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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678875/distribution-of-spinal-neuronal-networks-controlling-forward-and-backward-locomotion
#1
Natalia Merkulyeva, Aleksandr Veshchitskii, Oleg Gorsky, Natalia Pavlova, Pavel V Zelenin, Yury Gerasimenko, Tatiana G Deliagina, Pavel Musienko
Higher vertebrates, including humans, are capable not only of forward (FW) locomotion but also of walking in other directions relative to the body axis [backward (BW), sideways, etc.]. While the neural mechanisms responsible for controlling FW locomotion have been studied in considerable detail, the mechanisms controlling steps in other directions are mostly unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of spinal neuronal networks controlling FW and BW locomotion. First, we applied electrical epidural stimulation (ES) to different segments of the spinal cord from L2 to S2 to reveal zones triggering FW and BW locomotion in decerebrate cats of either sex...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671752/genuine-quantum-correlations-in-quantum-many-body-systems-a-review-of-recent-progress
#2
Gabriele De Chiara, Anna Sanpera
Quantum information theory has considerably helped in the understanding of quantum many-body systems. The role of quantum correlations and in particular, bipartite entanglement, has become crucial to characterise, classify and simulate quantum many body systems. Furthermore, the scaling of entanglement has inspired modifications to numerical techniques for the simulation of many-body systems leading to the, now established, area of tensor networks. However, the notions and methods brought by quantum information do not end with bipartite entanglement...
April 19, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671398/identifying-diseases-related-metabolites-using-random-walk
#3
Yang Hu, Tianyi Zhao, Ningyi Zhang, Tianyi Zang, Jun Zhang, Liang Cheng
BACKGROUND: Metabolites disrupted by abnormal state of human body are deemed as the effect of diseases. In comparison with the cause of diseases like genes, these markers are easier to be captured for the prevention and diagnosis of metabolic diseases. Currently, a large number of metabolic markers of diseases need to be explored, which drive us to do this work. METHODS: The existing metabolite-disease associations were extracted from Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) using a text mining tool NCBO annotator as priori knowledge...
April 11, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662224/the-spatial-scaling-of-species-interaction-networks
#4
REVIEW
Nuria Galiana, Miguel Lurgi, Bernat Claramunt-López, Marie-Josée Fortin, Shawn Leroux, Kevin Cazelles, Dominique Gravel, José M Montoya
Species-area relationships (SARs) are pivotal to understand the distribution of biodiversity across spatial scales. We know little, however, about how the network of biotic interactions in which biodiversity is embedded changes with spatial extent. Here we develop a new theoretical framework that enables us to explore how different assembly mechanisms and theoretical models affect multiple properties of ecological networks across space. We present a number of testable predictions on network-area relationships (NARs) for multi-trophic communities...
April 16, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656427/exercise-training-abrogates-age-dependent-loss-of-hypothalamic-oxytocinergic-circuitry-and-maintains-high-parasympathetic-activity
#5
Carla R Santos, Adriana Ruggeri, Alexandre Ceroni, Lisete C Michelini
Neuroanatomical studies associating neuronal tract tracing and immunohistochemistry identified reciprocal (ascending noradrenergic/descending oxytocinergic, OTergic) connections between brainstem cardiovascular nuclei and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). Previous functional studies indicated that exercise training (T) augmented the expression/activity of OTergic pathway and improve the autonomic control of the heart. Knowing that ageing is associated with autonomic dysfunction and sinoaortic denervation blocked T-induced beneficial effects, we hypothesized that T was able to reduce age-dependent impairment by improving the afferent signaling to PVN and augmenting OTergic modulation of cardiovascular control...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656045/distribution-and-morphology-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons-in-the-hypothalamus-of-an-induced-ovulator-the-llama-lama-glama
#6
Rodrigo A Carrasco, Jaswant Singh, Gregg P Adams
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a decapeptide involved in the regulation of reproduction in all mammals, but the distribution of GnRH neurons within the brain varies widely among species. The objective of the present study was to characterize the number and distribution of GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus and preoptic area of llamas, an induced ovulator. The brains of female llamas (n = 4) were fixed, frozen and sectioned serially every 50 microns in the transverse (coronal) plane. Every 10th section was stained for immunohistochemical detection of GnRH-positive neuron cell bodies and fibers by incubation with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine...
April 12, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653185/sex-differences-in-the-development-of-hepatic-steatosis-in-cafeteria-diet-induced-obesity-in-young-mice
#7
Fabiana Rodrigues Silva Gasparin, Fernando Olinto Carreño, Juliana Moraes Mewes, Eduardo Hideo Gilglioni, Clairce Luzia Salgueiro Pagadigorria, Maria Raquel Marçal Natali, Karina Sayuri Utsunomiya, Rodrigo Polimeni Constantin, Amanda Tomie Ouchida, Carlos Curti, Ingrid C Gaemers, Ronald Petrus Johannes Oude Elferink, Jorgete Constantin, Emy Luiza Ishii-Iwamoto
The present study was planned to improve our understanding about sex differences in the development of hepatic steatosis in cafeteria diet-induced obesity in young mice. Female (FCaf) and male (MCaf) mice fed a cafeteria diet had similar body weight gain and adiposity index, but FCaf had a more extensive steatosis than MCaf. FCaf livers exhibited a higher non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score, elevated lipid percentage area (+34%) in Sudan III staining and increased TG content (+25%) compared to MCaf...
April 10, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642638/analysis-of-a-smartphone-based-architecture-with-multiple-mobility-sensors-for-fall-detection-with-supervised-learning
#8
José Antonio Santoyo-Ramón, Eduardo Casilari, José Manuel Cano-García
This paper describes a wearable Fall Detection System (FDS) based on a body-area network consisting of four nodes provided with inertial sensors and Bluetooth wireless interfaces. The signals captured by the nodes are sent to a smartphone which simultaneously acts as another sensing point. In contrast to many FDSs proposed by the literature (which only consider a single sensor), the multisensory nature of the prototype is utilized to investigate the impact of the number and the positions of the sensors on the effectiveness of the production of the fall detection decision...
April 10, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621119/clinical-importance-of-a-cytokine-network-in-major-burns
#9
Hiroshi Matsuura, Hisatake Matsumoto, Akinori Osuka, Hiroshi Ogura, Kentaro Shimizu, Sujin Kang, Toshio Tanaka, Masashi Ueyama, Takeshi Shimazu
Major burns elicit an acute inflammatory response including various inflammatory cytokines. Cytokines play mutual interacting roles in inflammatory diseases. There is little evidence of the clinical significance of the cytokine network in patients with major burns. This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of the cytokine network in patients with major burn. This prospective observational study comprising 38 patients with major burns (total body surface area (%TBSA) ≥ 20%) and 12 healthy controls was conducted from April 2014 to December 2016...
April 4, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615790/multivariate-granger-causality-unveils-directed-parietal-to-prefrontal-cortex-connectivity-during-task-free-mri
#10
Andrea Duggento, Luca Passamonti, Gaetano Valenza, Riccardo Barbieri, Maria Guerrisi, Nicola Toschi
While a large body of research has focused on the study of functional brain "connectivity", few investigators have focused on directionality of brain-brain interactions which, in spite of the mostly bidirectional anatomical substrates, cannot be assumed to be symmetrical. We employ a multivariate Granger Causality-based approach to estimating directed in-network interactions and quantify its advantages using extensive realistic synthetic BOLD data simulations to match Human Connectome Project (HCP) data specification...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615084/the-association-between-self-rated-health-and-social-environments-health-behaviors-and-health-outcomes-a-structural-equation-analysis
#11
Bevan Adrian Craig, Darren Peter Morton, Peter John Morey, Lillian Marton Kent, Alva Barry Gane, Terry Leslie Butler, Paul Meredith Rankin, Kevin Ross Price
BACKGROUND: The factors shaping the health of the current generation of adolescents are multi-dimensional and complex. The purpose of this study was to explore the determinants of self-rated health (SRH) of adolescents attending a faith-based school system in Australia. METHODS: A total of 788 students attending 21 Seventh-day Adventist schools in Australia responded to a health and lifestyle survey that assessed SRH as well as potential determinants of SRH including the health outcomes mental health, vitality, body mass index (BMI), select health behaviors, social factors and personal demographics...
April 3, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599941/systems-and-wbans-for-controlling-obesity
#12
REVIEW
Maali Said Mohammed, Sandra Sendra, Jaime Lloret, Ignacio Bosch
According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimations, one out of five adults worldwide will be obese by 2025. Worldwide obesity has doubled since 1980. In fact, more than 1.9 billion adults (39%) of 18 years and older were overweight and over 600 million (13%) of these were obese in 2014. 42 million children under the age of five were overweight or obese in 2014. Obesity is a top public health problem due to its associated morbidity and mortality. This paper reviews the main techniques to measure the level of obesity and body fat percentage, and explains the complications that can carry to the individual's quality of life, longevity and the significant cost of healthcare systems...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594137/artificial-intelligence-for-the-artificial-kidney-pointers-to-the-future-of-a-personalized-hemodialysis-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Miguel Hueso, Alfredo Vellido, Nuria Montero, Carlo Barbieri, Rosa Ramos, Manuel Angoso, Josep Maria Cruzado, Anders Jonsson
Background: Current dialysis devices are not able to react when unexpected changes occur during dialysis treatment or to learn about experience for therapy personalization. Furthermore, great efforts are dedicated to develop miniaturized artificial kidneys to achieve a continuous and personalized dialysis therapy, in order to improve the patient's quality of life. These innovative dialysis devices will require a real-time monitoring of equipment alarms, dialysis parameters, and patient-related data to ensure patient safety and to allow instantaneous changes of the dialysis prescription for the assessment of their adequacy...
February 2018: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584634/printing-and-folding-a-solution-for-high-throughput-processing-of-organic-thin-film-thermoelectric-devices
#14
Seyedmohammad Mortazavinatanzi, Alireza Rezaniakolaei, Lasse Rosendahl
Wearable electronics are rapidly expanding, especially in applications like health monitoring through medical sensors and body area networks (BANs). Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) have been the main candidate among the different types of energy harvesting methods for body-mounted or even implantable sensors. Introducing new semiconductor materials like organic thermoelectric materials and advancing manufacturing techniques are paving the way to overcome the barriers associated with the bulky and inflexible nature of the common TEGs and are making it possible to fabricate flexible and biocompatible modules...
March 27, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578650/quantification-of-alignment-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#15
Marcel P Dorta, Isis V de Brito, Alexandre C Pereira, Adriano M Alencar
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are essential components that keep the tonus of the arterial network, which is the channel used to conduct the blood from the heart to the peripheral areas of the body. It is known that mechanical and architectural changes in VSMCs may lead to functional modifications in the cardiovascular system; therefore, the quantitative characterization of these changes can help to elucidate questions that remain unclear in pathological situations, such as hypertension, vasospasm, vascular hypertrophy, and atherosclerosis...
March 26, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570678/convolutional-neural-network-based-classification-of-driver-s-emotion-during-aggressive-and-smooth-driving-using-multi-modal-camera-sensors
#16
Kwan Woo Lee, Hyo Sik Yoon, Jong Min Song, Kang Ryoung Park
Because aggressive driving often causes large-scale loss of life and property, techniques for advance detection of adverse driver emotional states have become important for the prevention of aggressive driving behaviors. Previous studies have primarily focused on systems for detecting aggressive driver emotion via smart-phone accelerometers and gyro-sensors, or they focused on methods of detecting physiological signals using electroencephalography (EEG) or electrocardiogram (ECG) sensors. Because EEG and ECG sensors cause discomfort to drivers and can be detached from the driver's body, it becomes difficult to focus on bio-signals to determine their emotional state...
March 23, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565106/white-book-on-physical-and-rehabilitation-medicine-prm-in-europe-chapter-5-the-prm-organizations-in-europe-structure-and-activities
#17
(no author information available yet)
In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper addresses the structure, organization and activities of PRM bodies in Europe. There are four main bodies, the Section of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) very close to the European Union and is committed to define the professional competencies of PRM, the quality management and accreditation and with the Board the educational matters. The European College of PRM is served by the UEMS PRM Board and its main activities are analyzed below in the description of the Board of the UEMS PRM Section...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564649/systematic-review-of-real-time-remote-health-monitoring-system-in-triage-and-priority-based-sensor-technology-taxonomy-open-challenges-motivation-and-recommendations
#18
REVIEW
O S Albahri, A S Albahri, K I Mohammed, A A Zaidan, B B Zaidan, M Hashim, Omar H Salman
The new and ground-breaking real-time remote monitoring in triage and priority-based sensor technology used in telemedicine have significantly bounded and dispersed communication components. To examine these technologies and provide researchers with a clear vision of this area, we must first be aware of the utilised approaches and existing limitations in this line of research. To this end, an extensive search was conducted to find articles dealing with (a) telemedicine, (b) triage, (c) priority and (d) sensor; (e) comprehensively review related applications and establish the coherent taxonomy of these articles...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561263/stomach-brain-synchrony-reveals-a-novel-delayed-connectivity-resting-state-network-in-humans
#19
Ignacio Rebollo, Anne-Dominique Devauchelle, Benoît Béranger, Catherine Tallon-Baudry
Resting-state networks offer a unique window into the brain's functional architecture, but their characterization remains limited to instantaneous connectivity thus far. Here, we describe a novel resting-state network based on the delayed connectivity between the brain and the slow electrical rhythm (0.05 Hz) generated in the stomach. The gastric network cuts across classical resting-state networks with partial overlap with autonomic regulation areas. This network is composed of regions with convergent functional properties involved in mapping bodily space through touch, action or vision, as well as mapping external space in bodily coordinates...
March 21, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540549/bilateral-tactile-input-patterns-decoded-at-comparable-levels-but-different-time-scales-in-neocortical-neurons
#20
C Genna, C M Oddo, A Mazzoni, A Wahlbom, S Micera, H Jörntell
The presence of contralateral tactile input can profoundly affect ipsilateral tactile perception and unilateral stroke in somatosensory areas can result in bilateral tactile deficits, suggesting that bilateral tactile integration is an important part of brain function. Whereas previous studies have shown that bilateral tactile inputs exist and that there are neural interactions between inputs from the two sides, no previous study explored to what extent the local neuronal circuitry processing contains detailed information about the nature of the tactile input from the two sides...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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