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Shunjiro Noguchi, Yuko Nishimoto, Yoshio Taguchi, Yoichiro Kobashi, Satoshi Noma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Antonio Di Matteo, Rosa Russo, Giulia Graziani, Alberto Ritieni, Claudio Di Vaio
BACKGROUND: Characterizing germplasm collections of autochthonous cultivars for fruit quality traits could be a successful approach for selection, enhance the organoleptic quality and the level of antioxidants of crop produce, develop new market opportunity and coherent strategies of conservation and valorization. The aim of the study was the evaluation of fruit physico-chemical traits as well as the content of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant capacity in 25 sweet cherry autochthonous cultivars...
October 20, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Michela Malvisi, Fiorentina Palazzo, Nicola Morandi, Barbara Lazzari, John L Williams, Giulio Pagnacco, Giulietta Minozzi
Paratuberculosis in cattle is a chronic granulomatous gastroenteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratubercolosis (MAP) which is endemic worldwide. In dairy herds, it is responsible for huge economic losses. However, current diagnostic methods do not detect subclinical infection making control of the disease difficult. The identification of MAP infected animals during the sub-clinical phase of infection would play a key role in preventing the dissemination of the pathogen and in reducing transmission...
2016: PloS One
Shradha Subedi, Fanrong Kong, Peter Jelfs, Timothy J Gray, Meng Xiao, Vitali Sintchenko, Sharon C-A Chen
Accurate identification of slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (SG-NTM) of clinical significance remains problematic. This study evaluated a novel method of SG-NTM identification by amplification of the mycobacterial 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region followed by resolution of amplified fragments by sequencer-based capillary gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Fourteen American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains and 103 clinical/environmental isolates (total n = 24 species) of SG-NTM were included...
2016: PloS One
Kenneth N Olivier, David E Griffith, Gina Eagle, John P McGinnis Ii, Liza Micioni, Keith Liu, Charles L Daley, Kevin L Winthrop, Stephen Ruoss, Doreen J Addrizzo-Harris, Patrick A Flume, Daniel Dorgan, Matthias Salathe, Barbara A Brown-Elliott, Renu Gupta, Richard J Wallace
Rationale Lengthy multi-drug, toxic, and low efficacy regimens limit management of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) disease. Objective This phase 2 study investigated efficacy and safety of liposomal amikacin for inhalation (LAI) in treatment-refractory PNTM (Mycobacterium avium complex [MAC] or Mycobacterium abscessus) disease. Methods During the double-blind phase, patients were randomly assigned to LAI (590 mg) or placebo once daily added to their multi-drug regimen for 84 days. Both groups could receive open-label LAI for 84 additional days...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Mark L Metersky, Antranik Mangardich
Chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD), characterized by a bronchiectasis-like syndrome in the absence of bronchial dilatation, is well described in the pediatric literature. In some patients, it may be a precursor of bronchiectasis. In adults, this syndrome has not been well described. We present four adult patients without obvious causative exposures who presented with prolonged cough and purulent sputum. Sputum cultures revealed a variety of Gram negative bacteria, fungi and mycobacteria. High resolution CT scanning did not reveal bronchiectasis...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Hiroshi Ikeda, Kiwamu Nakamura, Mei Ikenori, Takahiro Saito, Keisuke Nagamine, Minoru Inoue, Takuro Sakagami, Hiroko Suzuki, Mariko Usui, Keiji Kanemitsu, Akinori Matsumoto, Takuro Shinbo
We herein report a case of disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection that involved both optic nerves, the conjunctiva, the right lower lung, and multiple skin lesions, including a thoracic nodule. The patient was a 65-year-old man without any significant medical history. The pathogen was detected in the patient's eye discharge, sputum, bronchial lavage fluid, and thoracic nodule. Anti-mycobacterial chemotherapy, including clarithromycin, rifampicin, and ethambutol, was administered, and the thoracic nodule was resected...
2016: Internal Medicine
Kiran M Perkins, Adrian Lawsin, Nabeeh A Hasan, Michael Strong, Alison L Halpin, Rachael R Rodger, Heather Moulton-Meissner, Matthew B Crist, Suzanne Schwartz, Julia Marders, Charles L Daley, Max Salfinger, Joseph F Perz
In the spring of 2015, investigators in Switzerland reported a cluster of six patients with invasive infection with Mycobacterium chimaera, a species of nontuberculous mycobacterium ubiquitous in soil and water. The infected patients had undergone open-heart surgery that used contaminated heater-cooler devices during extracorporeal circulation (1). In July 2015, a Pennsylvania hospital also identified a cluster of invasive nontuberculous mycobacterial infections among open-heart surgery patients. Similar to the Swiss report, a field investigation by the Pennsylvania Department of Health, with assistance from CDC, used both epidemiologic and laboratory evidence to identify an association between invasive Mycobacterium avium complex, including M...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Kaare Græsbøll, Lars Ole Andresen, Tariq Halasa, Nils Toft
Testing large quantities of samples in order to detect one or more test-positive sample(s) is expensive and time-consuming. It is possible to optimize this process by pooling samples. Two frameworks to produce different hierarchical and non-hierarchical pooling schemes were tested and compared to standard pooling. Their efficiency and the potential savings were determined as a function of prevalence and the number of pooled samples. The potential benefit of pooling samples is dependent upon the changes in the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the test used when diluting test-positive samples by pooling...
September 29, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Bodo Linz, Yury V Ivanov, Andrew Preston, Lauren Brinkac, Julian Parkhill, Maria Kim, Simon R Harris, Laura L Goodfield, Norman K Fry, Andrew R Gorringe, Tracy L Nicholson, Karen B Register, Liliana Losada, Eric T Harvill
BACKGROUND: The genus Bordetella consists of nine species that include important respiratory pathogens such as the 'classical' species B. bronchiseptica, B. pertussis and B. parapertussis and six more distantly related and less extensively studied species. Here we analyze sequence diversity and gene content of 128 genome sequences from all nine species with focus on the evolution of virulence-associated factors. RESULTS: Both genome-wide sequence-based and gene content-based phylogenetic trees divide the genus into three species clades...
September 30, 2016: BMC Genomics
Ahmad Qasem, Mitra Safavikhasraghi, Saleh A Naser
BACKGROUND: Most recently we reported that RHB‑104 triple antibiotics combination in culture is bactericidal and should be effective for treatment of Crohn's disease (CD)-associated with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) (Alcedo et al. in Gut Pathog 14:32, 2016). The combination exhibited unique synergistic antimicrobial growth activity. The proprietary RHB-104 capsule formulation contains active ingredients (63.3 % Clarithromycin (CLA), 6.7 % Clofazimine (CLO) and 30 % Rifabutin (RIF))...
2016: Gut Pathogens
Kohei Fujita, Masaki Fujita, Yutaka Ito, Toyohiro Hirai, Tadashi Mio, Kentaro Watanabe, Michiaki Mishima
Although sitafloxacin (STFX) is known to have a favorable minimum inhibitory concentration for Mycobacterium avium, few studies have evaluated the clinical efficacy of an STFX-containing regimen for pulmonary M avium complex (MAC) disease. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of STFX-containing regimens for relapsed or refractory pulmonary MAC disease, we retrospectively reviewed 18 patients with pulmonary MAC disease who received STFX for at least 4 weeks for pulmonary MAC disease between January 2008 and February 2016...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Miklas Scholz, Vincent C Uzomah, Furat A M Al-Faraj
This study aims to assess the potential of trees for integration in urban development by evaluating the damage caused by trees in relation to various tree characteristics. Tree damage to permeable pavement systems and other urban structures such as impermeable pavements, kerbs, roads, retaining walls, footpaths, walls and buildings were assessed to identify the most suitable trees for the urban environment. One hundred square sites of 100 m × 100 m were randomly selected in Greater Manchester for this representative example case study to demonstrate the assessment methodology...
September 2016: Heliyon
Juan C Arango-Sabogal, Olivia Labrecque, Julie Paré, Julie-Hélène Fairbrother, Jean-Philippe Roy, Vincent Wellemans, Gilles Fecteau
Culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the definitive antemortem test method for paratuberculosis. Microbial overgrowth is a challenge for MAP culture, as it complicates, delays, and increases the cost of the process. Additionally, herd status determination is impeded when noninterpretable (NI) results are obtained. The performance of PCR is comparable to fecal culture, thus it may be a complementary detection tool to classify NI samples. Our study aimed to determine if MAP DNA can be identified by PCR performed on NI environmental samples and to evaluate the performance of PCR before and after the culture of these samples in liquid media...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Özge Mine Örenay, Funda Tamer, Evren Sarıfakıoğlu, Umran Yıldırım
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Panonica, et Adriatica
Katarina Čurić, Mario Poljak, Alojz Ihan, Janez Tomažič
A small proportion of HIV-infected patients rapidly progress to AIDS; indeed, some individuals have been known to progress to AIDS within a year after primary infection. Pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii (PCP) is the most frequent AIDS-defining illness. However, PCP can also rarely occur during primary HIV infection as a result of the severe immunosuppression that may accompany the early stage of HIV infection. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) comprises two distinct syndromes: paradoxical IRIS and unmasking IRIS...
September 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Panonica, et Adriatica
Ranu Surolia, Suman Karki, Zheng Wang, Tejaswini Kulkarni, Fu Jun Li, Shikhar Vohra, Hitesh Batra, Jerry A Nick, Steven R Duncan, Victor J Thannickal, Adrie Jc Steyn, Anupam Agarwal, Veena B Antony
Pulmonary infections with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (P-NTM) such as by Mycobacterium avium complex (M. avium) are increasingly found in the elderly, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Recent studies suggest that adaptive immunity is necessary but not sufficient for host defense against mycobacteria. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been recognized as a critical modulator of granuloma formation and programmed cell death in mycobacterial infections. Old mice (18-21 months) infected with M. avium had attenuated HO-1 response with diffuse inflammation, high burden of mycobacteria, poor granuloma formation, and decreased survival (45%) while young mice (4-6 months) showed tight, well defined granuloma, increased HO-1 expression and increased survival (95%)...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
A Beaver, P L Ruegg, Y T Gröhn, Y H Schukken
Johne's disease, a granulomatous enteritis of ruminant animals, is a hidden threat on dairy farms, adversely affecting animal welfare as well as herd productivity. Control programs in the United States advocate for specific management practices to temper the spread of the causal organism (Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, MAP), such as improving calving area hygiene and limiting introduction of replacement stock with unknown infection status. A need remains for direct exploration of Johne's disease prevention strategies in the United States with respect to production type...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
E P Judge, M Ahmed, M Fitzgerald, A M McLaughlin, J Keane
The prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease is increasing globally. However, reliable national and international data relating to its epidemiology and management is lacking. During the period 2003-2014, MAC was isolated from the pulmonary samples of 75 patients at the Irish Mycobacteria Reference Laboratory (IMRL). Most patients (42, 56%) had underlying pulmonary disease, and 37 (49%) had clinical/radiographic characteristics consistent with MAC pulmonary disease. However, only 18 patients (24%) fulfilled internationally accepted criteria for diagnosis/treatment of this disease...
2016: Irish Medical Journal
Ivan Malík, Jozef Csöllei, Josef Jampílek, Lukáš Stanzel, Iveta Zadražilová, Jan Hošek, Šárka Pospíšilová, Alois Čížek, Aidan Coffey, Jim O'Mahony
This research was focused on in silico characterization and in vitro biological testing of the series of the compounds carrying a N-arylpiperazine moiety. The in silico investigation was based on the prediction of electronic, steric and lipohydrophilic features. The molecules were screened against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis CIT03, M. smegmatis ATCC 700084, M. kansasii DSM 44162, M. marinum CAMP 5644, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, methicillin-resistant S. aureus 63718, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Candida albicans CCM 8261, C...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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