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Visual short term memory

Sven Ohl, Martin Rolfs
Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is a crucial repository of information when events unfold rapidly before our eyes, yet it maintains only a fraction of the sensory information encoded by the visual system. Here, we tested the hypothesis that saccadic eye movements provide a natural bottleneck for the transition of fragile content in sensory memory to VSTM. In 4 experiments, we show that saccades, planned and executed after the disappearance of a memory array, markedly bias visual memory performance. First, items that had appeared at the saccade target were more readily remembered than items that had appeared elsewhere, even though the saccade was irrelevant to the memory task (Experiment 1)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Chen Chen, Matthew H Schneps, Katherine E Masyn, Jennifer M Thomson
Increasing evidence has shown visual attention span to be a factor, distinct from phonological skills, that explains single-word identification (pseudo-word/word reading) performance in dyslexia. Yet, little is known about how well visual attention span explains text comprehension. Observing reading comprehension in a sample of 105 high school students with dyslexia, we used a pathway analysis to examine the direct and indirect path between visual attention span and reading comprehension while controlling for other factors such as phonological awareness, letter identification, short-term memory, IQ and age...
October 14, 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
D Hernández-Bonilla, C Escamilla-Núñez, D Mergler, S Rodríguez-Dozal, M Cortez-Lugo, S Montes, L A Tristán-López, M Catalán-Vázquez, A Schilmann, Horacio Riojas-Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal involved in multiple physiological functions. Environmental exposure to airborne Mn is associated with neurocognitive deficits in humans. Children, whose nervous system is in development, are particularly susceptible to Mn neurotoxicity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the association between Mn environmental exposure, and effects on visuoperception and visual memory in schoolchildren. METHODS: We assessed schoolchildren between 7 and 11 years old, with similar socioeconomic status, from the mining district of Molango (n=148) and Agua Blanca (n=119, non-mining area) in Hidalgo state, Mexico...
October 11, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Jayne Newbury, Thomas Klee, Stephanie F Stokes, Catherine Moran
Purpose: This study explored associations between working memory and language in children aged 2-4 years. Method: Seventy-seven children aged 24-30 months were assessed on tests measuring language, visual cognition, verbal working memory (VWM), phonological short-term memory (PSTM), and processing speed. A standardized test of receptive and expressive language was used as the outcomes measure 18 months later. Results: There were moderate-to-strong longitudinal bivariate relationships between the 3 processing measures and language outcomes...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Lindsey Edwards, Lynne Aitkenhead, Dawn Langdon
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to establish the relationship between short-term memory capacity and reading skills in adolescents with cochlear implants. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A between-groups design compared a group of young people with cochlear implants with a group of hearing peers on measures of reading, and auditory and visual short-term memory capacity. The groups were matched for non-verbal IQ and age. The adolescents with cochlear implants were recruited from the Cochlear Implant Programme at a specialist children's hospital...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Christian H Poth, Werner X Schneider
Human vision is organized in discrete processing episodes (e.g., eye fixations or task-steps). Object information must be transmitted across episodes to enable episodic short-term recognition: recognizing whether a current object has been seen in a previous episode. We ask whether episodic short-term recognition presupposes that objects have been encoded into capacity-limited visual working memory (VWM), which retains visual information for report. Alternatively, it could rely on the activation of visual features or categories that occurs before encoding into VWM...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Michel Nelwan, Evelyn H Kroesbergen
The goal of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate whether Jungle Memory working memory training (JM) affects performance on working memory tasks, performance in mathematics and gains made on a mathematics training (MT) in school aged children between 9-12 years old (N = 64) with both difficulties in mathematics, as well as attention and working memory. Children were randomly assigned to three groups and were trained in two periods: (1) JM first, followed by MT, (2) MT first, followed by JM, and (3) a control group that received MT only...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Evgenia Kalogeraki, Justyna Pielecka-Fortuna, Janika M Hüppe, Siegrid Löwel
The primary visual cortex (V1) is widely used to study brain plasticity, which is not only crucial for normal brain function, such as learning and memory, but also for recovery after brain injuries such as stroke. In standard cage (SC) raised mice, experience-dependent ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in V1 declines with age and is compromised by a lesion in adjacent and distant cortical regions. In contrast, mice raised in an enriched environment (EE), exhibit lifelong OD plasticity and are protected from losing OD plasticity after a stroke-lesion in the somatosensory cortex...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Julia Neitzel, Marion Ortner, Marleen Haupt, Petra Redel, Timo Grimmer, Igor Yakushev, Alexander Drzezga, Peter Bublak, Christoph Preul, Christian Sorg, Kathrin Finke
Posterior cortical atrophy is dominated by progressive degradation of parieto-occipital grey and white matter, and represents in most cases a variant of Alzheimer's disease. Patients with posterior cortical atrophy are characterized by increasing higher visual and visuo-spatial impairments. In particular, a key symptom of posterior cortical atrophy is simultanagnosia i.e. the inability to perceive multiple visual objects at the same time. Two neuro-cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to underlie simultanagnosia, either reduced visual short-term memory capacity or decreased visual processing speed possibly resulting from white matter impairments over and above damage to cortical brain areas...
October 3, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Hanlin Tang, Jed Singer, Matias J Ison, Gnel Pivazyan, Melissa Romaine, Rosa Frias, Elizabeth Meller, Adrianna Boulin, James Carroll, Victoria Perron, Sarah Dowcett, Marlise Arellano, Gabriel Kreiman
Episodic memories are long lasting and full of detail, yet imperfect and malleable. We quantitatively evaluated recollection of short audiovisual segments from movies as a proxy to real-life memory formation in 161 subjects at 15 minutes up to a year after encoding. Memories were reproducible within and across individuals, showed the typical decay with time elapsed between encoding and testing, were fallible yet accurate, and were insensitive to low-level stimulus manipulations but sensitive to high-level stimulus properties...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nikos Konstantinou, Fofi Constantinidou, Ryota Kanai
Working memory is responsible for keeping information in mind when it is no longer in view, linking perception with higher cognitive functions. Despite such crucial role, short-term maintenance of visual information is severely limited. Research suggests that capacity limits in visual short-term memory (VSTM) are correlated with sustained activity in distinct brain areas. Here, we investigated whether variability in the structure of the brain is reflected in individual differences of behavioral capacity estimates for spatial and object VSTM...
September 29, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Marie B Yuille, Cory K Olmstead, Ashleigh K Wells, Britta Hahn
RATIONALE: The beneficial effects of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists on cognitive performance have been widely shown. Paradoxically, recent preclinical studies employing extremely low doses of nAChR antagonists have also found cognitive enhancement, perhaps pointing to a novel treatment mechanism for cognitive deficits. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to test whether low doses of the nAChR antagonist mecamylamine would benefit performance in human volunteers...
September 27, 2016: Psychopharmacology
John T Serences
The capacity to briefly memorize fleeting sensory information supports visual search and behavioral interactions with relevant stimuli in the environment. Traditionally, studies investigating the neural basis of visual short term memory (STM) have focused on the role of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in exerting executive control over what information is stored and how it is adaptively used to guide behavior. However, the neural substrates that support the actual storage of content-specific information in STM are more controversial, with some attributing this function to PFC and others to the specialized areas of early visual cortex that initially encode incoming sensory stimuli...
October 4, 2016: Vision Research
Robert W Hughes, John E Marsh
A functional, perceptual-motor, account of serial short-term memory (STM) is examined by investigating the way in which an irrelevant spoken sequence interferes with verbal serial recall. Even with visual list-presentation, verbal serial recall is particularly susceptible to disruption by irrelevant spoken stimuli that have the same identity as-but that are order-incongruent with-the to-be-remembered items. We test the view that such interference is because of the obligatory perceptual organization of the spoken stimuli yielding a sequence that competes with a subvocal motor-plan assembled to support the reproduction of the to-be-remembered list...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Elizabeth Hitchner, Brittanie D Baughman, Salil Soman, Becky Long, Allyson Rosen, Wei Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Carotid interventions are important in helping to reduce the risk of stroke for patients with high-grade carotid artery stenosis; however, subclinical cerebral microemboli can occur during these procedures. Associations have been found between the incidence of microemboli and postoperative decline in memory. We therefore sought to determine whether this decline persisted long-term and to assess changes in other cognitive domains. METHODS: Patients were prospectively recruited under an Institutional Review Board-approved protocol at a single academic center...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Valentina La Corte, Marco Sperduti, Caroline Malherbe, François Vialatte, Stéphanie Lion, Thierry Gallarda, Catherine Oppenheim, Pascale Piolino
Normal aging is related to a decline in specific cognitive processes, in particular in executive functions and memory. In recent years a growing number of studies have focused on changes in brain functional connectivity related to cognitive aging. A common finding is the decreased connectivity within multiple resting state networks, including the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network. In this study, we measured resting state activity using fMRI and explored whether cognitive decline is related to altered functional connectivity...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
M Oberhuber, T M H Hope, M L Seghier, O Parker Jones, S Prejawa, D W Green, C J Price
We used fMRI in 85 healthy participants to investigate whether different parts of the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG) are involved in processing phonological inputs and outputs. The experiment involved 2 tasks (speech production (SP) and one-back (OB) matching) on 8 different types of stimuli that systematically varied the demands on sensory processing (visual vs. auditory), sublexical phonological input (words and pseudowords vs. nonverbal stimuli), and semantic content (words and objects vs. pseudowords and meaningless baseline stimuli)...
September 6, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Theofilos Petsas, Jemma Harrison, Makio Kashino, Shigeto Furukawa, Maria Chait
In this series of behavioural experiments we investigated the effect of distraction on the maintenance of acoustic scene information in short-term memory. Stimuli are artificial acoustic 'scenes' composed of several (up to twelve) concurrent tone-pip streams ('sources'). A gap (1000 ms) is inserted partway through the 'scene'; Changes in the form of an appearance of a new source or disappearance of an existing source, occur after the gap in 50% of the trials. Listeners were instructed to monitor the unfolding 'soundscapes' for these events...
September 2, 2016: Hearing Research
Krysten Zator, Albert N Katz
Here, we examined linguistic differences in the reports of memories produced by three cueing methods. Two groups of young adults were cued visually either by words representing events or popular cultural phenomena that took place when they were 5, 10, or 16 years of age, or by words referencing a general lifetime period word cue directing them to that period in their life. A third group heard 30-second long musical clips of songs popular during the same three time periods. In each condition, participants typed a specific event memory evoked by the cue and these typed memories were subjected to analysis by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program...
August 31, 2016: Memory
Nelly D Saenen, Eline B Provost, Mineke K Viaene, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Wouter Lefebvre, Karen Vrijens, Harry A Roels, Tim S Nawrot
Children's neuropsychological abilities are in a developmental stage. Recent air pollution exposure and neurobehavioral performance are scarcely studied. In a panel study, we repeatedly administered to each child the following neurobehavioral tests: Stroop Test (selective attention) and Continuous Performance Test (sustained attention), Digit Span Forward and Backward Tests (short-term memory), and Digit-Symbol and Pattern Comparison Tests (visual information processing speed). At school, recent inside classroom particulate matter ≤2...
October 2016: Environment International
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