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D Kušar, U Zajc, V Jenčič, M Ocepek, J Higgins, M Žolnir-Dovč, M Pate
Fish are commonly infected with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), which should be regarded as potential pathogens when handling aquarium fish and equipment. This study examined 107 aquarium fish from pet shops. Cultivation of the fish samples using different selective media was conducted for identification of NTM. Isolates were identified using the GenoType Mycobacterium common mycobacteria and additional species assays, sequencing of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes, and real-time PCR assay for identification of Mycobacterium (M...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
Ahmad Qasem, Mitra Safavikhasraghi, Saleh A Naser
BACKGROUND: Most recently we reported that RHB‑104 triple antibiotics combination in culture is bactericidal and should be effective for treatment of Crohn's disease (CD)-associated with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) (Alcedo et al. in Gut Pathog 14:32, 2016). The combination exhibited unique synergistic antimicrobial growth activity. The proprietary RHB-104 capsule formulation contains active ingredients (63.3 % Clarithromycin (CLA), 6.7 % Clofazimine (CLO) and 30 % Rifabutin (RIF))...
2016: Gut Pathogens
Manoj Kumar, Sheetal Verma, Tapan N Dhole, Raj Kumar
A 34 year-old woman presented with history of progressive back pain which was diagnosed as Pott's disease with recurrent paravertebral abscess, and had received a total of 23 months of antitubercular treatment for lumbar infection. The patient was non-responsive to treatment and was referred to a higher centre where the infection was finally identified as non-tuberculous mycobacterium (Mycobacterium fortuitum) by genotypic testing. The drugs were initiated according to results of drug susceptibility testing by the broth microdilution method...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Prudence N Kabongo-Kayoka, Jacobus N Eloff, Chikwelu L Obi, Lyndy J McGaw
Treatment of tuberculosis (TB) is a challenge because of multidrug-resistant and extremely drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Plant species contain antimicrobial compounds that may lead to new anti-TB drugs. Previous screening of some tree species from the Anacardiaceae family revealed the presence of antimicrobial activity, justifying further investigations. Leaf extracts of 15 Anacardiaceae tree species were screened for antimycobacterial activity using a twofold serial microdilution assay against the pathogenic Mycobacterium bovis and multidrug resistant M...
September 13, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Davood Azadi, Hasan Shojaei, Mahnaz Pourchangiz, Ramin Dibaj, Masoumeh Davarpanah, Abass Daei Naser
BACKGROUND: Hospital environment is of crucial importance in cross-transmission of opportunistic pathogens to the patients. Nontuberculous mycobacteria have the remarkable capability to withstand the adverse condition of hospital environments and pose a potential threat to the health of patients. The current study aimed to assess the frequency and diversity of mycobacteria in hospital water of a developing country using a combination of conventional and molecular methods. METHODS: A total of 148 hospital water samples collected from 38 hospitals were analyzed for the presence of mycobacteria using standard protocols for isolation and characterization of the isolates...
September 9, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Vanessa Albertina Agertt, Pauline Cordenonsi Bonez, Grazielle Guidolin Rossi, Vanessa da Costa Flores, Fallon Dos Santos Siqueira, Caren Rigon Mizdal, Lenice Lorenço Marques, Gelson Noe Manzoni de Oliveira, Marli Matiko Anraku de Campos
Mycobacteriosis is a type of infection caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM), which can vary from localized illness, such as skin disease, to disseminated disease. Amikacin, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, imipenem and sulfamethoxazole are antimicrobial drugs chosen to treat such illnesses; however, not all patients obtain the cure. The reason why the treatment does not work for those patients is related to the fact that some clinical strains present resistance to the existing antimicrobial drugs; thereby, the research of new therapeutic approaches is extremely relevant...
October 2016: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Vanessa da Costa Flores, Fallon Dos Santos Siqueira, Caren Rigon Mizdal, Pauline Cordenonsi Bonez, Vanessa Albertina Agertt, Sílvio Terra Stefanello, Grazielle Guidolin Rossi, Marli Matiko Anraku de Campos
Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are opportunistic pathogens found in the environment. When in biofilms, mycobacteria is highly resistant to antibacterial treatments. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the antibiofilm activity of antimicrobials commonly used in therapy against mycobacteria. The antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium massiliense was determined in planktonic and sessile populations. The antimicrobials amikacin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, imipenem and sulfamethoxazole were tested...
October 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
D Zingue, C Flaudrops, M Drancourt
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) identification of mycobacteria requires a standard acetonitrile/formic acid pre-MALDI-TOF-MS. We prospectively compared this standard protocol with direct deposit with matrix for the identification of mycobacteria cultured on solid media. We first verified that Mycobacterium tuberculosis was killed after it was mixed with matrix. Then, 111 Mycobacterium isolates previously identified by partial rpoB gene sequencing were tested in parallel by the two protocols...
August 23, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Gabriel T Faz, Mahmoud Eltorky, Bernard Karnath
BACKGROUND Extraskeletal osteosarcomas (ESOS) of the mediastinum are extremely rare and may present with concurrent nontuberculous mycobacteria infection. CASE REPORT We present the second documented case of high-grade anterior mediastinal extraskeletal osteosarcoma in a 59-year-old man with a history of treated, latent tuberculosis (TB). Sputum samples grew Mycoplasma avium complex and Mycobacterium fortuitum. Imaging showed a right-sided 7.6 cm mass with compression of the main bronchus. Subsequent biopsy with vimentin staining established the diagnosis of ESOS...
2016: American Journal of Case Reports
T B Strike, Y Feltrer, E Flach, S K Macgregor, S Guillaume
Disease due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is common in fish. Current recommendations focus on outbreak management by depopulating entire fish stocks and disinfecting tanks. Treatment is not advocated. Treatment may be appropriate, however, where individual, valuable fish are concerned. ZSL London Zoo managed an outbreak of mycobacteriosis in a valuable group of imported F1 captive-bred Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus fosteri) by depopulation, isolation, extensive testing and daily oral antibiotic treatment...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
Shirish S Chandanwale, Ishita Gulati, Dadaso S Baravkar, Sumedha P Shinde, Neha Mishra
Although breast tissue is the most resistant to tuberculosis, its incidence is increasing worldwide. High incidence of breast tuberculosis is presumed in India. The rapidly growing nontubercular mycobacteria, such as Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium chelonae, are of increasing clinical importance because infections due to these organisms are often hospital acquired. The true incidence of M. fortuitum is unknown but it has been estimated to be between 4 and 6 cases per one million people. It causes skin or soft tissue infections following trauma or surgery...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Geeta V Gole, Reena Set, Nishat Khan, Jayanthi Shastri
There has been an increasing awareness of the rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM), of which numerous species and phylogenetic groups are clearly established human pathogens. It is important to appropriately distinguish RGM from other mycobacteria, as first-line antituberculous drugs are ineffective for their treatment. Variability in susceptibility of RGM is seen in relation to species, different geographical areas, and time. Therefore, we conducted a study to speciate the isolates of RGM and perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Remya Mareen Paulose, Joveeta Joseph, Raja Narayanan, Savitri Sharma
BACKGROUND: Endophthalmitis caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is a rare condition seen after surgery and trauma. This study reports a retrospective, consecutive, non-comparative case series of 5 patients referred to L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, and diagnosed with culture-proven NTM endophthalmitis between January 2004 and April 2015. Data collected included demographic information, presenting features, microbiology investigation, treatment course, and final visual outcome...
December 2016: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
Jeong Su Park, Soon Hee Choi, Sang Mee Hwang, Yun Ji Hong, Taek Soo Kim, Kyoung Un Park, Junghan Song, Eui-Chong Kim
BACKGROUND: Protein extraction step is particularly important for identification of mycobacterial isolates by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) because of its thick and solid cell wall. This study compared the performance of MALDI-TOF MS for identification of mycobacterial clinical isolates cultured in liquid media between heating-based protocol and non-heating protocol. METHODS: Clinical mycobacterial isolates cultured in liquid media were prospectively analyzed...
September 1, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Nomakorinte Gcebe, Anita Michel, Nicolaas C Gey van Pittius, Victor Rutten
The Esx and PE/PPE families of proteins are among the most immunodominant mycobacterial antigens and have thus been the focus of research to develop vaccines and immunological tests for diagnosis of bovine and human tuberculosis, mainly caused by Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively. In non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), multiple copies of genes encoding homologous proteins have mainly been identified in pathogenic Mycobacterium species phylogenically related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Julie Konjek, Sabiha Souded, Yann Guerardel, Xavier Trivelli, Audrey Bernut, Laurent Kremer, Benedicte Welte, Michel Joyeux, Sylvie Dubrou, Jean-Paul Euzeby, Jean-Louis Gaillard, Guillaume Sapriel, Beate Heym
From our recent survey of non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria in the Parisian water system, three groups of isolates (taxon 1 to taxon 3) corresponding to possible new species were selected for taxonomic study. The three taxons each formed creamy, white, rough colonies, had an optimal growth temperature of 30°C, hydrolyzed Tween 80, were catalase positive at 22°C and expressed arylsulfatase activity. All three were susceptible to amikacin, ciprofloxacin and tigecycline. The three species produced unique sets of mycolic acids, including one family that has never previously been described, as determined by thin layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance...
June 30, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
S K Shah, K J McAnally, L Seoane, G A Lombard, S G LaPlace, S Lick, G S Dhillon, V G Valentine
PURPOSE: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are important pathogens in lung transplant recipients. This study describes the spectrum of NTM respiratory tract infections and examines the association of NTM infections with lung transplant complications. METHODS: Data from 208 recipients transplanted from November 1990 to November 2005 were analyzed. Follow-up data were available to November 2010. Lung infection was defined by bronchoalveolar lavage, sputum, or blood cultures in the appropriate clinical setting...
August 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Nyasha Chin'ombe, Boniface Muzividzi, Ellen Munemo, Pasipanodya Nziramasanga
BACKGROUND: Several nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) were previously isolated from diverse environments such as water, soil, sewage, food and animals. Some of these NTM are now known to be opportunistic pathogens of humans. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of the study was to identify NTM isolates stored at the National Microbiology Reference Laboratory (NMRL) and were previously isolated from humans during a national tuberculosis (TB) survey. METHODS: Pure NTM cultures already isolated from human sputum samples during the national TB survey were retrieved from the NMRL and used for this study...
2016: Open Microbiology Journal
Dawn N King, Maura J Donohue, Stephen J Vesper, Eric N Villegas, Michael W Ware, Megan E Vogel, Edward F Furlong, Dana W Kolpin, Susan T Glassmeyer, Stacy Pfaller
An occurrence survey was conducted on selected pathogens in source and treated drinking water collected from 25 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in the United States. Water samples were analyzed for the protozoa Giardia and Cryptosporidium (EPA Method 1623); the fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus (quantitative PCR [qPCR]); and the bacteria Legionella pneumophila (qPCR), Mycobacterium avium, M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Mycobacterium intracellulare (qPCR and culture)...
August 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Nanpeng Gong, Yang Tan, Min Li, Weiping Lu, Xia Lei
Atypical mycobacterial skin infection is rare in clinical practice. Because atypical mycobacteria are highly hydrophobic, the permeability of the outer membrane of the bacterial wall is very low, which makes it difficult for drugs to cross the barrier. Additionally, atypical mycobacteria are resistant to many drugs, and thus, infection tends to last for a long time and become recurrent and difficult to treat. Thus, it is very important to find new, more effective treatment methods. Mycobacterium fortuitum is a type of fast-growing atypical mycobacterium that is resistant to all of the primary anti-TB drugs and thus is very difficult to treat...
September 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
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