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Visual short term memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813568/visual-short-term-memory-for-oriented-colored-objects
#1
Hongsup Shin, Wei Ji Ma
A central question in the study of visual short-term memory (VSTM) has been whether its basic units are objects or features. Most studies addressing this question have used change detection tasks in which the feature value before the change is highly discriminable from the feature value after the change. This approach assumes that memory noise is negligible, which recent work has shown not to be the case. Here, we investigate VSTM for orientation and color within a noisy-memory framework, using change localization with a variable magnitude of change...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757149/motivation-and-short-term-memory-in-visual-search-attention-s-accelerator-revisited
#2
Daniel Schneider, Claudia Bonmassar, Clayton Hickey
A cue indicating the possibility of cash reward will cause participants to perform memory-based visual search more efficiently. A recent study has suggested that this performance benefit might reflect the use of multiple memory systems: when needed, participants may maintain the to-be-remembered object in both long-term and short-term visual memory, with this redundancy benefitting target identification during search (Reinhart, McClenahan & Woodman, 2016). Here we test this compelling hypothesis. We had participants complete a memory-based visual search task involving a reward cue that either preceded presentation of the to-be-remembered target (pre-cue) or followed it (retro-cue)...
July 13, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756948/the-sleeping-infant-brain-anticipates-development
#3
Manuela Friedrich, Ines Wilhelm, Matthias Mölle, Jan Born, Angela D Friederici
From the age of 3 months, infants learn relations between objects and co-occurring words [1]. These very first representations of object-word pairings in infant memory are considered as non-symbolic proto-words comprising specific visual-auditory associations that can already be formed in the first months of life [2-5]. Genuine words that refer to semantic long-term memory have not been evidenced prior to 9 months of age [6-9]. Sleep is known to facilitate the reorganization of memories [9-14], but its impact on the perceptual-to-semantic trend in early development is unknown...
August 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741253/dissociations-of-the-number-and-precision-of-visual-short-term-memory-representations-in-change-detection
#4
Weizhen Xie, Weiwei Zhang
The present study dissociated the number (i.e., quantity) and precision (i.e., quality) of visual short-term memory (STM) representations in change detection using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and experimental manipulations. Across three experiments, participants performed both recognition and recall tests of visual STM using the change-detection task and the continuous color-wheel recall task, respectively. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the estimates of the number and precision of visual STM representations based on the ROC model of change-detection performance were robustly correlated with the corresponding estimates based on the mixture model of continuous-recall performance...
July 24, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732282/proficient-use-of-low-spatial-frequencies-facilitates-face-memory-but-shows-protracted-maturation-throughout-adolescence
#5
Judith C Peters, Chantal Kemner
Face perception is characterized by configural processing, which depends on visual information in the low spatial frequency (LSF) ranges. However, it is unclear whether LSF content is equally important for face memory. The present study investigated how face information in the low and high SF range plays a role in the configural encoding of faces for short-term and long-term recall. Moreover, we examined how SF-dependent face memorization develops in female adolescence, by comparing children (9-10-year-olds), adolescents (12-13-year-olds and 15-16-year-olds), and young adults (21-32-year-olds)...
September 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729161/the-neural-basis-of-precise-visual-short-term-memory-for-complex-recognisable-objects
#6
Michele Veldsman, Daniel J Mitchell, Rhodri Cusack
Recent evidence suggests that visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity estimated using simple objects, such as colours and oriented bars, may not generalise well to more naturalistic stimuli. More visual detail can be stored in VSTM when complex, recognisable objects are maintained compared to simple objects. It is not yet known if it is recognisability that enhances memory precision, nor whether maintenance of recognisable objects is achieved with the same network of brain regions supporting maintenance of simple objects...
July 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725022/action-video-games-improve-reading-abilities-and-visual-to-auditory-attentional-shifting-in-english-speaking-children-with-dyslexia
#7
Sandro Franceschini, Piergiorgio Trevisan, Luca Ronconi, Sara Bertoni, Susan Colmar, Kit Double, Andrea Facoetti, Simone Gori
Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties in learning to read and there is some evidence that action video games (AVG), without any direct phonological or orthographic stimulation, improve reading efficiency in Italian children with dyslexia. However, the cognitive mechanism underlying this improvement and the extent to which the benefits of AVG training would generalize to deep English orthography, remain two critical questions. During reading acquisition, children have to integrate written letters with speech sounds, rapidly shifting their attention from visual to auditory modality...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694523/visualizing-changes-in-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-expression-using-bioluminescence-imaging-in-living-mice
#8
Mamoru Fukuchi, Hironori Izumi, Hisashi Mori, Masahiro Kiyama, Satoshi Otsuka, Shojiro Maki, Yosuke Maehata, Akiko Tabuchi, Masaaki Tsuda
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a fundamental role in expressing various neural functions including memory consolidation. Alterations of BDNF levels in the brain are associated with neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Therefore, it is important to understand how levels of BDNF are controlled. Recently we generated a novel transgenic mouse strain, termed the Bdnf-Luciferase transgenic (Bdnf-Luc Tg) mouse, to monitor changes in Bdnf expression. In the present study, we detected the bioluminescence signal from living Bdnf-Luc Tg mice after intraperitoneal administration of d-luciferin...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686137/using-a-large-scale-neural-model-of-cortical-object-processing-to-investigate-the-neural-substrate-for-managing-multiple-items-in-short-term-memory
#9
Qin Liu, Antonio Ulloa, Barry Horwitz
Many cognitive and computational models have been proposed to help understand working memory. In this article, we present a simulation study of cortical processing of visual objects during several working memory tasks using an extended version of a previously constructed large-scale neural model [Tagamets, M. A., & Horwitz, B. Integrating electrophysiological and anatomical experimental data to create a large-scale model that simulates a delayed match-to-sample human brain imaging study. Cerebral Cortex, 8, 310-320, 1998]...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685489/short-term-visual-memory-for-location-in-depth-a-u-shaped-function-of-time
#10
Adam Reeves, Quan Lei
Short-term visual memory was studied by displaying arrays of four or five numerals, each numeral in its own depth plane, followed after various delays by an arrow cue shown in one of the depth planes. Subjects reported the numeral at the depth cued by the arrow. Accuracy fell with increasing cue delay for the first 500 ms or so, and then recovered almost fully. This dipping pattern contrasts with the usual iconic decay observed for memory traces. The dip occurred with or without a verbal or color-shape retention load on working memory...
July 6, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684915/effects-of-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-on-emotional-working-memory-capacity-and-mood-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Angela Merkl, Eva Röck, Tanja Schmitz-Hübsch, Gerd-Helge Schneider, Andrea A Kühn
BACKGROUND: In Parkinson's disease (PD), cognitive symptoms and mood changes may be even more distressing for the patient than motor symptoms. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the effects of bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) on working memory (WM) and mood. METHODS: Sixteen patients with PD were assessed with STN-DBS switched on (DBS-ON) and with dopaminergic treatment (Med-ON) compared to switched off (DBS-OFF) and without dopaminergic treatment (Med-OFF)...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681747/correlation-of-ubiquitin-c-terminal-hydrolase-and-s100%C3%AE-with-cognitive-deficits-in-young-adults-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Subir Dey, Jagathlal Gangadharan, Akhil Deepika, J Keshav Kumar, Rita Christopher, Shruthi S Ramesh, B Indira Devi, Dhaval P Shukla
OBJECTIVE: To study the acute phase serum biomarkers in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and to correlate them with short term cognitive deficits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective observational study conducted at a tertiary care center for neurotrauma. The participants included patients with mTBI (n = 20) and age, gender, and education-status matched healthy controls (n = 20). In both the groups, the serum concentrations of biomarkers ubiquitin C terminal hydrolase (UCH-L1) and S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) were measured...
July 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671112/neural-dynamics-of-multiple-object-processing-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease-future-early-diagnostic-biomarkers
#13
Chiara Bagattini, Veronica Mazza, Laura Panizza, Clarissa Ferrari, Cristina Bonomini, Debora Brignani
The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral and electrophysiological dynamics of multiple object processing (MOP) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and to test whether its neural signatures may represent reliable diagnostic biomarkers. Behavioral performance and event-related potentials [N2pc and contralateral delay activity (CDA)] were measured in AD, MCI, and healthy controls during a MOP task, which consisted in enumerating a variable number of targets presented among distractors...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666245/testing-a-decades-old-assumption-are-individuals-with-lower-sensory-gating-indeed-more-easily-distracted
#14
N Bak, J Mann, B Fagerlund, B Y Glenthøj, J R M Jepsen, B Oranje
The sensory gating deficits in schizophrenia have been theorized to associate with increased distractibility. We explore the potential associations between sensory and sensorimotor gating and subjective and objective indices of distraction in healthy subjects. Forty healthy males were assessed with the P50 suppression and pre-pulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI) paradigms. Additionally, a neurocognitive test battery was administered in a cross-over design: with/without auditory distraction. Significant effects of distraction were found in response inhibition, and verbal working memory and attention...
September 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646811/alternative-therapy-for-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-hypopnea-syndrome-a-1-year-single-blind-randomized-trial-of-tui-na
#15
Cheng-Nan Lu, Michael Friedman, Hsin-Ching Lin, Kuo-Wei Bi, Tun-Pin Hsueh, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Mao-Chang Su, Meng-Chih Lin
Context • Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is among the most prevalent of sleep-related breathing disorders. No long-term follow-up studies have documented the continued success of lifestyle changes in treatment; oral appliances have an approximate 50% success rate; compliance with continuous positive airway pressure is poor, ranging from 50% to 89%; and the success rate of upper-airway surgery is only 66.4%. Therefore, some OSAHS patients seek alternative treatments. Objectives • The study intended to examine the efficacy of traditional Chinese therapeutic massage (tui na) for patients with OSAHS...
July 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644111/visual-dot-interaction-with-short-term-memory
#16
Faustin Armel Etindele Sosso
AIM: Many neurodegenerative diseases have a memory component. Brain structures related to memory are affected by environmental stimuli, and it is difficult to dissociate effects of all behavior of neurons. MATERIALS & METHODS: Here, visual cortex of mice was stimulated with gratings and dot, and an observation of neuronal activity before and after was made. Bandwidth, firing rate and orientation selectivity index were evaluated. RESULTS: A primary communication between primary visual cortex and short-term memory appeared to show an interesting path to train cognitive circuitry and investigate the basics mechanisms of the neuronal learning...
June 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642698/enhanced-working-memory-binding-by-direct-electrical-stimulation-of-the-parietal-cortex
#17
Agustina Birba, Eugenia Hesse, Lucas Sedeño, Ezequiel P Mikulan, María Del C García, Juan Ávalos, Federico Adolfi, Agustina Legaz, Tristán A Bekinschtein, Máximo Zimerman, Mario Parra, Adolfo M García, Agustín Ibáñez
Recent works evince the critical role of visual short-term memory (STM) binding deficits as a clinical and preclinical marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These studies suggest a potential role of posterior brain regions in both the neurocognitive deficits of Alzheimer's patients and STM binding in general. Thereupon, we surmised that stimulation of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) might be a successful approach to tackle working memory deficits in this condition, especially at early stages. To date, no causal evidence exists of the role of the parietal cortex in STM binding...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642613/protecting-visual-short-term-memory-during-maintenance-attentional-modulation-of-target-and-distractor-representations
#18
Marlies E Vissers, Rasa Gulbinaite, Tijl van den Bos, Heleen A Slagter
In the presence of distraction, attentional filtering is a key predictor of efficient information storage in visual short-term memory (VSTM). Yet, the role of attention in distractor filtering, and the extent to which attentional filtering continues to protect information during post-perceptual stages of VSTM, remains largely unknown. In the current study, we investigated the role of spatial attention in distractor filtering during VSTM encoding and maintenance. Participants performed a change detection task with varying distractor load...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641509/brain-information-sharing-during-visual-short-term-memory-binding-yields-a-memory-biomarker-for-familial-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Mario A Parra, Ezequiel Mikulan, Natalia Trujillo, Sergio Della Sala, Francisco Lopera, Facundo Manes, John Starr, Agustin Ibanez
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a disconnection syndrome disrupts both brain information sharing and memory binding functions. The extent to which these two phenotypic expressions are shared pathophysiological mechanisms remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To unveil the electrophysiological correlates of integrative memory impairments in AD towards new memory biomarkers for its prodromal stages. METHODS: Patients with 100% risk of familial AD (FAD) and healthy controls underwent assessment with the VSTM binding test (VSTMBT) while we recorded their EEG...
June 14, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641496/guanfacine-attenuates-adverse-effects-of-dronabinol-thc-on-working-memory-in-adolescent-onset-heavy-cannabis-users-a-pilot-study
#20
David S Mathai, Manuela Holst, Christopher Rodgman, Colin N Haile, Jake Keller, Mariyah Z Hussain, Thomas R Kosten, Thomas F Newton, Christopher D Verrico
The cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) agonist Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, adversely effects working memory performance in humans. The α2A-adrenoceptor (AR) agonist guanfacine improves working memory performance in humans. The authors aimed to determine the effects of short-term (6 days) treatment with guanfacine on adverse cognitive effects produced by THC. Employing a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, the cognitive, subjective, and cardiovascular effects produced by oral THC (20 mg) administration were determined twice in the same cannabis users: once after treatment with placebo and once after treatment with guanfacine (3 mg/day)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
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