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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821672/audio-visual-modulation-in-mouse-v1-depends-on-cross-modal-stimulus-configuration-and-congruency
#1
Guido T Meijer, Jorrit S Montijn, Cyriel M A Pennartz, Carien S Lansink
The sensory neocortex is a highly connected associative network, in which information from multiple senses is integrated, even at the level of the primary sensory areas. Although this view is supported by a growing body of empirical evidence, the neural mechanisms of cross-modal integration in primary sensory areas, such as the primary visual cortex (V1), are still largely unknown. Using two-photon calcium imaging in awake mice, we show that the encoding of audio-visual stimuli in V1 neuronal populations is highly dependent on the features of the stimulus constituents...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821646/location-of-the-mesopontine-neurons-responsible-for-maintanance-of-anesthetic-loss-of-consciousness
#2
Anne Minert, Shai-Lee Yatziv, Marshall Devor
The transition from wakefulness to general anesthesia is widely attributed to suppressive actions of anesthetic molecules distributed by the systemic circulation to the cerebral cortex (for amnesia and loss-of-consciousness) and to the spinal cord (for atonia and antinociception). An alternative hypothesis proposes that anesthetics act on one or more brainstem or diencephalic nuclei, with suppression of cortex and spinal cord mediated by dedicated axonal pathways. We previously documented induction of an anesthesia-like state in rats by microinjection of small amounts of GABAA-R agonists into an upper brainstem region named the mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area(MPTA)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813981/a-magnetic-compatible-supernumerary-robotic-finger-for-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-fmri-acquisitions-device-description-and-preliminary-results
#3
Irfan Hussain, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Andrea Leo, Emiliano Ricciardi, Simone Rossi, Domenico Prattichizzo
The Supernumerary robotic limbs are a recently introduced class of wearable robots that, differently from traditional prostheses and exoskeletons, aim at adding extra effectors (i.e., arms, legs, or fingers) to the human user, rather than substituting or enhancing the natural ones. However, it is still undefined whether the use of supernumerary robotic limbs could specifically lead to neural modifications in brain dynamics. The illusion of owning the part of body has been already proven in many experimental observations, such as those relying on multisensory integration (e...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811481/leaky-integrate-and-fire-neuron-by-charge-discharge-dynamics-in-floating-body-mosfet
#4
Sangya Dutta, Vinay Kumar, Aditya Shukla, Nihar R Mohapatra, Udayan Ganguly
Neuro-biology inspired Spiking Neural Network (SNN) enables efficient learning and recognition tasks. To achieve a large scale network akin to biology, a power and area efficient electronic neuron is essential. Earlier, we had demonstrated an LIF neuron by a novel 4-terminal impact ionization based n+/p/n+ with an extended gate (gated-INPN) device by physics simulation. Excellent improvement in area and power compared to conventional analog circuit implementations was observed. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a compact conventional 3-terminal partially depleted (PD) SOI- MOSFET (100 nm gate length) to replace the 4-terminal gated-INPN device...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809713/a-survey-on-biofeedback-and-actuation-in-wireless-body-area-networks-wban
#5
Rui Li, Daniel T H Lai, WeeSit Lee
Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) has attained increasing popularity as the next generation framework of wearable technologies for human monitoring. Invasive or non-invasive wearable sensors designed in WBAN are worn to gather vital information. Biofeedback is a recent concept where collected data is used to generate actuation signals in WBANs. Applications can be seen in various areas such as sports (e.g. locomotor velocity) or medical (e.g. blood pressure measurement). However, since the body is closely regulated, the next generation WBAN technology must be smart enough to react to monitored data...
August 10, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793251/extended-interneuronal-network-of-the-dentate-gyrus
#6
Gergely G Szabo, Xi Du, Mikko Oijala, Csaba Varga, Jack M Parent, Ivan Soltesz
Local interneurons control principal cells within individual brain areas, but anecdotal observations indicate that interneuronal axons sometimes extend beyond strict anatomical boundaries. Here, we use the case of the dentate gyrus (DG) to show that boundary-crossing interneurons with cell bodies in CA3 and CA1 constitute a numerically significant and diverse population that relays patterns of activity generated within the CA regions back to granule cells. These results reveal the existence of a sophisticated retrograde GABAergic circuit that fundamentally extends the canonical interneuronal network...
August 8, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783652/a-parametric-computational-analysis-into-galvanic-coupling-intrabody-communication
#7
M Amparo Callejon, P Del Campo, Javier Reina-Tosina, Laura M Roa
Intrabody Communication (IBC) uses the human body tissues as transmission media for electrical signals to interconnect personal health devices in wireless body area networks. The main goal of this work is to conduct a computational analysis covering some bioelectric issues that still have not been fully explained, such as the modeling of the skin-electrode impedance, the differences associated to the use of constant voltage or current excitation modes, or the influence on attenuation of the subject's anthropometrical and bioelectric properties...
August 2, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782683/unidirectional-brain-to-muscle-connectivity-reveals-motor-cortex-control-of-leg-muscles-during-stereotyped-walking
#8
Fiorenzo Artoni, Chiara Fanciullacci, Federica Bertolucci, Alessandro Panarese, Scott Makeig, Silvestro Micera, Carmelo Chisari
In lower mammals, locomotion seems to be mainly regulated by subcortical and spinal networks. On the contrary, recent evidence suggests that in humans the motor cortex is also significantly engaged during complex locomotion tasks. However, a detailed understanding of cortical contribution to locomotion is still lacking especially during stereotyped activities. Here, we show that cortical motor areas finely control leg muscle activation during treadmill stereotyped walking. Using a novel technique based on a combination of Reliable Independent Component Analysis, source localization and effective connectivity, and by combining electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) recordings in able-bodied adults we were able to examine for the first time cortical activation patterns and cortico-muscular connectivity including information flow direction...
August 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774955/organization-and-somatotopy-of-corticothalamic-projections-from-l5b-in-mouse-barrel-cortex
#9
Anton Sumser, Rebecca A Mease, Bert Sakmann, Alexander Groh
Neurons in cortical layer 5B (L5B) connect the cortex to numerous subcortical areas. Possibly the best-studied L5B cortico-subcortical connection is that between L5B neurons in the rodent barrel cortex (BC) and the posterior medial nucleus of the thalamus (POm). However, the spatial organization of L5B giant boutons in the POm and other subcortical targets is not known, and therefore it is unclear if this descending pathway retains somatotopy, i.e., body map organization, a hallmark of the ascending somatosensory pathway...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771180/investigation-of-exhaled-breath-samples-from-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-using-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-and-an-exhaled-breath-sensor-system
#10
Hui-Chong Lau, Joon-Boo Yu, Ho-Won Lee, Jeung-Soo Huh, Jeong-Ok Lim
Exhaled breath is a body secretion, and the sampling process of this is simple and cost effective. It can be non-invasively collected for diagnostic procedures. Variations in the chemical composition of exhaled breath resulting from gaseous exchange in the extensive capillary network of the body are proposed to be associated with pathophysiological changes. In light of the foreseeable potential of exhaled breath as a diagnostic specimen, we used gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to study the chemical compounds present in exhaled breath samples from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and from healthy individuals as a control group...
August 3, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763402/understanding-the-complex-relationships-underlying-hot-flashes-a-bayesian-network-approach
#11
Rebecca L Smith, Lisa M Gallicchio, Jodi A Flaws
OBJECTIVE: The mechanism underlying hot flashes is not well-understood, primarily because of complex relationships between and among hot flashes and their risk factors. METHODS: We explored those relationships using a Bayesian network approach based on a 2006 to 2015 cohort study of hot flashes among 776 female residents, 45 to 54 years old, in the Baltimore area. Bayesian networks were fit for each outcome (current hot flashes, hot flashes before the end of the study, hot flash severity, hot flash frequency, and age at first hot flashes) separately and together with a list of risk factors (estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, body mass index and obesity, race, income level, education level, smoking history, drinking history, and activity level)...
July 31, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751248/reshapable-polymeric-hydrogel-for-controlled-soft-tissue-expansion-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#12
John Garner, Darrel Davidson, George J Eckert, Clark T Barco, Haesun Park, Kinam Park
Tissue expansion is the process by which extra skin is generated using a device that applies pressure from underneath the skin. Over the course of weeks to months, stretching by this pressure creates a flap of extra tissue that can be used to cover a defect area or enclose a permanent implant. Conventional tissue expanders require a silicone shell inflated either by external injections of saline solution or air, or by internal osmotic pressure generated by a hydrophilic polymer. In this study, a shell-free tissue expander comprised only of a chemically cross-linked biocompatible polymeric hydrogel is developed...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747880/strong-functional-connectivity-among-homotopic-brain-areas-is-vital-for-motor-control-in-unilateral-limb-movement
#13
Pengxu Wei, Zuting Zhang, Zeping Lv, Bin Jing
The mechanism underlying brain region organization for motor control in humans remains poorly understood. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, right-handed volunteers were tasked to maintain unilateral foot movements on the right and left sides as consistently as possible. We aimed to identify the similarities and differences between brain motor networks of the two conditions. We recruited 18 right-handed healthy volunteers aged 25 ± 2.3 years and used a whole-body 3T system for magnetic resonance (MR) scanning...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739740/global-analysis-of-mirna-mrna-interaction-network-in-breast-cancer-with-brain-metastasis
#14
Zhixin Li, Zhiqiang Peng, Siyu Gu, Junfang Zheng, Duiping Feng, Qiong Qin, Junqi He
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been linked to a number of cancer types including breast cancer. The rate of brain metastases is 10-30% in patients with advanced breast cancer which is associated with poor prognosis. The potential application of miRNAs in the diagnostics and therapeutics of breast cancer with brain metastasis is an area of intense interest. In an initial effort to systematically address the differential expression of miRNAs and mRNAs in primary breast cancer which may provide clues for early detection of brain metastasis, we analyzed the consequent changes in global patterns of gene expression in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) data set obtained by microarray from patients with in situ carcinoma and patients with brain metastasis...
August 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735090/impacts-of-the-2003-and-2015-summer-heatwaves-on-permafrost-affected-rock-walls-in-the-mont-blanc-massif
#15
L Ravanel, F Magnin, P Deline
Rockfall is one of the main geomorphological processes that affects the evolution and stability of rock-walls. At high elevations, rockfall is largely climate-driven, very probably because of the warming of rock-wall permafrost. So with the ongoing global warming that drives the degradation of permafrost, the related hazards for people and infrastructure could continue to increase. The heatwave of summer 2015, which affected Western Europe from the end of June to August, had a serious impact on the stability of high-altitude rock-walls, including those in the Mont Blanc massif...
July 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731557/data-mining-potential-applications-in-research-on-nutrition-and-health
#16
Marijka Batterham, Elizabeth Neale, Allison Martin, Linda Tapsell
AIM: Data mining enables further insights from nutrition-related research, but caution is required. The aim of this analysis was to demonstrate and compare the utility of data mining methods in classifying a categorical outcome derived from a nutrition-related intervention. METHODS: Baseline data (23 variables, 8 categorical) on participants (n = 295) in an intervention trial were used to classify participants in terms of meeting the criteria of achieving 10 000 steps per day...
February 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716965/neural-tuning-to-low-level-features-of-speech-throughout-the-perisylvian-cortex
#17
Julia Berezutskaya, Zachary V Freudenburg, Umut Güçlü, Marcel A J van Gerven, Nick F Ramsey
Despite a large body of research, we continue to lack a detailed account of how auditory processing of continuous speech unfolds in the human brain. Previous research showed the propagation of low-level acoustic features of speech from posterior superior temporal gyrus towards anterior superior temporal gyrus in the human brain (Hullett et al., 2016). In this study we investigate what happens to these neural representations past the superior temporal gyrus, and how they engage higher-level language processing areas, such as inferior frontal gyrus...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714891/structural-and-functional-neuroimaging-of-visual-hallucinations-in-lewy-body-disease-a-systematic-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
Stefania Pezzoli, Annachiara Cagnin, Oliver Bandmann, Annalena Venneri
Patients with Lewy body disease (LBD) frequently experience visual hallucinations (VH), well-formed images perceived without the presence of real stimuli. The structural and functional brain mechanisms underlying VH in LBD are still unclear. The present review summarises the current literature on the neural correlates of VH in LBD, namely Parkinson's disease (PD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Following a systematic literature search, 56 neuroimaging studies of VH in PD and DLB were critically reviewed and evaluated for quality assessment...
July 15, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710054/preliminary-evidence-for-the-emergence-of-a-health-care-online-community-of-practice-using-a-netnographic-framework-for-twitter-hashtag-analytics
#19
Damian Roland, Jesse Spurr, Daniel Cabrera
BACKGROUND: Online communities of practice (oCoPs) may emerge from interactions on social media. These communities offer an open digital space and flat role hierarchy for information sharing and provide a strong group identity, rapid flow of information, content curation, and knowledge translation. To date, there is only a small body of evidence in medicine or health care to verify the existence of an oCoP. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the emergence of an oCoP through the study of social media interactions of the free open access medical education (FOAM) movement...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704959/cross-deployment-networking-and-systematic-performance-analysis-of-underwater-wireless-sensor-networks
#20
Zhengxian Wei, Min Song, Guisheng Yin, Hongbin Wang, Xuefei Ma, Houbing Song
Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) have become a new hot research area. However, due to the work dynamics and harsh ocean environment, how to obtain an UWSN with the best systematic performance while deploying as few sensor nodes as possible and setting up self-adaptive networking is an urgent problem that needs to be solved. Consequently, sensor deployment, networking, and performance calculation of UWSNs are challenging issues, hence the study in this paper centers on this topic and three relevant methods and models are put forward...
July 12, 2017: Sensors
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