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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088723/discovery-and-metagenomic-analysis-of-an-anammox-bacterial-enrichment-related-to-candidatus-brocadia-caroliniensis-in-a-full-scale-glycerol-fed-nitritation-denitritation-separate-centrate-treatment-process
#1
Hongkeun Park, Ariane C Brotto, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Kartik Chandran
A distinctive red biofilm was observed in a glycerol-fed digester liquid effluent treatment process coupling partial nitrification (nitritation) and partial denitrification (denitritation) processes. Based on initial phylogenetic screening using 16S rRNA clone libraries and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, the biofilm was enriched in novel anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AMX/anammox) closely related to Candidatus "Brocadia caroliniensis". The metabolic functionality of the C. "Brocadia caroliniensis" enrichment was further explored using high-throughput sequencing and de novo metagenome assembly...
January 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088653/immune-stimulation-during-chemotherapy-increases-incidence-of-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-a-study-on-behalf-of-sfgm-tc-and-alfa
#2
Lining Wang, Emmanuel Raffoux, Xavier Thomas, Ibrahim Yakoub-Agha, Jean-Henri Bouhris, Stéphane de Botton, Mauricette Michallet, Stéphanie Nguyen Quoc, Xavier Troussard, Eric Deconinck, Denis Caillot, Pascal Turlure, Stéphane Vigouroux, Arnaud Pigneux, Anne Huynh, Jean-Valère Malfuson, Michael Loschi, Gerard Socie, Hervé Dombret, Régis Peffault de la Tour, Thomas Cluzeau
60-70% of AML patients have an indication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) during their treatment. Graft versus host disease (GvHD), the major cause of mortality and comorbidities post-transplantation, develops by immunological mechanism and decides greatly prognosis and quality of life (QoL) of graft recipient. Current GvHD prophylaxis is not personalized. Infections, toxicities and leukemic infiltration complicate the first chemotherapy phases prior to allo-HSCT. They, to certain extent, induce local immune stimulation...
January 5, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088423/effects-of-rumen-protected-capsicum-oleoresin-on-productivity-and-responses-to-a-glucose-tolerance-test-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#3
J Oh, M Harper, F Giallongo, D M Bravo, E H Wall, A N Hristov
The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin (RPC) supplementation on feed intake, milk yield and composition, nutrient utilization, fecal microbial ecology, and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design balanced for residual effects with three 28-d periods. Each period consisted of 14 d for adaptation and 14 d for data collection and sampling. Treatments were 0 (control), 100, and 200 mg RPC/cow per day...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088408/the-effects-of-adding-fat-to-diets-of-lactating-dairy-cows-on-total-tract-neutral-detergent-fiber-digestibility-a-meta-analysis
#4
K A Weld, L E Armentano
The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effects of supplemental fat on fiber digestibility in lactating dairy cattle. Published papers that evaluated the effects of adding fat to the diets of lactating dairy cattle on total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility (ttNDFd) and dry matter intake (DMI) were compiled. The final data set included 108 fat-supplemented treatment means, not including low-fat controls, from 38 publications. The fat-supplemented treatment means exhibited a wide range of ttNDFd (49...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088363/seasonal-variations-of-u-s-mortality-rates-roles-of-solar-ultraviolet-b-doses-vitamin-d-gene-exp-ression-and-infections
#5
REVIEW
William B Grant, Harjit Pal Bhattoa, Barbara J Boucher
Death rates in the U.S. show a pronounced seasonality. The broad seasonal variation shows about 25% higher death rates in winter than in summer with an additional few percent increase associated with the Christmas and New Year's holidays. A pronounced increase in death rates also starts in mid-September, shortly after the school year begins. The causes of death with large contributions to the observed seasonality include diseases of the circulatory system; the respiratory system; the digestive system; and endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088361/purification-and-characterisation-of-dsrna-using-ion-pair-reverse-phase-chromatography-and-mass-spectrometry
#6
Alison O Nwokeoji, An-Wen Kung, Peter M Kilby, David E Portwood, Mark J Dickman
RNA interference has provided valuable insight into a wide range of biological systems and is a powerful tool for the analysis of gene function. The exploitation of this pathway to block the expression of specific gene targets holds considerable promise for the development of novel RNAi-based insect management strategies. In addition, there are a wide number of future potential applications of RNAi to control agricultural insect pests as well as its use for prevention of diseases in beneficial insects. The potential to synthesise large quantities of dsRNA by in-vitro transcription or in bacterial systems for RNA interference applications has generated significant demand for the development and application of high throughput analytical tools for the rapid extraction, purification and analysis of dsRNA...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087921/pathogen-characterization-of-fresh-and-stored-mesophilic-anaerobically-digested-biosolids
#7
Cecily A
Culturable bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Listeria, Yersinia) and indicators (E. coli, enterococci, Clostridium perfringens) were quantified at six wastewater treatment plants that land apply anaerobically digested biosolids in Ontario, Canada. Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia were also quantified by PCR. Salmonella and Listeria were frequently detected in sludge and liquid biosolids (70-100% of samples) but less often in fresh dewatered cake biosolids (50-60%); with low levels in fresh cake (<100 cells/g dw)...
January 13, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087885/absence-of-intestinal-microbiota-increases-%C3%A3-cyclodextrin-stimulated-reverse-cholesterol-transport
#8
Rima H Mistry, Henkjan J Verkade, Uwe J F Tietge
SCOPE: Non-digestible oligosaccharides are used as prebiotics for perceived health benefits, among these modulating lipid metabolism. However, the mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. The present study characterized the impact of dietary ß-cyclodextrin (ßCD, 10%, w/w), a cyclic oligosaccharide, on sterol metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in conventional and also germ-free mice to establish dependency on metabolism by intestinal bacteria. METHODS AND RESULTS: In conventional ßCD-fed C57BL/6J wild-type mice plasma cholesterol decreased significantly (-40%, p<0...
January 14, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087531/salivary-gluten-degradation-and-oral-microbial-profiles-in-health-and-celiac-disease
#9
Na Tian, Lina Faller, Daniel A Leffler, Ciaran P Kelly, Joshua Hansen, Jos A Bosch, Guoxian Wei, Bruce J Paster, Detlef Schuppan, Eva J Helmerhorst
: Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated enteropathy induced by dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Saliva harbors the second highest bacterial load of the GI tract after the colon. Moreover, saliva contains gluten-degrading enzymes produced by oral bacteria that may modify gluten processing in the intestine and susceptibility to celiac disease (CD). AIM: To investigate salivary enzymatic activities and oral microbial profiles in healthy subjects vs patients with classical and refractory CD...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087526/rapid-enrichment-of-dehalococcoides-like-bacteria-by-partial-hydrophobic-separation
#10
Hanna R Temme, Kipp Sande, Tao Yan, Paige J Novak
: Organohalide respiring bacteria can be difficult to enrich and isolate, which can limit research on these important organisms. The goal of this research was to develop a method to rapidly (minutes to days) enrich these organisms from a mixed community. The method presented is based on the hypothesis that organohalide respiring bacteria would be more hydrophobic than other bacteria as they dehalogenate hydrophobic compounds. The developed method tests this hypothesis by separating a portion of putative organohalide respiring bacteria, those phylogenetically related to Dehalococcoides mccartyi, at the interface between a hydrophobic organic solvent and aqueous media...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087363/membrane-restructuring-following-in-situ-sialidase-digestion-of-gangliosides-complex-model-bilayers-by-synchrotron-radiation-reflectivity
#11
Valeria Rondelli, Paola Brocca, Giovanna Fragneto, Jean Daillant, Cristina Tringali, Laura Cantu', Elena Del Favero
Synchrotron radiation reflectometry was used to access the transverse structure of model membranes under the action of the human sialidase NEU2, down to the Ångström length scale. Model membranes were designed to mimic the lipid composition of so-called Glycosphingolipids Enriched Microdomains (GEMs), which are membrane platforms specifically enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids, where also typical signalling molecules are hosted. Gangliosides, glycosphingolipids containing one or more sialic acid residues, are asymmetrically embedded in GEMs, in the outer membrane leaflet...
January 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087103/identifying-methanogen-community-structures-and-their-correlations-with-performance-parameters-in-four-full-scale-anaerobic-sludge-digesters
#12
Taewoan Koo, Seung Gu Shin, Joonyeob Lee, Gyuseong Han, Woong Kim, Kyungjin Cho, Seokhwan Hwang
Four full-scale mesophilic anaerobic digesters treating waste sludge were monitored to characterize methanogen communities and their relationship with process parameters. The performance of the four digesters were dissimilar with the average chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies between 24 and 45% and differing pH. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that archaeal 16S rRNA gene concentration ([ARC]) and, more pronouncedly, its ratio to bacterial counterpart ([ARC]/[BAC]) correlated positively with the performance parameters, including the lipid removal efficiency...
January 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087073/abnormal-mortality-of-octopus-after-a-storm-water-event-accumulated-lead-and-lead-isotopes-as-fingerprints
#13
J Raimundo, F Ruano, J Pereira, M Mil-Homens, P Brito, C Vale, M Caetano
Octopus vulgaris is a sedentary organism that inhabits coastal waters being exposed to anthropogenic compounds. Lead concentration in coastal environments reflects many processes and activities namely weathering, industrial and domestic discharges, and atmospheric deposition. Since lead isotopic composition is little affected by kinetic processes occurring between source and sink, its signature has been used to identify different Pb sources. After a short-term heavy rainfall, hundreds of octopus appeared dead in two Portuguese coastal areas...
January 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087056/extraction-chromatographic-separations-of-tantalum-and-tungsten-from-hafnium-and-complex-matrix-constituents
#14
Mathew S Snow, Martha R Finck, Kevin P Carney, Samuel S Morrison
Tantalum (Ta), hafnium (Hf), and tungsten (W) analyses from complex matrices require high purification of these analytes from each other and major/trace matrix constituents, however, current state-of-the-art Ta/Hf/W separations rely on traditional anion exchange approaches that show relatively similar distribution coefficient (Kd) values for each element. This work reports an assessment of three commercially available extraction chromatographic resins (TEVA, TRU, and UTEVA) for Ta/Hf/W separations. Batch contact studies show differences in Ta/Hf and Ta/W Kd values of up to 10(6) and 10(4) (respectively), representing an improvement of a factor of 100 and 300 in Ta/Hf and Ta/W Kd values (respectively) over AG1×4 resin...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087055/graft-modification-of-cotton-with-phosphate-group-and-its-application-to-the-enrichment-of-phosphopeptides
#15
Xiao-Mei He, Xi Chen, Bi-Feng Yuan, Yu-Qi Feng
Grafting copolymerization, especially "grafting from" approach, has attracted a great attention for the preparation of cellulose-based materials with various functionalities. In this study, a novel phosphate group-containing cotton fiber-based material, CF-NH2-AZO-p(VPA-x), was successfully synthesized by a "grafting from" radical polymerization approach using vinyl phosphonic acid (VPA) as monomer. The phosphate group content of CF-NH2-AZO-p(VPA-x) could be easily regulated by adjusting the concentration of VPA monomer...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087054/care-pathway-of-patients-with-metastatic-pancreatic-cancer-in-daily-practice-in-france-results-from-the-repere-national-survey
#16
Pascal Hammel, Romain Coriat, Gérard Lledo, Mariella de Bausset, Marion Selosse, Stéphane Obled, Franck Bonnetain
Data in the literature regarding the care pathway of pancreatic cancer patients are limited. The objective of the REPERE survey was to identify and describe the initial stages of the care pathway of pancreatic patients in the metastatic phase. From May to October 2015, 62 oncologists (ON) or gastroenterologists specialized in digestive oncology (GESDO) and 300 general practitioners (GP) completed an electronic questionnaire on the pathway of 728 patients recently diagnosed with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma...
January 10, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086748/genetic-mechanisms-of-bone-digestion-and-nutrient-absorption-in-the-bone-eating-worm-osedax-japonicus-inferred-from-transcriptome-and-gene-expression-analyses
#17
Norio Miyamoto, Masa-Aki Yoshida, Hiroyuki Koga, Yoshihiro Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax (Annelida, Siboglinidae) have adapted to whale fall environments by acquiring a novel characteristic called the root, which branches and penetrates into sunken bones. The worms lack a digestive tract and mouth opening, and it has been suggested that Osedax degrade vertebrate bones and uptake nutrients through acidification and secretion of enzymes from the root. Symbiotic bacteria in the root tissue may have a crucial role in the metabolism of Osedax...
January 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081524/effects-of-acidified-aqueous-glycerol-and-glycerol-carbonate-pretreatment-of-rice-husk-on-the-enzymatic-digestibility-structural-characteristics-and-bioethanol-production
#18
Majid Ebrahimi, Oliver B Villaflores, Emma E Ordono, Alvin R Caparanga
Rice husk as an abundant biomass was used in this study, and it contained 30.1% glucan and 13.5% xylan, 22.4% lignin. The pretreated rice husk with glycerol carbonate and acidified aqueous glycerol (10% water) at 90°C and 130°C for 60min had the maximum yield of glucan digestibility which was 78.2% and 69.7% respectively, using cellulase for 72h. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was conducted anaerobically at 37°C with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 5% w/v glucan and 10FPU/g glucan of cellulase...
January 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081523/enhanced-enzymatic-hydrolysis-and-acetone-butanol-ethanol-fermentation-of-sugarcane-bagasse-by-combined-diluted-acid-with-oxidate-ammonolysis-pretreatment
#19
Hailong Li, Lian Xiong, Xuefang Chen, Can Wang, Gaoxiang Qi, Chao Huang, Mutan Luo, Xinde Chen
This study aims to propose a biorefinery pretreatment technology for the bioconversion of sugarcane bagasse (SB) into biofuels and N-fertilizers. Performance of diluted acid (DA), aqueous ammonia (AA), oxidate ammonolysis (OA) and the combined DA with AA or OA were compared in SB pretreatment by enzymatic hydrolysis, structural characterization and acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. Results indicated that DA-OA pretreatment improves the digestibility of SB by sufficiently hydrolyzing hemicellulose into fermentable monosaccharides and oxidating lignin into soluble N-fertilizer with high nitrogen content (11...
January 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081355/oral-delivery-of-probiotics-in-poultry-using-ph-sensitive-tablets
#20
Tao Jiang, Hui-Shan Li, Geon Goo Han, Bijay Singh, Sang-Kee Kang, Jin-Duck Bok, Dae-Duk Kim, Zhong-Shan Hong, Yun-Jaie Choi, Chong-Su Cho
As alternatives to antibiotics in live stocks, probiotics have been used although most of them in the form of liquid or semisolid formulations which show low cell viability after oral administration. Therefore, suitable dry dosage forms should be developed for live stocks to protect probiotics against the low pH in the stomach such that the products have higher probiotics survivability. Here, in order to develop a dry dosage forms of probiotics for poultry, we used hydroxyproyl methylcellulose phthalate 55 (HPMCP 55) as a tablet forming matrix to develop probiotics in a tablet form for poultry...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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