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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232373/disentangling-metabolic-functions-of-bacteria-in-the-honey-bee-gut
#1
Lucie Kešnerová, Ruben A T Mars, Kirsten M Ellegaard, Michaël Troilo, Uwe Sauer, Philipp Engel
It is presently unclear how much individual community members contribute to the overall metabolic output of a gut microbiota. To address this question, we used the honey bee, which harbors a relatively simple and remarkably conserved gut microbiota with striking parallels to the mammalian system and importance for bee health. Using untargeted metabolomics, we profiled metabolic changes in gnotobiotic bees that were colonized with the complete microbiota reconstituted from cultured strains. We then determined the contribution of individual community members in mono-colonized bees and recapitulated our findings using in vitro cultures...
December 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231944/stability-of-plant-virus-based-nanocarriers-in-gastrointestinal-fluids
#2
Alberto Berardi, David J Evans, Francesca Baldelli Bombelli, George P Lomonossoff
Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is a plant virus which is being extensively investigated as a drug delivery and vaccine nanocarrier for parenteral administration. However, to date little is known about the suitability of plant-based nanocarriers for oral delivery. In this study, the colloidal (i.e. aggregation), physical (i.e. denaturation) and chemical (i.e. digestion of the polypeptides) stability of CPMV and its empty virus-like particles (eVLPs) in conditions resembling the gastrointestinal fluids were evaluated...
December 12, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231704/site-specific-glycan-heterogeneity-characterization-by-hilic-solid-phase-extraction-rplc-fractionation-and-capillary-zone-electrophoresis-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#3
Yanyan Qu, Liangliang Sun, Zhenbin Zhang, Norman J Dovichi
Reversed-phase chromatographic separation of glycopeptides tends to be dominated by the peptide composition. In contrast, capillary zone electrophoresis separation of glycopeptides is particularly sensitive to the sialic acid composition of the glycan. In this paper, we combine the two techniques to achieve superior N-glycopeptide analysis. Glycopeptides were first isolated from a tryptic digest using HILIC solid-phase extraction. The glycopeptides were separated using reversed-phase UHPLC to generate four fractions corresponding to different peptide backbones...
December 12, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231446/-the-indications-of-acupuncture-moxibustion-in-china-state-compiled-textbooks
#4
Weijuan Gang, Xiaodong Wu, Fang Wang, Xin Wang
The Acupuncture-moxibustion and Acupuncture-moxibustion therapy have been the state-compiled textbooks of acupuncture-moxibustion in colleges and universities of TCM for nearly more than half a century, which play a regulating and guiding role for acupuncture education and to a certain extent represent the development status of this discipline. The indications included in Acupuncture-moxibustion from 1th edition to 7th edition and Acupuncture-moxibustion therapy from 1th edition to 3rd edition were analyzed in this study, which was aimed to basically reflect the current situation of acupuncture indications...
March 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231275/effects-of-limit-feeding-diets-with-different-forage-to-concentrate-ratios-on-nutrient-intake-rumination-ruminal-fermentation-digestibility-blood-parameters-and-growth-in-holstein-heifers
#5
Jun Zhang, Haitao Shi, Yajing Wang, Shengli Li, Hongtao Zhang, Zhijun Cao, Kailun Yang
The objective of this study was using a wide range of dietary concentrate levels to investigate the major effects of limit-feeding on heifers. Twenty-four Holstein heifers were blocked into six groups and fed with one of four diets containing different levels of concentrate (20%, 40%, 60% and 80% on a dry matter (DM) basis) but with same intakes of metabolizable energy for 28 days. Increasing levels of dietary concentrate caused decreased (P ≤ 0.02) intakes of dry matter (DMI) and neutral detergent fiber and total rumination time, but increased (P < 0...
December 12, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231024/-diatom-detection-using-enzyme-combined-with-strong-acid-digestion-method
#6
J Yao, W J Kan
OBJECTIVES: To detect diatom in the organs of drowners by enzyme combined with strong acid digestion method, and evaluate its application value. METHODS: A total of 40 cases which have been identified as drowning in local region were collected. Samples of the lung, liver, kidney, and the water of the scene were also gathered from each case. Strong acid digestion method, enzyme combined with strong acid digestion method, and enzymic digestion method were respectively performed to detect the diatom in the samples...
April 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230947/dietary-slowly-digestible-starch-triggers-the-gut-brain-axis-in-obese-rats-with-accompanied-reduced-food-intake
#7
Like Y Hasek, Robert J Phillips, Genyi Zhang, Kimberly P Kinzig, Choon Young Kim, Terry L Powley, Bruce R Hamaker
SCOPE: Slowly digestible starch (SDS), as a functional carbohydrate providing a slow and sustained glucose release, may be able to modulate food intake through activation of the gut-brain axis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Diet-induced obese rats were used to test the effect on feeding behavior of high fat (HF) diets containing a SDS, fabricated to digest into the ileum, as compared to rapidly digestible starch (RDS). Ingestion of the HF-SDS diet over an 11-week period reduced daily food intake, through smaller meal size, to the same level as a lean body control group, while the group consuming the HF-RDS diet remained at a high food intake...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230830/in-vitro-bioaccessibility-of-individual-carotenoids-from-persimmon-diospyros-kaki-cv-rojo-brillante-used-as-an-ingredient-in-a-model-dairy-food
#8
Tomás García-Cayuela, Beatriz Nuño Escobar, Jorge Welti-Chanes, M Pilar Cano
BACKGROUND: Addition of persimmon fruit, which is highly rich in carotenoids, to dairy products represents an alternative to obtain functional foods. However, carotenoid bioaccessibility is strongly influenced by fat content and food composition. That is why in vitro bioaccessibility of individual carotenoids was evaluated in persimmon-based dairy products formulated with whole (3.6 % fat) or skimmed milk (0.25% fat) and different freeze-dried persimmon tissues. RESULTS: Unambiguous identification of 7 xanthophylls (neoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, lutein epoxide and β-cryptoxanthin) and 3 hydrocarbon carotenes (α-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene) was achieved using high perfomance liquid chromatography with a reverse phase C-30...
December 11, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230543/the-contents-and-distributions-of-cadmium-mercury-and-lead-in-usnea-antarctica-lichens-from-solorina-valley-james-ross-island-antarctica
#9
Ondřej Zvěřina, Pavel Coufalík, Miloš Barták, Michal Petrov, Josef Komárek
Lichens are efficient and cost-effective biomonitors of the environment. Their geographic distribution together with their slow growth rate enable investigation of the deposition patterns of various elements and substances. In this research, levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in Usnea antarctica lichens in the area of James Ross Island, Antarctica, were investigated. The lichens were microwave-digested, and the metals were determined by means of atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace and a direct mercury analyzer...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230472/individualized-glycemic-control-for-u-s-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#10
Neda Laiteerapong, Jennifer M Cooper, M Reza Skandari, Philip M Clarke, Aaron N Winn, Rochelle N Naylor, Elbert S Huang
Background: Intensive glycemic control in type 2 diabetes (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] level <7%) is an established, cost-effective standard of care. However, guidelines recommend individualizing goals on the basis of age, comorbidity, diabetes duration, and complications. Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of individualized control versus uniform intensive control (HbA1c level <7%) for the U.S. population with type 2 diabetes. Design: Patient-level Monte Carlo-based Markov model...
December 12, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230337/prenatal-diagnosis-of-a-segmental-small-bowel-volvulus-with-threatened-premature-labor
#11
Barbara Monard, Nicolas Mottet, Rajeev Ramanah, Didier Riethmuller
Fetal primary small bowel volvulus is extremely rare but represents a serious life-threatening condition needing emergency neonatal surgical management to avoid severe digestive consequences. We report a case of primary small bowel volvulus with meconium peritonitis prenatally diagnosed at 27 weeks and 4 days of gestation during threatened premature labor with reduced fetal movements. Ultrasound showed a small bowel mildly dilated with thickened and hyperechogenic intestinal wall, with a typical whirlpool configuration...
2017: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230209/the-mechanism-of-synchronous-precise-regulation-of-two-shrimp-white-spot-syndrome-virus-targets-by-a-viral-microrna
#12
Yaodong He, Tiantian Ma, Xiaobo Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), important factors in animal innate immunity, suppress the expressions of their target genes by binding to target mRNA's 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs). However, the mechanism of synchronous regulation of multiple targets by a single miRNA remains unclear. In this study, the interaction between a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) miRNA (WSSV-miR-N32) and its two viral targets (wsv459 and wsv322) was characterized in WSSV-infected shrimp. The outcomes indicated that WSSV-encoded miRNA (WSSV-miR-N32) significantly inhibited virus infection by simultaneously targeting wsv459 and wsv322...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230047/three-dimensional-3d-culture-of-adult-murine-colon-as-an-in-vitro-model-of-cryptosporidiosis-proof-of-concept
#13
Martha Baydoun, Sadia Benamrouz Vanneste, Colette Creusy, Karine Guyot, Nausicaa Gantois, Magali Chabe, Baptiste Delaire, Anthony Mouray, Atallah Baydoun, Gerard Forzy, Vincent Chieux, Pierre Gosset, Vincent Senez, Eric Viscogliosi, Jérôme Follet, Gabriela Certad
Cryptosporidium parvum is a major cause of diarrheal illness and was recently potentially associated with digestive carcinogenesis. Despite its impact on human health, Cryptosporidium pathogenesis remains poorly known, mainly due to the lack of a long-term culture method for this parasite. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a three-dimensional (3D) culture model from adult murine colon allowing biological investigations of the host-parasite interactions in an in vivo-like environment and, in particular, the development of parasite-induced neoplasia...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229757/structure-and-activity-of-chix-a-peptidoglycan-hydrolase-required-for-chitinase-secretion-by-serratia-marcescens
#14
Richard A Owen, Paul K Fyfe, Adam Lodge, Jacob Biboy, Waldemar Vollmer, William N Hunter, Frank Sargent
The Gram-negative bacterium Serratia marcescens secretes a number of proteins that are involved in extracellular chitin degradation. This so-called chitinolytic machinery includes three types of chitinase enzymes and a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase. An operon has been identified in S. marcescens , chiWXYZ , that is thought to be involved in the secretion of the chitinolytic machinery. Genetic evidence points to the ChiX protein being a key player in the secretion mechanism, since deletion of the chiX gene in S...
December 11, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229330/detection-and-confirmation-of-%C3%AE-cobratoxin-in-equine-plasma-by-solid-phase-extraction-and-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-mass-spectrometry
#15
Fuyu Guan, Youwen You, Xiaoqing Li, Mary A Robinson
α-Cobratoxin (CTX) is a large peptide (71 amino acids) with strong analgesic effect and may be misused in sports such as horse racing. To prevent such misuse, a sensitive method is required for detection and confirmation of the toxin in equine samples. CTX was extracted from equine plasma using an optimized mixed-mode solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. Extracted CTX was reduced with dithiothreitol and alkylated with iodoacetamide, and then was digested by trypsin at 56°C for 30min. The digest was analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and tryptic peptides T2 (3CFITPDITSK12) and T4 (24TWCDAFCSIR33) were monitored for detection and confirmation of CTX...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229246/microencapsulation-of-saffron-anthocyanins-using-%C3%AE-glucan-and-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-nutraceutical-morphological-structural-and-the-release-behavior-of-capsules-during-in-vitro-digestion
#16
Mudasir Ahmad, Bisma Ashraf, Asir Gani, Adil Gani
In the present study, the saffron anthocyanins were encapsulated in β-glucan and β-cyclodextrin by spray drying technique to achieve their stability under adverse gastro-enviromental conditions. The microcapsules were subjected to simulated gastric conditions and release behavior of monomeric anthocyanins, antioxidants and phenols were studied. The structural properties of microcapsules were analyzed by SEM and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The particle size distribution, density, color, encapsulation efficiency and powder yield of samples were also evaluated...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229224/studies-on-interactions-of-carbazole-derivatives-with-dna-cell-image-and-cytotoxicity
#17
Guoyan Hao, Jinyu Sun, Chunying Wei
DNA-binding agents have been considered as an established opportunity for the development of anticancer drugs and DNA fluorescence probes. This work reported the synthesis of two novel carbazole derivatives (1 and 2) and investigated their DNA binding properties, living cell image, and cytotoxicity. The results demonstrated that both compounds presented the higher binding affinity to G-quadruplex than to duplex DNA by means of UV-Vis absorption titration and fluorescent intercalator displacement. Continuous variation analysis indicated that their binding stoichiometries of the compound/G-quadruplex were near 2 except the compound/bcl-2...
December 2, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229116/-no-zone-approach-in-penetrating-neck-trauma-reduces-unnecessary-computed-tomography-angiography-and-negative-explorations
#18
Kareem Ibraheem, Muhammad Khan, Peter Rhee, Asad Azim, Terence O'Keeffe, Andrew Tang, Narong Kulvatunyou, Bellal Joseph
BACKGROUND: The most recent management guidelines advocate computed tomography angiography (CTA) for any suspected vascular or aero-digestive injuries in all zones and give zone II injuries special consideration. We hypothesized that physical examination can safely guide CTA use in a "no zone" approach. METHODS: An 8-year retrospective analysis of all adult trauma patients with penetrating neck trauma (PNT) was performed. We included all patients in whom the platysma was violated...
January 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228988/a-vp24-truncated-isolate-of-white-spot-syndrome-virus-is-inefficient-in-per-os-infection
#19
Yali Han, Fang Li, Limei Xu, Feng Yang
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen of penaeid shrimp. Here we identified a new WSSV strain, WSSV-CN04, from naturally infected Marsupenaeus japonicus. Whole genomic sequencing results indicate that the WSSV-CN04 genome was 281 054 bp in length, and encoded 157 hypothetic proteins. The genome sequence of WSSV-CN04 was most closely related to the low-virulent strain WSSV-CN03, sharing 97.5% sequence identity. Notably, in WSSV-CN04, the major envelop protein VP24 was not only truncated but also absent in the virions...
December 11, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228651/dietary-feeding-of-freeze-dried-whole-cranberry-inhibits-intestinal-tumor-development-in-apcmin-mice
#20
Duochen Jin, Tianyu Liu, Wenxiao Dong, Yujie Zhang, Sinan Wang, Runxiang Xie, Bangmao Wang, Hailong Cao
It is increasingly perceived that dietary components have been linked with the prevention of intestinal cancer. Cranberry is a rich source of phenolic constituents and non-digestible fermentable dietary fiber, which shows anti-proliferation effect in colorectal cancer cells. Herein, we investigated the efficacy of long-term cranberry diet on intestinal adenoma formation in Apcmin/+ mice. Apcmin/+ mice were fed a basal diet or a diet containing 20% (w/w) freeze-dried whole cranberry powder for 12 weeks, and the number and size of tumors were recorded after sacrifice...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
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