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Fast track obesity

Jie Zhang, Alan R Light, Charles L Hoppel, Caitlin Campbell, Carol J Chandler, Dustin J Burnett, Elaine C Souza, Gretchen A Casazza, Ronald W Hughen, Nancy L Keim, John W Newman, Gary R Hunter, Jose R Fernandez, W Timothy Garvey, Mary-Ellen Harper, Oliver Fiehn, Sean H Adams
With insulin-resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus, mismatches between mitochondrial fatty acid fuel delivery and oxidative phosphorylation/tricarboxylic acid cycle activity may contribute to inordinate accumulation of short- or medium-chain acylcarnitine fatty acid derivatives (markers of incomplete long-chain fatty acid oxidation [FAO]). We reasoned that incomplete FAO in muscle would be ameliorated concurrent with improved insulin sensitivity and fitness following a ∼14 wk training and weight loss intervention in obese, sedentary, insulin-resistant women...
October 12, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Mari K Hopper, Shana Lynn Moninger
OBJECTIVE: To determine if weight gain is accompanied by development of insulin resistance (IR) during four years in college. PARTICIPANTS: Two cohorts of college students were enrolled in fall semesters 2009 and 2010 and tracked for four years. METHODS: Following a 12-hour fast, subjects reported for measurement of BMI, perceived stress (PSS), aerobic fitness, and blood glucose, insulin, and lipids. RESULTS: In the first year, 33% of subject were overweight or obese, and 20% were hyperinsulinemic...
September 23, 2016: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
Lucia Brodosi, Francesca Marchignoli, Maria Letizia Petroni, Giulio Marchesini
 The role of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, namely nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), as risk factor for liver- and non-liver-related morbidity and mortality has been extensively reported. In addition to lifestyle changes, capable of removing the metabolic factors driving disease progression, there is an urgent need for drugs able to reduce hepatic necroinflammation without worsening of fibrosis. This goal is considered by regulatory agencies as surrogate marker to define the effectiveness in pharmacological compounds in NASH, and fast-track approval was granted by the Food and Drug Administration in consideration of disease severity and unmet medical needs...
September 2016: Annals of Hepatology
Henrik Husted, Christoffer C Jørgensen, Kirill Gromov, Henrik Kehlet
Background and purpose - Body mass index (BMI) outside the normal range possibly affects the perioperative morbidity and mortality following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in traditional care programs. We determined perioperative morbidity and mortality in such patients who were operated with the fast-track methodology and compared the levels with those in patients with normal BMI. Patients and methods - This was a prospective observational study involving 13,730 procedures (7,194 THA and 6,536 TKA operations) performed in a standardized fast-track setting...
October 2016: Acta Orthopaedica
Senthil Selvaraj, Eva E Martinez, Frank G Aguilar, Kwang-Youn A Kim, Jie Peng, Jin Sha, Marguerite R Irvin, Cora E Lewis, Steven C Hunt, Donna K Arnett, Sanjiv J Shah
BACKGROUND: Central obesity, defined by increased waist circumference or waist:hip ratio (WHR), is associated with increased cardiovascular events, including heart failure. However, the pathophysiological link between central obesity and adverse cardiovascular outcomes remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that central obesity and larger WHR are independently associated with worse cardiac mechanics (reduced left ventricular strain and systolic [s'] and early diastolic [e'] tissue velocities)...
June 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Richard C Sadler, Andrew F Clark, Piotr Wilk, Colleen O'Connor, Jason A Gilliland
OBJECTIVES: This study examines the influence of adolescents' exposure to unhealthy food outlets on junk food purchasing during trips between home and school, with particular attention to how exposure and purchasing differ according to child's biological sex, mode of transportation, and direction to or from school. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2013, students (n = 654) aged 9-13 years from 25 schools in London and Middlesex County, ON, completed a socio-demographic survey and an activity diary (to identify food purchases), and were observed via a global positioning system for 2 weeks (to track routes for trips to/from school)...
2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Vincenzo Simonelli, Martine Goergen, Gennaro G Orlando, Luca Arru, Charalampos A Zolotas, Maxim Geeroms, Virginie Poulain, Juan S Azagra
BACKGROUND: Due to the rise in severe obesity in Western countries and the increase in bariatric surgery, enhanced recovery (ER) pathways should be developed and promoted. METHODS: A monocentric prospective series of 103 bariatric surgery patients managed with the ER pathway (group ER) was compared with a retrospective and immediately previous series of 103 patients managed with standard care (group CS). The aim of the present study was to assess and compare the differences in terms of mean postoperative length of stay (LOS), costs for surgery and recovery, and the differences in terms of complications, readmission, and reoperation rate in the short term between the ER and CS groups...
August 2016: Obesity Surgery
Sevda Karimian, Jürgen Stein, Boris Bauer, Claudius Teupe
Obesity is associated with an increased risk of heart failure. Little is known about the impact of dietary changes on the cardiac sequelae in obese patients. Twenty-one obese subjects underwent a 12-week low calorie fasting phase of a formula diet. Transthoracic two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography was performed to obtain systolic left ventricular strain before and after weight loss. Body mass index decreased significantly from 38.6 ± 6.2 to 31.5 ± 5.3 kg/m(2), and the total percentage fat loss was 19%...
2016: Journal of Obesity
Perry Foley, Dori Steinberg, Erica Levine, Sandy Askew, Bryan C Batch, Elaine M Puleo, Laura P Svetkey, Hayden B Bosworth, Abigail DeVries, Heather Miranda, Gary G Bennett
INTRODUCTION: Obesity continues to disproportionately affect medically vulnerable populations. Digital health interventions may be effective for delivering obesity treatment in low-resource primary care settings. METHODS: Track is a 12-month randomized controlled trial of a digital health weight loss intervention in a community health center system. Participants are 351 obese men and women aged 21 to 65years with an obesity-related comorbidity. Track participants are randomized to usual primary care or to a 12-month intervention consisting of algorithm-generated tailored behavior change goals, self-monitoring via mobile technologies, daily self-weighing using a network-connected scale, skills training materials, 18 counseling phone calls with a Track coach, and primary care provider counseling...
May 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Mahmoud Zardast, Kokab Namakin, Tayeb Chahkandi, Fatemeh Taheri, Toba Kazemi, Bita Bijari
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic Syndrome (MS) in children and adolescents is becoming a global public health concern. MS tracks into adulthood increasing the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. This study was designed to verify the rate of MS in elementary school students of Birjand, as a representative sample of Iranian children to verify the best preventive measures in this age group. METHODS: This descriptive-analytical, cross-sectional study was performed on 1425 elementary school children through multiple-cluster sampling in 2013...
2015: Journal of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Research
Leah M Lipsky, Denise L Haynie, Danping Liu, Ashok Chaurasia, Benjamin Gee, Kaigang Li, Ronald J Iannotti, Bruce Simons-Morton
BACKGROUND: Diets of U.S. adolescents and adults do not meet recommendations, increasing risk of chronic disease. This study examined trajectories and predictors of eating behaviors in U.S. youth from age 16-20 years, and evaluated longitudinal associations of eating behaviors with weight outcomes. METHODS: Data come from the first four waves (years) of the NEXT Generation Health Study, a nationally representative cohort of U.S. students in 10(th) grade during the 2009-2010 school year (n = 2785)...
November 4, 2015: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Helena Pelantová, Martina Bugáňová, Jiří Anýž, Blanka Železná, Lenka Maletínská, Daniel Novák, Martin Haluzík, Marek Kuzma
The mouse model of monosodium glutamate induced obesity was used to examine and consequently optimize the strategy for analysis of urine samples by NMR spectroscopy. A set of nineteen easily detectable metabolites typical in obesity-related studies was selected. The impact of urine collection protocol, choice of (1)H NMR pulse sequence, and finally the impact of the normalization method on the detected concentration of selected metabolites were investigated. We demonstrated the crucial effect of food intake and diurnal rhythms resulting in the choice of a 24-hour fasting collection protocol as the most convenient for tracking obesity-induced increased sensitivity to fasting...
November 10, 2015: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Nicole M Templeman, Susanne M Clee, James D Johnson
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Hyperinsulinaemia is associated with obesity but its causal role in the onset of obesity remains controversial. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that transient attenuation of diet-induced insulin hypersecretion in young mice can provide sustained protection against obesity throughout adult life. METHODS: Using 'genetically humanised' mice lacking both alleles of rodent-specific Ins1, we compared mice heterozygous for the ancestral insulin gene Ins2 with Ins2(+/+) controls...
October 2015: Diabetologia
G Appannah, G K Pot, R C Huang, W H Oddy, L J Beilin, T A Mori, S A Jebb, G L Ambrosini
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Energy dense, high fat, low fibre diets may contribute to obesity in young people, however their relationships with other cardiometabolic risk factors are unclear. We examined associations between an 'energy-dense, high-fat and low-fibre' dietary pattern (DP) and cardiometabolic risk factors, and the tracking of this DP in adolescence. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data was sourced from participants in the Western Australian Pregnancy (Raine) Cohort Study...
July 2015: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Clinton M Hasenour, Martha L Wall, D Emerson Ridley, Curtis C Hughey, Freyja D James, David H Wasserman, Jamey D Young
Mouse models designed to examine hepatic metabolism are critical to diabetes and obesity research. Thus, a microscale method to quantitatively assess hepatic glucose and intermediary metabolism in conscious, unrestrained mice was developed. [(13)C3]propionate, [(2)H2]water, and [6,6-(2)H2]glucose isotopes were delivered intravenously in short- (9 h) and long-term-fasted (19 h) C57BL/6J mice. GC-MS and mass isotopomer distribution (MID) analysis were performed on three 40-μl arterial plasma glucose samples obtained during the euglycemic isotopic steady state...
July 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Michal Ciborowski, Edyta Adamska, Magdalena Rusak, Joanna Godzien, Juliusz Wilk, Anna Citko, Witold Bauer, Maria Gorska, Adam Kretowski
Development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is preceded by insulin resistance (IR), which may evolve to impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). IFG and IGT are considered as prediabetic states (PD). Prediabetes indicates the high risk for the future development of diabetes, it is estimated that up to 70% of prediabetics eventually develop T2DM. The risk of T2DM development is increased in overweight (OW) and obese (OB) people; however normal weight (NW) individuals also suffer from T2DM...
May 12, 2015: Electrophoresis
Niamh Daly, Mary Stapleton, Ruth O'Kelly, Brendan Kinsley, Sean Daly, Michael J Turner
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this prospective observational study was to determine whether the preanalytical management of maternal plasma glucose samples had a significant effect on glucose measurements in obese pregnant women. STUDY DESIGN: Based on the accurate calculation of body mass index in the first trimester, obese women were recruited at their convenience. In 1 cohort, fasting glucose level was measured in early pregnancy; in the other cohort, an oral glucose tolerance test was performed at 24-28 weeks' gestation...
July 2015: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
J L Miles-Chan, A G Dulloo, Y Schutz
Indirect calorimetry, the measurement of O₂ consumption and CO₂ production, constitutes an invaluable tool as the most common method for analyzing whole-body energy expenditure, and also provides an index of the nature of macronutrient substrate oxidation--namely, carbohydrate (CHO) versus fat oxidation. The latter constitutes a key etiological factor in obesity as this condition can only develop when total fat oxidation is chronically lower than total exogenous fat intake. The standardization of indirect calorimetry measurements is essential for accurately tracking the relative proportion of energy expenditure derived from CHO and fat oxidation...
July 2015: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Aura A Sanchez, Philip T Levy, Timothy J Sekarski, Ana M Arbelaez, Charles F Hildebolt, Mark R Holland, Gautam K Singh
OBJECTIVES: To test our hypothesis that obese adolescents have left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and remodeling that are associated with markers of cardiovascular risk and insulin resistance (IR). STUDY DESIGN: In a cross-sectional study of 44 obese and 14 lean age-, sex-, Tanner stage-, and race-matched adolescents, IR, markers of cardiovascular risks, conventional and 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography measures of LV function and structure were evaluated and compared...
March 2015: Journal of Pediatrics
Mariane Marques da Silva, Priscilla Campos Sala, Raquel Suzana Matos de Miranda Torrinhas, Dan Linetzky Waitzberg
BACKGROUND: Nutritional and food intake assessments before and after bariatric surgery may be important to correct eating habits and nutritional deficiencies. AIM: To assess the efficiency of the 24-hour food recall (24hR) form as a fast method for assessing nutrient intake before and after a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). METHODS: This study analyzed data from 10 obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Food intake (calories, macronutrients, and micronutrients) before and 3 months after RYGB were assessed with the 24hR as well as the seven-day food record (7dR) as the gold standard reference...
2014: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
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