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Visual short term memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324235/a-biphasic-effect-of-cross-modal-priming-on-visual-shape-recognition
#1
Sze Chai Kwok, Carlo Fantoni, Laura Tamburini, Lei Wang, Walter Gerbino
We used a cross-modal priming paradigm to evoke a biphasic effect in visual short-term memory. Participants were required to match the memorandum (a visual shape, either spiky or curvy) to a delayed probe (a shape belonging to the same category). In two-thirds of trials the sequence of shapes was accompanied by a task-irrelevant sound (either tzk or upo, cross-modally correspondent to spiky and curvy shape categories, respectively). The biphasic effect occurred when a congruent vs. incongruent sound was presented 200ms after the memorandum, while it did not occur when the sound was presented 200ms before or simultaneously with it...
January 8, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319910/reversal-of-mecamylamine-induced-effects-in-healthy-subjects-by-nicotine-receptor-agonists-cognitive-and-electro-physiological-responses
#2
Ricardo Alvarez-Jimenez, Ellen P Hart, Samantha Prins, Marieke de Kam, Joop M A van Gerven, Adam F Cohen, Geert Jan Groeneveld
AIM: Establishing a pharmacologic challenge model could yield an important tool to understand the complex role of the nicotinic cholinergic system in cognition and to develop novel compounds acting on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, four way cross-over study examined the effects of the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine on a battery of cognitive and neurophysiologic test with co-administration of a placebo, nicotine or galantamine in order to reverse the cognitive impairment caused by mecamylamine...
January 10, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311140/visual-short-term-memory-activity-in-parietal-lobe-reflects-cognitive-processes-beyond-attentional-selection
#3
Summer L Sheremata, David C Somers, Sarah Shomstein
Visual attention and short-term memory (VSTM) are distinct yet inter-related processes. While both require selection of information across the visual field, memory additionally requires maintenance of information across time and distraction. VSTM recruits areas within human (male and female) dorsal and ventral parietal cortex that are also implicated in spatial selection, therefore, it is important to determine if overlapping activation might reflect shared attentional demands. Here, identical stimuli and controlled sustained attention across both tasks were used to ask whether fMRI signal amplitude, functional connectivity, and contralateral visual field bias reflect memory-specific task demands...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301111/a-deep-learning-framework-for-causal-shape-transformation
#4
Kin Gwn Lore, Daniel Stoecklein, Michael Davies, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Soumik Sarkar
Recurrent neural network (RNN) and Long Short-term Memory (LSTM) networks are the common go-to architecture for exploiting sequential information where the output is dependent on a sequence of inputs. However, in most considered problems, the dependencies typically lie in the latent domain which may not be suitable for applications involving the prediction of a step-wise transformation sequence that is dependent on the previous states only in the visible domain with a known terminal state. We propose a hybrid architecture of convolution neural networks (CNN) and stacked autoencoders (SAE) to learn a sequence of causal actions that nonlinearly transform an input visual pattern or distribution into a target visual pattern or distribution with the same support and demonstrated its practicality in a real-world engineering problem involving the physics of fluids...
December 18, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284344/differential-age-related-effects-on-conjunctive-and-relational-visual-short-term-memory-binding
#5
Christine Bastin
An age-related associative deficit has been described in visual short-term binding memory tasks. However, separate studies have suggested that ageing disrupts relational binding (to associate distinct items or item and context) more than conjunctive binding (to integrate features within an object). The current study directly compared relational and conjunctive binding with a short-term memory task for object-colour associations in 30 young and 30 older adults. Participants studied a number of object-colour associations corresponding to their individual object span level in a relational task in which objects were associated to colour patches and a conjunctive task where colour was integrated into the object...
December 28, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280019/impact-of-short-term-cycle-ergometer-training-on-quality-of-life-cognition-and-depressive-symptomatology-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-a-pilot-study
#6
Alison Barry, Owen Cronin, Aisling M Ryan, Brian Sweeney, Orna O'Toole, Andrew P Allen, Gerard Clarke, Ken D O'Halloran, Eric J Downer
In this pilot study, we investigate whether a routine cycle ergometry training programme has therapeutic potential in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) by improving quality of life (QOL) and depressive symptomatology, while ameliorating cognitive disturbances. Healthy volunteers and MS patients cycled for 30 min at 65-75% age-predicted maximal heart rate on a recumbent ergometer, with this session repeated twice a week for 8 weeks. QOL, depressive symptomatology and cognitive function were assessed pre- and post-exercise using the MS Quality of Life-54 (MSQOL-54) questionnaire, 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR16) questionnaire and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), respectively...
December 26, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261708/delayed-processing-of-global-shape-information-in-developmental-prosopagnosia
#7
Christian Gerlach, Solja K Klargaard, Anders Petersen, Randi Starrfelt
There is accumulating evidence suggesting that a central deficit in developmental prosopagnosia (DP), a disorder characterized by profound and lifelong difficulties with face recognition, concerns impaired holistic processing. Some of this evidence comes from studies using Navon's paradigm where individuals with DP show a greater local or reduced global bias compared with controls. However, it has not been established what gives rise to this altered processing bias. Is it a reduced global precedence effect, changes in susceptibility to interference effects or both? By analyzing the performance of 10 individuals with DP in Navon's paradigm we find evidence of a reduced global precedence effect: The DPs are slower than controls to process global but not local shape information...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238310/parameter-based-evaluation-of-attentional-impairments-in-schizophrenia-and-their-modulation-by-prefrontal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#8
Nadine Gögler, Irina Papazova, Tatiana Oviedo-Salcedo, Nina Filipova, Wolfgang Strube, Johanna Funk, Hermann J Müller, Kathrin Finke, Alkomiet Hasan
Background: Attentional dysfunctions constitute core cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia, but the precise underlying neurocognitive mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study, we applied, for the first time, a theoretically grounded modeling approach based on Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) to (i) identify specific visual attentional parameters affected in schizophrenia and (ii) assess, as a proof of concept, the potential of single-dose anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS; 20 min, 2 mA) to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to modulate these attentional parameters...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229342/parahippocampectomy-as-a-new-surgical-approach-to-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-caused-by-hippocampal-sclerosis-a-pilot-randomized-comparative-clinical-trial
#9
Mario Arturo Alonso-Vanegas, Iván D Freire Carlier, Daniel San-Juan, Alma Rosa Martínez, Carlos Trenado
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The parahippocampal gyrus plays an important role in the epileptogenic pathways of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy caused by hippocampal sclerosis (mTLE-HS); its resection could prevent epileptic seizures with fewer complications. This study evaluates the initial efficacy and safety of anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL), selective amygdalohipppocampectomy (SAH), and parahippocampectomy (PHC) surgical approaches in mTLE-HS. METHODS: A randomized comparative pilot clinical trial (2008-2011) was performed that included patients with mTLE-HS who underwent ATL, trans-T3 SAH, and trans-T3 PHC...
December 9, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212528/effectiveness-of-robot-assisted-training-added-to-conventional-rehabilitation-in-patients-with-humeral-fracture-early-after-surgical-treatment-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-multicentre-trial
#10
Corinna Nerz, Lars Schwickert, Clemens Becker, Stefan Studier-Fischer, Janina Anna Müßig, Peter Augat
BACKGROUND: The incidence of proximal humeral fractures increases with age. The functional recovery of the upper arm after such fractures is slow, and results are often disappointing. Treatment is associated with long immobilisation periods. Evidence-based exercise guidelines are missing. Loss of muscle mass as well as reduced range of motion and motor performance are common consequences. These losses could be partly counteracted by training interventions using robot-assisted arm support of the affected arm derived from neurorehabilitation...
December 6, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199840/an-examination-of-sex-differences-on-neurocognitive-functioning-and-behavior-problems-in-maltreated-youth
#11
Kate B Nooner, Stephen R Hooper, Michael D De Bellis
OBJECTIVE: In the developmental traumatology model, the biological construct of sex is considered a moderator that may negatively influence child maltreatment sequelae including those pertaining to neurocognitive function. METHOD: This study examined sex-differences in neurocognitive function and behavior problems in maltreated boys (n = 42), maltreated girls (n = 56) versus nonmaltreated boys (n = 45) and girls (n = 59). Maltreated boys were hypothesized to have poorer neurocognitive functioning than maltreated girls, and nonmaltreated boys and girls, in all neurocognitive domains, particularly pertaining to executive function and attention...
December 4, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198217/what-does-it-take-to-search-organized-the-cognitive-correlates-of-search-organization-during-cancellation-after-stroke
#12
Antonia F Ten Brink, Johanna M A Visser-Meily, Tanja C W Nijboer
OBJECTIVES: Stroke could lead to deficits in organization of visual search. Cancellation tests are frequently used in standard neuropsychological assessment and appear suitable to measure search organization. The current aim was to evaluate which cognitive functions are associated with cancellation organization measures after stroke. METHODS: Stroke patients admitted to inpatient rehabilitation were included in this retrospective study. We performed exploratory factor analyses to explore cognitive domains...
December 4, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196834/motor-cognitive-dual-task-performance-effects-of-a-concurrent-motor-task-on-distinct-components-of-visual-processing-capacity
#13
E C S Künstler, K Finke, A Günther, C Klingner, O Witte, P Bublak
Dual tasking, or the simultaneous execution of two continuous tasks, is frequently associated with a performance decline that can be explained within a capacity sharing framework. In this study, we assessed the effects of a concurrent motor task on the efficiency of visual information uptake based on the 'theory of visual attention' (TVA). TVA provides parameter estimates reflecting distinct components of visual processing capacity: perceptual threshold, visual processing speed, and visual short-term memory (VSTM) storage capacity...
December 1, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182152/decoding-of-finger-trajectory-from-ecog-using-deep-learning
#14
Ziqian Xie, Odelia Schwartz, Abhishek Prasad
Conventional decoding pipeline for brain machine interfaces (BMIs) consists of chained different stages of feature extraction, time-frequency analysis and statistical learning models. Each of these stages uses a different algorithm trained in a sequential manner, which makes it difficult to make the whole system adaptive. The goal was to create an adaptive online system with a single objective function and a single learning algorithm so that the whole system can be trained in parallel to increase the decoding performance...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175710/eeg-correlates-of-visual-short-term-memory-in-older-age-vary-with-adult-lifespan-cognitive-development
#15
Iris Wiegand, Martin J Lauritzen, Merete Osler, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Egill Rostrup, Lene Rask, Nelly Richard, Anna Horwitz, Krisztina Benedek, Signe Vangkilde, Anders Petersen
Visual short-term memory (vSTM) is a cognitive resource that declines with age. This study investigated whether electroencephalography (EEG) correlates of vSTM vary with cognitive development over individuals' lifespan. We measured vSTM performance and EEG in a lateralized whole-report task in a healthy birth cohort, whose cognitive function (intelligence quotient) was assessed in youth and late-middle age. Higher vSTM capacity (K; measured by Bundesen's theory of visual attention) was associated with higher amplitudes of the contralateral delay activity (CDA) and the central positivity (CP)...
October 31, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171169/no-effect-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-on-short-term-memory
#16
Jing Wang, Jianbing Wen, Xiaoli Li
INTRODUCTION: Short-term memory refers to the capacity for holding information in mind for a short period of time with conscious memorization. It is an important ability for daily life and is impaired in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was reported to enhance the capability of short-term memory in healthy subjects. However, results were not consistent and what is the possible impact factor is not known...
November 23, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167365/correlated-individual-differences-suggest-a-common-mechanism-underlying-metacognition-in-visual-perception-and-visual-short-term-memory
#17
Jason Samaha, Bradley R Postle
Adaptive behaviour depends on the ability to introspect accurately about one's own performance. Whether this metacognitive ability is supported by the same mechanisms across different tasks is unclear. We investigated the relationship between metacognition of visual perception and metacognition of visual short-term memory (VSTM). Experiments 1 and 2 required subjects to estimate the perceived or remembered orientation of a grating stimulus and rate their confidence. We observed strong positive correlations between individual differences in metacognitive accuracy between the two tasks...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154628/the-bandwidth-of-vwm-consolidation-varies-with-the-stimulus-feature-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#18
Renning Hao, Mark W Becker, Chaoxiong Ye, Qiang Liu, Taosheng Liu
Our previous work suggests that 2 colors can be consolidated into visual short-term memory (VSTM) in parallel without a loss of memory precision, whereas consolidation of 2 orientations is performed in a strictly serial manner. Those experiments compared VSTM performance for simultaneously and sequentially presented stimuli. However, there is still controversy about whether the bandwidth for consolidation is determined by the type of information. To further investigate this issue, here we measured electroencephalography while participants attempted to consolidate 1, 2 or 4 simultaneously presented colors (Experiment 1) or orientations (Experiment 2) under limited presentation times...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154491/does-differential-visual-exploration-contribute-to-visual-memory-impairments-in-22q11-2-microdeletion-syndrome
#19
M Bostelmann, B Glaser, A Zaharia, S Eliez, M Schneider
BACKGROUND: Chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a genetic syndrome characterised by a unique cognitive profile. Individuals with the syndrome present several non-verbal deficits, including visual memory impairments and atypical exploration of visual information. In this study, we seek to understand how visual attention may contribute to memory difficulties in 22q11.2DS by tracking eye movements during the encoding phase of a visual short-term memory task. METHOD: Eye movements were recorded during a computerised version of the multiple-choice Benton Visual Retention Test, which consisted of exploring and then recognising complex visual stimuli...
December 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152735/6%C3%A2-hz-corneal-kindling-in-mice-triggers-neurobehavioral-comorbidities-accompanied-by-relevant-changes-in-c-fos-immunoreactivity-throughout-the-brain
#20
Giulia Albertini, Laura Walrave, Thomas Demuyser, Ann Massie, Dimitri De Bundel, Ilse Smolders
OBJECTIVE: Besides seizures, patients with epilepsy are affected by a variety of cognitive and psychiatric comorbidities that further impair their quality of life. The present study provides an in-depth characterization of the behavioral alterations induced by 6 Hz corneal kindling. Furthermore, we correlate these behavioral changes to alterations in c-Fos protein expression throughout the brain following kindling. METHODS: Adolescent male Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice were kindled via repetitive subconvulsive 6 Hz corneal stimulations until they reached the fully kindled state (defined as 10 consecutive generalized seizures)...
November 20, 2017: Epilepsia
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