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Visual short term memory

Yi Wang, Jian-Ning Zhang, Wei Hu, Ji-Jun Li, Jia-Xuan Zhou, Jian-Ping Zhang, Guo-Feng Shi, Ping He, Zai-Wang Li, Ming Li
Introduction: Subjective chronic tinnitus is a common medical syndrome with a high frequency of cognitive impairment; however, the characteristics of cognitive impairment in chronic tinnitus are poorly understood. Investigating the scope of cognitive impairment across the severity spectrum of tinnitus patients may shed light on the issue. Methods: A consecutive series of 207 subjective chronic tinnitus patients were classified into mild tinnitus group ( n  = 95) and severe tinnitus group ( n  = 112) by THI score (the cutoff THI scores were 37/38)...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Alex Lau-Zhu, Emily A Holmes, Sally Butterfield, Joni Holmes
Recent experimental and clinical research has suggested that Tetris game play can disrupt maladaptive forms of mental imagery because Tetris competes for limited cognitive resources within visuospatial working memory (WM) that contribute to imagery. Whether or not Tetris performance is selectively associated with visuospatial WM remains to be tested. In this study, young adults (N = 46) completed six standardized measures indexing verbal and non-verbal reasoning, verbal and visuospatial short-term memory, and verbal and visuospatial WM...
July 2017: Applied Cognitive Psychology
Tianlu Wang, Celine R Gillebert
Visuospatial attention and short-term memory allow us to prioritize, select, and briefly maintain part of the visual information that reaches our senses. These cognitive abilities are quantitatively accounted for by Bundesen's theory of visual attention (TVA; Bundesen, 1990). Previous studies have suggested that TVA-based assessments are sensitive to inter-individual differences in spatial bias, visual short-term memory capacity, top-down control, and processing speed in healthy volunteers as well as in patients with various neurological and psychiatric conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Brandi Lee Drisdelle, Pierre Jolicoeur
To improve our understanding of the mechanisms of target selection, we examined how the spatial separation of salient items and their similarity to a pre-defined target interact using lateralised electrophysiological correlates of visual spatial attention (N2pc component) and visual-short term memory (VSTM; SPCN component). Using these features of target selection, we sought to expand on previous work proposing a model of early and late selection, where the N2pc is suggested to reflect the selection probability of visual stimuli (Aubin and Jolicoeur, 2016)...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Chenxi Zhang, Wai Kwong Tang, Hua Jun Liang, Gabor Sandor Ungvari, Shih-Ku Lin
BACKGROUND: Ketamine abuse causes cognitive impairments, which negatively impact on users' abstinence, prognosis, and quality of life. RESULTS: of cognitive impairments in chronic ketamine users have been inconsistent across studies, possibly due to the small sample sizes and the confounding effects of concomitant use of other illicit drugs. This study investigated the cognitive impairment and its related factors in chronic ketamine users with a large sample size and explored the impact of another drug use on cognitive functions...
February 27, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Ida M Ki Moore, Kari M Koerner, Patricia M Gundy, David W Montgomery, Kathleen C Insel, Lynnette L Harris, Olga A Taylor, Marilyn J Hockenberry
Aggressive central nervous system (CNS)-directed treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most prevalent cancer among children and adolescents, prevents metastasis of leukemia cells into the brain. Up to 60% of survivors experience cognitive problems, but knowledge about risk factors for and mechanisms of neurologic injury is lacking. Objectives of the present study were to (1) quantify changes in oxidant defense and apoptosis over the course of ALL therapy and (2) elucidate risk factors for long-term cognitive problems...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Junyang Xia, Xiaoming Yin, Mingqin Zhu, Jie Cao, Xiaonan Song
RATIONALE: Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is a heterogeneous group of recently identified disorders. Despite severe and even prolonged neurologic deficits, dramatic improvements may occur with proper immunotherapy in some patients with AE. Antineuronal antibodies have been discovered in patients' serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, AE with multiple antineuronal antibodies is rare. To date, there are no published reports of AE with both anti-γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor (GABABR) and anticollapsin response-mediator protein 5 (CV2) antibodies...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Claude Alain, Madeline Cusimano, Linda Garami, Kristina C Backer, Bettina Habelt, Vanessa Chan, Lynn Hasher
We examined the effect of age on listeners' ability to orient attention to an item in auditory short-term memory (ASTM) using high-density electroencephalography, while participants completed a delayed match-to-sample task. During the retention interval, an uninformative or an informative visual retro-cue guided attention to an item in ASTM. Informative cues speeded response times, but only for young adults. In young adults, informative retro-cues generated greater event-related potential amplitude between 450 and 650 ms at parietal sites, and an increased sustained potential over the left central scalp region, thought to index the deployment of attention and maintenance of the cued item in ASTM, respectively...
February 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Sarah E Scullion, Gareth R I Barker, E Clea Warburton, Andrew D Randall, Jonathan T Brown
Neurodegenerative diseases affecting cognitive dysfunction, such as Alzheimer's disease and fronto-temporal dementia, are often associated impairments in the visual recognition memory system. Recent evidence suggests that synaptic plasticity, in particular long term depression (LTD), in the perirhinal cortex (PRh) is a critical cellular mechanism underlying recognition memory. In this study, we have examined novel object recognition and PRh LTD in rTg4510 mice, which transgenically overexpress tauP301L . We found that 8-9 month old rTg4510 mice had significant deficits in long- but not short-term novel object recognition memory...
February 26, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Amy Lawson Moore, Terissa M Miller
Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based battery of tests measuring short-term memory, long-term memory, processing speed, logic and reasoning, visual processing, as well as auditory processing and word attack skills. Methods: This study included 2,737 participants aged 5-85 years. A series of studies was conducted to examine the validity and reliability using the test performance of the entire norming group and several subgroups...
2018: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Franziska Rieche, Katia Carmine-Simmen, Burkhard Poeck, Doris Kretzschmar, Roland Strauss
The β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, its normal physiological functions are still unclear. APP is cleaved by various secretases whereby sequential processing by the β- and γ-secretases produces the β-amyloid peptide that is accumulating in plaques that typify AD. In addition, this produces secreted N-terminal sAPPβ fragments and the APP intracellular domain (AICD). Alternative cleavage by α-secretase results in slightly longer secreted sAPPα fragments and the identical AICD...
February 12, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Motonori Yamaguchi, Ashvanti Valji, Felicity D A Wolohan
Two separate systems are involved in the control of spatial attention; one that is driven by a goal, and the other that is driven by stimuli. While the goal- and stimulus-driven systems follow different general principles, they also interplay with each other. However, the mechanism by which the goal-driven system influences the stimulus-driven system is still debated. The present study examined top-down contributions to two components of attention orienting, shifting and disengagement, with an experimental paradigm in which participants held a visual item in short-term memory (STM) and performed a prosaccade task with a manipulation of the gap between fixation offset and target onset...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
William J Harrison, Paul M Bays
The sensory recruitment hypothesis states that visual short term memory is maintained in the same visual cortical areas that initially encode a stimulus' features. Although it is well established that the distance between features in visual cortex determines their visibility, a limitation known as crowding, it is unknown whether short term memory is similarly constrained by the cortical spacing of memory items. Here we investigated whether the cortical spacing between sequentially presented memoranda affects the fidelity of memory in humans (of both sexes)...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ryan J Brady, Robert R Hampton
Working memory is a system by which a limited amount of information can be kept available for processing after the cessation of sensory input. Because working memory resources are limited, it is adaptive to focus processing on the most relevant information. We used a retro-cue paradigm to determine the extent to which monkey working memory possesses control mechanisms that focus processing on the most relevant representations. Monkeys saw a sample array of images, and shortly after the array disappeared, they were visually cued to a location that had been occupied by one of the sample images...
February 16, 2018: Cognition
Francesca Burro, Armando Cama, Vicenza Lertora, Edvige Veneselli, Serena Rossetti, Lina Pezzuti
We studied the intellectual profiles of 13 Italian children diagnosed with spina bifida myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus (MMC HC) against a control group of children. The results showed that MMC HC group had lower performance in all subtests, four indices, and the FSIQ of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, forth-edition. The MMC HC group showed flat cognitive profiles between subtests within each index and between four core indices. However, the cognitive abilities that were mostly impaired seemed to be related to visual selective and focused attention, to visual acuity, to visuo-perceptive organization and visuomotor integration and to visual short-term memory...
February 16, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Christel Devue, Gina M Grimshaw
Individuals show astonishing variability in their face recognition abilities, and the causes and consequences of this heterogeneity are unclear. Special expertise with faces, for example in portraitists, is associated with advantages on face processing tasks, especially those involving perceptual abilities. Do face processing skills improve through practice, or does drawing skill reflect pre-existing individual differences? If the latter, then the association between face processing skills and production of faithful portraits should also exist in people without practice in drawing...
February 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Byoung Chul Ko
Facial emotion recognition (FER) is an important topic in the fields of computer vision and artificial intelligence owing to its significant academic and commercial potential. Although FER can be conducted using multiple sensors, this review focuses on studies that exclusively use facial images, because visual expressions are one of the main information channels in interpersonal communication. This paper provides a brief review of researches in the field of FER conducted over the past decades. First, conventional FER approaches are described along with a summary of the representative categories of FER systems and their main algorithms...
January 30, 2018: Sensors
Melanie Ring, Sebastian B Gaigg, Mareike Altgassen, Peter Barr, Dermot M Bowler
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) present difficulties in forming relations among items and context. This capacity for relational binding is also involved in spatial navigation and research on this topic in ASD is scarce and inconclusive. Using a computerised version of the Morris Water Maze task, ASD participants showed particular difficulties in performing viewpoint independent (allocentric) navigation, leaving viewpoint dependent navigation (egocentric) intact. Further analyses showed that navigation deficits were not related to poor visual short-term memory or mental rotation in the ASD group...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Marcello Giannini, David M Alexander, Andrey R Nikolaev, Cees van Leeuwen
In spontaneous, stimulus-evoked, and eye-movement evoked EEG, the oscillatory signal shows large scale, dynamically organized patterns of phase. We investigated eye-movement evoked patterns in free-viewing conditions. Participants viewed photographs of natural scenes in anticipation of a memory test. From 200 ms intervals following saccades, we estimated the EEG phase gradient over the entire scalp, and the wave activity, i.e. the goodness of fit of a wave model involving a phase gradient assumed to be smooth over the scalp...
January 25, 2018: Brain Topography
Gerardo Santaniello, Manuel Sebastián, Luis Carretié, Uxia Fernández-Folgueiras, José Antonio Hinojosa
In the current study, we investigated the effects of short-term visual deprivation (2 hours) on a haptic recognition memory task with familiar objects. Behavioral data, as well as event-related potentials (ERPs) and induced event-related oscillations (EROs) were analyzed. At the behavioral level, deprived participants showed speeded reaction times to new stimuli. Analyses of ERPs indicated that starting from 1000 ms the recognition of old objects elicited enhanced positive amplitudes only for the visually deprived group...
January 19, 2018: Biological Psychology
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