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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137521/cleaning-up-medical-research-rigor-mortis-how-sloppy-science-creates-worthless-cures-crushes-hope-and-wastes-billions-by-richard-harris-new-york-ny-basic-books-2017-288-pp-28-00
#1
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130449/the-antioxidant-activity-and-nitric-oxide-production-of-extracts-obtained-from-the-leaves-of-chenopodium-quinoa-willd
#2
Hsiao-Ling Chen, Xiang-Zhen Lan, Yan-Yi Wu, Yu-Wen Ou, Tsung Chi Chen, Wen-Tzu Wu
BACKGROUND: Most reports have indicated the antioxidant capacity of quinoa seeds. However, the leaves of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) are usually worthless and little known about their biological activities. In this study, the antioxidant and immunomodulatory potential of the quinoa leaf extracts were explored. METHODS: The crude leaf extracts of quinoa were extracted using water, 50% ethanol or 95% ethanol as solvent, denoted WQL, 50% EQL and 95% EQL, respectively...
December 2017: BioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111774/an-introduction-to-network-psychometrics-relating-ising-network-models-to-item-response-theory-models
#3
M Marsman, D Borsboom, J Kruis, S Epskamp, R van Bork, L J Waldorp, H L J van der Maas, G Maris
In recent years, network models have been proposed as an alternative representation of psychometric constructs such as depression. In such models, the covariance between observables (e.g., symptoms like depressed mood, feelings of worthlessness, and guilt) is explained in terms of a pattern of causal interactions between these observables, which contrasts with classical interpretations in which the observables are conceptualized as the effects of a reflective latent variable. However, few investigations have been directed at the question how these different models relate to each other...
November 7, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110668/measuring-the-bias-against-low-income-country-research-an-implicit-association-test
#4
Matthew Harris, James Macinko, Geronimo Jimenez, Pricila Mullachery
BACKGROUND: With an increasing array of innovations and research emerging from low-income countries there is a growing recognition that even high-income countries could learn from these contexts. It is well known that the source of a product influences perception of that product, but little research has examined whether this applies also in evidence-based medicine and decision-making. In order to examine likely barriers to learning from low-income countries, this study uses established methods in cognitive psychology to explore whether healthcare professionals and researchers implicitly associate good research with rich countries more so than with poor countries...
November 6, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091779/towards-a-psychopathology-specific-to-substance-use-disorder-should-emotional-responses-to-life-events-be-included
#5
Angelo G I Maremmani, Marco Maiello, Manuel Glauco Carbone, Alessandro Pallucchini, Francesca Brizzi, Iacopo Belcari, Ciro Conversano, Giulio Perugi, Icro Maremmani
INTRODUCTION: The severity of emotional responses to life events (PTSD spectrum) as part of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Substance Use Disorder (SUD) patients has often been considered from a unitary perspective. Light has also been shed on the possible definition of a specific psychopathology of SUD patients. This psychopathology has been proved to be independent of treatment choice, of being active in using substances, of lifetime psychiatric comorbidity and primary substance of abuse (heroin, alcohol, cocaine)...
October 6, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065893/neuropsychological-and-internalizing-problems-in-acute-central-nervous-system-infections-a-1-year-follow-up
#6
Bozzola Elena, Bergonzini Paola, Bozzola Mauro, Tozzi Alberto Eugenio, Masci Marco, Rossetti Chiara, Carloni Emanuela, Villani Alberto
BACKGROUND: Acute central nervous system (ACNS) infections such as meningitis, encephalitis and cerebellitis still cause morbidity and mortality among children. The aim of this study was to verify whether neuropsychological impairment may develop in ACNS survivors. METHODS: The study included pediatric patients affected by ACNS disorders, aged 3-16 years admitted to the Bambino Gesù Children Hospital, Rome from June 2013 till June 2015. The patients and their parents underwent a psychological interview and neuropsychological tests during the first week of hospital admission and 1 year after, during a follow-up control...
October 24, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053393/depression-and-alcohol-use-in-a-national-sample-of-hispanic-adolescents
#7
Ashley L Merianos, Christopher M Swoboda, Oladunni A Oluwoye, Tamika D Gilreath, Jennifer B Unger
BACKGROUND: Underage alcohol use and depression remain public health concerns for Hispanic adolescents nationwide. OBJECTIVES: The study purpose was to identify the profiles of depression among Hispanic adolescents who reported experiencing depressive symptoms in their lifetime and classify them into groups based on their symptoms. Based on classifications, we examined the relationship between past year alcohol use and severity of depressive symptoms while controlling for sex and age...
October 20, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042883/feasibility-of-the-korean-version-of-the-bipolar-depression-rating-scale-in-adolescents-with-early-onset-bipolar-disorder
#8
Da-Young Lee, Eun-Kyung Won, Jung-Won Choi, Hye Ji Min, Jayoun Kim, Kyooseob Ha, Yunglyul Lee, Jae Seung Chang, Yeni Kim
OBJECTIVE: This study explores the feasibility and psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Bipolar Depression Rating Scale (BDRS) in adolescents with Early-onset bipolar disorders. METHODS: Fifty-three participants (aged 13-18) with early-onset bipolar disorders (40 depressed and 18 euthymic, 5 patients were assessed at depressed state and reassessed after remission) were recruited. All participants were assessed using the BDRS, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), the Montgomery-Asperg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and the Modified Overt Aggression scale (MOAS)...
September 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960345/hypochondria-as-an-actual-neurosis
#9
Bernd Nissen
Freud defined hypochondria as an actual neurosis. In this paper the actual neurosis will be interpreted as unbound traumatic elements which threaten the self. In severe hypochondria, breakdowns have occurred, as outlined by Winnicott. The nameless traumatic elements of the breakdown have been encapsulated. The moment these encapsulated elements are liberated, an actual dynamic takes place which threatens the self with annihilation. Projective identification is not possible because no idea of containment exists...
September 27, 2017: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934562/the-enduring-legacy-of-250-years-of-pharmacology-in-edinburgh
#10
John S Kelly, Angus V P Mackay
Two hundred fifty years ago, the University of Edinburgh appointed Francis Home to the first chair of materia medica, the accumulated knowledge of materials used in healing. Francis Home and his colleagues were determined to improve the quality of medical training in Edinburgh by introducing a final examination and compiling a catalog of medicines validated by the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. The catalog, known as the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia, was a great success, partly due to the orderly nature of its contents, its routine editing to eliminate worthless entries, and the introduction of new treatments whose preparation was precisely documented...
September 13, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910219/with-a-worthless-services-hammer-everything-looks-like-a-nail-litigating-quality-of-care-under-the-false-claims-act
#11
Richard Hughes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892315/-which-psychiatric-symptoms-must-raise-suspicion-about-a-possible-brain-tumor
#12
S Mardaga, M Al Bassir, J Bracke, A Dutilleux, J D Born
Many case studies reported psychiatric symptoms during the months before a brain tumor (BT) is diagnosed. Unfortunately, these symptoms are rarely considered as a warning of an organic problem and patients are regularly misoriented towards psychiatric care. Knowing better what psychiatric symptoms look like in patients with a BT would help to diagnose it sooner, which would obviously benefit the patient. The present study aims to quantify the prevalence and further describe psychiatric symptoms occurring before a BT diagnosis...
September 2017: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872391/health-for-older-adults-the-role-of-social-capital-and-leisure-time-physical-activity-by-living-arrangements
#13
Chia-Yuan Yu, Su-I Hou, Jonathan Miller
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to: (1) explore the influence of social capital and leisure-time physical activity on older adults' physical and mental health, and (2) test whether these relationships varied by living arrangement. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used national data from the 2013 National Health Interview Study. The subjects included 7,714 adults aged 65 years or older. Logistic regressions were to predict the probability of subjects being overweight or obese...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28850855/specificity-and-overlap-of-attention-and-memory-biases-in-depression
#14
Igor Marchetti, Jonas Everaert, Justin Dainer-Best, Tom Loeys, Christopher G Beevers, Ernst H W Koster
BACKGROUND: Attentional and memory biases are viewed as crucial cognitive processes underlying symptoms of depression. However, it is still unclear whether these two biases are uniquely related to depression or whether they show substantial overlap. METHODS: We investigated the degree of specificity and overlap of attentional and memory biases for depressotypic stimuli in relation to depression and anxiety by means of meta-analytic commonality analysis. By including four published studies, we considered a pool of 463 healthy and subclinically depressed individuals, different experimental paradigms, and different psychological measures...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825670/further-evidence-of-a-specific-psychopathology-of-addiction-differentiation-from-other-psychiatric-psychopathological-dimensions-such-as-obesity
#15
Angelo G I Maremmani, Luca Cerniglia, Silvia Cimino, Silvia Bacciardi, Luca Rovai, Alessandro Pallucchini, Vincenza Spera, Giulio Perugi, Icro Maremmani
Introduction: In this study, we used a symptomatology checklist (SCL-90) to substantiate the hypothesis that Substance Use Disorder (SUD) has its own five-dimensional psychopathology. The aim of the present study was to test whether this psychopathology can be differentiated from other psychiatric psychopathological dimensions (such as obesity). Methods: The severity and frequency of each of the five dimensions were investigated, at univariate and multivariate levels, by comparing 972 Heroin Use Disorder (HUD) patients (83...
August 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714734/being-disconnected-from-life-meanings-of-existential-loneliness-as-narrated-by-frail-older-people
#16
Marina Sjöberg, Ingela Beck, Birgit H Rasmussen, Anna-Karin Edberg
OBJECTIVES: This study illuminated the meanings of existential loneliness (EL) as narrated by frail older people. METHOD: Data were collected through individual narrative interviews with 23 people 76-101 years old receiving long-term care and services. A phenomenological hermeneutical analysis was performed, including a naïve reading and two structural analyses as a basis for a comprehensive understanding of EL. RESULT: Four themes were identified related to meanings of EL: (1) being trapped in a frail and deteriorating body; (2) being met with indifference; (3) having nobody to share life with; and (4) lacking purpose and meaning...
July 17, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603908/depression-profile-in-cancer-patients-and-patients-without-a-chronic-somatic-disease
#17
Christoph Nikendei, Valentin Terhoeven, Johannes C Ehrenthal, Imad Maatouk, Beate Wild, Wolfgang Herzog, Hans-Christoph Friederich
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether depressed oncology patients show a specific depressive symptom profile, we compared depression symptoms in depressed cancer patients (CANCER-DEP) and depressed patients without a chronic somatic disease (NONCANCER-DEP). METHODS: Of a total of 2493 outpatients from a comprehensive cancer center and a center for psychosocial medicine, 1054 (42.3%) met the DSM-5 criteria for depression, measured with the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9)...
June 11, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567233/factors-associated-with-screen-time-in-iranian-children-and-adolescents-the-caspian-iv-study
#18
Nafiseh Mozafarian, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Ramin Heshmat, Siavash Karimi, Morteza Mansourian, Fatemeh Mohebpour, Mostafa Qorbani, Roya Kelishadi
BACKGROUND: Prolonged screen time is frequent in children and adolescents. Implementing interventions to reduce physical inactivity needs to assess related determinants. This study aims to assess factors associated with screen time in a national sample of children and adolescents. METHODS: This nationwide study was conducted among 14,880 students aged 6-18 years. Data collection was performed using questionnaires and physical examination. The World Health Organization-Global School Health Survey questionnaire was used...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506206/females-of-a-gift-giving-spider-do-not-trade-sex-for-food-gifts-a-consequence-of-male-deception
#19
Irene Pandulli-Alonso, Agustín Quaglia, Maria J Albo
BACKGROUND: Polyandry is commonly maintained by direct benefits in gift-giving species, so females may remate as an adaptive foraging strategy. However, the assumption of a direct benefit fades in mating systems where male gift-giving behaviour has evolved from offering nutritive to worthless (non-nutritive) items. In the spider Paratrechalea ornata, 70% of gifts in nature are worthless. We therefore predicted female receptivity to be independent of hunger in this species. We exposed poorly-fed and well-fed females to multiple males offering nutritive gifts and well-fed females to males offering worthless gifts...
May 15, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496418/toward-the-identification-of-a-specific-psychopathology-of-substance-use-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Angelo G I Maremmani, Pier Paolo Pani, Luca Rovai, Silvia Bacciardi, Icro Maremmani
Addiction is a mental illness in which psychiatric conditions imply a prominent burden. Psychopathological symptoms in substance use disorder (SUD) patients are usually viewed as being assignable to the sphere of a personality trait or of comorbidity, leaving doubts about the presence of a specific psychopathology that could only be related to the toxicomanic process. Our research group at the University of Pisa has shed light on the possible definition of a specific psychopathological dimension in SUDs. In heroin use disorder patients, performing an exploratory principal component factor analysis (PCA) on all the 90 items included in the SCL-90 questionnaire led to a five-factor solution...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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