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Zhi-Gang Wang, Yin-Li Bi, Bin Jiang, Yryszhan Zhakypbek, Su-Ping Peng, Wen-Wen Liu, Hao Liu
Carbon storage is affected by photosynthesis (Pn) and soil respiration (Rs), which have been studied extensively in natural and agricultural systems. However, the effects of Pn and Rs on carbon storages in the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in coalfields remain unclear. A field experiment was established in 2014 in Shendong coal mining subsidence area. The treatments comprised two inoculation levels (inoculated with or without 100 g AMF inoculums per seedlings) and four plant species [wild cherry (Prunus discadenia Koebne L...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Donatella Canistro, Fabio Vivarelli, Silvia Cirillo, Guglielmo Costa, Carlo Andreotti, Moreno Paolini
Over the past years, there has been a growing interest in the natural constituents of foods as a potential means of cancer control. To date, epidemiology studies seem to indicate an inverse association between regular consumption of fruit and vegetables and cancer risk. Here, the potential chemopreventive activity of the polyphenolic extract (PPE) of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and of the freeze-dried fruit in toto (LFT), focusing on the modulation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) in vivo, was investigated...
October 11, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Anouk Kaulmann, Sébastien Planchon, Jenny Renaut, Yves-Jacques Schneider, Lucien Hoffmann, Torsten Bohn
Due to their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potential, polyphenol and carotenoid-rich plant foods have been suggested as promising phytochemicals in the prevention of or as adjuvants regarding inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In the present study, we investigated whether plum (Italian Plum, Prunus cocomilla), or cabbage (Kale, Brassica oleracea var. sabellica), selected for their high phytochemical content, are able to reduce inflammation in cellular models of the intestinal epithelium, employing proteomic methods...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
Dianne Velasco, Josh Hough, Mallikarjuna Aradhya, Jeffrey Ross-Ibarra
The domesticated almond [Prunus dulcis (L.) Batsch] and peach [P. persica (Mill.) D. A. Webb] originate on opposite sides of Asia and were independently domesticated approximately 5000 years ago. While interfertile, they possess alternate mating systems and differ in a number of morphological and physiological traits. Here we evaluated patterns of genome-wide diversity in both almond and peach to better understand the impacts of mating system, adaptation, and domestication on the evolution of these taxa. Almond has ~7X the genetic diversity of peach, and high genome-wide FST values support their status as separate species...
October 5, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Miklas Scholz, Vincent C Uzomah, Furat A M Al-Faraj
This study aims to assess the potential of trees for integration in urban development by evaluating the damage caused by trees in relation to various tree characteristics. Tree damage to permeable pavement systems and other urban structures such as impermeable pavements, kerbs, roads, retaining walls, footpaths, walls and buildings were assessed to identify the most suitable trees for the urban environment. One hundred square sites of 100 m × 100 m were randomly selected in Greater Manchester for this representative example case study to demonstrate the assessment methodology...
September 2016: Heliyon
Pablo López-Soriano, Karine Boyer, Sophie Cesbron, María Clara Morente, Javier Peñalver, Ana Palacio-Bielsa, Christian Vernière, María M López, Olivier Pruvost
Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is the causal agent of the bacterial spot disease of stone fruits, almond and some ornamental Prunus species. In Spain it was first detected in 2002 and since then, several outbreaks have occurred in different regions affecting mainly Japanese plum, peach and almond, both in commercial orchards and nurseries. As the origin of the introduction(s) was unknown, we have assessed the genetic diversity of 239 X. arboricola pv. pruni strains collected from 11 Spanish provinces from 2002 to 2013 and 25 reference strains from international collections...
2016: PloS One
Ki-Young Kim, Hee Kang
Sakuranetin is flavonoid phytoalexin that serves as a plant antibiotic and exists in Prunus and several other plant species. Recently, we identified the anti-inflammatory effect of Prunus yedoensis and found that there were few studies on the potential anti-inflammatory activity of sakuranetin, one of the main constituents of Prunus yedoensis. Here, we isolated peritoneal macrophages from thioglycollate-injected mice and examined whether sakuranetin affected the response of the macrophages in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon- (IFN-) γ or LPS only...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Slađana Č Alagić, Snežana B Tošić, Mile D Dimitrijević, Jelena V Petrović, Dragana V Medić
The samples of spatial soils and different organs of Prunus persica L. Batech and Malus domestica were analyzed by methods such as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), One-way ANOVA, and calculation of biological accumulation factors (BAFs) with the aim of investigating whether these methods may help in the evaluation of trace metals in plants, as well as in the estimation of plant bioaccumulation potentials. ICP-OES provided accurate data on present concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, and Ni which showed that most concentrations were in normal ranges, except in some cases for Cu, Zn, and As...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Evgeny V Plotnikov, Lubov B Glukhova, Ludmila O Sokolyanskaya, Olga V Karnachuk, Marc Solioz
We compared cold and hot wood extracts of 3 endemic Siberian trees-namely, Prunus padus (bird cherry), Populus tremula (aspen), and Betula sp. (birch)-on biomass production and laccase and peroxidase secretion in submerged cultures by the medicinal mushroom Lentinus edodes. Of the conditions tested, only hot Prunus extracts stimulated biomass production, whereas all extracts stimulated laccase and peroxidase secretion, albeit to different extents. A large, differential stimulation of manganese peroxidase was observed by hot Prunus extracts...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Rebecca R Milczarek, Roberto Avena-Mascareno, Jérôme Alonzo, Mélissa I Fichot
Photo-selective materials have been studied for their effects on the preharvest quality of horticultural crops, but little work has been done on potential postharvest processing effects. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of 5 different photo-selective acrylic materials (used as the lid to a single-layer sun drying cabinet) on the drying rate and quality of apricots (Prunus armeniaca). Photo-selective cabinet materials that transmit light in the visible portion of the solar spectrum accelerate the apricots' drying rate in both the early period of drying and the course of drying as a whole...
October 2016: Journal of Food Science
Zhi-Zhen Fang, Dan-Rong Zhou, Xin-Fu Ye, Cui-Cui Jiang, Shao-Lin Pan
Anthocyanins are important pigments and are responsible for red coloration in plums. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation in plum fruits. In this study, the RNA-seq technique was used to analyze the transcriptomic changes during fruit ripening in the red-fleshed plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) cultivar 'Furongli'. Over 161 million high-quality reads were assembled into 52,093 unigenes and 49.4% of these were annotated using public databases. Of these, 25,681 unigenes had significant hits to the sequences in the NCBI Nr database, 17,203 unigenes showed significant similarity to known proteins in the Swiss-Prot database and 5816 and 8585 unigenes had significant similarity to existing sequences in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and the Cluster of Orthologous Groups databases, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yuzhen Zhou, Zongda Xu, Kai Zhao, Weiru Yang, Tangren Cheng, Jia Wang, Qixiang Zhang
TCP proteins, belonging to a plant-specific transcription factors family, are known to have great functions in plant development, especially flower and leaf development. However, there is little information about this gene family in Prunus mume, which is widely cultivated in China as an ornamental and fruit tree. Here a genome-wide analysis of TCP genes was performed to explore their evolution in P. mume. Nineteen PmTCPs were identified and three of them contained putative miR319 target sites. Phylogenetic and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses of these genes revealed that different types of TCP genes had undergone different evolutionary processes and the genes in the same clade had similar chromosomal location, gene structure, and conserved domains...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
A Łukowski, M J Giertych, U Walczak, E Baraniak, P Karolewski
The bird cherry ermine moth, Yponomeuta evonymellus L., is considered an obligatory monophagous insect pest that feeds only on native European Prunus padus L. In recent years, however, increased larval feeding on alien P. serotina Ehrh. has been observed. In both species, general defoliation is extensive for shade grown trees, whereas it is high in P. padus, but very low in P. serotina, when trees are grown in full light conditions. The aim of the present study was to identify how the plant host species and light conditions affect the performance of Y...
September 15, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Marco Cirilli, Filippo Geuna, Anna R Babini, Valentina Bozhkova, Luigi Catalano, Beniamino Cavagna, Sylvie Dallot, Véronique Decroocq, Luca Dondini, Stefano Foschi, Vincenza Ilardi, Alessandro Liverani, Bruno Mezzetti, Angelantonio Minafra, Marco Pancaldi, Tiziana Pandolfini, Thierry Pascal, Vito N Savino, Ralph Scorza, Ignazio Verde, Daniele Bassi
Sharka, caused by Plum Pox Virus (PPV), is by far the most important infectious disease of peach [P. persica (L.) Batsch] and other Prunus species. The progressive spread of the virus in many important growing areas throughout Europe poses serious issues to the economic sustainability of stone fruit crops, peach in particular. The adoption of internationally agreed-upon rules for diagnostic tests, strain-specific monitoring schemes and spatial-temporal modeling of virus spread, are all essential for a more effective sharka containment...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Vikram A Bagchi, Joel P Siegel, Mark R Demkovich, Luke N Zehr, May R Berenbaum
For some polyphagous insects, adaptation to phytochemically novel plants can enhance resistance to certain pesticides, but whether pesticide resistance expands tolerance to phytochemicals has not been examined. Amyelois transitella Walker (navel orangeworm) is an important polyphagous pest of nut and fruit tree crops in California. Bifenthrin resistance, partially attributable to enhanced cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated detoxification, has been reported in an almond-infesting population exposed to intense pesticide selection...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
Valentina Usenik, Mojca Virscek Marn
BACKGROUND: Plum pox virus (PPV) causes severe economic losses in stone fruit production, but little is known about its effect on plum fruit composition. In this study, the influence of PPV on sugars and organic acids was evaluated in a susceptible plum (Prunus domestica L.) cultivar. RESULTS: PPV infection significantly affected the content and composition of sugars and organic acids. The composition of necrotic tissue was modified the most. A short-time infected tree yielded fruit with similar sugar composition to fruit from a healthy tree, but the decline of organic acids was faster...
October 5, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Jerson Garita-Cambronero, Ana Palacio-Bielsa, María M López, Jaime Cubero
The draft genome sequences of two strains of Xanthomonas arboricola, isolated from asymptomatic peach trees in Spain, are reported here. These strains are avirulent and do not belong to the same phylogroup as X. arboricola pv. pruni, a causal agent of bacterial spot disease of stone fruits and almonds.
2016: Genome Announcements
Sun Haeng Park, Yoon-Young Sung, Seol Jang, Kyoung Jin Nho, Go Ya Choi, Ho Kyoung Kim
BACKGROUND: Do In Seung Gi-Tang (DISGT) is an herbal mixture of traditional Korean medicine that is composed of Rheum undulatum Linne, Prunus Persica (L.) Batsch, Conyza canadensis L., Cinnamomum Cassia Presl, and Glycytthiza uralensis Fischer (8: 6: 4: 4: 4 ratio). We investigated the effect of DISGT on vascular inflammation and lipid accumulation in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice. METHODS: ApoE(-/-) mice that were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with DISGT (300 mg/kg/day) or statin (10 mg/kg/day) for 16 weeks...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Hossein Shabani, Gholamreza Askari, Kambiz Jahanbin, Faramarz Khodaeian
In this study some physicochemical properties and elemental analysis of Prunus avium gum exudates were investigated. The gum studied had, on average, 75.14% carbohydrate, 11.3% uronic acids, 1.11% protein, 7.53% moisture content (w.b.) and 3.12% ash. Measured values for the angle of repose, Carr's index and Hausner ratio showed the good flow ability for the gum powder. The viscosity of 1% aqueous solution of the gum exhibited a Newtonian type of flow and with pH reduction the swelling index was increased. The average molecular weight of the main polysaccharide fraction was about 1...
September 1, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ádám Nagy, László Abrankó
Hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids (HCQAs) are a major class of phenolic plant secondary metabolites, belonging to the chlorogenic acid family. Various health-beneficial properties of HCQAs have been shown, which has drawn interest for HCQA profiling in plants of human consumption. However this task remains challenging, since several isomeric HCQAs can be present in the sample with identical molecular formulae and the limited availability of reference standards poses additional challenges to their identification...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
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