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Xiong Ding, Pengfei Wang
The excited state meta effect, also known as the meta-ortho effect, results from selective electron transmission from an electron-donating group to the meta and ortho sites on an aromatic ring in its first excited singlet state. This effect facilitates photochemical cleavage of benzylic C-O or C-N bond to release the corresponding alcohol, carboxylic acid, or amine when an electron-donating amino group is at the meta position, as demonstrated in our recent work of using a 3-diethylaminobenzyl (DEABn) group as an effective photolabile protecting group (PPG)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Ying Xing, Shaoyong Xu, Aihua Jia, Jing Cai, Mingwei Zhao, Jianhua Guo, Qiuhe Ji, Jie Ming
BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome (MS) criterion proposed by Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS) may have limitations, because it requires an additional 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose (2 h-PPG) to diagnose hyperglycemia. We aimed to revise the CDS criterion by removing the 2 h-PPG test, and determining the optimal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) cutoff for diagnosis of hyperglycemia in the Chinese population. METHODS: We obtained the study population from 2007-2008 China Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
Liangwen Yan, Sijung Hu, Abdullah Alzahrani, Samah Alharbi, Panagiotis Blanos
Different skin pigments among various ethnic group people have an impact on spectrometric illumination on skin surface. To effectively capture photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals, a multi-wavelength opto-electronic patch sensor (OEPS) together with a schematic architecture of electronics were developed to overcome the drawback of present PPG sensor. To perform a better in vivo physiological measurement against skin pigments, optimal illuminations in OEPS, whose wavelength is compatible with a specific skin type, were optimized to capture a reliable physiological sign of heart rate (HR)...
June 21, 2017: Biosensors
Li Zhao, Zhihou Guo, Jiali Liu, Zi Wang, Ruichong Wang, Yijing Li, Li Wang, Yigang Xu, Lijie Tang, Xinyuan Qiao
The present study used Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 as antigen delivery system to express C. perfringens toxoids α-β2-ε-β1 to construct the recombination Lactobacillus casei pPG-2-α-β2-ε-β1/L. casei 393. After being induced by 1% xylose, the specificity and integrity of recombinant strain were determined by Western-blotting. Rabbits as native animal model were immunized orally with pPG-2-α-β2-ε-β1/L. casei 393 and the titers of specific IgG and sIgA were determined by ELISA. The result showed that oral administration with the recombinants could elicit both local mucosal and systemic immune responses...
June 15, 2017: Vaccine
Henrik Christian Rieß, Anna Duprée, Christian-Alexander Behrendt, Tilo Kölbel, Eike Sebastian Debus, Axel Larena-Avellaneda, Detlef Russ, Sabine Wipper
BACKGROUND: Perioperative evaluation in peripheral artery disease (PAD) by common vascular diagnostic tools is limited by open wounds, medial calcinosis or an altered collateral supply of the foot. Indocyanine green fluorescent imaging (ICG-FI) has recently been introduced as an alternative tool, but so far a standardized quantitative assessment of tissue perfusion in vascular surgery has not been performed for this purpose. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate a new software for quantitative assessment of tissue perfusion in patients with PAD using indocyanine green fluorescent imaging (ICG-FI) before and after peripheral bypass grafting...
June 14, 2017: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
Huihua Xu, Jing Liu, Jie Zhang, Guodong Zhou, Ningqi Luo, Ni Zhao
Wearable photoplethysmogram (PPG) sensors offer convenient and informative measurements for evaluating daily physiological states of individuals. In this work, epidermal and flexible near-infrared (NIR) PPG sensors integrating a low-power, high-sensitivity organic phototransistor (OPT) with a high-efficiency inorganic light-emitting diode are developed. By exploiting an organic bulk heterojunction active layer and a bilayer gate dielectric design, a low voltage (<3 V) operated OPT with NIR responsivity as high as 3...
June 14, 2017: Advanced Materials
Kazunori Hirasawa, Natsumi Takahashi, Kazuhiro Matsumura, Masayuki Kasahara, Nobuyuki Shoji
This study aimed to compare the diagnostic capability of Pulsar perimetry (Pulsar) in pre-perimetric glaucoma (PPG) and early glaucoma (EG) with that of Flicker perimetry (Flicker) and spectral-domain optical conference tomography (SD-OCT). This prospective cross-sectional study included 25 eyes of 25 PPG patients, 35 eyes of 35 EG patients, and 42 eyes of 42 healthy participants. The diagnostic capability using the area under the curve (AUC) of the best parameter and agreement of detectability between structural and functional measurements were compared...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hae An Kim, Hyun Jung Lee, Ja Hye Hong, Hyo Jung Moon, Du Young Ko, Byeongmoon Jeong
Pluronics F127 (P, PEG-PPG-PEG triblock copolymer) was coupled with diphenylalanine (FF) to prepare FF-end-capped Pluronics (FFPFF). With increasing temperature from 10 to 60 °C, the FFPFF self-assembled to vesicles in water. The unimer-to-vesicle transition accompanies endothermic enthalpy of 53.9 kcal/mol. Aqueous P and FFPFF solutions exhibited thermogelation in 15.0-24.0 wt %. The gel phase of FFPFF was stable up to 90 °C, whereas that of P turned into a sol again at 55-86 °C, indicating that end-capping with FF improved the gel stability against heat...
June 22, 2017: Biomacromolecules
M Saranya, Srinivasan Latha, M R Gopal Reddi, T Gomathi, P N Sudha, Sukumaran Anil
Chitosan is one of the most abundant natural biopolymer after cellulose. Nanochitosan (NCS) was prepared from chitosan by ionic gelation method with sodium tripolyphosphate. Polyurethanes (PU) find wide range of applications as good materials for the concentration and removal of both organic and inorganic pollutants because of their high efficiency for sorption of various ionic and neutral materials. Polypropylene glycol (PPG) is a family of long chain polymers attached to a glycerine backbone. The present project deals with the aims in exploiting the positive behaviour of the three polymers by preparing a ternary blends of NCS/PU/PPG(1:1:1) ratio...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Katharina Weiss, Gudrun Herzner, Erhard Strohm
BACKGROUND: Sexual selection is thought to promote evolutionary changes and diversification. However, the impact of sexual selection in relation to other selective forces is difficult to evaluate. Male digger wasps of the tribe Philanthini (Hymenoptera, Philanthinae) scent mark territories to attract receptive females. Consequently, the organs for production and storage of the marking secretion, the mandibular gland (MG) and the postpharyngeal gland (PPG), are subject to sexual selection...
June 6, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Chao Wang, Juan Han, Dong-Jian Li, Zhen Yang, Lin Zhang
The role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in portal hypertension (PH)-induced esophagus-gastric junction vascular lesions in rabbits was observed. The rabbit PH models were established. The animals were randomly divided into the following groups: normal, PH, PH+sodium hydrosulfide (PH+S), PH+propargylglycine (PH+PPG). The plasma H2S levels, apoptosis of esophageal-gastric junction vascular smooth muscle cells, and the expression of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB), p-AKT, IκBa and Bcl-2 were detected. The cystathionine γ lyase (cystathionine-gamma-splitting enzyme, CSE) in the junction vascular tissue was measured...
June 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Guillermo E Umpierrez, Timothy S Bailey, Danielle Carcia, Charles Shaefer, Jay H Shubrook, Neil Skolnik
A large number of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) on basal insulin do not reach their glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) goals and require additional therapy to address postprandial hyperglycemia. Guidelines from expert bodies have outlined several approaches to accomplish post-prandial glucose (PPG) control, and recent literature suggests several more. This article provides strategies for primary care physicians caring for patients with T2D who do not achieve glycemic control with basal insulin alone...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
Andreas Tobola, Heike Leutheuser, Markus Pollak, Peter Spies, Christian Hofmann, Christian Weigand, Bjoern M Eskofier, Georg Fischer
Wearable health sensors are about to change our health system. While several technological improvements have been presented to enhance performance and energy-efficiency, battery runtime is still a critical concern for practical use of wearable biomedical sensor systems. The runtime limitation is directly related to the battery size, which is another concern regarding practicality and customer acceptance. We introduced ULPSEK-Ultra-Low-Power Sensor Evaluation Kit- for evaluation of biomedical sensors and monitoring applications (http://ulpsek...
May 25, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Robert W Flower, Ronn Kling
Fluorescence-mediated photoplethysmography (FM-PPG) was developed to facilitate determination of tissue microvascular (capillary) blood perfusion, requiring intra-venous injection of a small bolus (~0.33mL) of dye (25mg/mL ICG) and acquisition of high-speed angiogram images (>15images/s). The methodology is applicable to microvascular capillary beds of tissues that can be optically imaged, directly or laparoscopically. Proof of concept of the methodology and feasibility of its implementation are demonstrated in human forearm skin and in the choroid of a monkey eye, determined to have blood perfusion rates on the order of 1e-5mL/(s·mm(2)) and 10e-5mL/(s·mm(2)), respectively...
May 29, 2017: Microvascular Research
Wook-Jong Kim, Jung-Won Kim, Young-Jin Moon, Sung-Hoon Kim, Gyu-Sam Hwang, Won-Jung Shin
During liver transplantation, the thermodilution cardiac output (CO) technique cannot respond to sudden hemodynamic changes associated with postreperfusion syndrome. Photoplethysmography (PPG) can reflect changes in intravascular volume and thus can be used to assess vasomotor tone and arterial stiffness on the pressure-volume relation. We investigated whether a beat-to-beat analysis of the arterial pressure-PPG relationship can estimate dynamic changes in vascular characteristics immediately after liver graft reperfusion...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Biljana Djurić, Slavica Suzić, Bojana Stojadinović, Zorica Nestorović, Marija Ivanović, Jelena Suzić-Lazić, Dejan Nešić, Sanja Mazić, Tamar Tenne, Dragoslav Zikich, Dejan Žikić
We present here the improved design and development of optical sensor for non-invasive measurements of arterial blood flow waveform. The sensor is based on a physical principle of reflective photoplethysmography (PPG). As the light source we used serially connected infrared diodes whereas NPN silicon phototransistors were used as light detectors. The electronic components were molded into square package and poured with silicone. Such preparation produced an elastic superficies that allowed excellent attachment of the sensor on the skin's surface...
September 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
Jong Bong Lee, Cecilia Adrower, Chaolong Qin, Peter M Fischer, Cornelia H de Moor, Pavel Gershkovich
There is extensive literature on in vivo studies with cordycepin, but these studies were generally conducted without validation of the various formulations, especially in terms of the solubility of cordycepin in the dosing vehicles used. Cordycepin is a promising drug candidate in multiple therapeutic areas, and there is a growing interest in studies aimed at assessing the pharmacological activity of this compound in relevant animal disease models. It is likely that many reported in vivo studies used formulations in which cordycepin was incompletely soluble...
May 30, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
Jennifer M Trujillo, Jennifer Goldman
Lixisenatide, a short-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA), has been available in Europe since 2013 and was recently approved in the United States for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) as an adjunct to diet and exercise. The objective of this systematic review is to describe the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of lixisenatide in patients with T2D. We conducted a search of the EMBASE database, limited to human studies with abstracts available in English. Published conference abstracts, limited to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes meetings in 2015, as well as abstracts presented at the ADA meeting in 2016, were also screened...
May 27, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
Chuang-Kit Tey, Jinyoung An, Wan-Young Chung
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a type of lung disease caused by chronically poor airflow that makes breathing difficult. As a chronic illness, it typically worsens over time. Therefore, pulmonary rehabilitation exercises and patient management for extensive periods of time are required. This paper presents a remote rehabilitation system for a multimodal sensors-based application for patients who have chronic breathing difficulties. The process involves the fusion of sensory data-captured motion data by stereo-camera and photoplethysmogram signal by a wearable PPG sensor-that are the input variables of a detection and evaluation framework...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
J Donovan, P S Wong, R Roberts, M J Garle, S P H Alexander, W R Dunn, V Ralevic
Hypoxia-induced coronary artery vasodilatation protects the heart by increasing blood flow under ischemic conditions, however its mechanism is not fully elucidated. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is reported to be an oxygen sensor/transducer in the vasculature. The present study aimed to identify and characterise the role of H2S in the hypoxic response of the coronary artery, and to define the H2S synthetic enzymes involved. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry showed expression of all three H2S-producing enzymes, cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST), in porcine coronary artery...
May 25, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
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