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Visual short term memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405777/how-visual-working-memory-contents-influence-priming-of-visual-attention
#1
Nancy B Carlisle, Árni Kristjánsson
Recent evidence shows that when the contents of visual working memory overlap with targets and distractors in a pop-out search task, intertrial priming is inhibited (Kristjánsson, Sævarsson & Driver, Psychon Bull Rev 20(3):514-521, 2013, Experiment 2, Psychonomic Bulletin and Review). This may reflect an interesting interaction between implicit short-term memory-thought to underlie intertrial priming-and explicit visual working memory. Evidence from a non-pop-out search task suggests that it may specifically be holding distractors in visual working memory that disrupts intertrial priming (Cunningham & Egeth, Psychol Sci 27(4):476-485, 2016, Experiment 2, Psychological Science)...
April 12, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396214/enhancing-links-between-visual-short-term-memory-visual-attention-and-cognitive-control-processes-through-practice-an-electrophysiological-insight
#2
Giorgio Fuggetta, Philip A Duke
The operation of attention on visible objects involves a sequence of cognitive processes. The current study firstly aimed to elucidate the effects of practice on neural mechanisms underlying attentional processes as measured with both behavioural and electrophysiological measures. Secondly, it aimed to identify any pattern in the relationship between Event-Related Potential (ERP) components which play a role in the operation of attention in vision. Twenty-seven participants took part in two recording sessions one week apart, performing an experimental paradigm which combined a match-to-sample task with a memory-guided efficient visual-search task within one trial sequence...
April 7, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383970/visual-short-term-memory-related-brain-activity-predicts-mathematical-abilities
#3
Aubrée Boulet-Craig, Philippe Robaey, Karine Lacourse, Karim Jerbi, Victor Oswald, Maja Krajinovic, Caroline Laverdière, Daniel Sinnett, Pierre Jolicoeur, Sarah Lippé
OBJECTIVE: Previous research suggests visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity and mathematical abilities are significantly related. Moreover, both processes activate similar brain regions within the parietal cortex, in particular, the intraparietal sulcus; however, it is still unclear whether the neuronal underpinnings of VSTM directly correlate with mathematical operation and reasoning abilities. The main objective was to investigate the association between parieto-occipital brain activity during the retention period of a VSTM task and performance in mathematics...
April 6, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368167/the-magical-number-one-on-square-root-two-the-double-target-detection-deficit-in-brief-visual-displays
#4
Elaine A Corbett, Philip L Smith
How limited representational capacity is divided when multiple items need to be processed simultaneously is a fundamental question in cognitive psychology. The double-target deficit is the finding that, when monitoring multiple locations or information streams for targets, identification of 2 simultaneous targets is substantially worse than is predicted from the cost of divided attention alone. This finding suggests that targets and nontargets are treated differently by the cognitive system. We investigated the double-target deficit in 4 different visual decision tasks using noisy, backwardly masked targets presented for a range of exposure durations to test the theory that the deficit reflects a capacity limitation of visual short-term memory (VSTM)...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368141/perceptual-and-response-dependent-profiles-of-attention-in-children-with-adhd
#5
Ida Dyhr Caspersen, Anders Petersen, Signe Vangkilde, Kerstin Jessica Plessen, Thomas Habekost
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex developmental neuropsychiatric disorder, characterized by inattentiveness, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Recent literature suggests a potential core deficit underlying these behaviors may involve inefficient processing when contextual stimulation is low. In order to specify this inefficiency, the aim of the present study was to disentangle perceptual and response-based deficits of attention by supplementing classic reaction time (RT) measures with an accuracy-only test...
April 3, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358294/online-modulation-of-selective-attention-is-not-impaired-in-healthy-aging
#6
Robert Sekuler, Jie Huang, Allison B Sekuler, Patrick J Bennett
Background/Study Context: Reduced processing speed pervades a great many aspects of human aging and cognition. However, little is known about one aspect of cognitive aging in which speed is of the essence, namely, the speed with which older adults can deploy attention in response to a cue. METHODS: The authors compared rapid temporal modulation of cued visual attention in younger (Mage = 22.3 years) and older (Mage = 68.9 years) adults. On each trial of a short-term memory task, a cue identified which of two briefly presented stimuli was task relevant and which one should be ignored...
May 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337162/time-order-errors-in-duration-judgment-are-independent-of-spatial-positioning
#7
Charlotte Harrison, Nicola Binetti, Isabelle Mareschal, Alan Johnston
Time-order errors (TOEs) occur when the discriminability between two stimuli are affected by the order in which they are presented. While TOEs have been studied since the 1860s, it is unknown whether the spatial properties of a stimulus will affect this temporal phenomenon. In this experiment, we asked whether perceived duration, or duration discrimination, might be influenced by whether two intervals in a standard two-interval method of constants paradigm were spatially overlapping in visual short-term memory...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334687/neurocognitive-status-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-brain-tumors-in-good-neurological-condition-the-impact-of-tumor-type-volume-and-location
#8
Philipp Hendrix, Elisa Hans, Christoph J Griessenauer, Andreas Simgen, Joachim Oertel, Julia Karbach
OBJECTIVE: Neurocognitive function is of great importance in patients with brain tumors. Even patients in good neurological condition may suffer from neurocognitive dysfunction that affects their daily living. The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors for neurocognitive dysfunction in patients suffering from common supratentorial brain tumors with minor neurological deficits. METHODS: A prospective study evaluating neurocognitive dysfunction in patients with a newly-diagnosed brain tumor in good neurological condition was performed at a major German academic institution...
March 18, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333901/influence-of-the-recurrent-syncope-episodes-on-neurocognitive-functions-in-patients-with-vasovagal-syncope
#9
Joanna Jędrzejczyk-Spaho, Artur Z Pietrucha, Agnieszka Borowiec, Irena Bzukała, Mateusz Wnuk, Ewa Konduracka, Jadwiga Nessler
The aim of study was to evaluate an influence of recurrent syncope episodes on the neurocognitive functions (NCF) in patients with suspected VVS. AIM: The aim of study was to evaluate an influence of recurrent syncope episodes on the neurocognitive functions (NCF) in patients with suspected VVS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study population: 24 pts. (16 women) aged 17-70 yrs (mean age 40 years), with suspected VVS, referred to HUTT (head-up tilt test). All pts. underwent initial evaluation regarding to the number and circumstances of the syncopal and/or presyncopal spells...
March 21, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333487/adaptation-of-the-arizona-cognitive-task-battery-for-use-with-the-ts65dn-mouse-model-mus-musculus-of-down-syndrome
#10
Michael R Hunsaker, Genevieve K Smith, Raymond P Kesner
We propose and validate a clear strategy to efficiently and comprehensively characterize neurobehavioral deficits in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome. This novel approach uses neurocognitive theory to design and select behavioral tasks that test specific hypotheses concerning the results of Down syndrome. In this article, we model the Arizona Cognitive Task Battery, used to study human populations with Down syndrome, in Ts65Dn mice. We observed specific deficits for spatial memory, impaired long-term memory for visual objects, acquisition and reversal of motor responses, reduced motor dexterity, and impaired adaptive function as measured by nesting and anxiety tasks...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315373/memory-for-objects-and-startle-responsivity-in-the-immediate-aftermath-of-exposure-to-the-trier-social-stress-test
#11
Nadja Herten, Dennis Pomrehn, Oliver T Wolf
Previously, we observed enhanced long-term memory for objects used (central objects) by committee members in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on the next day. In addition, startle responsivity was increased. However, response specificity to an odour involved in the stressful episode was lacking and recognition memory for the odour was poor. In the current experiments, immediate effects of the stressor on memory and startle responsivity were investigated. We hypothesised memory for central objects of the stressful episode and startle response specificity to an odour ambient during the TSST to be enhanced shortly after it, in contrast to the control condition (friendly TSST)...
March 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314070/long-lasting-effects-of-chronic-heavy-cannabis-abuse
#12
Joannis N Nestoros, Elena Vakonaki, Manolis N Tzatzarakis, Athanasios Alegakis, Markos D Skondras, Aristidis M Tsatsakis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of short-term memory impairment and schizophrenia-like symptoms in heavy and systematic cannabis users and the association between the severity of abuse and the longevity of its persistent symptoms after refraining from such use. METHODS: A complete psychiatric examination and a psychometric evaluation were performed in 48 solely cannabis users. Additionally, head hair samples were analyzed and the detected cannabinoids levels were correlated with the psychometric findings...
March 17, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302161/cognitive-profile-in-prodromal-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#13
Jennifer Kemp, Nathalie Philippi, Clélie Phillipps, Catherine Demuynck, Timothée Albasser, Catherine Martin-Hunyadi, Catherine Schmidt-Mutter, Benjamin Cretin, Frédéric Blanc
BACKGROUND: Cortical and subcortical cognitive impairments have been found in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Roughly, they comprise visuoconstructive and executive dysfunction, whereas memory would remain relatively spared. However, the cognitive profile of patients with prodromal DLB remains poorly illustrated to date. METHODS: We included 37 patients with prodromal DLB (age 67.2 ± 8.6 years, 18 men, Mini Mental State Examination [MMSE] score 27.4 ± 2) and 29 healthy control subjects (HCs; age 68...
March 16, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295917/gaze-based-rehearsal-in-children-under-7-a-developmental-investigation-of-eye-movements-during-a-serial-spatial-memory-task
#14
Candice C Morey, Silvana Mareva, Jaroslaw R Lelonkiewicz, Nicolas Chevalier
The emergence of strategic verbal rehearsal at around 7 years of age is widely considered a major milestone in descriptions of the development of short-term memory across childhood. Likewise, rehearsal is believed by many to be a crucial factor in explaining why memory improves with age. This apparent qualitative shift in mnemonic processes has also been characterized as a shift from passive visual to more active verbal mnemonic strategy use, but no investigation of the development of overt spatial rehearsal has informed this explanation...
March 12, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287787/training-working-memory-in-older-adults-is-there-an-advantage-of-using-strategies
#15
Erika Borella, Barbara Carretti, Roberta Sciore, Emanuela Capotosto, Laurence Taconnat, Cesare Cornoldi, Rossana De Beni
The purpose of the present study was to test the efficacy of a working memory (WM) training in elderly people, and to compare the effects of a WM training based on an adaptive procedure with one combining the same procedure with the use of a strategy, based on the construction of visual mental images. Eighteen older adults received training with a WM task (the WM group), another 18 received the same WM training and were also taught to use a visual imagery strategy (the WM + Strategy group), and another 18 served as active controls...
March 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287761/familiarity-speeds-up-visual-short-term-memory-consolidation
#16
Weizhen Xie, Weiwei Zhang
Existing long-term memory (LTM) can boost the number of retained representations over a short delay in visual short-term memory (VSTM). However, it is unclear whether and how prior LTM affects the initial process of transforming fragile sensory inputs into durable VSTM representations (i.e., VSTM consolidation). The consolidation speed hypothesis predicts faster consolidation for familiar relative to unfamiliar stimuli. Alternatively, the perceptual boost hypothesis predicts that the advantage in perceptual processing of familiar stimuli should add a constant boost for familiar stimuli during VSTM consolidation...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284581/cognitive-function-surrounding-resection-of-nonfunctioning-pituitary-adenomas-with-suprasellar-extension-a-prospective-matched-control-study
#17
Philipp Hendrix, Christoph J Griessenauer, Elisa Hans, Andreas Simgen, Joachim Oertel, Julia Karbach
OBJECTIVE: Patients suffering from pituitary adenomas may experience cognitive dysfunctions due to hormonal imbalance or suprasellar tumor extension displacing neural structures. Progressively enlarging or symptomatic nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas with suprasellar extension are frequently resected. The literature on neurocognitive performance surrounding resection of these lesions is sparse. METHODS: A prospective matched-control study was conducted to investigate the impact of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas with suprasellar extension on preoperative and postoperative cognitive performance...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267971/working-memory-it-s-a-gas-gas-gas
#18
Troy Zars
The ellipsoid body, a doughnut-shaped part of the fly brain, is essential for visual working memory. Gaseous second messengers establish a functional ellipsoid body and act as a short-term aid in orientation behavior.
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259771/characterizing-the-roles-of-alpha-and-theta-oscillations-in-multisensory-attention
#19
Arielle S Keller, Lisa Payne, Robert Sekuler
Cortical alpha oscillations (8-13Hz) appear to play a role in suppressing distractions when just one sensory modality is being attended, but do they also contribute when attention is distributed over multiple sensory modalities? For an answer, we examined cortical oscillations in human subjects who were dividing attention between auditory and visual sequences. In Experiment 1, subjects performed an oddball task with auditory, visual, or simultaneous audiovisual sequences in separate blocks, while the electroencephalogram was recorded using high-density scalp electrodes...
March 1, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241401/hippocampal-cortical-contributions-to-strategic-exploration-during-perceptual-discrimination
#20
Joel L Voss, Neal J Cohen
The hippocampus is crucial for long-term memory; its involvement in short-term or immediate expressions of memory is more controversial. Rodent hippocampus has been implicated in an expression of memory that occurs on-line during exploration termed "vicarious trial-and-error" (VTE) behavior. VTE occurs when rodents iteratively explore options during perceptual discrimination or at choice points. It is strategic in that it accelerates learning and improves later memory. VTE has been associated with activity of rodent hippocampal neurons, and lesions of hippocampus disrupt VTE and associated learning and memory advantages...
February 27, 2017: Hippocampus
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