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Visual short term memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910129/how-is-the-serial-order-of-a-visual-sequence-represented-insights-from-transposition-latencies
#1
Mark J Hurlstone, Graham J Hitch
A central goal of research on short-term memory (STM) over the past 2 decades has been to identify the mechanisms that underpin the representation of serial order, and to establish whether these mechanisms are the same across different modalities and domains (e.g., verbal, visual, spatial). A fruitful approach to addressing this question has involved comparing the transposition error latency predictions of models built from different candidate mechanisms for representing serial order. Experiments involving the output-timed serial recall of sequences of verbal (Farrell & Lewandowsky, 2004) and spatial (Hurlstone & Hitch, 2015) items have revealed an error latency profile consistent with the prediction of a competitive queuing mechanism within which serial order is represented via a primacy gradient of activations over items, associations between items and position markers, with suppression of items following recall...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895460/comparison-of-neuropsychological-functioning-between-adults-with-early-and-late-onset-dsm-5-adhd
#2
Yu-Ju Lin, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the visually dependent neuropsychological functioning among adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) ADHD who recalled symptom onset by and after age 7 and non-ADHD controls. METHOD: We divided the participants, aged 17 to 40 years, into three groups-(a) ADHD, onset <7 years (early-onset, n = 142); (b) ADHD, onset between 7 and <12 years (late-onset, n = 41); (c) non-ADHD controls ( n = 148)-and compared their neuropsychological functioning, measured by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895111/phonological-recoding-under-articulatory-suppression
#3
Dennis Norris, Sally Butterfield, Jane Hall, Michael P A Page
We report data from an experiment in which participants performed immediate serial recall of visually presented words with or without articulatory suppression, while also performing homophone or rhyme detection. The separation between homophonous or rhyming pairs in the list was varied. According to the working memory model (Baddeley, 1986; Baddeley & Hitch, 1974), suppression should prevent articulatory recoding. Nevertheless, rhyme and homophone detection was well above chance. However, with suppression, participants showed a greater tendency to false-alarm to orthographically related foils (e...
September 11, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891784/familiarity-speeds-up-visual-short-term-memory-consolidation-electrophysiological-evidence-from-contralateral-delay-activities
#4
Weizhen Xie, Weiwei Zhang
To test how preexisting long-term memory influences visual STM, this study takes advantage of individual differences in participants' prior familiarity with Pokémon characters and uses an ERP component, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), to assess whether observers' prior stimulus familiarity affects STM consolidation and storage capacity. In two change detection experiments, consolidation speed, as indexed by CDA fractional area latency and/or early-window (500-800 msec) amplitude, was significantly associated with individual differences in Pokémon familiarity...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887064/top-down-modulation-of-alpha-power-and-pattern-similarity-for-threatening-representations-in-visual-short-term-memory
#5
Bo-Cheng Kuo, Chun-Hui Li, Szu-Hung Lin, Sheng-Hung Hu, Yei-Yu Yeh
Recent studies have shown that top-down attention biases task-relevant representations in visual short-term memory (VSTM). Accumulating evidence has also revealed the modulatory effects of emotional arousal on attentional processing. However, it remains unclear how top-down attention interacts with emotional memoranda in VSTM. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of alpha oscillations and their spatiotemporal characteristics that underlie top-down attention to threatening representations during VSTM maintenance with electroencephalography...
September 5, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885144/trajectory-predictor-by-using-recurrent-neural-networks-in-visual-tracking
#6
Lituan Wang, Lei Zhang, Zhang Yi
Motion models have been proved to be a crucial part in the visual tracking process. In recent trackers, particle filter and sliding windows-based motion models have been widely used. Treating motion models as a sequence prediction problem, we can estimate the motion of objects using their trajectories. Moreover, it is possible to transfer the learned knowledge from annotated trajectories to new objects. Inspired by recent advance in deep learning for visual feature extraction and sequence prediction, we propose a trajectory predictor to learn prior knowledge from annotated trajectories and transfer it to predict the motion of target objects...
October 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880682/investigating-patterns-of-memory-impairment-in-ischemic-stroke-in-an-iranian-population
#7
Negar Karimian, Karim Asgari, Hamid Taher Neshat Doost, Hamid Reza Oreizi, Mohammad Reza Najafi
Up until the date of this research, studies have examined poststroke cognitive impairments in attention, memory, and executive functions. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of memory problems in various patterns of memory in ischemic stroke patients in an attempt to determine specific memory profiles of the patients. The goal was to determine the severity and patterns of memory impairments in ischemic stroke patients and to identify specific profiles of memory impairments in stroke patients, in order to help therapists to develop more appropriate memory rehabilitation programs for the patients...
September 7, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866526/lstmvis-a-tool-for-visual-analysis-of-hidden-state-dynamics-in-recurrent-neural-networks
#8
Hendrik Strobelt, Sebastian Gehrmann, Hanspeter Pfister, Alexander M Rush
Recurrent neural networks, and in particular long short-term memory (LSTM) networks, are a remarkably effective tool for sequence modeling that learn a dense black-box hidden representation of their sequential input. Researchers interested in better understanding these models have studied the changes in hidden state representations over time and noticed some interpretable patterns but also significant noise. In this work, we present LSTMVIS, a visual analysis tool for recurrent neural networks with a focus on understanding these hidden state dynamics...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865285/towards-an-integrative-model-of-visual-short-term-memory-maintenance-evidence-from-the-effects-of-attentional-control-load-decay-and-their-interactions-in-childhood
#9
Andria Shimi, Gaia Scerif
Over the past decades there has been a surge of research aiming to shed light on the nature of capacity limits to visual short-term memory (VSTM). However, an integrative account of this evidence is currently missing. We argue that investigating parameters constraining VSTM in childhood suggests a novel integrative model of VSTM maintenance, and that this in turn informs mechanisms of VSTM maintenance in adulthood. Over 3 experiments with 7-year-olds and young adults (total N=206), we provide evidence for multiple cognitive processes interacting to constrain VSTM performance...
August 30, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862710/letter-and-symbol-identification-no-evidence-for-letter-specific-crowding-mechanisms
#10
Eric Castet, Marine Descamps, Ambre Denis-Noël, Pascale Colé
It has been proposed that letters, as opposed to symbols, trigger specialized crowding processes, boosting identification of the first and last letters of words. This hypothesis is based on evidence that single-letter accuracy as a function of within-string position has a W shape (the classic serial position function [SPF] in psycholinguistics) whereas an inverted V shape is obtained when measured with symbols. Our main goal was to test the robustness of the latter result. Our hypothesis was that any letter/symbol difference might result from short-term visual memory processes (due to the partial report [PR] procedures used in SPF studies) rather than from crowding...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844148/the-association-of-apolipoprotein-e-gene-polymorphism-with-cognitive-performance-in-nondemented-polish-adults-aged-55-to-75
#11
Małgorzata T Piskunowicz, Katarzyna Linkowska, Szymon Gołota, Tomasz Grzybowski, Kornelia Kędziora-Kornatowska, Alina Borkowska
The ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is known as a risk factor for dementia. How APOE ε polymorphism affects cognitive performance in nondemented aging subjects remains less clear. In this study, the relationship between APOE status and cognitive performance across various cognitive domains in adults aged 55 to 75 years ( n = 74) without dementia was investigated. E4 carriers ( n = 11) performed worse versus noncarriers on forward Digit Span and delayed recall of the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835560/the-processing-of-images-of-biological-threats-in-visual-short-term-memory
#12
Philip T Quinlan, Yue Yue, Dale J Cohen
The idea that there is enhanced memory for negatively, emotionally charged pictures was examined. Performance was measured under rapid, serial visual presentation (RSVP) conditions in which, on every trial, a sequence of six photo-images was presented. Briefly after the offset of the sequence, two alternative images (a target and a foil) were presented and participants attempted to choose which image had occurred in the sequence. Images were of threatening and non-threatening cats and dogs. The target depicted either an animal expressing an emotion distinct from the other images, or the sequences contained only images depicting the same emotional valence...
August 30, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813568/visual-short-term-memory-for-oriented-colored-objects
#13
Hongsup Shin, Wei Ji Ma
A central question in the study of visual short-term memory (VSTM) has been whether its basic units are objects or features. Most studies addressing this question have used change detection tasks in which the feature value before the change is highly discriminable from the feature value after the change. This approach assumes that memory noise is negligible, which recent work has shown not to be the case. Here, we investigate VSTM for orientation and color within a noisy-memory framework, using change localization with a variable magnitude of change...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804213/word-decoding-development-in-incremental-phonics-instruction-in-a-transparent-orthography
#14
Moniek M H Schaars, Eliane Segers, Ludo Verhoeven
The present longitudinal study aimed to investigate the development of word decoding skills during incremental phonics instruction in Dutch as a transparent orthography. A representative sample of 973 Dutch children in the first grade (Mage  = 6;1, SD = 0;5) was exposed to incremental subsets of Dutch grapheme-phoneme correspondences during 6 consecutive blocks of 3 weeks of phonics instruction. Children's accuracy and efficiency of curriculum embedded word decoding were assessed after each incremental block, followed by a standardized word decoding measurement...
2017: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757149/motivation-and-short-term-memory-in-visual-search-attention-s-accelerator-revisited
#15
Daniel Schneider, Claudia Bonmassar, Clayton Hickey
A cue indicating the possibility of cash reward will cause participants to perform memory-based visual search more efficiently. A recent study has suggested that this performance benefit might reflect the use of multiple memory systems: when needed, participants may maintain the to-be-remembered object in both long-term and short-term visual memory, with this redundancy benefitting target identification during search (Reinhart, McClenahan & Woodman, 2016). Here we test this compelling hypothesis. We had participants complete a memory-based visual search task involving a reward cue that either preceded presentation of the to-be-remembered target (pre-cue) or followed it (retro-cue)...
July 13, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756948/the-sleeping-infant-brain-anticipates-development
#16
Manuela Friedrich, Ines Wilhelm, Matthias Mölle, Jan Born, Angela D Friederici
From the age of 3 months, infants learn relations between objects and co-occurring words [1]. These very first representations of object-word pairings in infant memory are considered as non-symbolic proto-words comprising specific visual-auditory associations that can already be formed in the first months of life [2-5]. Genuine words that refer to semantic long-term memory have not been evidenced prior to 9 months of age [6-9]. Sleep is known to facilitate the reorganization of memories [9-14], but its impact on the perceptual-to-semantic trend in early development is unknown...
August 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741253/dissociations-of-the-number-and-precision-of-visual-short-term-memory-representations-in-change-detection
#17
Weizhen Xie, Weiwei Zhang
The present study dissociated the number (i.e., quantity) and precision (i.e., quality) of visual short-term memory (STM) representations in change detection using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and experimental manipulations. Across three experiments, participants performed both recognition and recall tests of visual STM using the change-detection task and the continuous color-wheel recall task, respectively. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the estimates of the number and precision of visual STM representations based on the ROC model of change-detection performance were robustly correlated with the corresponding estimates based on the mixture model of continuous-recall performance...
July 24, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732282/proficient-use-of-low-spatial-frequencies-facilitates-face-memory-but-shows-protracted-maturation-throughout-adolescence
#18
Judith C Peters, Chantal Kemner
Face perception is characterized by configural processing, which depends on visual information in the low spatial frequency (LSF) ranges. However, it is unclear whether LSF content is equally important for face memory. The present study investigated how face information in the low and high SF range plays a role in the configural encoding of faces for short-term and long-term recall. Moreover, we examined how SF-dependent face memorization develops in female adolescence, by comparing children (9-10-year-olds), adolescents (12-13-year-olds and 15-16-year-olds), and young adults (21-32-year-olds)...
September 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729161/the-neural-basis-of-precise-visual-short-term-memory-for-complex-recognisable-objects
#19
Michele Veldsman, Daniel J Mitchell, Rhodri Cusack
Recent evidence suggests that visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity estimated using simple objects, such as colours and oriented bars, may not generalise well to more naturalistic stimuli. More visual detail can be stored in VSTM when complex, recognisable objects are maintained compared to simple objects. It is not yet known if it is recognisability that enhances memory precision, nor whether maintenance of recognisable objects is achieved with the same network of brain regions supporting maintenance of simple objects...
July 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725022/action-video-games-improve-reading-abilities-and-visual-to-auditory-attentional-shifting-in-english-speaking-children-with-dyslexia
#20
Sandro Franceschini, Piergiorgio Trevisan, Luca Ronconi, Sara Bertoni, Susan Colmar, Kit Double, Andrea Facoetti, Simone Gori
Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties in learning to read and there is some evidence that action video games (AVG), without any direct phonological or orthographic stimulation, improve reading efficiency in Italian children with dyslexia. However, the cognitive mechanism underlying this improvement and the extent to which the benefits of AVG training would generalize to deep English orthography, remain two critical questions. During reading acquisition, children have to integrate written letters with speech sounds, rapidly shifting their attention from visual to auditory modality...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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