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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920617/chiropractic-identity-a-neurological-professional-and-political-assessment
#1
REVIEW
Anthony L Rosner
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to propose a focused assessment of the identity of chiropractic and its profession, triangulating multiple viewpoints converging upon various aspects and definitions of neurology, manual medicine, and alternative or mainstream medicine. DISCUSSION: Over 120 years since its inception, chiropractic has struggled to achieve an identity for which its foundations could provide optimal health care. Despite recognition of the benefits of spinal manipulation in various government guidelines, advances in US military and Veterans Administration, and persistently high levels of patient satisfaction, the chiropractic profession remains underrepresented in most discussions of health care delivery...
December 2016: Journal of Chiropractic Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911020/changes-in-resting-state-connectivity-in-musicians-with-embouchure-dystonia
#2
Bernhard Haslinger, Jonas Noé, Eckart Altenmüller, Valentin Riedl, Claus Zimmer, Tobias Mantel, Christian Dresel
OBJECTIVE: Embouchure dystonia is a highly disabling task-specific dystonia in professional brass musicians leading to spasms of perioral muscles while playing the instrument. As they are asymptomatic at rest, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in these patients can reveal changes in functional connectivity within and between brain networks independent from dystonic symptoms. METHODS: We therefore compared embouchure dystonia patients to healthy musicians with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in combination with independent component analyses...
December 2, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894251/comprehensive-analysis-of-the-fecal-microbiota-of-healthy-japanese-adults-reveals-a-new-bacterial-lineage-associated-with-a-phenotype-characterized-by-a-high-frequency-of-bowel-movements-and-a-lean-body-type
#3
Kaihei Oki, Mutsumi Toyama, Taihei Banno, Osamu Chonan, Yoshimi Benno, Koichi Watanabe
BACKGROUND: In Japan, a variety of traditional dietary habits and daily routines have developed in many regions. The effects of these behaviors, and the regional differences in the composition of the gut microbiota, are yet to be sufficiently studied. To characterize the Japanese gut microbiota and identify the factors shaping its composition, we conducted 16S metagenomics analysis of fecal samples collected from healthy Japanese adults residing in various regions of Japan. Each participant also completed a 94-question lifestyle questionnaire...
November 28, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884846/real-world-evidence-studies-into-treatment-adherence-thresholds-for-intervention-and-disparities-in-treatment-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes-in-the-uk
#4
Andrew McGovern, William Hinton, Ana Correa, Neil Munro, Martin Whyte, Simon de Lusignan
PURPOSE: The University of Surrey-Lilly Real World Evidence (RWE) diabetes cohort has been established to provide insights into the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There are 3 areas of study due to be conducted to provide insights into T2DM management: exploration of medication adherence, thresholds for changing diabetes therapies, and ethnicity-related or socioeconomic-related disparities in management. This paper describes the identification of a cohort of people with T2DM which will be used for these analyses, through a case finding algorithm, and describes the characteristics of the identified cohort...
November 24, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883068/-cerebellar-contribution-to-visuo-attentional-alpha-rhythm-insights-from-weightlessness
#5
A M Cebolla, M Petieau, B Dan, L Balazs, J McIntyre, G Cheron
Human brain adaptation in weightlessness follows the necessity to reshape the dynamic integration of the neural information acquired in the new environment. This basic aspect was here studied by the electroencephalogram (EEG) dynamics where oscillatory modulations were measured during a visuo-attentional state preceding a visuo-motor docking task. Astronauts in microgravity conducted the experiment in free-floating aboard the International Space Station, before the space flight and afterwards. We observed stronger power decrease (~ERD: event related desynchronization) of the ~10 Hz oscillation from the occipital-parietal (alpha ERD) to the central areas (mu ERD)...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883017/differential-neural-encoding-of-sensorimotor-and-visual-body-representations
#6
David Perruchoud, Lars Michels, Marco Piccirelli, Roger Gassert, Silvio Ionta
Sensorimotor processing specifically impacts mental body representations. In particular, deteriorated somatosensory input (as after complete spinal cord injury) increases the relative weight of visual aspects of body parts' representations, leading to aberrancies in how images of body parts are mentally manipulated (e.g. mental rotation). This suggests that a sensorimotor or visual reference frame, respectively, can be relatively dominant in local (hands) versus global (full-body) bodily representations. On this basis, we hypothesized that the recruitment of a specific reference frame could be reflected in the activation of sensorimotor versus visual brain networks...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882211/novel-perspectives-on-the-role-of-the-human-microbiota-in-regenerative-medicine-and-surgery
#7
Tommaso Pellegatta, Marco Saler, Viola Bonfanti, Giovanni Nicoletti, Angela Faga
Plastic surgery is transitioning from a fine craftsmanship to a regenerative science. In wound healing, the role of microorganisms is no longer considered to be just counteracting, but also promoting. Furthermore, host-microbe interactions are essential for numerous aspects of normal mammalian physiology, from metabolic activity to immune homeostasis. Each area of the human body hosts a unique microbial community, and the composition of microbiota is dependent on the host, age and the anatomical area, and it changes according to the characteristics of the microenvironment...
November 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880004/causal-relationships-among-neurons-of-the-nucleus-incertus-and-the-hippocampal-theta-activity-in-the-rat
#8
Sergio Martínez-Bellver, Ana Cervera-Ferri, Aina Luque-García, Joana Martínez-Ricós, Alfonso Valverde-Navarro, Manuel Bataller, Juan Guerrero, Vicent Teruel-Marti
In recent years, a body of evidence has shown that the nucleus incertus (NI), in the dorsal tegmental pons, is a key node of the brainstem circuitry involved in hippocampal theta rhythmicity. Ascending reticular brainstem system activation evokes hippocampal theta rhythm with coupled neuronal activity in the NI. In a recent paper, we showed three populations of neurons in the NI with differential firings during hippocampal theta activation. The objective of this work is to better evaluate the causal relationship between the activity of NI neurons and the hippocampus during theta activation in order to further understand the role of the NI in the theta network...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873550/self-and-other-body-perception-in-anorexia-nervosa-the-role-of-posterior-dmn-nodes
#9
Esther Via, Ximena Goldberg, Isabel Sánchez, Laura Forcano, Ben J Harrison, Christopher G Davey, Jesús Pujol, Ignacio Martínez-Zalacaín, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Carles Soriano-Mas, Narcís Cardoner, José M Menchón
OBJECTIVES: Body image distortion is a core symptom of anorexia nervosa (AN), which involves alterations in self- (and other's) evaluative processes arising during body perception. At a neural level, self-related information is thought to rely on areas of the so-called default mode network (DMN), which, additionally, shows prominent synchronised activity at rest. METHODS: Twenty female patients with AN and 20 matched healthy controls were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging when: (a) viewing video clips of their own body and another's body; (b) at rest...
November 22, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871020/altered-functional-connectivity-of-interoception-in-illness-anxiety-disorder
#10
Dario Grossi, Mariachiara Longarzo, Mario Quarantelli, Elena Salvatore, Carlo Cavaliere, Paolofabrizio De Luca, Luigi Trojano, Marco Aiello
Interoception collects all information coming from the body and is sustained by several brain areas such as insula and cingulate cortex. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate functional connectivity (FC) of networks implied in interoception in patients with Illness anxiety disorders (IADs). We observed significantly reduced FC between the left extrastriate body area (EBA) and the paracentral lobule compared to healthy controls. Moreover, the correlation analysis between behavioural questionnaires and ROI to ROI FC showed that higher levels of illness anxiety were related to hyper-connectivity between EBA and amygdala and hippocampus...
November 5, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866893/effective-connectivity-reveals-largely-independent-parallel-networks-of-face-and-body-patches
#11
Elsie Premereur, Jessica Taubert, Peter Janssen, Rufin Vogels, Wim Vanduffel
The primate brain processes objects in the ventral visual pathway. One object category, faces, is processed in a hierarchical network of interconnected areas along this pathway. It remains unknown whether such an interconnected network is specific for faces or whether there are similar networks for other object classes. For example, the primate inferotemporal cortex also contains a set of body-selective patches, adjacent to the face-selective patches, but it is not known whether these body-selective patches form a similar discretely connected network or whether cross-talk exists between the face- and body-processing systems...
November 16, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852775/eeg-oscillations-are-modulated-in-different-behavior-related-networks-during-rhythmic-finger-movements
#12
Martin Seeber, Reinhold Scherer, Gernot R Müller-Putz
: Sequencing and timing of body movements are essential to perform motoric tasks. In this study, we investigate the temporal relation between cortical oscillations and human motor behavior (i.e., rhythmic finger movements). High-density EEG recordings were used for source imaging based on individual anatomy. We separated sustained and movement phase-related EEG source amplitudes based on the actual finger movements recorded by a data glove. Sustained amplitude modulations in the contralateral hand area show decrease for α (10-12 Hz) and β (18-24 Hz), but increase for high γ (60-80 Hz) frequencies during the entire movement period...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845962/anatomical-study-of-cutaneous-venous-flow-of-the-palm
#13
Baek-Kyu Kim, Heeyeon Kwon, Nobuaki Imanishi, Hak Chang
BACKGROUNDS: Various flaps elevated from the palm have been widely used for finger and hand reconstruction. Recently, perforator-based free flaps or venous free flaps have received popularity due to several advantages. The cutaneous venous system has been chosen as the circulatory outlet when designing and harvesting the flap from the palmer area due to the small size and thin nature of the flap. However, there have been few descriptions about the anatomy of the palmar cutaneous veins...
November 15, 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845565/broiler-weight-estimation-based-on-machine-vision-and-artificial-neural-network
#14
S Amraei, S A Mehdizadeh, S Salari
1. Machine vision and artificial neural network were used to estimate live body weight of broiler chickens in 30 1-d-old broiler chickens reared for 42 d. 2. Imaging was performed two times daily. To localise chickens within the pen, an ellipse fitting algorithm was used and the chickens' head and tail removed using the Chan-Vese method. 3. The correlations between the body weight and 6 physical extracted features indicated that there were strong correlations between body weight and the 5 features including area, perimeter, convex area, major and minor axis length...
November 15, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834148/the-role-of-nuclear-receptor-ppar%C3%AE-in-the-sleep-wake-cycle-modulation-a-tentative-approach-for-treatment-of-sleep-disorders
#15
Eric Murillo-Rodriguez
There is a general consensus that sleep-wake cycle is controlled by neuroanatomical, neurochemical and molecular systems as well as by homeostatic and circadian complex networks. The research has shown that a molecular element that could be displaying a relevant role in the modulation of sleep is the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), which belongs to the family of nuclear receptor ligand-activated transcription factors that includes PPARβ/δ and PPARγ. A growing body of evidence supports the notion that PPARα is activated by natural ligands such as the anorexic lipid mediator oleoylethanolamide (OEA) or synthetic compounds including Wy14643 whereas antagonists like MK-886 block the neurobiological outcomes of PPARα...
November 9, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833549/impaired-white-matter-connections-of-the-limbic-system-networks-associated-with-impaired-emotional-memory-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Xiaoshu Li, Haibao Wang, Yanghua Tian, Shanshan Zhou, Xiaohu Li, Kai Wang, Yongqiang Yu
Background: Discrepancies persist regarding retainment of emotional enhancement of memory (EEM) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.In addition, the neural mechanisms are still poorly understood, little is known about emotional memory related changes in white matter (WM). Objective: To observe whether EEM is absent in amnestic MCI (aMCI) and AD patients, and to investigate if emotional memory is associated with WM connections and gray matters (GM) of the limbic system networks...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832593/parietal-area-ba7-integrates-motor-programs-for-reaching-grasping-and-bimanual-coordination
#17
Ada Le, Mike Vesia, Xiaogang Yan, J Douglas Crawford, Matthias Niemeier
Skillful interaction with the world requires that the brain uses a multitude of sensorimotor programs and subroutines such as for reaching, grasping, and the coordination of the two body halves. However, it is unclear how these programs operate together. Networks for reaching, grasping, and bimanual coordination might converge in common brain areas. For example, Brodmann Area 7 (BA7) is known to activate in disparate tasks involving the three types of movements separately. Here we asked whether BA7 plays a key role in integrating coordinated reach-to-grasp movements for both arms together...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825327/treatment-of-trauma-affected-refugees-with-venlafaxine-versus-sertraline-combined-with-psychotherapy-a-randomised-study
#18
Charlotte Sonne, Jessica Carlsson, Per Bech, Ask Elklit, Erik Lykke Mortensen
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of trauma-related psychiatric disorders is high among refugees. Despite this, little is known about the effect of pharmacological treatment for this patient group. The objective of the present study was therefore to examine differences in the effects of venlafaxine and sertraline on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression and functional impairment in trauma-affected refugees. METHODS: The study was a randomised pragmatic trial comparing venlafaxine and sertraline in combination with psychotherapy and social counselling...
November 8, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822783/intraoperative-temperature-regulation-in-children-using-a-liquid-warming-garment
#19
Mariya E Skube, Robert D Acton, Victor S Koscheyev, Gloria R Leon, Daniel A Saltzman
PURPOSE: Children undergoing operative intervention while induced under general anesthesia are at risk for experiencing a significant decrease in core body temperature that can lead to adverse systemic effects. Given that the head contributes an estimated 18% of a child's body surface area, we theorized that a liquid-warming garment applied to the head could control a pediatric patient's core body temperature during surgical procedures. METHODS: Patients undergoing elective, non-cranial, general surgical procedures were enrolled in the study...
November 7, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821527/left-right-analysis-of-mammary-gland-development-in-retinoid-x-receptor-%C3%AE-mice
#20
Jacqulyne P Robichaux, John W Fuseler, Shrusti S Patel, Steven W Kubalak, Adam Hartstone-Rose, Ann F Ramsdell
Left-right (L-R) differences in mammographic parenchymal patterns are an early predictor of breast cancer risk; however, the basis for this asymmetry is unknown. Here, we use retinoid X receptor alpha heterozygous null (RXRα(+/-)) mice to propose a developmental origin: perturbation of coordinated anterior-posterior (A-P) and L-R axial body patterning. We hypothesized that by analogy to somitogenesis-in which retinoic acid (RA) attenuation causes anterior somite pairs to develop L-R asynchronously-that RA pathway perturbation would likewise result in asymmetric mammary development...
December 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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