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Ana Victoria Gutiérrez, Albertus Viljoen, Eric Ghigo, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Laurent Kremer
Mycobacterium abscessus is a rapidly-growing species causing a diverse panel of clinical manifestations, ranging from cutaneous infections to severe respiratory disease. Its unique cell wall, contributing largely to drug resistance and to pathogenicity, comprises a vast panoply of complex lipids, among which the glycopeptidolipids (GPLs) have been the focus of intense research. These lipids fulfill various important functions, from sliding motility or biofilm formation to interaction with host cells and intramacrophage trafficking...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Su-Young Kim, Byung Woo Jhun, Seong Mi Moon, Sun Hye Shin, Kyeongman Jeon, O Jung Kwon, In Young Yoo, Hee Jae Huh, Chang-Seok Ki, Nam Yong Lee, Sung Jae Shin, Charles L Daley, Gee Young Suh, Won-Jung Koh
Data are limited on the frequency of gyrA and gyrB mutations in fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and M. abscessus complex (MABC). In our analysis, we did not find any resistance-associated mutations in gyrA or gyrB in 105 clinical isolates of MAC or MABC, including 72 moxifloxacin-resistant isolates. Our findings suggest that mechanisms other than gyrA and gyrB mutations contribute to moxifloxacin resistance in these organisms.
June 18, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Ivy B Ramis, Júlia S Vianna, Ana Júlia Reis, Andrea von Groll, Daniela F Ramos, Miguel Viveiros, Pedro E Almeida da Silva
New drugs are needed to treat infections with antimicrobial-resistant Mycobacterium abscessus ; therefore, we evaluated usnic acid as an antimicrobial agent and efflux inhibitor (EI) against M. abscessus . Usnic acid showed antimicrobial activity, and synergistically, the EI verapamil increased this activity. In addition, when we evaluated the interaction of antimicrobials with usnic acid, the increase of their activity was observed. Finally, usnic acid showed an efflux inhibitory effect between the classical EIs verapamil and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazine...
June 18, 2018: Planta Medica
Fábio M Oliveira, Adeliane C Da Costa, Victor O Procopio, Wanius Garcia, Juscemácia N Araújo, Roosevelt A Da Silva, Ana Paula Junqueira-Kipnis, André Kipnis
Mycobacterium abscessus complex has been characterized in the last decade as part of a cluster of mycobacteria that evolved from an opportunistic to true human pathogen; however, the factors responsible for pathogenicity are still undefined. It appears that the success of mycobacterial infection is intrinsically related with the capacity of the bacteria to regulate intracellular iron levels, mostly using iron storage proteins. This study evaluated two potential M. abscessus subsp. massiliense genes involved in iron storage...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zara I Kirkwood, Beverley Cherie Millar, Damian G Downey, John E Moore
Background: The emergence of antimicrobial resistance globally has initiated the discovery of novel antibiotics and other antimicrobial substances. Many of these novel compounds may be found in phytochemicals, where these novel compounds are extremely difficult to redissolve for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, following extraction. The aim of this study was to examine the potential antimicrobial effects of the common solvents, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF), which are commonly employed as solvents of novel antimicrobial substances, with the nontuberculous Mycobacterium and Mycobacterium abscessus...
April 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Emma Tippett, Samantha Ellis, John Wilson, Tom Kotsimbos, Denis Spelman
Background: Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MAbsC) is a significant management dilemma when taking care of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: We undertook a retrospective cohort analysis of all CF patients in whom MAbsC was isolated from 2005 to 2014. The natural history of MAbsC was determined and clinical factors examined in an attempt to predict transient compared to persistent colonization. Results: No correlation was found between recurrent MAbsC isolation and clinical factors such as body mass index, respiratory function, or age...
April 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Jennifer Adjemian, Kenneth N Olivier, D Rebecca Prevots
RATIONALE: Pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease represents a significant threat to cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, with an estimated annual prevalence of 12%. Prior studies report an increasing annual NTM prevalence in the general population, though similar trends in persons with CF have not been assessed. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify the prevalence, geographic patterns, temporal trends and risk factors for NTM positivity by mycobacterial species among persons with CF throughout the United States...
June 13, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Gabriella S Lamb, Jeffrey R Starke
There is limited literature on Mycobacterium abscessus infections in children and limited data about its diagnosis and management. The incidence of infections due to M abscessus appears to be increasing in certain populations and can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality.Management of these infections is challenging and relies on combination antimicrobial therapy and debridement of diseased tissue, depending on the site and extent of disease. Treatment regimens often are difficult to tolerate, and the antimicrobials used can cause significant adverse effects, particularly given the long duration of therapy needed...
June 12, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Jonatan David Nunez Breton, Gabriel Hernandez, Jacques Simkins, Sandra Chaparro Viviana
The use of left ventricular assist device is associated with improvement in survival in patients with refractory heart failure. However, driveline infection limits the success of its use as it is associated with significant mortality. We describe the first two cases of Mycobacterium abscesus driveline infection. Both patients had persistent infection despite of aggressive antibiotic treatment and local debridement, and only improved after removal of their left ventricular assist devices. This article is protected by copyright...
June 13, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Torpong Thongngarm, Adhiratha Boonyasiri, Panitan Pradubpongsa, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Tauangtham Anekpuritanang, Piyawut Kreetapirom, Mongkhon Sompornrattanaphan
BACKGROUND: Good syndrome (GS) is an adult-onset immunodeficiency characterized by coexisting thymoma and hypogammaglobulinemia. Clinical course after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has rarely been reported. OBJECTIVE: To investigate and report the clinical course and outcomes of GS patients after treatment with IVIg at Thailand's largest national tertiary referral hospital METHODS: This retrospective chart review included patients diagnosed with GS and treated with IVIg during the 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2015 study period...
June 11, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
Sergio M Morgado, Ana C P Vicente
tRNA array unit, a genomic region presenting an intriguing high tRNA gene number and density, was supposed to occur only in few bacteria phyla, particularly Firmicutes . Here, we identified and characterized an abundance and diversity of tRNA array units in Mycobacterium associated genomes. These genomes comprised chromosome, bacteriophages and plasmids from mycobacteria. Firstly, we had identified 32 tRNA genes organized in an array unit within a mycobacteria plasmid genome and therefore, we hypothesized the presence of such structures in Mycobacterium genus...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Dinah B Aziz, Jeanette W P Teo, Véronique Dartois, Thomas Dick
Lung disease caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), relatives of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , is increasing. M. abscessus is the most prevalent rapid growing NTM. This environmental pathogen is intrinsically resistant to most commonly used antibiotics, including anti-tuberculosis drugs. Current therapies take years to achieve cure, if cure if achieved. Thus, there is an urgent medical need to identify new, more efficacious treatments. Here, we explore the possibility of repurposing antibiotics developed for other indications...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Eva Le Run, Michel Arthur, Jean-Luc Mainardi
Repurposing drugs may be useful as an add-on in the treatment of Mycobacterium abscessus pulmonary infections, which are particularly difficult to cure. M. abscessus naturally produces a β-lactamase, BlaMab , which is inhibited by avibactam. The recommended regimens include imipenem, which is hydrolyzed by BlaMab and used without any β-lactamase inhibitor. Here, we determine whether the addition of rifabutin improves the activity of imipenem alone or in combination with avibactam against M. abscessus CIP104536...
June 4, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Kris K Carter, Ingrid Lundgren, Sarah Correll, Tom Schmalz, Tammie McCarter, Joshua Stroud, Amanda Bruesch, Christine G Hahn
Background: Mycobacterium abscessus, an emerging pathogen in healthcare settings, has rarely been associated with community outbreaks. During February-May 2013, Idaho public health officials and pediatric infectious disease physicians investigated an outbreak of M abscessus skin infections in children whose only common exposure was an indoor wading pool. Methods: Healthcare providers and parents reported possible M abscessus cases. We used a standardized questionnaire to interview parents of affected children...
May 29, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Cherng-Ru Hsu, Jiann-Torng Chen, Kuo-Ming Yeh, Chi-Kang Hsu, Ming-Cheng Tai, Ying-Jen Chen, Yun-Hsiang Chang
PURPOSE: To report the clinical features and treatment outcomes in a cluster of patients with endophthalmitis after cataract surgery caused by nontuberculous mycobacterium. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective chart review and noncomparative, consecutive case series. Nine consecutive cases of endophthalmitis, after cataract surgery in a local clinic, were referred to our hospital. The treatment outcomes and analysis of risk factors for infection are reported. RESULTS: The major symptoms at presentation were pain, redness, and decreased vision...
May 29, 2018: Eye
Fulvia Mazzaferri, Maddalena Cordioli, Edoardo Segato, Irene Adami, Laura Maccacaro, Piersandro Sette, Angelo Cazzadori, Ercole Concia, Anna Maria Azzini
This study was conducted reviewing clinical records of 14 patients affected by nocardiosis over 5 years in a tertiary care hospital. Nocardia abscessus was responsible for one third of infections, deviating significantly from the results reported by other epidemiological investigations and highlighting the key role of molecular identification tests. Indeed, a precise identification of species is crucial for the determination of antibiotic sensitivity patterns and, consequently, for the choice of antibiotic treatment...
April 2018: New Microbiologica
Bright Varghese, Mushira Enani, Mohammed Shoukri, Sameera AlJohani, Hawra Al Ghafli, Sahar AlThawadi, Sahal Al Hajoj
BACKGROUND: Incidences of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) causing pulmonary and extrapulmonary diseases are reportedly increasing globally and the current epidemiologic situation in Saudi Arabia remains unclear. To study such trend, we carried out a nationwide systematic epidemiological study focusing on NTM diseases for the first time in the country. METHODS/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: A nationwide collection of NTM isolates with clinical and demographical data was conducted for a period of 24 months...
May 25, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
José Tadeu Colares Monteiro, Karla Valéria Batista Lima, Adriana Rodrigues Barretto, Ismari Perini Furlaneto, Glenda Moraes Gonçalves, Ana Roberta Fusco da Costa, Maria Luiza Lopes, Margareth Pretti Dalcolmo
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical manifestations of patients with pulmonary infection caused by mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABSC), and to compare these manifestations with those of patients infected with other nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study involving 43 patients divided into two groups: the MABSC group, consisting of patients with pulmonary infection caused by MABSC (n = 17); and the NTM group, consisting of patients with pulmonary infection caused by NTM other than MABSC (n = 26)...
April 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
Maiara Dos Santos Carneiro, Luciana de Souza Nunes, Simone Maria Martini De David, Claudia Fontoura Dias, Afonso Luís Barth, Gisela Unis
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of lung disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing worldwide. In Brazil, there are few studies about nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (NTMLD), and its prevalence is yet to be known. Our objective was to determine the specific etiology of the disease in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, as well as the frequency and diversity of NTM species in our sample of patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients diagnosed with NTMLD treated in a referral center located in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, between 2003 and 2013...
April 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
Albert Y H Lim, Sanjay H Chotirmall, Eric T K Fok, Akash Verma, Partha P De, Soon Keng Goh, Ser Hon Puah, Daryl E L Goh, John A Abisheganaden
BACKGROUND: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection is an increasing problem worldwide. The epidemiology of NTM in most Asian countries is unknown. This study investigated the epidemiology, and clinical profile of inpatients in whom NTM was isolated from various anatomical sites in a Singaporean population attending a major tertiary referral centre. METHODS: Demographic profile, clinical data, and characteristics of patients hospitalized with NTM isolates at a major tertiary hospital over two-year period were prospectively assessed (2011-2012)...
May 22, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
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