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Claire Adams, Anna Stears, David Savage, Christi Deaton
AIMS: To evaluate the impact of lipodystrophy on body image and how this affects patients' daily lives. BACKGROUND: Lipodystrophy refers to a group of rare conditions characterised by generalised or partial lack of body fat and is associated with severe metabolic problems e.g. severe insulin resistance, diabetes and pancreatitis. In addition to its metabolic effect, lack of adipose tissue may have a major impact on appearance and cause distressing physical changes...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
John A Ford, Rachel Turley, Tom Porter, Tom Shakespeare, Geoff Wong, Andy P Jones, Nick Steel
OBJECTIVE: We aim to explore the barriers to accessing primary care for socio-economically disadvantaged older people in rural areas. METHODS: Using a community recruitment strategy, fifteen people over 65 years, living in a rural area, and receiving financial support were recruited for semi-structured interviews. Four focus groups were held with rural health professionals. Interviews and focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to identify barriers to primary care access...
2018: PloS One
Elena Bilevicius, Alanna Single, Lindsay A Bristow, Melody Foot, Michael Ellery, Matthew T Keough, Edward A Johnson
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and gambling problems are common in young adults. Self-medication theory states that young adults with depression drink and/or gamble to escape negative emotions. Research shows that depression is a risk factor for drinking/gambling problems, but more work is needed to examine mediators underlying these associations. One potential mediator is shame. Shame is a self-directed emotion that follows a negative life event and is characterized by intense feelings of inferiority, worthlessness, and embarrassment...
February 19, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Emma E McGinty, Colleen L Barry, Elizabeth Stone, Jeff Niederdeppe, Alene Kennedy-Hendricks, Sarah Linden, Susan G Sherman
We examine Americans' support for two evidence-based harm reduction strategies - safe consumption sites and syringe exchange programs - and their attitudes about individuals who use opioids. We conducted a web-based survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults in July-August 2017 (N = 1004). We measured respondents' support for legalizing safe consumption sites and syringe services programs in their communities and their attitudes toward people who use opioids. We used ordered logistic regression to assess how stigmatizing attitudes toward people who use opioids, political party identification, and demographic characteristics correlated with support for the two harm reduction strategies...
February 23, 2018: Preventive Medicine
R Loddenkemper, N Konietzko, V Seehausen
When the National Socialists came to power in 1933, a complete paradigm shift took place in the health policy under the principle "Public interest ahead of self-interest". In the early years there was an intense discussion about whether tuberculosis (TB) is more caused by heredity or by infection. Finally, the arguments of leading TB specialists were accepted that TB is predominantly an infectious disease. In 1939, the year Germany started World War II, TB mortality was at its lowest, with only a few countries having lower rates...
February 2018: Pneumologie
Allison R Dahlke, Julie K Johnson, Caprice C Greenberg, Remi Love, Lindsey Kreutzer, Daniel B Hewitt, Christopher M Quinn, Kathryn E Engelhardt, Karl Y Bilimoria
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to (1) assess differences in how male and female general surgery residents utilize duty-hour regulations and experience aspects of burnout and psychological well-being, and (2) to explore reasons why these differing experiences exist. BACKGROUND: There may be differences in how women and men enter, experience, and leave residency programs. METHODS: A total of 7395 residents completed a survey (response rate = 99%)...
February 16, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad, Tahereh Rahimi, Tahmineh Farajkhoda, Hossein Fallahzadeh, Siamak Mohebi
Background: Despite the important role of feelings in health care seeking behavior (HCSB), this subject has not yet been adequately investigated. HCSB-related feelings begin with the onset of disease symptoms and persist in different forms after treatment. The aim of current study was to explore the feelings that women of reproductive age experience when they seek health care. Methods: In this deductive, qualitative content analysis, participants were selected by purposeful sampling. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 17 women of reproductive age and 5 health care staffs in Qom, Iran were carried out until data saturation was achieved...
2018: Health Promotion Perspectives
Michelle P Desir, Canan Karatekin
Parent- and sibling-directed aggression by minor children are two forms of family violence that often co-occur and have strong relations to prior exposure to domestic violence, yet are often overlooked in intervention efforts. In addition, current research does not examine these forms of family violence in tandem, and there is very limited research with samples exposed to domestic violence. To better understand how these forms of aggression operate within a domestic violence context, we interviewed 44 women residing in a domestic violence shelter with at least one child over 3...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Angelo G I Maremmani, Denise Gazzarrini, Amelia Fiorin, Valeria Cingano, Graziano Bellio, Giulio Perugi, Icro Maremmani
Background: In the Gambling Disorder (GD), there is no exogenous drug administration that acts as the central core of the traditional meaning of addiction. A specific psychopathology of Substance Use Disorders has been proposed recently. In a sample of Heroin Use Disorder (HUD) patients entering opioid agonist treatment, it became possible to identify a group of 5 mutually exclusive psychiatric dimensions: Worthlessness-Being trapped (W-BT), Somatic Symptoms (SS), Sensitivity-Psychoticism (SP), Panic Anxiety (PA) and Violence-Suicide (VS)...
2018: Annals of General Psychiatry
Robert Briggs, Katy Tobin, Rose Anne Kenny, Sean P Kennelly
OBJECTIVE: Late life depression (LLD) confers significant morbidity and mortality but is well recognized that it often goes undetected or untreated. The objective of this study is to quantify the burden of untreated depression and death ideation (DI) at a population level. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study ascertaining the prevalence of, and factors associated with, untreated depression and DI. SETTING: This study, embedded within the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, involves over 7,000 community-dwelling people aged ≥50 years...
January 16, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Kulnaree Hanpatchaiyakul, Henrik Eriksson, Jureerat Kijsomporn, Gunnel Östlund
PURPOSE: This study explored the lived experiences of Thai women in relation to alcohol addiction in treatment. METHODS: Twelve women aged 20 to 65 years, were participated. The participants were recruited from two special hospitals and one outpatient clinic in a general hospital. Descriptive phenomenology was applied to analyze the transcripts of the individual interviews. RESULT: The explored phenomenon of Thai women experiencing alcohol addiction included four essential aspects, (1) feeling inferior and worthless (2) feeling physically and emotionally hurt, (3) fearing physical deterioration and premature death, and (4) feeling superior and powerful...
December 2017: Asian Nursing Research
Kenneth S Kendler, Steven H Aggen, Jonathan Flint, Denny Borsboom, Eiko I Fried
INTRODUCTION: We compared DSM-IV criteria for major depression (MD) with clinically selected non-DSM criteria in their ability to represent clinical features of depression. METHOD: We conducted network analyses of 19 DSM and non-DSM symptoms of MD assessed at personal interview in 5952 Han Chinese women meeting DSM-IV criteria for recurrent MD. We estimated an Ising model (the state-of-the-art network model for binary data), compared the centrality (interconnectedness) of DSM-IV and non-DSM symptoms, and investigated the community structure (symptoms strongly clustered together)...
February 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Hsiao-Ling Chen, Xiang-Zhen Lan, Yan-Yi Wu, Yu-Wen Ou, Tsung Chi Chen, Wen-Tzu Wu
BACKGROUND: Most reports have indicated the antioxidant capacity of quinoa seeds. However, the leaves of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) are usually worthless and little known about their biological activities. In this study, the antioxidant and immunomodulatory potential of the quinoa leaf extracts were explored. METHODS: The crude leaf extracts of quinoa were extracted using water, 50% ethanol or 95% ethanol as solvent, denoted WQL, 50% EQL and 95% EQL, respectively...
December 2017: BioMedicine
M Marsman, D Borsboom, J Kruis, S Epskamp, R van Bork, L J Waldorp, H L J van der Maas, G Maris
In recent years, network models have been proposed as an alternative representation of psychometric constructs such as depression. In such models, the covariance between observables (e.g., symptoms like depressed mood, feelings of worthlessness, and guilt) is explained in terms of a pattern of causal interactions between these observables, which contrasts with classical interpretations in which the observables are conceptualized as the effects of a reflective latent variable. However, few investigations have been directed at the question how these different models relate to each other...
November 7, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
Matthew Harris, James Macinko, Geronimo Jimenez, Pricila Mullachery
BACKGROUND: With an increasing array of innovations and research emerging from low-income countries there is a growing recognition that even high-income countries could learn from these contexts. It is well known that the source of a product influences perception of that product, but little research has examined whether this applies also in evidence-based medicine and decision-making. In order to examine likely barriers to learning from low-income countries, this study uses established methods in cognitive psychology to explore whether healthcare professionals and researchers implicitly associate good research with rich countries more so than with poor countries...
November 6, 2017: Globalization and Health
Angelo G I Maremmani, Marco Maiello, Manuel Glauco Carbone, Alessandro Pallucchini, Francesca Brizzi, Iacopo Belcari, Ciro Conversano, Giulio Perugi, Icro Maremmani
INTRODUCTION: The severity of emotional responses to life events (PTSD spectrum) as part of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Substance Use Disorder (SUD) patients has often been considered from a unitary perspective. Light has also been shed on the possible definition of a specific psychopathology of SUD patients. This psychopathology has been proved to be independent of treatment choice, of being active in using substances, of lifetime psychiatric comorbidity and primary substance of abuse (heroin, alcohol, cocaine)...
January 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Bozzola Elena, Bergonzini Paola, Bozzola Mauro, Tozzi Alberto Eugenio, Masci Marco, Rossetti Chiara, Carloni Emanuela, Villani Alberto
BACKGROUND: Acute central nervous system (ACNS) infections such as meningitis, encephalitis and cerebellitis still cause morbidity and mortality among children. The aim of this study was to verify whether neuropsychological impairment may develop in ACNS survivors. METHODS: The study included pediatric patients affected by ACNS disorders, aged 3-16 years admitted to the Bambino Gesù Children Hospital, Rome from June 2013 till June 2015. The patients and their parents underwent a psychological interview and neuropsychological tests during the first week of hospital admission and 1 year after, during a follow-up control...
October 24, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Ashley L Merianos, Christopher M Swoboda, Oladunni A Oluwoye, Tamika D Gilreath, Jennifer B Unger
BACKGROUND: Underage alcohol use and depression remain public health concerns for Hispanic adolescents nationwide. OBJECTIVES: The study purpose was to identify the profiles of depression among Hispanic adolescents who reported experiencing depressive symptoms in their lifetime and classify them into groups based on their symptoms. Based on classifications, we examined the relationship between past year alcohol use and severity of depressive symptoms while controlling for sex and age...
October 20, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Da-Young Lee, Eun-Kyung Won, Jung-Won Choi, Hye Ji Min, Jayoun Kim, Kyooseob Ha, Yunglyul Lee, Jae Seung Chang, Yeni Kim
OBJECTIVE: This study explores the feasibility and psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Bipolar Depression Rating Scale (BDRS) in adolescents with Early-onset bipolar disorders. METHODS: Fifty-three participants (aged 13-18) with early-onset bipolar disorders (40 depressed and 18 euthymic, 5 patients were assessed at depressed state and reassessed after remission) were recruited. All participants were assessed using the BDRS, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), the Montgomery-Asperg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and the Modified Overt Aggression scale (MOAS)...
September 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
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