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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454065/impact-of-food-additives-on-the-gut-brain-axis
#1
Mary K Holder, Benoit Chassaing
The mammalian intestinal tract is heavily colonized with a complex community of micro-organisms, present at a very high density, and containing an estimated amount of 10 14 bacteria. The microbiota generally benefits the host, as it plays a central role in maturing the immune system, protecting against infection by entero-pathogens such as Clostridium difficile, and favoring nutrient digestion/energy extraction in our intestine. An altered microbiota, however, can become detrimental and lead to inflammation, metabolic disorders, and even altered behavior/neuroinflammation...
February 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453888/dual-transcriptomics-reveals-co-evolutionary-mechanisms-of-intestinal-parasite-infections-in-blue-mussels-mytilus-edulis
#2
Marieke E Feis, Uwe John, Ana Lokmer, Pieternella C Luttikhuizen, K Mathias Wegner
On theoretical grounds, antagonistic co-evolution between hosts and their parasites should be a widespread phenomenon but only received little empirical support so far. Consequently, the underlying molecular mechanisms and evolutionary steps remain elusive, especially in non-model systems. Here, we utilised the natural history of invasive parasites to document the molecular underpinnings of co-evolutionary trajectories. We applied a dual-species transcriptomics approach to experimental cross-infections of blue mussel Mytilus edulis hosts and their invasive parasitic copepods Mytilicola intestinalis from two invasion fronts in the Wadden Sea...
February 17, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453700/reliability-of-cartilage-digestion-and-fda-eb-fluorescence-staining-for-the-detection-of-chondrocyte-viability-in-osteochondral-grafts
#3
Jianhong Qi, Famin Cao, Yunning Han, Di Xie, Hongqiang Song, Bin Chen, Lu Zhou
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the reliability of cartilage digestion and fluorescein diacetate-ethidium bromide (FDA-EB) fluorescence staining for the detection of chondrocyte viability in osteochondral grafts. Sixteen fresh osteochondral grafts were harvested from pig knee condyles, and the articular cartilage tissue was preserved. Each cartilage graft was cut into two 70-µm thick pieces and randomly allocated to Group A or Group B. The cell viability of Group A was detected using FDA-EB fluorescence staining of the digested cartilage, and the viability of Group B was detected with FDA-EB fluorescence staining of cartilage sections...
February 16, 2018: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453560/establishment-of-primary-culture-of-sertoli-cells
#4
Raquel L Bernardino, Marco G Alves, Pedro F Oliveira
The successful isolation and culture of Sertoli cells depend on a series of delicate processes of mechanical isolation and enzymatic digestion of the testicular tissue, taking advantage of an array of enzymes (such as DNAse, collagenase, and pancreatin) in order to digest the extracellular matrix components. The complexity of these processes may present some differences depending on the origin of the testicular sample (whole tissue or biopsy) and of the species in question. Rat and mouse Sertoli cells are obtained by a similar protocol, whereas bovine and human Sertoli cells require a more extensive mechanical and enzymatic processing...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453312/inhibition-of-ras-activity-coordinates-cell-fusion-with-cell-cell-contact-during-yeast-mating
#5
Laura Merlini, Bita Khalili, Omaya Dudin, Laetitia Michon, Vincent Vincenzetti, Sophie G Martin
In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe , pheromone signaling engages a signaling pathway composed of a G protein-coupled receptor, Ras, and a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade that triggers sexual differentiation and gamete fusion. Cell-cell fusion requires local cell wall digestion, which relies on an initially dynamic actin fusion focus that becomes stabilized upon local enrichment of the signaling cascade on the structure. We constructed a live-reporter of active Ras1 (Ras1-guanosine triphosphate [GTP]) that shows Ras activity at polarity sites peaking on the fusion structure before fusion...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452731/submersion-injuries-in-the-united-states-patients-characteristics-and-predictors-of-mortality-and-morbidity
#6
Rayan El Sibai, Rana Bachir, Mazen El Sayed
INTRODUCTION: Drowning leads to 372,000 deaths annually worldwide and to severe morbidity secondary to asphyxiation or aspiration. Previous studies described submersion injuries mainly in the pediatric population. This study describes characteristics of patients presenting with submersion injuries to United States emergency departments (EDs) and identifies predictors of poor outcomes (death or long term neurologic deficits) after drowning. METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study included ED visits for submersion injuries from the United States 2013 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) dataset using discharge data (CCS diagnosis codes)...
February 13, 2018: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452399/response-of-goose-intestinal-microflora-to-the-source-and-level-of-dietary-fiber
#7
Haizhu Zhou, Wei Guo, Tao Zhang, Bo Xu, Di Zhang, Zhanwei Teng, Dapeng Tao, Yujie Lou, Yunhang Gao
Geese are capable of digesting and making use of a high-fiber diet, but the mechanism is not well understood and would be of great significance for the development and utilization of roughage resources. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary fiber (source: corn stover and alfalfa, included at 5% or 8%) on microflora in goose intestines. We used 35-day-old Carlos geese in which we first studied the influence of fiber ingestion on diet digestibility and immune organ indices of geese and found that high dietary fiber (8% content) significantly increased feed intake, the digestibility of neutral and acid detergent fiber, and thymus, bursa, and spleen size...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452386/amino-acid-digestibility-of-larval-meal-musca-domestica-for-broiler-chickens
#8
H N Hall, H V Masey O'Neill, D Scholey, E Burton, M Dickinson, E C Fitches
Work was undertaken to investigate the potential use of housefly (Musca domestica) larvae reared on broiler manure as a source of nutrition for poultry production in the United Kingdom. Nutritional analysis showed that larvae have a high (>45% dry wt.) protein content and a favorable amino acid profile that is rich in key amino acids, such as lysine and methionine. A broiler digestibility trial was carried out to determine the apparent ileal digestibility coefficients (AIDC) and true ileal digestibility coefficients (TIDC) of amino acids (AA) from insect larval meal (ILM) from M...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452184/production-of-chitinase-from-escherichia-fergusonii-chitosanase-from-chryseobacterium-indologenes-comamonas-koreensis-and-its-application-in-n-acetylglucosamine-production
#9
Tae Il Kim, Dong Hyun Lim, Kwang Soo Baek, Sun Sik Jang, Beom Young Park, Vijayakumar Mayakrishnan
The important platform polysaccharide N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) has great potential to be used in the fields of food, cosmetics, agricultural, pharmaceutical, medicine and biotechnology. This GlcNAc is being produced by traditional methods of environment-unfriendly chemical digestion with strong acids. Therefore, researchers have been paying more attention to enzymatic hydrolysis process for the production of GlcNAc. Hence, in this study, we isolated novel chitinase (Escherichia fergusonii) and chitosanase (Chryseobacterium indologenes, Comamonas koreensis) producing strains from Korean native calves feces, and developed the potential of an eco-friendly microbial progression for GlcNAc production from swollen chitin and chitosan by enzymatic degradation...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452181/the-demosponge-pseudoceratina-purpurea-as-a-new-source-of-fibrous-chitin
#10
Sonia Żółtowska-Aksamitowska, Mikhail Tsurkan, Swee-Cheng Lim, Heike Meissner, Konstantin Tabachnick, Lamiaa A Shaala, Diaa T A Youssef, Viatcheslav N Ivanenko, Iaroslav Petrenko, Marcin Wysokowski, Nicole Bechmann, Yvonne Joseph, Teofil Jesionowski, Hermann Ehrlich
Among marine demosponges (Porifera: Demospongiae), only representatives of the order Verongiida have been recognized to synthetize both biologically active substances as well as scaffolds-like fibrous skeletons made of structural aminopolysaccharide chitin. The unique 3D architecture of such scaffolds open perspectives for their applications in waste treatment, biomimetics and tissue engineering. Here, we focus special attention to the demosponge Pseudoceratina purpurea collected in the coastal waters of Singapore...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451820/the-hcm-linked-w792r-mutation-in-cardiac-myosin-binding-protein-c-reduces-c6-fniii-domain-stability
#11
Dan F Smelter, Willem J De Lange, Wenxuan Cai, Ying Ge, John C Ralphe
Cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is a functional sarcomeric protein that regulates contractility in response to contractile demand, and many mutations in cMyBP-C lead to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). To gain insight into the effects of disease-causing cMyBP-C missense mutations on contractile function, we expressed the pathogenic W792R mutation in mouse cardiomyocytes lacking endogenous cMyBP-C and studied the functional effects using three-dimensional engineered cardiac tissue (mECT) constructs...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451524/-diet-and-gut-microbiota-two-sides-of-the-same-coin
#12
Ramona Schiumerini, Francesca Pasqui, Davide Festi
Gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem, resident in the digestive tract, exerting multiple functions that can have a significant impact on the pathophysiology of the host organism. The composition and functions of this "superorganism" are influenced by many factors, and among them, the host's dietary habits seem to have a significant effect. Dietary changes in the evolution of human history and in the different stages of life of the human subjects are responsible for qualitative and functional modification of gut microbiota...
January 2018: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451355/a-critical-evaluation-of-in-vitro-hesperidin-2s-bioavailability-in-a-model-combining-luminal-microbial-digestion-and-caco-2-cell-absorption-in-comparison-to-a-randomized-controlled-human-trial
#13
Evelien Van Rymenant, Bouke Salden, Stefan Voorspoels, Griet Jacobs, Bart Noten, Judit Pitart, Sam Possemiers, Guy Smagghe, Charlotte Grootaert, John Van Camp
SCOPE: Bioavailability strongly determines polyphenol bioactivity, and is strongly influenced by food matrix, enzymatic and microbial degradation and gastro-intestinal absorption. To avoid human trials for pre-screening of polyphenol bioavailability, studies have focused on in vitro model development. Nevertheless, their predictive value for bioavailability can be questioned. METHOD AND RESULTS: We used the orange flavonoid hesperidin 2S to validate a model combining digestion in the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME ® ) and Caco-2 cell transport, with a human intervention study...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451298/micro-computed-tomography-visualization-of-the-vestigial-alimentary-canal-in-adult-oestrid-flies
#14
D Martín-Vega, A Garbout, F Ahmed, L M Ferrer, J Lucientes, D D Colwell, M J R Hall
Oestrid flies (Diptera: Oestridae) do not feed during the adult stage as they acquire all necessary nutrients during the parasitic larval stage. The adult mouthparts and digestive tract are therefore frequently vestigial; however, morphological data on the alimentary canal in adult oestrid flies are scarce and a proper visualization of this organ system within the adult body is lacking. The present work visualizes the morphology of the alimentary canal in adults of two oestrid species, Oestrus ovis L. and Hypoderma lineatum (de Villiers), with the use of non-invasive micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and compares it with the highly developed alimentary canal of the blow fly Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae)...
February 16, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450774/removal-of-tetracyclines-sulfonamides-and-quinolones-by-industrial-scale-composting-and-anaerobic-digestion-processes
#15
Hang Liu, Chengjun Pu, Xiaolu Yu, Ying Sun, Junhao Chen
This study evaluated and compared the removal of antibiotics by industrial-scale composting and anaerobic digestion at different seasons. Twenty compounds belonged to three classes of widely used veterinary antibiotics (i.e., tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and quinolones) were investigated. Results show that of the three groups of antibiotics, tetracyclines were dominant in swine feces and poorly removed by anaerobic digestion with significant accumulation in biosolids, particularly in winter. Compared to that in winter, a much more effective removal (> 97%) by anaerobic digestion was observed for sulfonamides in summer...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450197/platelet-counts-in-insoluble-platelet-rich-fibrin-clots-a-direct-method-for-accurate-determination
#16
Yutaka Kitamura, Taisuke Watanabe, Masayuki Nakamura, Kazushige Isobe, Hideo Kawabata, Kohya Uematsu, Kazuhiro Okuda, Koh Nakata, Takaaki Tanaka, Tomoyuki Kawase
Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) clots have been used in regenerative dentistry most often, with the assumption that growth factor levels are concentrated in proportion to the platelet concentration. Platelet counts in PRF are generally determined indirectly by platelet counting in other liquid fractions. This study shows a method for direct estimation of platelet counts in PRF. To validate this method by determination of the recovery rate, whole-blood samples were obtained with an anticoagulant from healthy donors, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) fractions were clotted with CaCl 2 by centrifugation and digested with tissue-plasminogen activator...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450120/anaerobic-digestion-of-sulphate-rich-post-tanning-wastewater-at-different-cod-sulphate-and-f-m-ratios
#17
M Mahesh, K V Arivizhivendhan, K Nivetha, S Swarnalatha, G Sekaran
Anaerobic digestion of post-tanning wastewater was performed in batch anaerobic digester to evaluate the effect of COD/sulphate ratio [0.62, 0.69, and 1.20 (w/w) %] and F/M ratio [0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1.1, 1.3, and 1.5 (w/w) %)] on the removal efficiency of COD. The F/M ratio of 0.3 was found to be the optimum ratio for the removal of COD by 53, 57, and 65%, respectively at COD/sulphate ratio of 0.62, 0.69, and 1.20. The maximum sulphate removal was observed at F/M ratio of 0.2 and the removal efficiency was 48, 50, and 58% at COD/sulphate ratio of 0...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450113/potential-improvement-of-biogas-production-from-fallen-teak-leaves-with-co-digestion-of-microalgae
#18
Anongnart Wannapokin, Rameshprabu Ramaraj, Kanda Whangchai, Yuwalee Unpaprom
Biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of fallen teak leaves ( Tectona grandis ) and microalgae ( Chlorella vulgaris ) were investigated. In this study, teak leaves and algae mixtures with or without pretreatment were used as the substrates and digested in 1-L of anaerobic fermenter, then optimal conditions were performed in 6-L fermenter. Pretreatment was performed using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution (w/v) at different conditions (0, 2, 3 and 4%), with different total solid (TS) ratios (10, 15 and 20%)...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449902/sers-fluorescence-bimodal-nanoprobes-for-in-vitro-imaging-of-fatty-acid-responsive-receptor-gpr120
#19
Lifu Xiao, Abdul K Parchur, Timothy A Gilbertson, Anhong Zhou
G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120), as a member of the rhodopsin family of G-protein-coupled receptors, has been shown to function as a sensor for dietary fat in the gustatory and digestive systems. Its specific role in the chemoreception of fatty acids, which is thought to be crucial in understanding the mechanism surrounding the control of fat intake and, accordingly, in the treatment of obesity, remains unclear. Here we report a novel surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-fluorescence bimodal microscopic technique for detection and imaging of GPR120 in single living cells...
2018: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449885/deep-eutectic-solvents-pretreatment-of-agro-industrial-food-waste
#20
Alessandra Procentese, Francesca Raganati, Giuseppe Olivieri, Maria Elena Russo, Lars Rehmann, Antonio Marzocchella
Background: Waste biomass from agro-food industries are a reliable and readily exploitable resource. From the circular economy point of view, direct residues from these industries exploited for production of fuel/chemicals is a winning issue, because it reduces the environmental/cost impact and improves the eco-sustainability of productions. Results: The present paper reports recent results of deep eutectic solvent (DES) pretreatment on a selected group of the agro-industrial food wastes (AFWs) produced in Europe...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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