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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930014/surveillance-of-extrapulmonary-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-infections-oregon-usa-2007-2012
#1
Emily Henkle, Katrina Hedberg, Sean D Schafer, Kevin L Winthrop
Limited data are available describing extrapulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections in the general population. We describe results from statewide population-based laboratory surveillance in Oregon, USA, during 2007-2012. We defined a case of extrapulmonary NTM infection as >1 isolate from skin/soft tissue, disseminated sites, lymph node, joint, or other sites. The annual incidence of extrapulmonary NTM infection (other than Mycobacterium gordonae) was stable, averaging 1.5 cases/100,000 population...
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928423/use-of-an-individual-based-model-to-control-transmission-pathways-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-infection-in-cattle-herds
#2
M A Al-Mamun, R L Smith, Y H Schukken, Y T Gröhn
Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic enteric disease in cattle caused by Mycobacterium avian subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Eradicating JD is a difficult task due to the long incubation period of MAP, inefficient diagnostic tests, and delayed clinical signs. Effective control strategies can help farmers to reduce prevalence, but those most acceptable to farmers combine specific information about lactation performance and testing results, which existing models do not provide. This paper presents an individual-based model of MAP infection dynamics and assesses the relative performance of the applied alternative control strategies...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926798/cloning-and-expression-profiling-of-the-pacsnrk2-and-pacpp2c-gene-families-during-fruit-development-aba-treatment-and-dehydration-stress-in-sweet-cherry
#3
Xinjie Shen, Xiao Guo, Di Zhao, Qiang Zhang, Yuzhuang Jiang, Yantao Wang, Xiang Peng, Yan Wei, Zefeng Zhai, Wei Zhao, Tianhong Li
Plant SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) and protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) family members are core components of the ABA signal transduction pathway. SnRK2 and PP2C proteins have been suggested to play crucial roles in fruit ripening and improving plant tolerance to drought stress, but supporting genetic information has been lacking in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Here, we cloned six full-length SnRK2 genes and three full-length PP2C genes from sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that PacSnRK2...
September 6, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925956/sulfadiazine-salicylaldehyde-based-schiff-bases-synthesis-antimicrobial-activity-and-cytotoxicity
#4
Martin Krátký, Magdaléna Dzurková, Jiří Janoušek, Klára Konečná, František Trejtnar, Jiřina Stolaříková, Jarmila Vinšová
The resistance among microbes has brought an urgent need for new drugs. Thus, we synthesized a series of Schiff bases derived from the sulfa drug sulfadiazine and various salicylaldehydes. The resulting 4-[(2-hydroxybenzylidene)amino]-N-(pyrimidin-2-yl)benzene-sulfonamides were characterized and evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, moulds, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nontuberculous mycobacteria (M. kansasii, M. avium) and their cytotoxicity was determined. Among bacteria, the genus Staphylococcus, including methicillin-resistant S...
September 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923675/respiratory-infections-due-to-nontuberculous-mycobacterias
#5
REVIEW
Luis Máiz Carro, Esther Barbero Herranz, Rosa Nieto Royo
The most common infections caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are lung infections. The microorganisms causing these infections most frequently are Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium abscessus complex. Their incidence has increased in the last three decades. After identifying an NTM in the respiratory tract, clinical and radiological aspects must be considered to determine if isolations are clinically relevant. Predisposing conditions that could contribute to infection must also be investigated...
September 15, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922813/meta-analyses-and-the-evidence-base-for-microbial-outcomes-in-the-treatment-of-pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-intracellulare-complex-disease
#6
Jotam G Pasipanodya, Deborah Ogbonna, Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Tawanda Gumbo
Objectives: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the level of funding support and the sputum culture conversion rates in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (P-MAC) disease in adult patients without cystic fibrosis or HIV infection, treated with recommended antibiotic regimens. Methods: We performed a literature search to identify clinical trials, prospective studies and registries that reported outcomes in P-MAC patients. Studies that reported P-MAC diagnosis and treatments based on established guidelines met the inclusion criteria and were examined for bias and quality...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922812/treatment-of-mycobacterium-avium-intracellulare-complex-a-great-leap-forward
#7
Jan-Willem C Alffenaar, Jakko van Ingen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922811/a-programme-to-create-short-course-chemotherapy-for-pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-disease-based-on-pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-and-mathematical-forecasting
#8
Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Tawanda Gumbo
Objectives: Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) prevalence is on the rise worldwide. The average therapy duration is 1.5 years, which is associated with poor cure rates. Our objective was to develop a programme to design a combination therapy regimen for pulmonary MAC to be administered for 6 months or less with efficacy in > 90% of patients. Methods: We performed a literature search for the following MeSH headings 'Mycobacterium avium' AND 'pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics' in PubMed up to 2016...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922810/a-shock-and-awe-thioridazine-and-moxifloxacin-combination-based-regimen-for-pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-intracellulare-complex-disease
#9
Shashikant Srivastava, Devyani Deshpande, Carleton M Sherman, Tawanda Gumbo
Objectives: To develop a thioridazine/moxifloxacin-based combination regimen for treatment of pulmonary infection due to Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) that kills bacteria faster than the standard treatment regimen. Methods: Monocytes were infected with MAC and inoculated into the hollow-fibre system model for pulmonary MAC disease (HFS-MAC). We co-administered ethambutol plus azithromycin daily for 28 days, to achieve the same human concentration-time profiles that result from standard doses, in three HFS-MAC systems...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922809/a-novel-ceftazidime-avibactam-rifabutin-tedizolid-and-moxifloxacin-cartm-regimen-for-pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-disease
#10
Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Pooi S Lee, Tawanda Gumbo
Objectives: To compare the efficacy of ceftazidime/avibactam plus tedizolid-based combination regimens with the standard therapy of azithromycin, ethambutol and rifabutin for the treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease. Methods: We mimicked the human pulmonary concentration-time profiles of ceftazidime/avibactam and tedizolid in combination, ceftazidime/avibactam, rifabutin, tedizolid and moxifloxacin (CARTM), and the standard regimen and examined microbial kill in triplicate hollow-fibre system model of intracellular pulmonary MAC (HFS-MAC) units...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922808/the-discovery-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-as-an-anti-mycobacterium-avium-agent
#11
Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Moti L Chapagain, Pooi S Lee, Kayle N Cirrincione, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Tawanda Gumbo
Objectives: To determine if ceftaroline and ceftazidime combined with avibactam are efficacious against pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease. Methods: First, we performed a concentration-effect study of ceftaroline and ceftaroline/avibactam against extracellular MAC in test tubes. Given the difficulty of obtaining avibactam at the time of experimentation, we used a single concentration of commercial ceftazidime/avibactam, and two sets of non-treated controls, one with ceftazidime/avibactam and the other without...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922807/tedizolid-is-highly-bactericidal-in-the-treatment-of-pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-complex-disease
#12
Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Pooi S Lee, Tawanda Gumbo
Objectives: To determine if tedizolid is effective for pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease, and to use pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics to design optimal doses. Methods: We performed an exposure-response experiment in the hollow-fibre system model of intracellular MAC (HFS-MAC). We mimicked the tedizolid concentration-time profiles achieved in the lungs of patients treated once daily for 28 days. The HFS-MAC was sampled at intervals to determine the tedizolid pharmacokinetics and MAC intracellular burden...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922806/linezolid-as-treatment-for-pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-disease
#13
Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Tawanda Gumbo
Objectives: To identify the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters and exposures of linezolid in the treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease. Methods: Human-derived monocytes infected with MAC were inoculated into hollow-fibre systems for dose-effect and dose-scheduling studies. We mimicked linezolid concentration-time profiles achieved in adult human lungs treated for 28 days. Sampling to confirm that the intended linezolid pharmacokinetics had been achieved, and for enumeration of MAC colony-forming units, was performed based on repetitive sampling from each system over the 28 days...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922805/failure-of-the-azithromycin-and-ethambutol-combination-regimen-in-the-hollow-fibre-system-model-of-pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-infection-is-due-to-acquired-resistance
#14
Shashikant Srivastava, Devyani Deshpande, Tawanda Gumbo
Objectives: To investigate the performance of the two backbone drugs in the standard combination therapy regimen in the hollow-fibre system (HFS) model of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection. Methods: Six HFS were inoculated with human-derived monocytes infected with MAC, and treated with 15 mg/kg of ethambutol and 500 mg of azithromycin daily for 28 days to recapitulate the concentration-time profiles seen in the lungs of humans treated with these drugs and doses...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920813/mycobacteriosis-in-captive-psittacines-a-brief-review-and-case-series-in-common-companion-species-eclectus-roratus-amazona-oratrix-and-pionites-melanocephala
#15
Anna Elizabeth McRee, Christine T Higbie, Javier G Nevarez, Nathalie T Rademacher, Thomas N Tully
In 2015, three psittacines were presented within 30 days, each with differing clinical signs and patient histories. A 13-yr-old male eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus) was presented for weakness, depression, and acute anorexia. On presentation it was determined to have a heart murmur, severely elevated white blood cell count (93.9 10(3)/μl) with a left shift (2.8 10(3)/μl bands), and anemia (30%). Severe hepatomegaly was noted on radiographs, ultrasonography, and computed tomography. A cytological sample of the liver obtained through a fine needle aspirate revealed intracellular acid-fast bacilli identified as Mycobacterium avium...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920543/control-of-clinical-paratuberculosis-in-new-zealand-pastoral-livestock
#16
M Gautam, A Ridler, P R Wilson, C Heuer
This review summarises current control measures for clinical paratuberculosis (Johne's disease; JD) in New Zealand pastoral livestock. Most New Zealand sheep, deer, beef and dairy cattle herds and flocks are infected by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map). Dairy cattle and deer are mostly infected with bovine (Type II), and sheep and beef cattle with ovine (Type I) strains. Control in all industries is voluntary. While control in sheep and beef cattle is ad hoc, the dairy and deer industries have developed resources to assist development of farm-specific programmes...
September 17, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920166/clinical-significance-of-aspergillus-species-isolated-from-respiratory-specimens-in-patients-with-mycobacterium-avium-complex-lung-disease
#17
K Furuuchi, A Ito, T Hashimoto, S Kumagai, T Ishida
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is associated with mortality in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease (MAC-LD). An Aspergillus-positive respiratory specimen often reflects colonization, and thus the clinical significance of Aspergillus isolation in MAC-LD patients is not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of MAC-LD patients in whom Aspergillus was isolated from respiratory specimens. We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of 329 MAC-LD patients...
September 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919398/controlling-bovine-paratuberculosis-at-a-regional-scale-towards-a-decision-modelling-tool
#18
Gaël Beaunée, Elisabeta Vergu, Alain Joly, Pauline Ezanno
Johne's disease (paratuberculosis), a worldwide enzootic disease of cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), mainly introduced into farms by purchasing infected animals, has a large economic impact for dairy producers. Since diagnostic tests used in routine are poorly sensitive, observing Map spread in the field is hardly possible, whereas there is a need for evaluating control strategies. Our objective was to provide a modelling framework to compare the efficacy of regional control strategies combining internal biosecurity measures and testing of traded animals, against Map spread in a metapopulation of dairy cattle herds...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918274/distribution-comparison-and-risk-assessment-of-free-floating-and-particle-attached-bacterial-pathogens-in-urban-recreational-water-implications-for-water-quality-management
#19
Tingting Fang, Qijia Cui, Yong Huang, Peiyan Dong, Hui Wang, Wen-Tso Liu, Quanhui Ye
The risk of pathogen exposure in recreational water is a concern worldwide. Moreover, suspended particles, as ideal shelters for pathogens, in these waters also need attention. However, the risk caused by the pathogen-particle attachment is largely unknown. Accordingly, water samples in three recreational lakes in Beijing were collected and separated into free-floating (FL, 0.22-5μm) and particle-attached (PA, >5μm) fractions. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was employed to determine the diversity of genera containing pathogens, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to assess the presence of genes from Escherichia coli (uidA), Salmonella enterica (invA), Aeromonas spp...
September 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915071/transcriptional-response-of-respiratory-epithelium-to-nontuberculous-mycobacteria
#20
Masashi Matsuyama, Andrew J Martins, Shamira Shallom, Olena Kamenyeva, Anuj Kashyap, Elizabeth P Sampaio, Juraj Kabat, Kenneth N Olivier, Adrian M Zelazny, John S Tsang, Steven M Holland
RATIONALE: The incidence of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) disease is increasing, but host responses in respiratory epithelium infected with NTM are not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify infection-relevant gene expression signatures of NTM infection of the respiratory epithelium. METHODS: We infected air-liquid interface (ALI) primary respiratory epithelial cell cultures with Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAC) or Mycobacterium abscessuss subsp...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
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