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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210245/pcr-inhibition-of-a-quantitative-pcr-for-detection-of-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis-dna-in-feces-diagnostic-implications-and-potential-solutions
#1
Kamal R Acharya, Navneet K Dhand, Richard J Whittington, Karren M Plain
Molecular tests such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are increasingly being applied for the diagnosis of Johne's disease, a chronic intestinal infection of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Feces, as the primary test sample, presents challenges in terms of effective DNA isolation, with potential for PCR inhibition and ultimately for reduced analytical and diagnostic sensitivity. However, limited evidence is available regarding the magnitude and diagnostic implications of PCR inhibition for the detection of MAP in feces...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194371/non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-in-south-african-wildlife-neglected-pathogens-and-potential-impediments-for-bovine-tuberculosis-diagnosis
#2
Nomakorinte Gcebe, Tiny M Hlokwe
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are not only emerging and opportunistic pathogens of both humans and animals, but from a veterinary point of view some species induce cross-reactive immune responses that hamper the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in both livestock and wildlife. Little information is available about NTM species circulating in wildlife species of South Africa. In this study, we determined the diversity of NTM isolated from wildlife species from South Africa as well as Botswana. Thirty known NTM species and subspecies, as well as unidentified NTM, and NTM closely related to Mycobacterium goodii/Mycobacterium smegmatis were identified from 102 isolates cultured between the years 1998 and 2010, using a combination of molecular assays viz PCR and sequencing of different Mycobacterial house-keeping genes as well as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182785/virulence-and-immunogenicity-of-genetically-defined-human-and-porcine-isolates-of-m-avium-subsp-hominissuis-in-an-experimental-mouse-infection
#3
Nicolas Bruffaerts, Christelle Vluggen, Virginie Roupie, Lucille Duytschaever, Christophe Van den Poel, Joseph Denoël, Ruddy Wattiez, Jean-Jacques Letesson, David Fretin, Leen Rigouts, Ophélie Chapeira, Vanessa Mathys, Claude Saegerman, Kris Huygen
Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (Mah) represents a health concern for humans and to a lesser extent for pigs, but its zoonotic potential remains elusive. Using multispacer sequence typing (MST) we previously identified 49 different genotypes of Mah among Belgian clinical and porcine isolates, with 5 MSTs shared by both hosts. Using experimental intranasal infection of BALB/c mice, we compared the virulence and immunogenicity of porcine and clinical human isolates with shared genotype or with a genotype only found in humans or pigs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178715/infectious-causes-of-right-middle-lobe-syndrome
#4
Aatif Rashid, Sowmya Nanjappa, John N Greene
Right middle lobe (RML) syndrome is defined as recurrent or chronic obstruction or infection of the middle lobe of the right lung. Nonobstructive causes of middle lobe syndrome include inflammatory processes and defects in the bronchial anatomy and collateral ventilation. We report on 2 case patients with RML syndrome, one due to infection with Mycobacterium avium complex followed by M asiaticum infection and the other due to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A history of atopy, asthma, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been reported in up to one-half of those with RML...
January 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169347/attenuation-of-lymphocyte-immune-responses-during-mycobacterium-avium-complex-induced-lung-disease-due-to-increasing-expression-of-programmed-death-1-on-lymphocytes
#5
Chin-Chung Shu, Jann-Yuan Wang, Ming-Fang Wu, Chen-Tu Wu, Hsin-Chih Lai, Li-Na Lee, Bor-Luen Chiang, Chong-Jen Yu
Mycobacterium avium complex-induced lung disease (MAC-LD) becomes important due to its increasing prevalence. Attenuated cellular immunity associated with programmed cell death (PD)-1 may play a pathophysiological role in MAC-LD but lacks of investigation. We enrolled 80 participants in this prospective study, including 50 with MAC-LD and 30 healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), lymphocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages were used for MAC antigen stimulation. Patients with MAC-LD had lower tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ responses compared to the healthy controls in PBMC stimulation assays with MAC bacilli...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166858/genetic-diversity-of-mycobacterium-avium-complex-strains-isolated-in-argentina-by-miru-vntr
#6
B R Imperiale, R D Moyano, A B DI Giulio, M A Romero, M F Alvarado Pinedo, M P Santangelo, G E Travería, N S Morcillo, M I Romano
Mycobacterium avium sp. avium (MAA), M. avium sp. hominissuis (MAH), and M. avium sp. paratuberculosis (MAP) are the main members of the M. avium complex (MAC) causing diseases in several hosts. The aim of this study was to describe the genetic diversity of MAC isolated from different hosts. Twenty-six MAH and 61 MAP isolates were recovered from humans and cattle, respectively. GenoType CM® and IS1311-PCR were used to identify Mycobacterium species. The IS901-PCR was used to differentiate between MAH and MAA, while IS900-PCR was used to identify MAP...
February 7, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163944/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-opening-pandora-s-box
#7
Mariana Meireles, Conceição Souto Moura, Margarida França
One of the purposes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is to restore the immune system. However, it can sometimes lead to an aberrant inflammatory response and paradoxical clinical worsening known as the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). We describe a 23-year-old male, HIV1 infected with a rapid progression phenotype, who started ART with TCD4+ of 53 cells/mm(3) (3,3%) and HIV RNA = 890000 copies/mL (6 log). Four weeks later he was admitted to the intensive care unit with severe sepsis...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156101/mycobacteria-encode-active-and-inactive-classes-of-tesb-fatty-acyl-coa-thioesterases-revealed-through-structural-and-functional-analysis
#8
Crystall M D Swarbrick, Glennon V Bythrow, David Guerra Aragão, Gabrielle A Germain, Luis E N Quadri, Jade K Forwood
Mycobacteria contain a large number of highly divergent species, and exhibit unusual lipid metabolism profiles, believed to play important roles in immune invasion. Thioesterases modulate lipid metabolism through the hydrolysis of activated fatty-acyl CoAs, and multiple copies are present in mycobacteria, yet many remain uncharacterized. Here, we undertake a comprehensive structural and functional analysis of a TesB thioesterase from Mycobacterium avium (MaTesB). Structural superposition with other TesB thioesterases reveal that the Asp active site residue, highly conserved across a wide range of TesB thioesterases, is mutated to Ala...
February 3, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155911/effects-of-nutritional-and-ambient-oxygen-condition-on-biofilm-formation-in-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-hominissuis-via-altered-glycolipid-expression
#9
Takahiro Totani, Yukiko Nishiuchi, Yoshitaka Tateishi, Yutaka Yoshida, Hiromi Kitanaka, Mamiko Niki, Yukihiro Kaneko, Sohkichi Matsumoto
Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) is the major causative agent of nontuberculous mycobacteriosis, the representative case of environment-related infectious diseases the incidence of which is increasing in industrialized countries. MAH is found in biofilm in drinking water distribution system and residential environments. We investigated the effect of gaseous and nutritional conditions, and the role of glycopeptidolipids (GPLs) on biofilm-like pellicle formation in MAH. Pellicle formation was observed under 5% oxygen in Middlebrook 7H9 broth containing 0...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150579/clinical-significance-of-the-radiological-severity-score-in-mycobacterium-avium-complex-lung-disease-patients
#10
K Furuuchi, A Ito, T Hashimoto, S Kumagai, T Ishida
<h2>SETTING:</h2><p>Practical methods for assessing the radiographic findings of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease (MAC-LD) have not been established.</p><h2>OBJECTIVE:</h2><p>To identify a correlation between the radiological score and semi-quantitative culture results of respiratory samples, and to assess the prognostic impact of this radiological score in MAC-LD patients.</p><h2>DESIGN:</h2><p>We retrospectively studied 218 MAC-LD patients...
January 26, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139519/emergence-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-at-a-teaching-hospital-saudi-arabia
#11
Fawzia E Alotaibi, Elham E Bukhari
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are a major and emerging hospital-acquired pathogen associated with high mortality, particularly among the critically ill and Intensive Care Units (ICUs) patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and demographic and clinical characteristics of VRE among patients admitted to a university hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A study was conducted during the period from September 2014 to November 2015 at King Khalid University Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, including in-patients with VRE infection...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132959/detection-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-in-kidney-samples-of-red-deer-cervus-elaphus-in-portugal-evaluation-of-different-methods
#12
Ana C Matos, Luis Figueira, Maria H Martins, Manuela Matos, Sofia Álvares, Andreia Mendes, Maria L Pinto, Ana C Coelho
Paratuberculosis or Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a chronic granulomatous enteritis affecting both domestic and wild ruminants. The present work is part of a wider set of studies designed to assess the prevalence of paratuberculosis in free ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus). With that purpose, 877 free-ranging red deer legally hunted in the Centre-eastern Portugal were submitted to necropsy and sampled for molecular methods, microbiology and histopathology...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131895/biofilm-formation-and-cellulose-expression-by-bordetella-avium-197n-the-causative-agent-of-bordetellosis-in-birds-and-an-opportunistic-respiratory-pathogen-in-humans
#13
Kimberley McLaughlin, Ayorinde O Folorunso, Yusuf Y Deeni, Dona Foster, Oksana Gorbatiuk, Simona M Hapca, Corinna Immoor, Anna Koza, Ibrahim U Mohammed, Olena Moshynets, Sergii Rogalsky, Kamil Zawadzki, Andrew J Spiers
Although bacterial cellulose synthase (bcs) operons are widespread within the Proteobacteria phylum, subunits required for the partial-acetylation of the polymer appear to be restricted to a few γ-group soil, plant-associated and phytopathogenic pseudomonads, including Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and several Pseudomonas syringae pathovars. However, a bcs operon with acetylation subunits has also been annotated in the unrelated β-group respiratory pathogen, Bordetella avium 197N. Our comparison of subunit protein sequences and GC content analyses confirms the close similarity between the B...
January 25, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130998/investigations-and-implications-of-associations-between-mycobacterial-purified-protein-derivative-hypersensitivity-and-map-antibody-elisa-in-irish-dairy-cows
#14
A E Kennedy, N Byrne, J O'Mahony, R G Sayers
Intradermal testing, involving administration of purified protein derivative (PPD), to elicit a delayed hypersensitivity (DTH) response, is used as a diagnostic tool for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and to aid in the identification of exposure to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD). Further research is required to increase the diagnostic value of skin testing for MAP. The aim of this study was to investigate if animals showing DTH reactions to PPD had an associated increase in MAP ELISA response, thereby identifying potential cases of sub-clinical JD...
January 21, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128073/nontuberculous-mycobacteria-overview
#15
Won-Jung Koh
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are emerging pathogens that affect both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The development of molecular methods has allowed the characterization of new species and the identification of NTM to the precise species and subspecies levels. The incidence and prevalence of NTM lung disease are increasing worldwide, and this syndrome accounts for the majority of clinical cases of NTM disease. Common causative organisms of pulmonary infection are the slowly growing mycobacteria Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium kansasii and the rapidly growing mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium abscessus complex...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107563/are-commercial-sweet-cherry-rootstocks-adapted-to-climate-change-short-term-waterlogging-and-co2-effects-on-sweet-cherry-cv-burlat
#16
Margarita Pérez-Jiménez, María Hernández-Munuera, M Carmen Piñero, Gregorio López-Ortega, Francisco M Del Amor
High CO2 is able to ameliorate some negative effects due to climate change and intensify others. This study involves the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivar 'Burlat' grafted on the 'Mariana 2624', 'Adara' and 'LC 52' rootstocks. In a climate chamber at two CO2 concentrations: ambient (400 µmol mol(-1) ) and elevated (800 µmol mol(-1) ), the plants were submitted to waterlogging for seven days, followed by seven days of recovery after drainage. Waterlogging drastically decreased the rate of photosynthesis, significantly endangering plant survival, particularly for the 'LC 52' and 'Adara' rootstocks...
January 20, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099547/primary-cutaneous-mycobacterium-avium-complex-infection-following-squamous-cell-carcinoma-excision
#17
Joseph Dyer, Jonathan Weiss, W Stephen Steiner, Julie A Barber
Primary cutaneous Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is rare, particularly among immunocompetent patients. We present the case of a purportedly healthy patient with primary cutaneous MAC infection arising within the excision margins of multiple infiltrating squamous cell carcinomas.
December 2016: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093102/proteomic-changes-in-the-ileum-of-sheep-infected-with-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis
#18
S Pisanu, T Cubeddu, S Uzzau, S Rocca, M F Addis
Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). To identify the processes activated in the sheep intestine during natural MAP infection, and to provide a panel of differential host and pathogen proteins with diagnostic and prognostic potential, a differential shotgun proteomics workflow, including mass spectrometry, label-free quantisation and pathway analysis, was applied to ileal tissues of ewes with and without JD. Out of 2889 total proteins identified, 384 were differentially expressed and 341 were expressed at a higher level in JD...
January 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070460/metabolic-phenotype-of-clinical-and-environmental-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-hominissuis-isolates
#19
Andrea Sanchini, Flavia Dematheis, Torsten Semmler, Astrid Lewin
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) is an emerging opportunistic human pathogen. It can cause pulmonary infections, lymphadenitis and disseminated infections in immuno-compromised patients. In addition, MAH is widespread in the environment, since it has been isolated from water, soil or dust. In recent years, knowledge on MAH at the molecular level has increased substantially. In contrast, knowledge of the MAH metabolic phenotypes remains limited. METHODS: In this study, for the first time we analyzed the metabolic substrate utilization of ten MAH isolates, five from a clinical source and five from an environmental source...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070308/the-seroprevalence-of-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis-in-dairy-cattle-in-xinjiang-northwest-china
#20
Xianxia Liu, Jianjun Li, Xueyun Yang, Dengfeng Wang, Jianmei Wang, Jianyong Wu
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes chronic, wasting, and progressive enteritis in cattle, bringing significant economic losses in livestock industries. MAP has spread worldwide mainly due to movement of animals. The objective of this study was to determine the MAP seroprevalence in cattle in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Northwest China, and evaluate the difference between intensive farming herds (cattle number in a herd is more than 200, and the cattle cannot have access to pasture) and free-range herds (the cattle are bred by individual households, a herd is defined as the cattle are bred in a village or town in this study)...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
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