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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550779/pathways-in-bacterial-and-archaeal-communities-dictated-by-ammonium-stress-in-a-high-solid-anaerobic-digester-with-dewatered-sludge
#1
Ning Li, Jin He, Han Yan, Sisi Chen, Xiaohu Dai
Metagenomic comparisons of microbial profiles were conducted to investigate differences between the samples from steady (Day 42), ammonium-adjusting (Day 63), and ammonium-stressed (Day 102) periods during the 110-day operation of a high solid anaerobic digester of sewage sludge. Comparing to the steady period, biogas production was slightly inhibited after ammonium adjustment, during which the microbes showed higher abundance in 6 of the total 22 ammonium-related genes. In addition, among the 19 amino-acid-related genes, 9 genes involved in amino acid generation and utilization were reduced, which partially revealed the reason of deterioration of volatile solids (VSs) degradation following ammonium stress...
May 18, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550775/ultrasound-assisted-alkaline-pretreatment-for-enhancing-the-enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-rice-straw-by-using-the-heat-energy-dissipated-from-ultrasonication
#2
Han Wu, Xiao Dai, Si-Li Zhou, Yu-Yan Gan, Zi-Yao Xiong, Yuan-Hang Qin, Jiayu Ma, Li Yang, Zai-Kun Wu, Tie-Lin Wang, Wei-Guo Wang, Cun-Wen Wang
Rice straw samples were exposed to ultrasound-assisted alkaline (NaOH) pretreatment by using the heat energy dissipated from ultrasonication to increase their enzymatic digestibility for saccharification. The characterization shows that the pretreatment could selectively remove lignin and hemicellulose without degrading cellulose, and increase porosity and surface area of rice straw. The porosity, surface area and cellulose content of rice straw increased with the increasing concentration of NaOH used. The rice straw sample pretreated by using the heat energy dissipated from ultrasonication has a higher surface area and a lower crystallinity index value than that pretreated by using the external source of heating, and the amount of reducing sugar released from the former sample at 48h of enzymatic saccharification, which is about 3...
May 17, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550677/mineral-profile-of-children-s-fast-food-menu-samples
#3
Maria Luisa Cervera, Miguel de la Guardia, Manuela Ruiz-de-Cenzano, Arancha Rochina-Marco, Óscar López-Salazar
Children's fast food menus, including hamburgers served with french fries, dessert, and a soft drink, were analyzed to obtain the mineral profile of trace elements. The developed analytical methodology involved sample digestion under pressure inside a microwave oven with a mixture of HNO₃ and H₂O₂ and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The method was validated by carrying out the analysis of certified reference materials (NIST 1570a spinach leaves, NCS ZC73016 chicken, and NIST 1568a rice flour) and using recovery experiments...
May 26, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550670/-analysis-of-the-risk-factors-for-postoperative-cervical-anastomotic-leakage-after-mckeown-s-esophagectomy
#4
G F Zhao, K P Zhang, S G Gao, J W Mu, Y S Mao, D L Wang, Y S Gao, F Lyu, L Zhao, Q Xue
Objective: To analyze risk factors of anastomotic leakage after McKeown'sesophagectomy. Methods: The clinical data of 635 esophageal cancer patients, who underwent McKeown's esophagectomy at Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from January 2012 to December 2015, were retrospectively analyzed. The risk factors of cervical anastomotic leakage were identified through analysis of medical history, surgical procedure, tumor characteristics and vascular calcification. Results: Among all the 635 patients, anastomotic leakage occurred in 111 (17...
April 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550646/distribution-of-naturally-occurring-norovirus-genogroups-i-ii-and-iv-in-oyster-tissues
#5
Taruta Lowmoung, Kannika Pombubpa, Teerapong Duangdee, Mathuros Tipayamongkholgul, Leera Kittigul
This study evaluated different tissues of naturally contaminated oysters (Crassostrea belcheri) for the presence of noroviruses. RNA from digestive tissues, gills, and mantle of the oysters was extracted and tested for norovirus genogroup (G) I, GII, and GIV using RT-nested PCR. In spiking experiments with a known norovirus, GII.4, the detection limits were 2.97 × 10(2) RNA copies/g of digestive tissues, 2.62 × 10(2) RNA copies/g of gills, and 1.61 × 10(3) RNA copies/g of mantle. A total of 85 oyster samples were collected from a fresh market in Bangkok, Thailand...
May 26, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550593/impact-of-black-soldier-fly-larval-meal-on-growth-performance-apparent-digestibility-haematological-and-blood-chemistry-indices-of-guinea-fowl-starter-keets-under-tropical-conditions
#6
P A Wallace, J K Nyameasem, G A Adu-Aboagye, S Affedzie-Obresi, E K Nkegbe, N Karbo, F Murray, W Leschen, P -O Maquart
In order to assess the impact of larval meal on guinea fowl, six iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets were fed to day-old-keets ad libitum till 8 weeks of age. Water was also freely provided. The fishmeal (FM) component of the experimental diets was replaced with black soldier fly larval meal (BSFLM) in the following percentage ratios of 0-100%. Results showed that body weight gain significantly (P < 0.05) increased in all the BSFLM treatment groups compared to the control group. The final body weight of the birds at age 8 weeks differed significantly (P < 0...
May 26, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550339/effect-of-fungal-endophytes-on-biomass-yield-nutritive-value-and-accumulation-of-minerals-in-ornithopus-compressus
#7
Oscar Santamaria, Santiago Lledó, Sara Rodrigo, Maria J Poblaciones
Yellow serradella (Ornithopus compressus), a valuable pasture species in Mediterranean areas, presents a high diversity of endophytic mycoflora. In the present work, the hypothesis of a significant effect of fungal endophytic species on the parameters of forage production, nutritive value and mineral status of herbage was tested. O. compressus plants were inoculated with each of seven endophytes (four in 2012/2013 and three in 2013/2014). After inoculation, two experiments (under greenhouse and field conditions) were established...
May 27, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550309/the-ppsu-plasmids-for-generating-dna-molecular-weight-markers
#8
Ryan C Henrici, Turner J Pecen, James L Johnston, Song Tan
Visualizing nucleic acids by gel electrophoresis is one of the most common techniques in molecular biology, and reference molecular weight markers or ladders are commonly used for size estimation. We have created the pPSU1 & pPSU2 pair of molecular weight marker plasmids which produce both 100 bp and 1 kb DNA ladders when digested with two common restriction enzymes. The 100 bp ladder fragments have been optimized to migrate appropriately on both agarose and native polyacrylamide, unlike many currently available DNA ladders...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549901/degradation-of-proteoglycan-4-lubricin-by-cathepsin-s-potential-mechanism-for-diminished-ocular-surface-lubrication-in-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#9
Suresh C Regmi, Michael L Samsom, Miriam Heynen, Gregory D Jay, Benjamin D Sullivan, Sruthi Srinivasan, Barbara Caffery, Lyndon Jones, Tannin A Schmidt
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease affecting the lacrimal and salivary glands with hallmark clinical symptoms of dry eye and dry mouth. Recently, markedly increased cathepsin S (CTSS) activity has been observed in the tears of SS patients. Proteoglycan 4 (PRG4), also known as lubricin, is an effective boundary lubricant that is naturally present on the ocular surface. While PRG4 is susceptible to proteolytic digestion, the potential effect of CTSS on PRG4 remains unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of CTSS to enzymatically degrade purified PRG4, and PRG4 naturally present in human tears, and alter ocular surface boundary lubricating properties...
May 23, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549866/venom-of-the-peruvian-snake-bothriopsis-oligolepis-detection-of-antibacterial-activity-and-involvement-of-proteolytic-enzymes-and-c-type-lectins-in-growth-inhibition-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#10
M A Sulca, C Remuzgo, J Cárdenas, S Kiyota, E Cheng, M P Bemquerer, M T Machini
There is a rising interest in snake venoms proteins (SVPs) because these macromolecules are related to pharmacological properties that manifest themselves during poisoning and can lead to secondary microbial infections. Interestingly, researchers have somehow neglected the antimicrobial activity of SVPs. The aims of this study were: (i) to verify whether the venom of the Peruvian snake Bothriopsis oligolepis displays such activity; (ii) to isolate and identify some its antimicrobial constituents. Liquid growth inhibition assays revealed that the crude venom inhibited the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but not of Candida species...
May 23, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549564/timing-of-autophagy-and-apoptosis-during-posterior-silk-gland-degeneration-in-bombyx-mori
#11
Aurora Montali, Davide Romanelli, Silvia Cappellozza, Annalisa Grimaldi, Magda de Eguileor, Gianluca Tettamanti
Over the years, the silkworm, Bombyx mori, has been manipulated by means of chemical and genetic approaches to improve silk production both quantitatively and qualitatively. The silk is produced by the silk gland, which degenerates quickly once the larva has finished spinning the cocoon. Thus, interfering with this degeneration process could help develop new technologies aimed at ameliorating silk yield. To this end, in this work we studied the cell death processes that lead to the demise of posterior silk gland of B...
May 23, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549306/pretreatment-of-corn-stover-by-solid-acid-for-d-lactic-acid-fermentation
#12
Xiqing Wang, Gang Wang, Xiaoxiao Yu, Huan Chen, Yang Sun, Guang Chen
Solid acid is a new acid that is safe and green, which has been widely used in the fields of acid pickling. In this study, we adopted solid acid to pretreat corn stover and used the pretreated corn stover in the fermentation of d-lactic acid. Finally, we obtained optimal conditions for the pretreatment of corn stover by solid acid: digestion temperature of 120°C, digestion time of 80min, and solid acid concentration of 1.5%. Then adding cellulase of 30FPU/g, the conversion rate of glucose reached 71.06% after enzymatic hydrolysis for 72h...
April 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549252/alkaline-and-oxidative-pretreatments-for-the-anaerobic-digestion-of-cow-manure-and-maize-straw-factors-influencing-the-process-and-preliminary-economic-viability-of-an-industrial-application
#13
Juan Luis Ramos-Suárez, Daniel Gómez, Leticia Regueiro, Andrea Baeza, Felipe Hansen
This paper studies the application of calcium oxide (CaO), peracetic acid (PAA) and a combination of both in order to reduce lignin content and increase biogas potential of cow manure and maize straw. Changes in organic matter were mainly affected by the type of reagent use and the dosage, with minimum influence of exposure time and dilution. Changes in pH may limit the application of chemicals. Increase in biogas production with a combination of CaO and PAA, and separate application of PAA and CaO was 156...
May 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549240/dietary-salecan-reverts-partially-the-metabolic-gene-expressions-and-nmr-based-metabolomic-profiles-from-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-rats
#14
Qi Sun, Minghui Li, Xiao Yang, Xi Xu, Junsong Wang, Jianfa Zhang
Previous studies suggest that dietary salecan (a water-soluble β-glucan) effectively reduces high-fat-diet-induced adiposity through disturbing bile-acid-promoted emulsification in mice. However, the effects of salecan on metabolic genes and metabolites involved in lipid accumulation are mostly unknown. Here, we confirmed that dietary 3% and 6% salecan for 4 weeks markedly decreased fat accumulation in liver and adipose tissue in high-fat-diet rats, displaying a decrease in mRNA levels of SREBP1-C, FAS, SCD1 and ACC1 involved in de novo lipogenesis and a reduction of levels of GPAT1, DGAT1 and DGAT2 related to triglyceride synthesis...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549205/genetic-divergence-among-corn-hybrids-and-combining-ability-for-agronomic-and-bromatological-traits-of-silage
#15
E Gralak, M V Faria, A S T Figueiredo, D A Rizzardi, M Neumann, M C Mendes, C A Scapim, S Galbeiro
We assessed the impact of genetic divergence and the ability to combine corn hybrids used for the production of silage on the agronomic and bromatological traits of silage quality. We evaluated 18 corn hybrids used as genitors in a circulant diallel scheme in which each genitor hybrid participated in 9 hybrid combinations, and evaluated 100 treatments [18 genitor hybrids, 81 diallelic hybrids, and a commercial check hybrid (DKB330)] in a triple lattice 10 x 10 experimental design in two environments in Brazil...
May 25, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549196/effects-of-enterococcus-faecium-slb-120-on-growth-performance-blood-parameters-relative-organ-weight-breast-muscle-meat-quality-excreta-microbiota-shedding-and-noxious-gas-emission-in-broilers
#16
R X Lan, S I Lee, I H Kim
This 5-week study was conducted to determine the effects of Enterococcus faecium (SLB 120) on growth performance, blood parameters, relative organ weight, breast muscle meat quality, excreta microbiota shedding, and noxious gas emission in broilers. A total of 816 one-day-old male broilers were allocated to 4 groups with 12 replications (17 broilers/pen) according to body weight (43.2 ± 0.32 g). Dietary treatment groups were: (1) CON, basal diet, (2) T1, CON + 0.05% E. faecium, (3) T2, CON + 0.10% E. faecium, (4) T3, CON + 0...
May 26, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548870/vacuolar-digestion-of-entire-damaged-chloroplasts-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-is-accomplished-by-chlorophagy
#17
Masanori Izumi, Sakuya Nakamura
In yeast and mammals, selective vacuolar delivery and degradation of whole mitochondria, or mitophagy, represents an important quality control system and is achieved by a cargo recognition mechanism enabling selective elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria. As photosynthetic organelles that need light for energy production, plant chloroplasts accumulate sunlight-induced damage. Plants have evolved multiple mechanisms to avoid, relieve, or repair chloroplast photodamage. Our recent study showed that vacuolar degradation of entire chloroplasts, termed chlorophagy, is induced to degrade chloroplasts that are collapsed due to photodamage...
May 26, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548677/destabilization-of-human-insulin-fibrils-by-peptides-of-fruit-bromelain-derived-from-ananas-comosus-pineapple
#18
Sromona Das, Debasish Bhattacharyya
Deposition of insulin aggregates in human body leads to dysfunctioning of several organs. Effectiveness of fruit bromelain from pineapple in prevention of insulin aggregate was investigated. Proteolyses of bromelain was done as par human digestive system and the pool of small peptides was separated from larger peptides and proteins. Under conditions of growth of insulin aggregates from its monomers, this pool of peptides restricted the reaction upto formation of oligomers of limited size. These peptides also destabilized preformed insulin aggregates to oligomers...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547997/effect-of-purine-nucleosides-on-growth-performance-gut-morphology-digestive-enzymes-serum-profile-and-immune-response-in-broiler-chickens
#19
A Daneshmand, H Kermanshahi, M Danesh Mesgaran, A J King, S A Ibrahim
1. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of purine nucleosides on performance, gut morphology, intestinal enzymes and immunity functions in broiler chickens from 0 to 21 d of age. 2. A total of 360 1-d-old male chickens (Cobb 500) were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 6 replications. Experimental diets consisted of a control without any additives and diets containing 0.1% pure adenosine, 0.1% pure guanosine and 0.1% equal aliquots of pure adenosine and guanosine. Two birds per cage (12 birds per treatment) were killed on d 11 and 21 in order to obtain serum samples for lipid profile, jejunal samples for morphology and mucosal immunity, digestive enzymes for epithelial maturation, and bursa and spleen samples for relative weight of immune organs to live body weight...
May 26, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547827/digital-dissection-of-the-model-organism-xenopus-laevis-using-contrast-enhanced-computed-tomography
#20
Laura B Porro, Christopher T Richards
The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is one of the most widely used model organisms in biological research. However, the most recent anatomical description of X. laevis was produced nearly a century ago. Compared with other anurans, pipid frogs - including X. laevis - exhibit numerous unusual morphological features; thus, anatomical descriptions of more 'typical' frogs do not detail many aspects of X. laevis skeletal and soft-tissue morphology. The relatively new method of using iodine-based agents to stain soft tissues prior to high-resolution X-ray imaging has several advantages over gross dissection, such as enabling dissection of very small and fragile specimens, and preserving the three-dimensional topology of anatomical structures...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
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