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Molecular Biosciences

Zvi Roth
Among the components of the female reproductive tract, the ovarian pool of follicles and their enclosed oocytes are highly sensitive to hyperthermia. Heat-induced alterations in small antral follicles can be expressed later as compromised maturation and developmental capacity of the ovulating oocyte. This review summarizes the most up-to-date information on the effects of heat stress on the oocyte with an emphasis on unclear points and open questions, some of which might involve new research directions, for instance, whether preantral follicles are heat resistant...
October 12, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
V S Perunicic, C D Hill, L T Hall, L C L Hollenberg
Imaging the atomic structure of a single biomolecule is an important challenge in the physical biosciences. Whilst existing techniques all rely on averaging over large ensembles of molecules, the single-molecule realm remains unsolved. Here we present a protocol for 3D magnetic resonance imaging of a single molecule using a quantum spin probe acting simultaneously as the magnetic resonance sensor and source of magnetic field gradient. Signals corresponding to specific regions of the molecule's nuclear spin density are encoded on the quantum state of the probe, which is used to produce a 3D image of the molecular structure...
October 11, 2016: Nature Communications
Amit Kumar, Sungi Kim, Jwa-Min Nam
The localized surface plasmon resonance of metal nanopar-ticles is the collective oscillation of electrons on particle surface, and is a particle composition, morphology and cou-pling-dependent property. Plasmonic engineering deals with highly precise formation of the targeted nanostructures with targeted plasmonic properties (e.g., electromagnetic field distribution and enhancement) via controlled synthetic, assembling and atomic/molecular tuning strategies. These plasmonically engineered nanostructures (PENs) have a variety of unique and beneficial physical, chemical and bio-logical properties including optical signal enhancement, catalytic property and local temperature-tuning photother-mal property...
October 10, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Cagin Kandemir-Cavas, Levent Cavas, Hakan Alyuruk
There is a great need for development of educational materials on the transfer of current bioinformatics knowledge to undergraduate students in bioscience departments. In this study, it is aimed to prepare an example in silico laboratory tutorial on the topology prediction of membrane proteins by bioinformatics tools. This laboratory tutorial is prepared for biochemistry lessons at bioscience departments (biology, chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics, and faculty of medicine). The tutorial is intended for students who have not taken a bioinformatics course yet or already have taken a course as an introduction to bioinformatics...
October 7, 2016: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
Xie Han, Guotao Liu, Sheng Hua Liu, Jun Yin
Supramolecular chemistry and self-assembly provide a valuable chance to understand the complicated topological structures on a molecular level. Two types of classical mechanically interlocked molecules, rotaxanes and catenanes, possess non-covalent mechanical bonds and have attracted more attention not only in supramolecular chemistry but also in the fields of materials science, nanotechnology and bioscience. In the past decades, the template-directed clipping reaction based on imine chemistry has become one of the most efficient methods for the construction of functionalized rotaxanes and catenanes...
September 20, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Holly M Frost, Jennifer L Anderson, Lynn Ivacic, Brian L Sloss, John Embil, Jennifer K Meece
BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is increasingly being utilized for molecular typing of pathogens and is cost-effective, especially for large numbers of isolates. The goals of this study were 1) to develop and validate a SNP assay panel for genetic analysis of Blastomyces spp., 2) ascertain whether microsatellite genotyping and the SNP genotyping with the developed panel resolve identical genetic groups, and 3) explore the utility of SNPs for examining phylogenetic and virulence questions in humans...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
A Thennavan, M Sharma, C Chandrashekar, K Hunter, R Radhakrishnan
Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a high-end research and diagnostic technology that helps in obtaining pure cell populations for the purpose of cell- or lesion-specific genomic and proteomic analysis. Literature search on the application of LCM in oral tissues was made through PubMed. There is ample evidence to substantiate the utility of LCM in understanding the underlying molecular mechanism involving an array of oral physiological and pathological processes, including odontogenesis, taste perception, eruptive tooth movement, oral microbes, and cancers of the mouth and jaw tumors...
August 31, 2016: Oral Diseases
Lea Rems, Durgesh Kawale, L James Lee, Pouyan E Boukany
Thanks to direct observation and manipulation of DNA in micro/nanofluidic devices, we are now able to elucidate the relationship between the polymer microstructure and its rheological properties, as well as to design new single-molecule platforms for biophysics and biomedicine. This allows exploration of many new mechanisms and phenomena, which were previously unachievable with conventional methods such as bulk rheometry tests. For instance, the field of polymer rheology is at a turning point to relate the complex molecular conformations to the nonlinear viscoelasticity of polymeric fluids (such as coil-stretch transition, shear thinning, and stress overshoot in startup shear)...
July 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Daniel R Dries, Diane M Dean, Laura L Listenberger, Walter R P Novak, Margaret A Franzen, Paul A Craig
A thorough understanding of the molecular biosciences requires the ability to visualize and manipulate molecules in order to interpret results or to generate hypotheses. While many instructors in biochemistry and molecular biology use visual representations, few indicate that they explicitly teach visual literacy. One reason is the need for a list of core content and competencies to guide a more deliberate instruction in visual literacy. We offer here the second stage in the development of one such resource for biomolecular three-dimensional visual literacy...
August 3, 2016: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
Chi-Chih Kang, Kevin A Yamauchi, Julea Vlassakis, Elly Sinkala, Todd A Duncombe, Amy E Herr
This protocol describes how to perform western blotting on individual cells to measure cell-to-cell variation in protein expression levels and protein state. Like conventional western blotting, single-cell western blotting (scWB) is particularly useful for protein targets that lack selective antibodies (e.g., isoforms) and in cases in which background signal from intact cells is confounding. scWB is performed on a microdevice that comprises an array of microwells molded in a thin layer of a polyacrylamide gel (PAG)...
August 2016: Nature Protocols
Saeed A Al-Harti
Species-specific PCR techniques are highly sensitive and reliable alternatives to classical methods for malaria diagnosis and speciation, especially in endemic regions under advanced control or elimination programs where asymptomatic and low-density infections are increasingly reported. Nevertheless, the performance of these techniques is directly affected by the quality of isolated DNA templates. A Plasmodium falciparum/vivax-specific diagnostic Nested-PCR (Pƒ/Pv N-PCR) was used to assess three DNA preparation methods, Qiagen® Mini-Chromatographic kit (QIAmp®) and Jena-Biosciences® DNA isolation kit (JB®) for genomic DNA extraction from EDTA-preserved whole blood samples, and Whatman-FTA® purification reagent (FTA®) for DNA preparation from dry blood spots (DBS) collected onto FTA®- cards...
April 2016: Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology
Berk Ekmekci, Charles E McAnany, Cameron Mura
Computing has revolutionized the biological sciences over the past several decades, such that virtually all contemporary research in molecular biology, biochemistry, and other biosciences utilizes computer programs. The computational advances have come on many fronts, spurred by fundamental developments in hardware, software, and algorithms. These advances have influenced, and even engendered, a phenomenal array of bioscience fields, including molecular evolution and bioinformatics; genome-, proteome-, transcriptome- and metabolome-wide experimental studies; structural genomics; and atomistic simulations of cellular-scale molecular assemblies as large as ribosomes and intact viruses...
June 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Byung-Whi Kong, Kentu Lassiter, Alissa Piekarski-Welsher, Sami Dridi, Antonio Reverter-Gomez, Nicholas James Hudson, Walter Gay Bottje
As feed represents 60 to 70% of the cost of raising an animal to market weight, feed efficiency (the amount of dry weight intake to amount of wet weight gain) remains an important genetic trait in animal agriculture. To gain greater understanding of cellular mechanisms of feed efficiency (FE), shotgun proteomics was conducted using in-gel trypsin digestion and tandem mass spectrometry on breast muscle samples obtained from pedigree male (PedM) broilers exhibiting high feed efficiency (FE) or low FE phenotypes (n = 4 per group)...
2016: PloS One
Elizabeth Wolffe
Sangamo BioSciences, Inc., (CA, USA) is the pioneer and leader in the next phase of molecular medicine; genome editing. The company's proprietary platform is based on a human DNA-binding motif, the zinc finger DNA-binding protein (ZFP). Sangamo engineers ZFPs to bind to virtually any DNA sequence with exquisite specificity, making the platform uniquely suitable for therapeutic applications. Zinc finger nucleases can be designed to enable therapeutic genome editing, to knockout a gene or add a DNA sequence to an investigator-chosen site in the genome...
June 2016: Regenerative Medicine
Matthew L Faron, Nathan A Ledeboer, Anami Patel, Safedin H Beqa, Belinda Yen-Lieberman, Debra Kohn, Amy L Leber, Donna Mayne, William I Northern, Blake W Buchan
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) causes acute and relapsing symptoms characterized by ulcerative lesions. Laboratory diagnosis of HSV in cutaneous or mucocutaneous lesions has historically been performed with the use of viral cell culture systems; however, these tests are laborious and suffer decreased sensitivity for advanced-stage lesions. The recent availability of FDA-cleared moderately complex assays has resulted in the increased use of molecular diagnostics for the routine detection of HSV in superficial swab specimens...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Shao-Yen Chen, Yih-Ru Chu, Chen-Yung Lin, Tzen-Yuh Chiang
Modern biotechnology is one of the most important scientific and technological revolutions in the 21st century, with an increasing and measurable impact on society. Development of biotechnology curriculum has become important to high school bioscience classrooms. This study has monitored high school students in Taiwan on their knowledge of and attitudes towards biotechnology for nearly two decades. Not surprisingly, knowledge of biotechnology of current students has increased significantly (p < 0.001) and most students have learned some definitions and examples of biotechnology...
September 10, 2016: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
Shonda A Foster, Baojin Zhu, Jiaying Guo, Enkeleida Nikai, Clement Ojeh, William Malatestinic, Orin Goldblum, Lori J Kornberg, Jashin J Wu
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic, incurable, and immune-mediated skin disorder that is characterized by erythematous scaly papules and plaques. Understanding of psoriasis at the molecular level has led to the development of biologic agents that target disease-specific inflammatory mediators in psoriatic lesions. Biologic agents have become important components of the psoriasis armamentarium, but some patients become refractory to these agents over time or fail to respond to subsequent biologics...
April 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
H B Mahesh, Meghana Deepak Shirke, Siddarth Singh, Anantharamanan Rajamani, Shailaja Hittalmani, Guo-Liang Wang, Malali Gowda
BACKGROUND: Rice is a major staple food crop in the world. Over 80% of rice cultivation area is under indica rice. Currently, genomic resources are lacking for indica as compared to japonica rice. In this study, we generated deep-sequencing data (Illumina and Pacific Biosciences sequencing) for one of the indica rice cultivars, HR-12 from India. RESULTS: We assembled over 86% (389 Mb) of rice genome and annotated 56,284 protein-coding genes from HR-12 genome using Illumina and PacBio sequencing...
2016: BMC Genomics
Francesca Wirth, Graziella Zahra, Robert G Xuereb, Christopher Barbara, Albert Fenech, Lilian M Azzopardi
BACKGROUND: A quick CYP2C19*2 genotyping assay can be useful in personalised antiplatelet-therapy. OBJECTIVE: To apply a rapid point-of-care (POC) CYP2C19*2 genotyping assay for personalisation of antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and to compare this POC assay to two laboratory-based CYP2C19*2 genotyping assays. SETTING: Cardiac Catheterisation Suite and Molecular Diagnostics Unit in a general hospital...
April 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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