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Ines Domenech Del Rio, Elena Sirvent Garcia Del Valle
BACKGROUND: Research on sexual violence by non-partners based on representative samples is scarce. The objectives of the study were (i) to analyse the prevalence of different forms of non-partner sexual violence in Spain and their perpetrators, (ii) to analyse the consequences of non-partner sexual violence on mental health and (iii) to estimate the percentage of rapes that are reported to the police. METHODS: Data from the 2015 Spanish Survey on Violence against Women, a nationally representative sample of 10 171 women, were used...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Public Health
Rikke Thaarup Wesselhöft
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a frequent and painful mental disorder considered among the five leading causes of disability in Western countries by the World Health Organization. MDD occurs at all ages, but childhood onset MDD has a more severe course with longer depressive episodes, more suicidality, and more frequent hospitalization, than later onset MDD. Childhood seems to be a window of opportunity for prevention of mental disorders, and subsequently prevention of MDD onset in childhood is recommended...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Tom Rosenström, Markus Jokela
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic definitions for depressive disorders remain a debated topic, despite their central role in clinical practice and research. We use both recent evidence and nationally representative data to derive an empirically-based modification of DSM-IV/-5 Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). METHOD: A modified MDD diagnosis was derived by analyzing data from Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys, a multistage probability sample of adults (n=20 013; age ≥ 18 years) in coterminous USA, Alaska and Hawaii...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Kristen A Schmidt, Brian A Palmer, Mark A Frye
BACKGROUND: This case chronicles the unique presentation of psychotic mixed mania in a female 5 months after parturition and 1 week following breastfeeding discontinuation, highlighting a rarely recognized mania risk factor that is temporally delayed from parturition: breastfeeding discontinuation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 25-year-old G1P1 female with a past psychiatric history of a depressive episode in adolescence presented to the Emergency Department with her 5-month-old daughter, fiancée, and family 1 week after breastfeeding cessation...
December 2016: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
Muhammad Sadiq Khan, Mohammed Ali Al-Garadi, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul Wahab, Tutut Herawan
Soft set theory is a mathematical approach that provides solution for dealing with uncertain data. As a standard soft set, it can be represented as a Boolean-valued information system, and hence it has been used in hundreds of useful applications. Meanwhile, these applications become worthless if the Boolean information system contains missing data due to error, security or mishandling. Few researches exist that focused on handling partially incomplete soft set and none of them has high accuracy rate in prediction performance of handling missing data...
2016: SpringerPlus
J Anuradha, Tasneem Abbasi, S A Abbasi
A biomimetic method of gold nanoparticles synthesis utilizing the highly invasive aquatic weed pistia (Pistia stratiotes) is presented. In an attempt to utilize the entire plant, the efficacy of the extracts of all its parts - aerial and submerged - was explored with different proportions of gold (III) solution in generating gold nanoparticles (GNPs). The progress of the synthesis, which occurred at ambient temperature and pressure and commenced soon after mixing the pistia extracts and gold (III) solutions, was tracked using UV-visible spectrophotometry...
September 2015: Journal of Advanced Research
Ramin Heshmat, Mostafa Qorbani, Behnaz Ghoreshi, Shirin Djalalinia, Omid Reza Tabatabaie, Saeid Safiri, Mehdi Noroozi, Mohammad-Esmaeil Motlagh, Zeinab Ahadi, Hamid Asayesh, Roya Kelishadi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and psychiatric problems and violent behaviours in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents, based on nationwide surveillance programme data, 2011-2012. METHODS: Overall, 14 880 students, aged 6-18 years, were selected using a multistage cluster sampling method from rural and urban areas of 30 provinces in Iran. SES was estimated based on a main summarised component, extracted from principle component analysis of family assets and parents' jobs and education...
2016: BMJ Open
Sze-Ann Woon, Dale Fisher
BACKGROUND: There is no more challenging a group of pharmaceuticals than antimicrobials. With the antibiotic era came great optimism as countless deaths were prevented from what were previously fatal conditions. Although antimicrobial resistance was quickly identified, the abundance of antibiotics entering the market helped cement attitudes of arrogance as the "battle against pestilence appeared won". Opposite emotions soon followed as many heralded the return of the pre-antibiotic era, suggesting that the "antibiotic pipeline had dried up" and that our existing armament would soon be rendered worthless...
2016: BMC Medicine
Leigh A Johnson, Adriana Gamboa, Raul Vintimilla, Melissa Edwards, James Hall, Brent Weiser, Menaka Yadav, Tony Dickensheets, Sid E O'Bryant
BACKGROUND: Late life depression is a prodromal feature and a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We identified five items in the Geriatric Depression scale (DepE) that are important as a risk for MCI and AD: memory problems, feeling blue, crying, feeling worthless, and trouble concentrating. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to examine the relationship between DepE and cognition in a cohort of Mexican Americans. METHODS: Data from 317 Mexican Americans from the HABLE study were analyzed...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Patrick R Krill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Paul F Velleman, Ann C Lapinski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Irene O Chiringa, Dorah U Ramathuba, Ntsieni S Mashau
BACKGROUND: Medical male circumcision (MMC) has become a significant dimension of HIV prevention interventions, after the results of three randomised controlled trials in Uganda, South Africa and Kenya demonstrated that circumcision has a protective effect against contracting HIV of up to 60%. Following recommendations by the World Health Organization, Zimbabwe in 2009 adopted voluntary MMC as an additional HIV prevention strategy to the existing ABC behaviour change model. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is thus to investigate the factors contributing to the low uptake of MMC...
2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
T Perich, D Hadzi-Pavlovic, A Frankland, M Breakspear, C Loo, G Roberts, E Holmes-Preston, P B Mitchell
OBJECTIVE: To investigate for subtypes of bipolar depression using latent class analysis (LCA). METHOD: Participants were recruited through a bipolar disorder (BD) clinic. LCA was undertaken using: (i) symptoms reported on the SCID-IV for the most severe lifetime depressive episode; (ii) lifetime illness features such as age at first depressive and hypo/manic episodes; and (iii) family history of BD and unipolar depression. To explore the validity of any demonstrated 'classes', clinical, demographic and treatment correlates were investigated...
September 2016: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Alice Pearl Sedziafa, Eric Y Tenkorang, Adobea Y Owusu
Intimate partner violence has implications for women's health globally. Patrilineal women have been shown to have increased risk of experiencing intimate partner violence, yet, the health consequences of intimate partner violence in patrilineal women have not been thoroughly explored or documented. This study used qualitative in-depth interviews to explore the health effects of intimate partner violence among 15 ever-partnered Ghanaian patrilineal women. Participants attributed violence to several factors including gendered domestic relations, cultural and marital rites and alcohol use, among other factors...
June 9, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
B Jenko, L Lusa, M Tomsic, S Praprotnik, V Dolzan
We describe a novel approach to investigate and evaluate combined effect of a large number of clinical and pharmacogenetic factors on treatment outcome. We have used this approach to investigate predictors of methotrexate (MTX)-induced adverse events (AEs) leading to treatment discontinuation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. In total, 333 RA patients were genotyped for 34 polymorphisms in MTX transporters, folate and adenosine pathways. The effect of clinical and pharmacogenetic factors was assessed with penalized regression in the cause-specific Cox proportional hazards model...
May 24, 2016: Pharmacogenomics Journal
Tong Shu, Lei Su, Jianxing Wang, Xin Lu, Feng Liang, Chenzhong Li, Xueji Zhang
Chemical etching of gold by thiols has been known to be capable of generating nonluminescent gold(I) complexes, e.g., in size-focusing synthesis of atomically precise gold nanoclusters (GNCs). These nonluminescent gold(I) complexes have usually been considered as useless or worthless byproducts. This study shows a promising potential of thiol etching of GNCs to prepare novel water-soluble and phosphorescent gold(I) materials for sensing application. First, cysteamine-induced etching of GNCs is used to produce nonluminescent oligomeric gold(I)-thiolate complexes...
June 7, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Abigail A Sewell, Kevin A Jefferson, Hedwig Lee
A growing body of research highlights the collateral consequences of mass incarceration, including stop-and-frisk policing tactics. Living in a neighborhood with aggressive policing may affect one's mental health, especially for men who are the primary targets of police stops. We examine whether there is an association between psychological distress and neighborhood-level aggressive policing (i.e., frisking and use of force by police) and whether that association varies by gender. The 2009-2011 New York City (NYC) Stop, Question, and Frisk Database is aggregated to the neighborhood-level (N = 34) and merged with individual data from the 2012 NYC Community Health Survey (N = 8066) via the United Hospital Fund neighborhood of respondents' residence...
June 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Pier Paolo Pani, Angelo G I Maremmani, Emanuela Trogu, Federica Vigna-Taglianti, Federica Mathis, Roberto Diecidue, Ursula Kirchmayer, Laura Amato, Joli Ghibaudi, Antonella Camposeragna, Alessio Saponaro, Marina Davoli, Fabrizio Faggiano, Icro Maremmani
BACKGROUND: We previously found a five cluster of psychological symptoms in heroin use disorder (HUD) patients: 'worthlessness-being trapped', 'somatic-symptoms', 'sensitivity-psychoticism', 'panic-anxiety', and 'violence-suicide'. We demonstrated that this aggregation is independent of the chosen treatment, of intoxication status and of the presence of psychiatric problems. METHODS: 2314 Subjects, with alcohol, heroin or cocaine dependence were assigned to one of the five clusters...
2016: Annals of General Psychiatry
Sirry M Alang
Discrepancies exist between how some Black populations perceive depression and how depression is conceptualized within research and clinical settings. Based on a 12-month ethnography of mental health in a predominantly Black disadvantaged urban neighborhood in Midwestern United States, the current study identifies meanings and common ways of expressing depression among African Americans. Depression was often considered a sign of weakness rather than a health problem that might need medical attention. Associated emotions like sadness and hopelessness were inconsistent with notions of strength...
May 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Matthew M Gervais, Daniel M T Fessler
Contempt is typically studied as a uniquely human moral emotion. However, this approach has yielded inconclusive results. We argue this is because the folk affect concept "contempt" has been inaccurately mapped onto basic affect systems. "Contempt" has features that are inconsistent with a basic emotion, especially its protracted duration and frequently cold phenomenology. Yet other features are inconsistent with a basic attitude. Nonetheless, the features of "contempt" functionally cohere. To account for this we revive and reconfigure the sentiment construct using the notion of evolved functional specialization...
March 22, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
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