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Yanyan Feng, Yujia Wan, Ming Jin, Decheng Wan
We show here the first example of the large-scale surface decoration of a macroscopic and porous monolith with dissimilar micropatches. Branched polyethylenimine (PEI) is alkylated with poly(propylene glycol) (PPG), leading to a reverse-micelle-like dendritic amphiphile of PEI@PPG. Peralkylation and partial quaternization of the residual amino groups of PEI@PPG produces a cationic dendritic amphiphile of PEI-N+@PPG. The two dendritic amphiphiles jointly stabilize a water-in-oil high-internal-phase emulsion to prepare open-cellular monoliths of macroscopic size, with the monolith pore surface dictated by the cationic and neutral dendritic amphiphiles...
January 15, 2018: Soft Matter
Dongao Zhang, Gang Lv
GLP-1 signaling pathway has been well studied for its role in regulating glucose homeostasis, as well as its beneficial effects in energy and nutrient metabolism. A number of drugs based on GLP-1 have been used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. GLP-1R is expressed in multiple organs and numerous experimental studies have demonstrated that GLP-1 signaling pathway exhibits pro-survival functions in various disorders. In the central nervous system, stimulation of GLP-1R produces neuroprotective effects in specific neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease...
January 9, 2018: Peptides
Guannan Wu, Jian Wang, Yongrong Zhang, Shuai Jiang
Wearable devices have flourished over the past ten years providing great advantages to people and, recently, they have also been used for identity authentication. Most of the authentication methods adopt a one-time authentication manner which cannot provide continuous certification. To address this issue, we present a two-step authentication method based on an own-built fingertip sensor device which can capture motion data (e.g., acceleration and angular velocity) and physiological data (e.g., a photoplethysmography (PPG) signal) simultaneously...
January 10, 2018: Sensors
Wan-Hua Lin, Hui Wang, Oluwarotimi Williams Samuel, Gengxing Liu, Zhen Huang, Guanglin Li
Objective: The accuracy of cuffless and continuous blood pressure (BP) estimation has been improved, but it is still unsatisfactory for clinical uses. This study was designed to further increase BP estimation accuracy. Approach: In this study, a number of new indicators were extracted from photoplethysmogram (PPG) recordings and linear regression method was used to construct BP estimation models based on the PPG indicators and pulse transit time (PTT). The performance of the BP estimation models was evaluated by the PPG recordings from 22 subjects when they performed mental arithmetic stress and Valsalva's manoeuvre tasks that could induce BP fluctuations...
December 28, 2017: Physiological Measurement
Chantal Mathieu, Bruce W Bode, Edward Franek, Athena Philis-Tsimikas, Ludger Rose, Tina Graungaard, Anne Birk Østerskov, David Russell-Jones
AIMS: Compare safety and efficacy of fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart) with conventional insulin aspart (IAsp) in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: onset 1 was a randomized, multicentre, treat-to-target, phase 3, 52-week (initial 26 weeks + additional 26 weeks) trial conducted at 165 sites across nine countries. Adults with T1D were randomly allocated to double-blind mealtime faster aspart or IAsp, each with once- or twice-daily insulin detemir...
January 8, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Luisa A Ferreira, Vladimir N Uversky, Boris Y Zaslavsky
The phase diagram of a new aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) formed by polyethylene glycol with molecular weight 600 (PEG-600) and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in 0.01 M sodium phosphate buffer (NaPB), pH 7.4, is determined and hydrophobic, electrostatic and other solvent properties of the phases are characterized. The same properties are determined for the ATPS formed by PEG-600 and choline chloride in 0.01 M sodium phosphate buffer (NaPB), pH 7.4. Solvent properties of water (dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen bond donor acidity, and hydrogen bond acceptor basicity) in aqueous solutions of polypropylene glycol-400 (PPG-400), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether -250 (PEGDME-250), and choline chloride are determined at different concentrations...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Saikat Sinha Ray, Shiao Shing Chen, Nguyen Cong Nguyen, Hau Thi Nguyen, Nguyen Phuoc Dan, Bui Xuan Thanh, Le Thuy Trang
Selection of a proper osmotic agent is important to make the forward osmosis (FO) feasible. The objective of this study was to enhance FO by lowering reverse solute flux and maintaining high water flux. Poly(propylene glycol) with molecular weight of 725 Da (PPG-725) was found to possess high osmolality, making it a strong candidate for using as a draw agent. In addition, to reduce the partial leakage of draw solute, a non-ionic surfactant (Triton X-114) has been incorporated. Typically, when the hydrophobic tails of Triton X-114 interacted with the membrane surface, a layer on the surface of membrane is produced to constrict the pores and thus minimize the reverse solute flux...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Haneen Njoum, Panayiotis A Kyriacou
Arterial stiffness (AS) is one of the earliest detectable symptoms of cardiovascular diseases and their progression. Current AS measurement methods provide an indirect and qualitative estimation of AS. The purpose of this study is to explore the utilisation of Photoplethysmography (PPG) as a measure of volumetric strain in providing a direct quantification of the Volume Elastic modulus (Ev). An in vitro experimental setup was designed using an arterial model to simulate the human circulation in health (Model 2) and disease (Model 1)...
December 28, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
Ladan Afifi, Isabelle M Sanchez, Matthew M Wallace, Sara F Braswell, Alex G Ortega-Loayza, Kanade Shinkai
BACKGROUND: Peristomal pyoderma gangrenosum (PPG) is an uncommon subtype of pyoderma gangrenosum. PPG is a challenging condition to diagnose and treat; no evidence-based guidelines exist. OBJECTIVE: To identify important clinical features of PPG and effective treatments available for its management. METHODS: A systematic literature review of PPG was performed using PubMed, Medline, and Embase databases. RESULTS: We describe 335 patients with PPG from 79 studies...
December 26, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Maaz Ozair, Saba Noor, Alok Raghav, Sheelu Shafiq Siddiqi, Anjum Mirza Chugtai, Jamal Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major health burden worldwide with many patients encountering thyroid dysfunction later in their life. Various studies have found that diabetes and thyroid disorders mutually influence each other and both disorders tend to coexists. However, the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and associated clinical variables in these patients has not been investigated. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed at determining the incidence and prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in patients with T2DM in relation to age, sex, metabolic syndrome and other co-morbid conditions...
December 20, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Ryan D White, Greg Flaker
The detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) is important for stroke prevention in patients with AF. This paper aimed to investigate the current landscape of smartphone-based arrhythmia detection and monitoring. The current technology can be divided into smartphone-based photoplethysmography (PPG) and smartphone-based single-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs). Our literature review concluded there are currently no validated PPG applications for the detection of arrhythmias available to the general population. However, an initial validation study indicates that the current development in Cardiio Rhythm PPG application, when made available, could provide an accurate and reliable means to detect AF in patients at risk of developing AF...
April 2017: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
Suyi Li, Shanqing Jiang, Shan Jiang, Jiang Wu, Wenji Xiong, Shu Diao
The noninvasive peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and the pulse rate can be extracted from photoplethysmography (PPG) signals. However, the accuracy of the extraction is directly affected by the quality of the signal obtained and the peak of the signal identified; therefore, a hybrid wavelet-based method is proposed in this study. Firstly, we suppressed the partial motion artifacts and corrected the baseline drift by using a wavelet method based on the principle of wavelet multiresolution. And then, we designed a quadratic spline wavelet modulus maximum algorithm to identify the PPG peaks automatically...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Yuki Sumazaki Watanabe, Tomofumi Miura, Ayumi Okizaki, Keita Tagami, Yoshihisa Matsumoto, Maiko Fujimori, Tatsuya Morita, Hiroya Kinoshita
CONTEXT: The achievement of a personalized pain goal (PPG) is advocated as an individualized pain relief indicator. OBJECTIVES: Pain relief indicators, including PPG, pain intensity (PI), and interference with daily activities (Interference), were compared herein. METHODS: This was a single-center cross-sectional study. Adult cancer patients with opioid medications who visited the outpatient clinic at the National Cancer Center Hospital East between March and September 2015 were consecutively enrolled...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Won June Lee, Young Kook Kim, Jin Wook Jeoung, Ki Ho Park
Purpose: To determine the usefulness of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) probability maps in detecting locations with significant reduction in visual field (VF) sensitivity or predicting future VF changes, in patients with classically defined preperimetric glaucoma (PPG). Methods: Of 43 PPG patients, 43 eyes were followed-up on every 6 months for at least 2 years were analyzed in this longitudinal study. The patients underwent wide-field SS-OCT scanning and standard automated perimetry (SAP) at the time of enrollment...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Naoko Aizawa, Hiroshi Kunikata, Yukihiro Shiga, Satoru Tsuda, Yu Yokoyama, Kazuko Omodaka, Tomoki Yasui, Keiichi Kato, Hiroaki Kurashima, Etsuyo Miyamoto, Masayo Hashimoto, Toru Nakazawa
PURPOSE: There is no consensus on the diagnosis or treatment policy for Preperimetric Glaucoma (PPG) because the pathogenesis of PPG is not clear at this time. Preperimetric Glaucoma Prospective Observational Study (PPGPS) is a first multicenter, prospective, observational study to clarify the pathogenesis of PPG. This article indicates study design, patient baseline characteristics, and analysis focused on optic nerve head (ONH) blood flow in PPG, as well as the intraocular pressure (IOP) -lowering effect and ONH blood flow-improving effects of Tafluprost...
2017: PloS One
Diana L Williams, Nicole A Lilly, Ian J Edwards, Pallas Yao, James E Richards, Stefan Trapp
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) injected into the brain reduces food intake. Similarly, activation of preproglucagon (PPG) cells in the hindbrain which synthesize GLP-1, reduces food intake. However, it is far from clear whether this happens because of satiety, nausea, reduced reward, or even stress. Here we explore the role of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), an area involved in feeding control as well as stress responses, in GLP-1 responses. Using cre-expressing mice we visualized projections of NTS PPG neurons and GLP-1R-expressing BNST cells with AAV-driven Channelrhodopsin-YFP expression...
December 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
Maria I Davila, Gregory F Lewis, Stephen W Porges
Heart rate variability (HRV) is a reliable indicator of health status and a sensitive index of autonomic stress reactivity. Stress negatively affects physical and psychological wellness by decreasing cardiovascular health and reducing quality of life. Wearable sensors have made it possible to track HRV during daily activity, and recent advances in mobile technology have reduced the cost and difficulty of applying this powerful technique. Although advances have made sensors smaller and lighter, some burden on the subject remains...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Weiwei Wei, Chao Wang, Dongjian Li
The purpose of this study is to investigate the content of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in plasma of cirrhosis rats combined with portal hypertension and the correlation with indexes of liver function and liver fibrosis. Thirty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control group (NC), liver cirrhosis group (LC) and cirrhosis + propargylglycine (PPG) group (LC+PPG). Cirrhosis and portal hypertension were induced by carbon tetrachloride. Rats in LC+PPG group were intraperitoneally injected with H2S synthase inhibitor PPG for one week...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Ying Liu, Xia Jiang, Xin Chen
BACKGROUND: This study is to compare the effects of Liraglutide and Metformin alone or combined treatment on the cardiac function in T2DM patients complicated with CAD. METHODS: 120 T2DM patients were included at Endocrinology Department of Tianjin First Center Hospital (Tianjin, China) from April 2012 to September 2013. The study contained two sections. Section 1: 30 patients in group 1 was treated with Liraglutide (Novo Nordisk) (1.2 mg/d), and 30 patients in group 2 with Metformin (Shiguibao) (1500 mg/d) for 24 weeks...
December 2, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
S Desire, S Mucha, M Coffey, R Mrode, J Broadbent, J Conington
Until recently, the main selection focus in UK dairy goats has been on milk yield. To develop a selection index suitably weighted for a variety of traits, it is important to understand the genetic relationships between production, health and fertility traits. This study focussed on three aspects of reproduction that are of interest to goat breeders. (1) Out of season (OOS) kidding ability: goats are highly seasonal breeders so achieving consistent, year-round dairy production presents a challenge. It may be possible to select for extended or shifted breeding cycles, however, there are no published studies on the genetic basis of seasonal kidding ability, and a genetic correlation with milk production in dairy goats; (2) age at first kidding (AFK): a reduced AFK offers the opportunity for more rapid genetic improvement, as well as reducing the amount of time and resources required to raise the animals to producing age; (3) pseudopregnancy (PPG): as it is difficult to diagnose pregnancy within 30 days of mating, high herd levels of PPG could add a significant delay in breeding replacement animals, or commencing a new lactation...
December 1, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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