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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934562/the-enduring-legacy-of-250-years-of-pharmacology-in-edinburgh
#1
John S Kelly, Angus V P Mackay
Two hundred fifty years ago, the University of Edinburgh appointed Francis Home to the first chair of materia medica, the accumulated knowledge of materials used in healing. Francis Home and his colleagues were determined to improve the quality of medical training in Edinburgh by introducing a final examination and compiling a catalog of medicines validated by the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. The catalog, known as the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia, was a great success, partly due to the orderly nature of its contents, its routine editing to eliminate worthless entries, and the introduction of new treatments whose preparation was precisely documented...
September 13, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910219/with-a-worthless-services-hammer-everything-looks-like-a-nail-litigating-quality-of-care-under-the-false-claims-act
#2
Richard Hughes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892315/-which-psychiatric-symptoms-must-raise-suspicion-about-a-possible-brain-tumor
#3
S Mardaga, M Al Bassir, J Bracke, A Dutilleux, J D Born
Many case studies reported psychiatric symptoms during the months before a brain tumor (BT) is diagnosed. Unfortunately, these symptoms are rarely considered as a warning of an organic problem and patients are regularly misoriented towards psychiatric care. Knowing better what psychiatric symptoms look like in patients with a BT would help to diagnose it sooner, which would obviously benefit the patient. The present study aims to quantify the prevalence and further describe psychiatric symptoms occurring before a BT diagnosis...
September 2017: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872391/health-for-older-adults-the-role-of-social-capital-and-leisure-time-physical-activity-by-living-arrangements
#4
Chia-Yuan Yu, Su-I Hou, Jonathan Miller
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to: (1) explore the influence of social capital and leisure-time physical activity on older adults' physical and mental health, and (2) test whether these relationships varied by living arrangement. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used national data from the 2013 National Health Interview Study. The subjects included 7,714 adults aged 65 years or older. Logistic regressions were to predict the probability of subjects being overweight or obese...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28850855/specificity-and-overlap-of-attention-and-memory-biases-in-depression
#5
Igor Marchetti, Jonas Everaert, Justin Dainer-Best, Tom Loeys, Christopher G Beevers, Ernst H W Koster
BACKGROUND: Attentional and memory biases are viewed as crucial cognitive processes underlying symptoms of depression. However, it is still unclear whether these two biases are uniquely related to depression or whether they show substantial overlap. METHODS: We investigated the degree of specificity and overlap of attentional and memory biases for depressotypic stimuli in relation to depression and anxiety by means of meta-analytic commonality analysis. By including four published studies, we considered a pool of 463 healthy and subclinically depressed individuals, different experimental paradigms, and different psychological measures...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825670/further-evidence-of-a-specific-psychopathology-of-addiction-differentiation-from-other-psychiatric-psychopathological-dimensions-such-as-obesity
#6
Angelo G I Maremmani, Luca Cerniglia, Silvia Cimino, Silvia Bacciardi, Luca Rovai, Alessandro Pallucchini, Vincenza Spera, Giulio Perugi, Icro Maremmani
Introduction: In this study, we used a symptomatology checklist (SCL-90) to substantiate the hypothesis that Substance Use Disorder (SUD) has its own five-dimensional psychopathology. The aim of the present study was to test whether this psychopathology can be differentiated from other psychiatric psychopathological dimensions (such as obesity). Methods: The severity and frequency of each of the five dimensions were investigated, at univariate and multivariate levels, by comparing 972 Heroin Use Disorder (HUD) patients (83...
August 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714734/being-disconnected-from-life-meanings-of-existential-loneliness-as-narrated-by-frail-older-people
#7
Marina Sjöberg, Ingela Beck, Birgit H Rasmussen, Anna-Karin Edberg
OBJECTIVES: This study illuminated the meanings of existential loneliness (EL) as narrated by frail older people. METHOD: Data were collected through individual narrative interviews with 23 people 76-101 years old receiving long-term care and services. A phenomenological hermeneutical analysis was performed, including a naïve reading and two structural analyses as a basis for a comprehensive understanding of EL. RESULT: Four themes were identified related to meanings of EL: (1) being trapped in a frail and deteriorating body; (2) being met with indifference; (3) having nobody to share life with; and (4) lacking purpose and meaning...
July 17, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603908/depression-profile-in-cancer-patients-and-patients-without-a-chronic-somatic-disease
#8
Christoph Nikendei, Valentin Terhoeven, Johannes C Ehrenthal, Imad Maatouk, Beate Wild, Wolfgang Herzog, Hans-Christoph Friederich
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether depressed oncology patients show a specific depressive symptom profile, we compared depression symptoms in depressed cancer patients (CANCER-DEP) and depressed patients without a chronic somatic disease (NONCANCER-DEP). METHODS: Of a total of 2493 outpatients from a comprehensive cancer center and a center for psychosocial medicine, 1054 (42.3%) met the DSM-5 criteria for depression, measured with the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9)...
June 11, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567233/factors-associated-with-screen-time-in-iranian-children-and-adolescents-the-caspian-iv-study
#9
Nafiseh Mozafarian, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Ramin Heshmat, Siavash Karimi, Morteza Mansourian, Fatemeh Mohebpour, Mostafa Qorbani, Roya Kelishadi
BACKGROUND: Prolonged screen time is frequent in children and adolescents. Implementing interventions to reduce physical inactivity needs to assess related determinants. This study aims to assess factors associated with screen time in a national sample of children and adolescents. METHODS: This nationwide study was conducted among 14,880 students aged 6-18 years. Data collection was performed using questionnaires and physical examination. The World Health Organization-Global School Health Survey questionnaire was used...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506206/females-of-a-gift-giving-spider-do-not-trade-sex-for-food-gifts-a-consequence-of-male-deception
#10
Irene Pandulli-Alonso, Agustín Quaglia, Maria J Albo
BACKGROUND: Polyandry is commonly maintained by direct benefits in gift-giving species, so females may remate as an adaptive foraging strategy. However, the assumption of a direct benefit fades in mating systems where male gift-giving behaviour has evolved from offering nutritive to worthless (non-nutritive) items. In the spider Paratrechalea ornata, 70% of gifts in nature are worthless. We therefore predicted female receptivity to be independent of hunger in this species. We exposed poorly-fed and well-fed females to multiple males offering nutritive gifts and well-fed females to males offering worthless gifts...
May 15, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496418/toward-the-identification-of-a-specific-psychopathology-of-substance-use-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Angelo G I Maremmani, Pier Paolo Pani, Luca Rovai, Silvia Bacciardi, Icro Maremmani
Addiction is a mental illness in which psychiatric conditions imply a prominent burden. Psychopathological symptoms in substance use disorder (SUD) patients are usually viewed as being assignable to the sphere of a personality trait or of comorbidity, leaving doubts about the presence of a specific psychopathology that could only be related to the toxicomanic process. Our research group at the University of Pisa has shed light on the possible definition of a specific psychopathological dimension in SUDs. In heroin use disorder patients, performing an exploratory principal component factor analysis (PCA) on all the 90 items included in the SCL-90 questionnaire led to a five-factor solution...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452611/at-zero-and-turning-in-circles-refugee-experiences-and-coping-in-durban-south-africa
#12
Charlotte A Labys, Chandré Dreyer, Jonathan K Burns
Millions of refugees are on the move globally, mostly settling in low- and middle-income (LMIC) "host" countries, where they often receive insufficient assistance and encounter a multitude of barriers. Despite a risk for developing mental illness, limited research exists on their struggles and coping strategies in these settings, especially outside of camps. Against this backdrop, our qualitative study aimed to gain a deeper understanding of refugee experiences in Durban, South Africa. We conducted semistructured individual interviews with 18 adult refugees from Zimbabwe and the Democratic Republic of Congo at a community-based support center in Durban...
January 1, 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443199/overdiagnosis-of-breast-cancer-in-population-screening-does-it-make-breast-screening-worthless
#13
Nehmat Houssami
The risk of breast cancer (BC) overdiagnosis attributed to mammography screening is an unresolved issue, complicated by heterogeneity in the methodology of quantifying its magnitude, and both political and scientific elements surrounding interpretation of the evidence on this phenomenon. Evidence from randomized trials and also from observational studies shows that mammography screening reduces the risk of BC death; similarly, these studies provide sufficient evidence that overdiagnosis represents a serious harm from population breast screening...
February 2017: Cancer Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422471/-epidemiological-surveillance-for-multidrug-resistant-microorganisms-in-a-general-icu
#14
A Fernández-Verdugo, J Fernández, D Escudero, L Cofiño, L Forcelledo, M Telenti, E García-Prieto, R Rodríguez-García, L Álvarez-García, A Pérez-García, C Rodríguez-Lucas, F Vazquez
OBJECTIVE: Multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganisms represent a threat for patients admitted in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). The objective of the present study is to analyse the results of epidemiological surveillance cultures for these microorganisms in one of these units. METHODS: General ICU. Retrospective analysis, descriptive statistics. Analysis of epidemiological surveillance cultures for MDR microorganisms in 2015. Studied microorganisms: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), ESBL-and/or carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CESBL-KP) and MDR Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB)...
April 5, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372559/comparing-five-depression-measures-in-depressed-chinese-patients-using-item-response-theory-an-examination-of-item-properties-measurement-precision-and-score-comparability
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Yue Zhao, Wai Chan, Barbara Chuen Yee Lo
BACKGROUND: Item response theory (IRT) has been increasingly applied to patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. The purpose of this study is to apply IRT to examine item properties (discrimination and severity of depressive symptoms), measurement precision and score comparability across five depression measures, which is the first study of its kind in the Chinese context. METHODS: A clinical sample of 207 Hong Kong Chinese outpatients was recruited. Data analyses were performed including classical item analysis, IRT concurrent calibration and IRT true score equating...
April 4, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346147/differences-in-short-and-long-sleep-durations-between-blacks-and-whites-attributed-to-emotional-distress-analysis-of-the-national-health-interview-survey-in-the-united-states
#16
Azizi A Seixas, Emmanuella Auguste, Mark Butler, Caryl James, Valerie Newsome, Evan Auguste, Vilma Aparecida da Silva Fonseca, Andres Schneeberger, Ferdinand Zizi, Girardin Jean-Louis
OBJECTIVES: The current study examined the role of emotional distress in explaining racial/ethnic differences in unhealthy sleep duration. DESIGN: Data from the 2004-2013 National Health Interview Survey were analyzed using SPSS 20. SETTING: Data were collected through personal household interviews in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Of the total 261,686 participants (age≥18 years), 17.0% were black, 83.0% were white, and the mean age was 48 years (SE=0...
February 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317414/anxiety-depression-and-the-suicidal-spectrum-a-latent-class-analysis-of-overlapping-and-distinctive-features
#17
Matthew C Podlogar, Megan L Rogers, Ian H Stanley, Melanie A Hom, Bruno Chiurliza, Thomas E Joiner
Anxiety and depression diagnoses are associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviours. However, a categorical understanding of these associations limits insight into identifying dimensional mechanisms of suicide risk. This study investigated anxious and depressive features through a lens of suicide risk, independent of diagnosis. Latent class analysis of 97 depression, anxiety, and suicidality-related items among 616 psychiatric outpatients indicated a 3-class solution, specifically: (1) a higher suicide-risk class uniquely differentiated from both other classes by high reported levels of depression and anxious arousal; (2) a lower suicide-risk class that reported levels of anxiety sensitivity and generalised worry comparable to Class 1, but lower levels of depression and anxious arousal; and (3) a low to non-suicidal class that reported relatively low levels across all depression and anxiety measures...
March 20, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294712/frequency-and-chunking-in-derived-words-a-parametric-fmri-study
#18
Alice Blumenthal-Dramé, Volkmar Glauche, Tobias Bormann, Cornelius Weiller, Mariacristina Musso, Bernd Kortmann
In usage-based linguistic theories, the assumption that high-frequency language strings are mentally represented as unitary chunks has been invoked to account for a wide range of phenomena. However, neurocognitive evidence in support of this assumption is still lacking. In line with Gestalt psychological assumptions, we propose that a language string qualifies as a chunk if the following two conditions are simultaneously satisfied: The perception of the whole string does not involve strong activation of its individual component parts, but the component parts in isolation strongly evoke the whole...
July 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211584/csf-ykl-40-and-gap-43-are-related-to-suicidal-ideation-in-older-women
#19
I Rymo, S Kern, M Bjerke, H Zetterberg, T Marlow, K Blennow, P Gudmundsson, I Skoog, M Waern
OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible relationships between suicidal ideation and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of glial markers YKL-40 (also known as chitinase-3-like protein 1), growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) and myelin basic protein (MBP). METHOD: The sample was obtained from the Prospective Population Study of Women and included 86 women without dementia who underwent both psychiatric examinations and lumbar puncture (LP). Eight of these women reported past-month suicidal ideation...
April 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167427/feasibility-of-using-demolition-waste-as-an-alternative-heavy-metal-immobilising-agent
#20
Seelawut Damrongsiri
Demolition waste consisting of cement paste, lightweight concrete and bricks is a worthless material generated by a growing city. However, research suggests that it may be applied as an alternative heavy metal immobilising agent. The diverse characteristics of demolition waste were examined. Cadmium was selected as there presentative heavy metal to investigate demolition waste adsorption capacity. The solid-liquid distribution coefficients (Kd) were observed. The adsorption isotherms were applied to investigate adsorption characteristics...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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