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Health monitoring

Ann-Kristin Niewald, Carina Oedingen, Oliver Razum
BACKGROUND: In 2006, the first human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was licensed in Europe and in 2007 it was included in the service catalogue of the statutory health insurance. The HPV vaccine led to a controversy in public and print media even before it was licensed. We evaluated the quality of the newspaper coverage of the HPV vaccine during the controversy in Germany. METHODS: The LexisNexis print media database was scanned for health journalism articles on HPV in 4 high-circulation national newspapers and 4 magazines using pre-defined search terms for the period 2006-2009...
March 16, 2018: Das Gesundheitswesen
Masafumi Yoshinaga, Hiromasa Ninomiya, M M Aeorangajeb Al Hossain, Makoto Sudo, Anwarul Azim Akhand, Nazmul Ahsan, Md Abdul Alim, Md Khalequzzaman, Machiko Iida, Ichiro Yajima, Nobutaka Ohgami, Masashi Kato
Chromium (Cr) pollution caused by wastewater from tanneries is a worldwide environmental problem. To develop a countermeasure, we performed a comprehensive study using Hazaribagh, the tannery area in Dhaka City, Bangladesh, as a model. Our environmental monitoring indicated that the soluble form of Cr, but not barium or arsenic, in Buriganga River is derived from Hazaribagh. Our chemical analysis next showed that Cr, the primary pollutant in canal water at Hazaribagh, consisted of ≤0.7 μM hexavalent Cr [Cr(VI)] and ≤1705 μM trivalent Cr [Cr(III)]...
March 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Rachel M Speer, Catherine F Wise, Jamie L Young, AbouEl-Makarim Aboueissa, Mark Martin Bras, Mike Barandiaran, Erick Bermúdez, Lirio Márquez-D'Acunti, John Pierce Wise
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a marine pollution of concern as recent studies show it has a global distribution, with some regions showing high Cr concentrations in marine animal tissue, and it is extensively used. Leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are an endangered marine species that may experience prolonged exposures to environmental contaminants including Cr(VI). Human activities have led to global Cr(VI) contamination of the marine environment. While Cr(VI) has been identified as a known human carcinogen, the health effects in marine species are poorly understood...
March 4, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
David A Watters, Glenn D Guest, Viliami Tangi, Mark G Shrime, John G Meara
Progress in achieving "universal access to safe, affordable surgery, and anesthesia care when needed" is dependent on consensus not only about the key messages but also on what metrics should be used to set goals and measure progress. The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery not only achieved consensus on key messages but also recommended 6 key metrics to inform national surgical plans and monitor scale-up toward 2030. These metrics measure access to surgery, as well as its timeliness, safety, and affordability: (1) Two-hour access to the 3 Bellwether procedures (cesarean delivery, emergency laparotomy, and management of an open fracture); (2) Surgeon, Anesthetist, and Obstetrician workforce >20/100,000; (3) Surgical volume of 5000 procedures/100,000; (4) Reporting of perioperative mortality rate; and (5 and 6) Risk rates of catastrophic expenditure and impoverishment when requiring surgery...
April 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Wayne W Morriss, Miodrag S Milenovic, Faye M Evans
There are inadequate numbers of anesthesia providers in many parts of the world. Good quality educational programs are needed to increase provider numbers, train leaders and teachers, and increase knowledge and skills. In some countries, considerable external support may be required to develop self-sustaining programs. There are some key themes related to educational programs in low- and middle-income countries:(1) Programs must be appropriate for the local environment-there is no "one-size-fits-all" program...
April 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Michael Schriver, Vincent Kalumire Cubaka, Peter Vedsted, Innocent Besigye, Per Kallestrup
BACKGROUND: External supervision of primary health care facilities to monitor and improve services is common in low-income countries. Currently there are no tools to measure the quality of support in external supervision in these countries. AIM: To develop a provider-reported instrument to assess the support delivered through external supervision in Rwanda and other countries. METHODS: "External supervision: Provider Evaluation of Supervisor Support" (ExPRESS) was developed in 18 steps, primarily in Rwanda...
2018: Global Health Action
Gaganpreet Kaur, Amanpreet Singh, Ajnesh Singh, Navneet Kaur, Narinder Singh
The unregulated use of organophosphates (OPs) as pesticides and toxic chemical warfare agents demands their continuous monitoring from a human health perspective. This study describes a fluorescence turn-on sensing assay for the selective quantification of OPs in aqueous medium. Metal complexes of two different Biginelli derivatives were processed in water through a reprecipitation technique. The engineered self-assembly of the pyridyl-2-cobalt complex (L1·Co(II)) was employed to selectively detect malathion while the pyridyl-4-cobalt complex (L2·Co(II)) could estimate azamethiphos fluorimetrically up to a detection limit of 9...
March 16, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
N Tehrani
Background: Working with victims and offenders of child abuse can impact on the health and well-being of police officers and staff. Aims: To identify the effects of tenure, work ability, gender and a personal experience of child abuse on symptoms of anxiety, depression and primary and secondary trauma in child abuse investigators (CAIs). Methods: Screening questionnaires were sent to police officers and staff. The officers and staff worked in child protection in seven police forces...
March 13, 2018: Occupational Medicine
Gregory Fant, Lisa Backus
Introduction: It is important to monitor the use of optometric services by Veterans and consider the implications for other optometric and vision rehabilitation services. We did not find public health reports documenting the recent utilization of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) optometric eye exam services. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used in this secondary data analysis report. We were interested in reporting on the number of Veterans using the VHA system with at least one VHA optometric eye exam service in 2014, 2015, or 2016 within a VHA optometry clinic...
March 13, 2018: Military Medicine
Manon Ragonnet-Cronin, Celia Jackson, Amanda Bradley-Stewart, Celia Aitken, Andrew McAuley, Norah Palmateer, Rory Gunson, David Goldberg, Catriona Milosevic, Andrew J Leigh Brown
Harm reduction has dramatically reduced HIV incidence among people who inject drugs (PWID). In Glasgow, Scotland, <10 infections/year have been diagnosed among PWID since the mid-90s. However, in 2015 a sharp rise in diagnoses was noted among PWID: many were subtype C with two identical drug resistant mutations and some displayed low avidity, suggesting the infections were linked and recent.We collected Scottish pol sequences and identified closely related sequences from public databases. Genetic linkage was ascertained among 228 Scottish, 1820 UK and 524 global sequences...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Nandita Perumal, Diego G Bassani, Daniel E Roth
The term "stunting" has become pervasive in international nutrition and child health research, program, and policy circles. Although originally intended as a population-level statistical indicator of children's social and economic deprivation, the conventional anthropometric definition of stunting (height-for-age z scores <-2 SD) is now widely used to define chronic malnutrition. Epidemiologists often portray it as a disease, making inferences about the causes of growth faltering based on comparisons between stunted (i...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Barbara J Howard, Raymond Sturner
Purpose of review: To describe benefits and problems with screening and addressing developmental and behavioral problems in primary care and using an online clinical process support system as a solution. Recent findings: Screening has been found to have various implementation barriers including time costs, accuracy, workflow and knowledge of tools. In addition, training of clinicians in dealing with identified issues is lacking. Patients disclose more to and prefer computerized screening...
December 2017: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Selcuk Kayir, Hulya Ulusoy, Guvenc Dogan
Background/aims Sedation is one of the most important components of intensive care unit (ICU) in patients who are mechanically ventilated at intensive care conditions. As a result of sedation and analgesia in the intensive care unit, the patient is to be awakened a comfortable and easy process. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the effects of day-time sedation interruptions in intensive care patients. Material and methods We made a retrospective review of 100 patients who were monitored, mechanically ventilated and treated at our intensive care unit between January 2008 and January 2013...
January 13, 2018: Curēus
Florian Ferreri, Alexis Bourla, Stephane Mouchabac, Laurent Karila
Background: New technologies can profoundly change the way we understand psychiatric pathologies and addictive disorders. New concepts are emerging with the development of more accurate means of collecting live data, computerized questionnaires, and the use of passive data. Digital phenotyping , a paradigmatic example, refers to the use of computerized measurement tools to capture the characteristics of different psychiatric disorders. Similarly, machine learning-a form of artificial intelligence-can improve the classification of patients based on patterns that clinicians have not always considered in the past...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Christopher D Zevitas, John D Spengler, Byron Jones, Eileen McNeely, Brent Coull, Xiaodong Cao, Sin Ming Loo, Anna-Kate Hard, Joseph G Allen
OBJECTIVE: To measure sound levels in the aircraft cabin during different phases of flight. METHODS: Sound level was measured on 200 flights, representing six aircraft groups using continuous monitors. A linear mixed-effects model with random intercept was used to test for significant differences in mean sound level by aircraft model and across each flight phase as well as by flight phase, airplane type, measurement location and proximity to engine noise. RESULTS: Mean sound levels across all flight phases and aircraft groups ranged from 37...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Marguerite M Nyhan, Brent A Coull, Annelise J Blomberg, Carol L Z Vieira, Eric Garshick, Abdulaziz Aba, Pantel Vokonas, Diane R Gold, Joel Schwartz, Petros Koutrakis
BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular effects of low-level environmental radiation exposures are poorly understood. Although particulate matter (PM) has been linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and elevated blood pressure (BP), the properties promoting its toxicity remain uncertain. Addressing a knowledge gap, we evaluated whether BP increased with higher exposures to radioactive components of ambient PM, herein referred to as particle radioactivity (PR). METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a repeated-measures analysis of 852 men to examine associations between PR exposure and BP using mixed-effects regression models...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Anita H Clayton, Irwin Goldstein, Noel N Kim, Stanley E Althof, Stephanie S Faubion, Brooke M Faught, Sharon J Parish, James A Simon, Linda Vignozzi, Kristin Christiansen, Susan R Davis, Murray A Freedman, Sheryl A Kingsberg, Paraskevi-Sofia Kirana, Lisa Larkin, Marita McCabe, Richard Sadovsky
The International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health process of care (POC) for management of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) algorithm was developed to provide evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of HSDD in women by health care professionals. Affecting 10% of adult females, HSDD is associated with negative emotional and psychological states and medical conditions including depression. The algorithm was developed using a modified Delphi method to reach consensus among the 17 international panelists representing multiple disciplines...
March 9, 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Minerva Kyei-Onanjiri, Mary Carolan-Olah, John Koku Awoonor-Williams, Terence V McCann
BACKGROUND: Maternal morbidity and mortality is most prevalent in resource-poor settings such as sub-Saharan Africa and southern Asia. In sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana is one of the countries still facing particular challenges in reducing its maternal morbidity and mortality. Access to emergency obstetric care (EmOC) interventions has been identified as a means of improving maternal health outcomes. Assessing the range of interventions provided in health facilities is, therefore, important in determining capacity to treat obstetric emergencies...
March 15, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
E M Murtagh, A T Barnes, J McMullen, P J Morgan
OBJECTIVES: The majority of adolescent girls fail to meet public health guidelines for physical activity. Engaging mothers in the promotion of physical activity for their daughters may be an important strategy to facilitate behaviour change. The aim of this study was to use the behaviour change wheel (BCW) framework to design the components of an intervention to improve adolescent girls' physical activity. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study to inform intervention development...
March 12, 2018: Public Health
Grace Juyun Kim, Kye Hwa Lee, Ju Han Kim
BACKGROUND: The Beers Criteria released by the American Geriatrics Society includes a list of drugs to avoid in the geriatric population and is frequently used as a safety resource in geriatric pharmacotherapy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the exposure of South Korean geriatrics to potentially inappropriate medications according to the Beers Criteria and the risk of adverse events from these medications. METHODS: This study included medications recommended to be avoided in patients 65 years or older regardless of concomitant drug therapy or disease...
2018: PloS One
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