre Valsesia, Françoise Lescourret, Michel Génard, Gholam H Davarynejad, Mohammad Bannayan, Majid Azizi, Gilles Vercambre
Climate change projections predict warmer and drier conditions. In general, moderate to severe water stress reduce plant vegetative growth and leaf photosynthesis. However, vegetative and reproductive growths show different sensitivities to water deficit. In fruit trees, water restrictions may have serious implications not only on tree growth and yield, but also on fruit quality, which might be improved. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the complex interrelations among the physiological processes involved in within-tree carbon acquisition and allocation, water uptake and transpiration, organ growth, and fruit composition when affected by water stress...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Chung Shil Kwak, Jiwon Yang, Chang-Yup Shin, Jin Ho Chung
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Ultraviolet radiation (UV) is a major cause of skin photoaging. Previous studies reported that ethanol extract (PET) of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers (PPF, peach flowers) and its subfractions, particularly the ethylacetate (PEA) and n-butanol extracts (PBT), have potent antioxidant activity and attenuate the UV-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in human skin cells. In this study, we investigated the protective activity of PPF extract against UV-induced photoaging in a mouse model...
February 2018: Nutrition Research and Practice
Won Kyung Choe, Byung Tae Kang, Sung Ok Kim
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of water-extracted plum (WEP) on adipocyte differentiation, adipogenesis and inflammation in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells. WEP was assessed for basic analyses, including high-performance liquid chromatography, total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays] in vitro. Moreover, the cell viability was measured using an MTT assay. Adipogenesis and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was investigated using Oil Red O staining, and the expression of genes and proteins associated with adipogenesis and lipolysis were examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Takahiko Mitani, Kana Ota, Nobuya Inaba, Kunihiro Kishida, Hajime A Koyama
Mume fruit, the Japanese apricot (Prunus mume SIEB. et ZUCC.), is popular in Japan and is mostly consumed in the pickled form called umeboshi. This fruit is known to have anti-microbial properties, but the principal constituents responsible for the antimicrobial properties have not yet been elucidated. We investigated the antimicrobial activities of the phenolic compounds in P. mume against enterobacteria. In this study, growth inhibitory activities were measured as an index of the antibacterial activities...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Mirtha Navarro, Ileana Moreira, Elizabeth Arnaez, Silvia Quesada, Gabriela Azofeifa, Felipe Vargas, Diego Alvarado, Pei Chen
The phenolic composition of skin and flesh from Malus domestica apples (Anna cultivar) and Prunus domestica plums (satsuma cultivar) commercial cultivars in Costa Rica, was studied using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) on enriched-phenolic extracts, with particular emphasis in proanthocyanidin and flavonoids characterization. A total of 52 compounds were identified, including 21 proanthocyanidins ([(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin]) flavan-3-ols monomers, five procyanidin B-type dimers and two procyanidin A-type dimers, five procyanidin B-type trimers and two procyanidin A-type trimers, as well as one procyanidin B-type tetramer, two procyanidin B-type pentamers, and two flavan-3-ol gallates); 15 flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin and naringenin derivatives); nine phenolic acids (protochatechuic, caffeoylquinic, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives); five hydroxychalcones (phloretin and 3-hydroxyphloretin derivatives); and two isoprenoid glycosides (vomifoliol derivatives)...
January 30, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Elizabeth E Barnes, Shannon M Murphy
Competition can have far-reaching consequences for insect fitness and dispersion. Time-lagged interspecific competition is known to negatively affect fitness, yet time-lagged intraspecific competition is rarely studied outside of outbreak conditions. We tested the impact of competition between larval cohorts of the western tent caterpillar (Malacosoma californicum) feeding on chokecherry (Prunus virginiana). We reared larvae on host plants that either had or did not have feeding damage from tent caterpillars the previous season to test the bottom-up fitness effects of intraspecific competition...
January 30, 2018: Oecologia
Stella Veerakone, Lia W Liefting, Joe Tang, Lisa I Ward
We report the complete genome sequence of a novel virus, tentatively named "actinidia seed-borne latent virus" (ASbLV), isolated from Actinidia chinensis in Auckland, New Zealand. The complete genome of ASbLV is 8,192 nucleotides long, excluding the 3' poly(A) tail, contains four open reading frames, and is most closely related to Caucasus prunus virus (56% nucleotide sequence identity), a member of the genus Prunevirus. Based on the demarcation criteria of the family Betaflexiviridae, ASbLV is a new member of the genus Prunevirus...
January 29, 2018: Archives of Virology
Elena Zuriaga, Carlos Romero, Jose Miguel Blanca, Maria Luisa Badenes
BACKGROUND: Plum pox virus (PPV), causing Sharka disease, is one of the main limiting factors for Prunus production worldwide. In apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) the major PPV resistance locus (PPVres), comprising ~ 196 kb, has been mapped to the upper part of linkage group 1. Within the PPVres, 68 genomic variants linked in coupling to PPV resistance were identified within 23 predicted transcripts according to peach genome annotation. Taking into account the predicted functions inferred from sequence homology, some members of a cluster of meprin and TRAF-C homology domain (MATHd)-containing genes were pointed as PPV resistance candidate genes...
January 27, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Jun Niu, Quanxin Bi, Shuya Deng, Huiping Chen, Haiyan Yu, Libing Wang, Shanzhi Lin
BACKGROUND: Auxin response factors (ARFs) in auxin signaling pathway are an important component that can regulate the transcription of auxin-responsive genes involved in almost all aspects of plant growth and development. To our knowledge, the comprehensive and systematic characterization of ARF genes has never been reported in Prunus sibirica, a novel woody biodiesel feedstock in China. RESULTS: In this study, we identified 14 PsARF genes with a perfect open reading frame (ORF) in P...
January 24, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Cristina Ruiz, Anna Nadal, Laura Foix, Laura Montesinos, Emilio Montesinos, Maria Pla
BACKGROUND: Plant elicitor peptides (Peps) are endogenous molecules that induce and amplify the first line of inducible plant defense, known as pattern-triggered immunity, contributing to protect plants against attack by bacteria, fungi and herbivores. Pep topic application and transgenic expression have been found to enhance disease resistance in a small number of model plant-pathogen systems. The action of Peps relies on perception by specific receptors, so displaying a family-specific activity...
January 23, 2018: BMC Genetics
Kai Zhao, Yuzhen Zhou, Yushu Li, Xiaokang Zhuo, Sagheer Ahmad, Yu Han, Xue Yong, Qixiang Zhang
Plants facing the seasonal variations always need a growth restraining mechanism when temperatures turn down. C-repeat binding factor (CBF) genes work essentially in the cold perception. Despite lots of researches on CBFs, the multiple crosstalk is still interesting on their interaction with hormones and dormancy-associated MADS (DAM) genes in the growth and dormancy control. Therefore, this study highlights roles of PmCBFs in cold-induced dormancy from different orgens. And a sense-response relationship between PmCBFs and PmDAMs is exhibited in this process, jointly regulated by six PmCBFs and PmDAM4-6...
January 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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