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Molecular Biosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425189/the-global-ethics-corner-foundations-beliefs-and-the-teaching-of-biomedical-and-scientific-ethics-around-the-world
#1
Henry Jakubowski, Jianping Xie, Arup Kumar Mitra, Ravindra Ghooi, Saman Hosseinkhani, Mohsen Alipour, Behnam Hajipour, George Obiero
The profound advances in the biomolecular sciences over the last decades have enabled similar advances in biomedicine. These advances have increasingly challenged our abilities to deploy them in an equitable and ethically acceptable manner. As such, it has become necessary and important to teach biomedical and scientific ethics to our students who will become the researchers, medical professionals, and global citizens of the future. As advances in the biosciences and medicine are made, developed, and used across the globe, our survival on an endangered planet requires global dialog and consensual action...
April 19, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376551/effects-of-shrna-targeting-maspin-on-the-invasion-of-extravillous-trophoblast-cell
#2
Xinwei Shi, Qing Liu, Hao Liu, Dongrui Deng, Fuyuan Qiao, Yuanyuan Wu
Objective Hypomethylation of the maspin gene results in increased expression of maspin in preeclamptic placentas. However, maspin gene function and the molecular aspects in placentation remain largely unclear. The study was designed to investigate the effects of maspin on the invasion of extravillous trophoblast cell line (TEV-1) and the molecular mechanism. Study Design We cloned short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting maspin gene into plasmid pGenesil-1.1 eukaryotic expression vector and then transfected it using adenovirus...
April 4, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373483/single-molecule-sequencing-resolves-the-detailed-structure-of-complex-satellite-dna-loci-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#3
Daniel E Khost, Danna G Eickbush, Amanda M Larracuente
Highly repetitive satellite DNA (satDNA) repeats are found in most eukaryotic genomes. SatDNAs are rapidly evolving and have roles in genome stability and chromosome segregation. Their repetitive nature poses a challenge for genome assembly and makes progress on the detailed study of satDNA structure difficult. Here, we use single-molecule sequencing long reads from Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) to determine the detailed structure of all major autosomal complex satDNA loci in Drosophila melanogaster, with a particular focus on the 260-bp and Responder satellites...
April 3, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351419/new-var-reconstruction-algorithm-exposes-high-var-sequence-diversity-in-a-single-geographic-location-in-mali
#4
Antoine Dara, Elliott F Drábek, Mark A Travassos, Kara A Moser, Arthur L Delcher, Qi Su, Timothy Hostelley, Drissa Coulibaly, Modibo Daou, Ahmadou Dembele, Issa Diarra, Abdoulaye K Kone, Bourema Kouriba, Matthew B Laurens, Amadou Niangaly, Karim Traore, Youssouf Tolo, Claire M Fraser, Mahamadou A Thera, Abdoulaye A Djimde, Ogobara K Doumbo, Christopher V Plowe, Joana C Silva
BACKGROUND: Encoded by the var gene family, highly variable Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP1) proteins mediate tissue-specific cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes, resulting in immune evasion and severe malaria disease. Sequencing and assembling the 40-60 var gene complement for individual infections has been notoriously difficult, impeding molecular epidemiological studies and the assessment of particular var elements as subunit vaccine candidates. METHODS: We developed and validated a novel algorithm, Exon-Targeted Hybrid Assembly (ETHA), to perform targeted assembly of var gene sequences, based on a combination of Pacific Biosciences and Illumina data...
March 28, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243563/comparison-of-four-functionalization-methods-of-gold-nanoparticles-for-enhancing-the-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-elisa
#5
Paula Ciaurriz, Fátima Fernández, Edurne Tellechea, Jose F Moran, Aaron C Asensio
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique is based on the specific recognition ability of the molecular structure of an antigen (epitope) by an antibody and is likely the most important diagnostic technique used today in bioscience. With this methodology, it is possible to diagnose illness, allergies, alimentary fraud, and even to detect small molecules such as toxins, pesticides, heavy metals, etc. For this reason, any procedures that improve the detection limit, sensitivity or reduce the analysis time could have an important impact in several fields...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118705/europium-doped-gd2o3-nanotubes-increase-bone-mineral-density-in-vivo-and-promote-mineralization-in-vitro
#6
Huifang Liu, Yi Jin, Kun Ge, Guang Jia, Zhenhua Li, Xinjian Yang, Shizhu Chen, Min Ge, Wentong Sun, Dandan Liu, Jinchao Zhang
Europium-doped Gd2O3 nanotubes (Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NTs) have been extensively applied in the field of bioscience for their photostability and magnetic properties. Nevertheless, the distribution and interaction between Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NTs and metabolism of bone are not yet sufficiently understood. In this study, a systematic study of the toxicity and distribution of Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NTs in mice after oral administration was carried out. The results showed that a small number of the Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NTs could pass through biological barriers into the lung, liver, and spleen, but a high concentration was observed in bone...
February 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052061/integrated-genomic-characterization-of-oesophageal-carcinoma
#7
(no author information available yet)
Oesophageal cancers are prominent worldwide; however, there are few targeted therapies and survival rates for these cancers remain dismal. Here we performed a comprehensive molecular analysis of 164 carcinomas of the oesophagus derived from Western and Eastern populations. Beyond known histopathological and epidemiologic distinctions, molecular features differentiated oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas from oesophageal adenocarcinomas. Oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas resembled squamous carcinomas of other organs more than they did oesophageal adenocarcinomas...
January 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027822/semaphorin-4d-enhances-angiogenic-potential-and-suppresses-osteo-odontogenic-differentiation-of-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells
#8
Ting Zou, Waruna Lakmal Dissanayaka, Shan Jiang, Shuai Wang, Boon Chin Heng, Xiaojing Huang, Chengfei Zhang
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the roles of semaphorin 4D (Sema4D)/plexin-B1 signaling on the angiogenic potential and osteo-/odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and to uncover the corresponding molecular mechanisms. METHODS: DPSCs were treated with Sema4D (10 μg/mL) for different time durations. Osteo-/odontogenic differentiation was assessed by quantifying alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralized nodule formation, and osteo-/odontogenic gene (ALP, Col1A1, BSP, RUNX2, and DSPP) and protein (Col1A1 and DSPP) expression...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885180/-mechano-bioscience-in-heart-disease-and-regenerative-medicine
#9
Shota Kurotsu, Masaki Ieda
During cardiac development and maturation, the heart continuously receives hemodynamic stimuli, referred to mechanical stress. Mechanical stress governs both cardiac development and differentiation, and also plays an important role in the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. Indeed, cardiac hypertrophic changes emerge as a result of adaptation to mechanical overload. However, it is difficult to measure the mechanical stress precisely. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms of hemodynamics-related diseases are minimally understood...
2016: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879115/preface
#10
Avner Friedman, Mirosław Lachowicz, Urszula Ledzewicz, Monika Joanna Piotrowska, Zuzanna Szymanska
This volume was inspired by the topics presented at the international conference "Micro and Macro Systems in Life Sciences" which was held on Jun 8-12, 2015 in Będlewo, Poland. System biology is an approach which tries to understand how micro systems, at the molecular and cellular levels, affect macro systems such as organs, tissue and populations. Thus it is not surprising that a major theme of this volume evolves around cancer and its treatment. Articles on this topic include models for tumor induced angiogenesis, without and with delays, metastatic niche of the bone marrow, drug resistance and metronomic chemotherapy, and virotherapy of glioma...
February 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873457/using-yeast-to-determine-the-functional-consequences-of-mutations-in-the-human-p53-tumor-suppressor-gene-an-introductory-course-based-undergraduate-research-experience-in-molecular-and-cell-biology
#11
Daria S Hekmat-Scafe, Sara E Brownell, Patricia Chandler Seawell, Shyamala Malladi, Jamie F Conklin Imam, Veena Singla, Nicole Bradon, Martha S Cyert, Tim Stearns
The opportunity to engage in scientific research is an important, but often neglected, component of undergraduate training in biology. We describe the curriculum for an innovative, course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE) appropriate for a large, introductory cell and molecular biology laboratory class that leverages students' high level of interest in cancer. The course is highly collaborative and emphasizes the analysis and interpretation of original scientific data. During the course, students work in teams to characterize a collection of mutations in the human p53 tumor suppressor gene via expression and analysis in yeast...
November 22, 2016: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800559/striking-plasticity-of-crispr-cas9-and-key-role-of-non-target-dna-as-revealed-by-molecular-simulations
#12
Giulia Palermo, Yinglong Miao, Ross C Walker, Martin Jinek, J Andrew McCammon
The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas9 system recently emerged as a transformative genome-editing technology that is innovating basic bioscience and applied medicine and biotechnology. The endonuclease Cas9 associates with a guide RNA to match and cleave complementary sequences in double stranded DNA, forming an RNA:DNA hybrid and a displaced non-target DNA strand. Although extensive structural studies are ongoing, the conformational dynamics of Cas9 and its interplay with the nucleic acids during association and DNA cleavage are largely unclear...
October 26, 2016: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732786/effect-of-heat-stress-on-reproduction-in-dairy-cows-insights-into-the-cellular-and-molecular-responses-of-the-oocyte
#13
Zvi Roth
Among the components of the female reproductive tract, the ovarian pool of follicles and their enclosed oocytes are highly sensitive to hyperthermia. Heat-induced alterations in small antral follicles can be expressed later as compromised maturation and developmental capacity of the ovulating oocyte. This review summarizes the most up-to-date information on the effects of heat stress on the oocyte with an emphasis on unclear points and open questions, some of which might involve new research directions, for instance, whether preantral follicles are heat resistant...
February 8, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725630/a-quantum-spin-probe-molecular-microscope
#14
V S Perunicic, C D Hill, L T Hall, L C L Hollenberg
Imaging the atomic structure of a single biomolecule is an important challenge in the physical biosciences. Whilst existing techniques all rely on averaging over large ensembles of molecules, the single-molecule realm remains unsolved. Here we present a protocol for 3D magnetic resonance imaging of a single molecule using a quantum spin probe acting simultaneously as the magnetic resonance sensor and source of magnetic field gradient. Signals corresponding to specific regions of the molecule's nuclear spin density are encoded on the quantum state of the probe, which is used to produce a 3D image of the molecular structure...
October 11, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723324/plasmonically-engineered-nanoprobes-for-biomedical-applications
#15
Amit Kumar, Sungi Kim, Jwa-Min Nam
The localized surface plasmon resonance of metal nanoparticles is the collective oscillation of electrons on particle surface, induced by incident light, and is a particle composition-, morphology-, and coupling-dependent property. Plasmonic engineering deals with highly precise formation of the targeted nanostructures with targeted plasmonic properties (e.g., electromagnetic field distribution and enhancement) via controlled synthetic, assembling, and atomic/molecular tuning strategies. These plasmonically engineered nanoprobes (PENs) have a variety of unique and beneficial physical, chemical, and biological properties, including optical signal enhancement, catalytic, and local temperature-tuning photothermal properties...
November 9, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718149/the-topology-prediction-of-membrane-proteins-a-web-based-tutorial
#16
Cagin Kandemir-Cavas, Levent Cavas, Hakan Alyuruk
There is a great need for development of educational materials on the transfer of current bioinformatics knowledge to undergraduate students in bioscience departments. In this study, it is aimed to prepare an example in silico laboratory tutorial on the topology prediction of membrane proteins by bioinformatics tools. This laboratory tutorial is prepared for biochemistry lessons at bioscience departments (biology, chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics, and faculty of medicine). The tutorial is intended for students who have not taken a bioinformatics course yet or already have taken a course as an introduction to bioinformatics...
October 7, 2016: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714207/synthesis-of-rotaxanes-and-catenanes-using-an-imine-clipping-reaction
#17
Xie Han, Guotao Liu, Sheng Hua Liu, Jun Yin
Supramolecular chemistry and self-assembly provide a valuable chance to understand the complicated topological structures on a molecular level. Two types of classical mechanically interlocked molecules, rotaxanes and catenanes, possess non-covalent mechanical bonds and have attracted more attention not only in supramolecular chemistry but also in the fields of materials science, nanotechnology and bioscience. In the past decades, the template-directed clipping reaction based on imine chemistry has become one of the most efficient methods for the construction of functionalized rotaxanes and catenanes...
September 20, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663837/development-and-validation-of-a-novel-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-snp-panel-for-genetic-analysis-of-blastomyces-spp-and-association-analysis
#18
Holly M Frost, Jennifer L Anderson, Lynn Ivacic, Brian L Sloss, John Embil, Jennifer K Meece
BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is increasingly being utilized for molecular typing of pathogens and is cost-effective, especially for large numbers of isolates. The goals of this study were 1) to develop and validate a SNP assay panel for genetic analysis of Blastomyces spp., 2) ascertain whether microsatellite genotyping and the SNP genotyping with the developed panel resolve identical genetic groups, and 3) explore the utility of SNPs for examining phylogenetic and virulence questions in humans...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580277/exploring-the-potential-of-laser-capture-microdissection-technology-in-integrated-oral-biosciences
#19
A Thennavan, M Sharma, C Chandrashekar, K Hunter, R Radhakrishnan
Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a high-end research and diagnostic technology that helps in obtaining pure cell populations for the purpose of cell- or lesion-specific genomic and proteomic analysis. Literature search on the application of LCM in oral tissues was made through PubMed. There is ample evidence to substantiate the utility of LCM in understanding the underlying molecular mechanism involving an array of oral physiological and pathological processes, including odontogenesis, taste perception, eruptive tooth movement, oral microbes, and cancers of the mouth and jaw tumors...
August 31, 2016: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493701/flow-of-dna-in-micro-nanofluidics-from-fundamentals-to-applications
#20
REVIEW
Lea Rems, Durgesh Kawale, L James Lee, Pouyan E Boukany
Thanks to direct observation and manipulation of DNA in micro/nanofluidic devices, we are now able to elucidate the relationship between the polymer microstructure and its rheological properties, as well as to design new single-molecule platforms for biophysics and biomedicine. This allows exploration of many new mechanisms and phenomena, which were previously unachievable with conventional methods such as bulk rheometry tests. For instance, the field of polymer rheology is at a turning point to relate the complex molecular conformations to the nonlinear viscoelasticity of polymeric fluids (such as coil-stretch transition, shear thinning, and stress overshoot in startup shear)...
July 2016: Biomicrofluidics
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