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Fast track obesity

Marta Seghieri, Edoardo Vitolo, Livia Giannini, Eleonora Santini, Chiara Rossi, Antonio Salvati, Anna Solini
AIMS: Obesity-induced nephropathy is an established clinical entity arising from a "maladaptive" response to lipid accumulation at the nephron level. Bariatric surgery positively affects renal function, reducing or increasing glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in subjects with hyperfiltration and renal impairment, respectively. The effect of this surgery in patients with normal estimated GFR (eGFR) is less clear. METHODS: A complete clinical and biochemical assessment of 135 severely obese, otherwise healthy subjects, was obtained before Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)...
April 6, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
Mark D DeBoer, Matthew J Gurka
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is marked by abnormalities in central obesity, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and high fasting glucose and appears to be produced by underlying processes of inflammation, oxidative stress, and adipocyte dysfunction. MetS has traditionally been classified based on dichotomous criteria that deny that MetS-related risk likely exists as a spectrum. Continuous MetS scores provide a way to track MetS-related risk over time. We generated MetS severity scores that are sex- and race/ethnicity-specific, acknowledging that the way MetS is manifested may be different by sex and racial/ethnic subgroup...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
W P Jayawardene, D Lohrmann, S Dickinson, S Talagala, M Torabi
Obesity tracks from childhood to adulthood most strongly of all cardiometabolic risk factors. To determine relationship of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with cardiometabolic risk (dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and elevated blood pressure) in a large U.S. population ages 12-19 and demographic subgroups. Pooled 1999-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data were analyzed (N = 23 438). In addition to standard cutoffs of BMI and WC, risk levels were identified for each laboratory variable: HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, total cholesterol (category = lipids); fasting glucose, glycated haemoglobin (category = glucose); systolic/diastolic pressures (category =blood pressure)...
February 2017: Clinical Obesity
Puneeta Tandon, Maitreyi Raman, Marina Mourtzakis, Manuela Merli
Malnutrition is one of the most common complications of cirrhosis, associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. As a potentially modifiable condition, it is of particular importance to identify malnourished patients so that nutritional therapy can be instituted. Nutrition screening and assessment are infrequently performed in patients with cirrhosis. The reasons for this are multifactorial, including the absence of a validated "rapid" screening tool, multiple definitions of what constitutes malnutrition, and challenges with interpreting body composition and laboratory results in the setting of volume overload and liver dysfunction...
December 27, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Kyoohyun Kim, SeoEun Lee, Jonghee Yoon, JiHan Heo, Chulhee Choi, YongKeun Park
Lipid droplets (LDs) are subcellular organelles with important roles in lipid storage and metabolism and involved in various diseases including cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Conventional methods, however, have limited ability to provide quantitative information on individual LDs and have limited capability for three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of LDs in live cells especially for fast acquisition of 3-D dynamics. Here, we present an optical method based on 3-D quantitative phase imaging to measure the 3-D structural distribution and biochemical parameters (concentration and dry mass) of individual LDs in live cells without using exogenous labelling agents...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
Emma D Spikol, Caroline E Laverriere, Maya Robnett, Gabriela Carter, Erin Wolfe, Eric Glasgow
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by an insatiable appetite, leading to chronic overeating and obesity. Additional features include short stature, intellectual disability, behavioral problems and incomplete sexual development. Although significant progress has been made in understanding the genetic basis of PWS, the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of the disorder remain poorly understood. Treatment for PWS consists mainly of palliative therapies; curative therapies are sorely needed...
March 2016: Diseases (Basel)
Jie Zhang, Alan R Light, Charles L Hoppel, Caitlin Campbell, Carol J Chandler, Dustin J Burnett, Elaine C Souza, Gretchen A Casazza, Ronald W Hughen, Nancy L Keim, John W Newman, Gary R Hunter, Jose R Fernandez, W Timothy Garvey, Mary-Ellen Harper, Oliver Fiehn, Sean H Adams
What is the central question of this study? Does improved metabolic health and insulin sensitivity following a weight-loss and fitness intervention in sedentary, obese women alter exercise-associated fuel metabolism and incomplete mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO), as tracked by blood acylcarnitine patterns? What is the main finding and its importance? Despite improved fitness and blood sugar control, indices of incomplete mitochondrial FAO increased in a similar manner in response to a fixed load acute exercise bout; this indicates that intramitochondrial muscle FAO is inherently inefficient and is tethered directly to ATP turnover...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Mari K Hopper, Shana Lynn Moninger
OBJECTIVE: To determine if weight gain is accompanied by development of insulin resistance (IR) during four years in college. PARTICIPANTS: Two cohorts of college students were enrolled in fall semesters 2009 and 2010 and tracked for four years. METHODS: Following a 12-hour fast, subjects reported for measurement of BMI, perceived stress (PSS), aerobic fitness, and blood glucose, insulin, and lipids. RESULTS: In the first year, 33% of subject were overweight or obese, and 20% were hyperinsulinemic...
September 23, 2016: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
Lucia Brodosi, Francesca Marchignoli, Maria Letizia Petroni, Giulio Marchesini
 The role of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, namely nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), as risk factor for liver- and non-liver-related morbidity and mortality has been extensively reported. In addition to lifestyle changes, capable of removing the metabolic factors driving disease progression, there is an urgent need for drugs able to reduce hepatic necroinflammation without worsening of fibrosis. This goal is considered by regulatory agencies as surrogate marker to define the effectiveness in pharmacological compounds in NASH, and fast-track approval was granted by the Food and Drug Administration in consideration of disease severity and unmet medical needs...
September 2016: Annals of Hepatology
Henrik Husted, Christoffer C Jørgensen, Kirill Gromov, Henrik Kehlet
Background and purpose - Body mass index (BMI) outside the normal range possibly affects the perioperative morbidity and mortality following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in traditional care programs. We determined perioperative morbidity and mortality in such patients who were operated with the fast-track methodology and compared the levels with those in patients with normal BMI. Patients and methods - This was a prospective observational study involving 13,730 procedures (7,194 THA and 6,536 TKA operations) performed in a standardized fast-track setting...
October 2016: Acta Orthopaedica
Senthil Selvaraj, Eva E Martinez, Frank G Aguilar, Kwang-Youn A Kim, Jie Peng, Jin Sha, Marguerite R Irvin, Cora E Lewis, Steven C Hunt, Donna K Arnett, Sanjiv J Shah
BACKGROUND: Central obesity, defined by increased waist circumference or waist:hip ratio (WHR), is associated with increased cardiovascular events, including heart failure. However, the pathophysiological link between central obesity and adverse cardiovascular outcomes remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that central obesity and larger WHR are independently associated with worse cardiac mechanics (reduced left ventricular strain and systolic [s'] and early diastolic [e'] tissue velocities)...
June 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Richard C Sadler, Andrew F Clark, Piotr Wilk, Colleen O'Connor, Jason A Gilliland
OBJECTIVES: This study examines the influence of adolescents' exposure to unhealthy food outlets on junk food purchasing during trips between home and school, with particular attention to how exposure and purchasing differ according to child's biological sex, mode of transportation, and direction to or from school. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2013, students (n = 654) aged 9-13 years from 25 schools in London and Middlesex County, ON, completed a socio-demographic survey and an activity diary (to identify food purchases), and were observed via a global positioning system for 2 weeks (to track routes for trips to/from school)...
June 9, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Vincenzo Simonelli, Martine Goergen, Gennaro G Orlando, Luca Arru, Charalampos A Zolotas, Maxim Geeroms, Virginie Poulain, Juan S Azagra
BACKGROUND: Due to the rise in severe obesity in Western countries and the increase in bariatric surgery, enhanced recovery (ER) pathways should be developed and promoted. METHODS: A monocentric prospective series of 103 bariatric surgery patients managed with the ER pathway (group ER) was compared with a retrospective and immediately previous series of 103 patients managed with standard care (group CS). The aim of the present study was to assess and compare the differences in terms of mean postoperative length of stay (LOS), costs for surgery and recovery, and the differences in terms of complications, readmission, and reoperation rate in the short term between the ER and CS groups...
August 2016: Obesity Surgery
Sevda Karimian, Jürgen Stein, Boris Bauer, Claudius Teupe
Obesity is associated with an increased risk of heart failure. Little is known about the impact of dietary changes on the cardiac sequelae in obese patients. Twenty-one obese subjects underwent a 12-week low calorie fasting phase of a formula diet. Transthoracic two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography was performed to obtain systolic left ventricular strain before and after weight loss. Body mass index decreased significantly from 38.6 ± 6.2 to 31.5 ± 5.3 kg/m(2), and the total percentage fat loss was 19%...
2016: Journal of Obesity
Perry Foley, Dori Steinberg, Erica Levine, Sandy Askew, Bryan C Batch, Elaine M Puleo, Laura P Svetkey, Hayden B Bosworth, Abigail DeVries, Heather Miranda, Gary G Bennett
INTRODUCTION: Obesity continues to disproportionately affect medically vulnerable populations. Digital health interventions may be effective for delivering obesity treatment in low-resource primary care settings. METHODS: Track is a 12-month randomized controlled trial of a digital health weight loss intervention in a community health center system. Participants are 351 obese men and women aged 21 to 65years with an obesity-related comorbidity. Track participants are randomized to usual primary care or to a 12-month intervention consisting of algorithm-generated tailored behavior change goals, self-monitoring via mobile technologies, daily self-weighing using a network-connected scale, skills training materials, 18 counseling phone calls with a Track coach, and primary care provider counseling...
May 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Mahmoud Zardast, Kokab Namakin, Tayeb Chahkandi, Fatemeh Taheri, Toba Kazemi, Bita Bijari
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic Syndrome (MS) in children and adolescents is becoming a global public health concern. MS tracks into adulthood increasing the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. This study was designed to verify the rate of MS in elementary school students of Birjand, as a representative sample of Iranian children to verify the best preventive measures in this age group. METHODS: This descriptive-analytical, cross-sectional study was performed on 1425 elementary school children through multiple-cluster sampling in 2013...
2015: Journal of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Research
Leah M Lipsky, Denise L Haynie, Danping Liu, Ashok Chaurasia, Benjamin Gee, Kaigang Li, Ronald J Iannotti, Bruce Simons-Morton
BACKGROUND: Diets of U.S. adolescents and adults do not meet recommendations, increasing risk of chronic disease. This study examined trajectories and predictors of eating behaviors in U.S. youth from age 16-20 years, and evaluated longitudinal associations of eating behaviors with weight outcomes. METHODS: Data come from the first four waves (years) of the NEXT Generation Health Study, a nationally representative cohort of U.S. students in 10(th) grade during the 2009-2010 school year (n = 2785)...
November 4, 2015: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Helena Pelantová, Martina Bugáňová, Jiří Anýž, Blanka Železná, Lenka Maletínská, Daniel Novák, Martin Haluzík, Marek Kuzma
The mouse model of monosodium glutamate induced obesity was used to examine and consequently optimize the strategy for analysis of urine samples by NMR spectroscopy. A set of nineteen easily detectable metabolites typical in obesity-related studies was selected. The impact of urine collection protocol, choice of (1)H NMR pulse sequence, and finally the impact of the normalization method on the detected concentration of selected metabolites were investigated. We demonstrated the crucial effect of food intake and diurnal rhythms resulting in the choice of a 24-hour fasting collection protocol as the most convenient for tracking obesity-induced increased sensitivity to fasting...
November 10, 2015: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Nicole M Templeman, Susanne M Clee, James D Johnson
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Hyperinsulinaemia is associated with obesity but its causal role in the onset of obesity remains controversial. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that transient attenuation of diet-induced insulin hypersecretion in young mice can provide sustained protection against obesity throughout adult life. METHODS: Using 'genetically humanised' mice lacking both alleles of rodent-specific Ins1, we compared mice heterozygous for the ancestral insulin gene Ins2 with Ins2(+/+) controls...
October 2015: Diabetologia
G Appannah, G K Pot, R C Huang, W H Oddy, L J Beilin, T A Mori, S A Jebb, G L Ambrosini
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Energy dense, high fat, low fibre diets may contribute to obesity in young people, however their relationships with other cardiometabolic risk factors are unclear. We examined associations between an 'energy-dense, high-fat and low-fibre' dietary pattern (DP) and cardiometabolic risk factors, and the tracking of this DP in adolescence. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data was sourced from participants in the Western Australian Pregnancy (Raine) Cohort Study...
July 2015: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
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