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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738355/impact-of-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-inhibition-on-serum-potassium-levels-among-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#1
Silvia Carreira Ribeiro, Ana Elizabeth Figueiredo, Pasqual Barretti, Roberto Pecoits-Filho, Thyago Proença de Moraes
BACKGROUND: The chronic use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blocker has been associated with hyperkalemia in patients with reduced renal function even after the initiation of hemodialysis. Whether such medications may cause a similar effect in peritoneal dialysis patients is not well established. So, the aim of our study was to analyze the impact of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitors on the serum levels of potassium in a national cohort of peritoneal dialysis patients...
July 22, 2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733707/angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blockers-inhibit-kat-ii-activity-in-the-brain-its-possible-clinical-applications
#2
Izabela Zakrocka, Katarzyna M Targowska-Duda, Artur Wnorowski, Tomasz Kocki, Krzysztof Jóźwiak, Waldemar A Turski
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are one of the most frequently recommended antihypertensive drugs. Apart from their activity towards the circulatory system, ARBs also penetrate the blood-brain barrier and display neuroprotective effects. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous metabolite of tryptophan produced by kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II) in the brain. Antagonism towards all ionotropic glutamate (GLU) receptors is the main mechanism of KYNA action. An elevated brain level of KYNA is linked with memory impairment and psychotic symptoms...
July 21, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733551/antihypertensive-drug-use-and-breast-cancer-risk-a-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#3
Haibo Ni, Qin Rui, Xiaojue Zhu, Zhenquan Yu, Rong Gao, Huixiang Liu
We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to examine the hypothesized association between breast cancer and antihypertensive drug (AHT) use. Fixed- or random- effect models were used to calculate pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all AHTs and individual classes (i.e., angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, [ACEi]; angiotensin-receptor blockers, [ARBs]; calcium channel blockers, [CCBs]; beta-blockers, [BBs], and diuretics). Twenty-one studies with 3,116,266 participants were included...
July 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731439/antihypertensive-treatment-is-associated-with-mri-derived-markers-of-neurodegeneration-and-impaired-cognition-a-propensity-weighted-cohort-study
#4
Jodi D Edwards, Joel Ramirez, Brandy L Callahan, Sheldon W Tobe, Paul Oh, Courtney Berezuk, Krista Lanctôt, Walter Swardfager, Sean Nestor, Alexander Kiss, Stephen Strother, Sandra E Black
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebral small vessel disease. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are common anti-hypertensive treatments, but have differential effects on cortical amyloid. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between anti-hypertensive treatment, brain volume, and cognition, using a propensity-weighted analysis to account for confounding by indication...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730079/effect-of-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blocker-and-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitor-on-the-intraocular-growth-factors-and-their-receptors-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#5
Ik Soo Byon, Dong Hyun Lee, Eun Sook Jun, Min Kyu Shin, Sung Who Park, Ji Eun Lee
AIM: To investigate the effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) on intraocular growth factors and their receptors in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: control, diabetes mellitus (DM), candesartan-treated DM, and enalapril-treated DM (each group, n=10). After the induction of DM by streptozotocin, candesartan [ARB, 5 mg/(kg·d)] and enalapril [ACEI, 10 mg/(kg·d)] were administered to rats orally for 4wk...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724651/hyperkalemia-after-initiating-renin-angiotensin-system-blockade-the-stockholm-creatinine-measurements-scream-project
#6
Ghassan Bandak, Yingying Sang, Alessandro Gasparini, Alex R Chang, Shoshana H Ballew, Marie Evans, Johan Arnlov, Lars H Lund, Lesley A Inker, Josef Coresh, Juan-Jesus Carrero, Morgan E Grams
BACKGROUND: Concerns about hyperkalemia limit the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), but guidelines conflict regarding potassium-monitoring protocols. We quantified hyperkalemia monitoring and risks after ACE-I/ARB initiation and developed and validated a hyperkalemia susceptibility score. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated 69 426 new users of ACE-I/ARB therapy in the Stockholm Creatinine Measurements (SCREAM) project with medication initiation from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010, and follow-up for 1 year thereafter...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722207/antihypertensive-drug-associated-angioedema-effect-modification-by-race-ethnicity
#7
Marsha E Reichman, Michael Wernecke, David J Graham, Jiemin Liao, John Yap, Yoganand Chillarige, Mary Ross Southworth, Stephine Keeton, Margie R Goulding, Katrina Mott, Jeffrey A Kelman
PURPOSE: Assess angioedema risk with exposure to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) compared with beta-blockers, by race/ethnicity. METHODS: New-user cohorts of Medicare beneficiaries 65 years or older initiating ACEI, ARB, or beta-blocker treatment from March 2007 to March 2014 were constructed. Angioedema incidence rates by drug and race/ethnicity were computed for 1-30 and 31-365 days of treatment. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine angioedema risk between cohorts...
July 19, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716521/update-on-quality-of-care-in-hispanics-and-other-racial-ethnic-groups-in-the-united-states-discharged-with-the-diagnosis-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-in-2013
#8
Tomás Romero, Kristina L Greenwood, Dale Glaser
BACKGROUND: Disparities in Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) care and outcomes have been frequently reported in racial-ethnic minorities in the U.S. Some studies have attributed disparities in Hispanics and other minorities to lower quality of services at hospitals where they seek care. Current information from hospitals with large Hispanic representations and updated quality resources is needed. METHODS: Retrospective observational study of 839 AMI patients discharged in 2013 from three Southern California Hospitals (A, B, C) with tertiary cardiac care level...
July 8, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711402/beneficial-effects-of-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockers-in-brain-disorders
#9
REVIEW
J M Saavedra
A canonical brain Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS), like the canonical peripheral RAS, has long been proposed as a major regulator of brain function. Because of methodological limitations, however, this system is in urgent need of critical revision. The Angiotensin II AT1 receptors have been confirmed as key factors in the regulation of brain function, and AT1 receptor over activity has been established as a major and early injury factor in the development of many brain diseases. Consequently, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs), compounds widely used to treat cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, are excellent candidates for repurposing for the treatment of brain disorders...
July 12, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709370/sewers-as-potential-reservoirs-of-antibiotic-resistance
#10
Olga Auguet, Maite Pijuan, Carles M Borrego, Sara Rodriguez-Mozaz, Xavier Triadó-Margarit, Saulo Varela Della Giustina, Oriol Gutierrez
Wastewater transport along sewers favors the colonization of inner pipe surfaces by wastewater-derived microorganisms that grow forming biofilms. These biofilms are composed of rich and diverse microbial communities that are continuously exposed to antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) from urban wastewater. Sewer biofilms thus appear as an optimal habitat for the dispersal and accumulation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, the concentration of antibiotics, integron (intI1) and antibiotic resistance genes (qnrS, sul1, sul2, blaTEM, blaKPC, ermB, tetM and tetW), and potential bacterial pathogens were analyzed in wastewater and biofilm samples collected at the inlet and outlet sections of a pressurized sewer pipe...
July 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702260/renin-angiotensin-system-modifying-therapies-are-associated-with-improved-pulmonary-health
#11
Maira Soto, Soo I Bang, Jeff McCombs, Kathleen E Rodgers
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary diseases are often complicated and have diverse etiologies. One common factor is the lack of therapeutics available for these diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS)-modifying medications on incidence and time to pulmonary complications. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted using claims data from a US commercial insurance company (2007-2013). The study consisted of patients with an emerging hypertension (HTN) diagnosis...
2017: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700393/ten-year-trends-in-antiretroviral-therapy-persistence-among-us-medicaid-beneficiaries
#12
Bora Youn, Theresa I Shireman, Yoojin Lee, Omar Galárraga, Aadia I Rana, Amy C Justice, Ira B Wilson
OBJECTIVE: Whether the rate of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) persistence has improved over time in the United States is unknown. We examined ART persistence trends between 2001 and 2010, using non-HIV medications as a comparator. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using Medicaid claims. We defined persistence as the duration of treatment from the first to the last fill date before a 90-day permissible gap and used Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models to assess crude and adjusted nonpersistence...
July 31, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699721/comparison-of-pre-and-post-ischemic-treatment-of-telmisartan-and-nimodipine-combination-in-experimentally-induced-cerebral-ischemia
#13
(no author information available yet)
Time dependent intervention plays a crucial role in preventing neurodegeneration after ischemic insult. The intensity of excitotoxicity is greater in the secondary reperfusion phase (2-4 h) compared to the primary occlusion phase (2 h), which could be attributed to secondary elevation of excitatory amino acids (EAA) in cerebral ischemia. In the present study, we tried to assess the neuroprotective effects of telmisartan and nimodipine (TM-NM) combination on the secondary reperfusion phase. The drug treatments were made immediately after reperfusion and their effects were compared with pre-treatment...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695464/improving-adherence-to-treatment-and-reducing-economic-costs-of-hypertension-the-role-of-olmesartan-based-treatment
#14
Francesco Vittorio Costa
Poor adherence to antihypertensive treatment is the single most important factor of unsatisfactory blood pressure (BP) control. This review focuses on therapy-related factors affecting adherence and suggests how to improve it with a wise choice of treatment schedule. Complex drug treatment schemes, poor tolerability and drug substitutions are frequent causes of poor adherence which, in turn, causes insufficient BP control, greater incidence of cardiovascular events and, finally, higher global health costs...
July 10, 2017: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694144/at2-receptors-in-cardiovascular-and-renal-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Elena Kaschina, Pawel Namsolleck, Thomas Unger
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the initiation and progression of cardiovascular and renal diseases. These actions mediated by AT1 receptor (AT1R) are well established and led to development of selective AT1R blockers (ARBs). In contrast, there is scientific evidence that AT2 receptor (AT2R) mediates effects different from and often opposing those of the AT1R. Meagrely expressed in healthy tissue the AT2R is upregulated in injuries providing an endogenous protection to inflammatory, oxidative and apoptotic processes...
July 7, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692311/prospective-direct-comparison-of-antihypertensive-effect-and-safety-between-high-dose-amlodipine-or-indapamide-in-hypertensive-patients-uncontrolled-by-standard-doses-of-angiotensin-receptor-blockers-and-amlodipine
#16
Keisuke Okamura, Kazuyuki Shirai, Nao Totake, Tetsu Okuda, Hidenori Urata
OBJECTIVE: When hypertension is uncontrolled by routine treatment with an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) and the calcium channel blocker amlodipine (5 mg), the dose of amlodipine can be increased or a diuretic can be added. We investigated the more effective option in a prospective multicenter open-label study. METHODS: Hypertensive patients were recruited if the target blood pressure (BP) in The Japanese Society of Hypertension 2009 guideline could not be achieved with standard-dose ARB therapy and amlodipine (5 mg)...
July 10, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689130/metagenomic-analysis-reveals-wastewater-treatment-plants-as-hotspots-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-mobile-genetic-elements
#17
Jianhua Guo, Jie Li, Hui Chen, Philip L Bond, Zhiguo Yuan
The intensive use of antibiotics results in their continuous release into the environment and the subsequent widespread occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB), antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs). This study used Illumina high-throughput sequencing to investigate the broad-spectrum profiles of both ARGs and MGEs in activated sludge and anaerobically digested sludge from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant. A pipeline for identifying antibiotic resistance determinants was developed that consisted of four categories: gene transfer potential, ARG potential, ARGs pathway and ARGs phylogenetic origin...
July 2, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689129/the-potential-implications-of-reclaimed-wastewater-reuse-for-irrigation-on-the-agricultural-environment-the-knowns-and-unknowns-of-the-fate-of-antibiotics-and-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria%C3%A2-and-resistance-genes-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Anastasis Christou, Ana Agüera, Josep Maria Bayona, Eddie Cytryn, Vasileios Fotopoulos, Dimitra Lambropoulou, Célia M Manaia, Costas Michael, Mike Revitt, Peter Schröder, Despo Fatta-Kassinos
The use of reclaimed wastewater (RWW) for the irrigation of crops may result in the continuous exposure of the agricultural environment to antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). In recent years, certain evidence indicate that antibiotics and resistance genes may become disseminated in agricultural soils as a result of the amendment with manure and biosolids and irrigation with RWW. Antibiotic residues and other contaminants may undergo sorption/desorption and transformation processes (both biotic and abiotic), and have the potential to affect the soil microbiota...
July 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687848/screening-of-best1-gene-in-a-chinese-cohort-with-best-vitelliform-macular-dystrophy-or-autosomal-recessive-bestrophinopathy
#19
Lu Tian, Tengyang Sun, Ke Xu, Xiaohui Zhang, Xiaoyan Peng, Yang Li
Purpose: Mutations in the BEST1 gene can cause Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD) and autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy (ARB). The aim of the current study was to establish the BEST1 mutation spectrum in Chinese patients with BVMD and ARB and to describe the phenotypic characteristics of patients carrying BEST1 mutations. Methods: A total of 37 probands with a clinical diagnosis of BVMD (17 patients) or ARB (20 patients) were recruited for genetic analysis; of these, only 5 probands had a family history...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686994/quantitative-and-qualitative-changes-in-antibiotic-resistance-genes-after-passing-through-treatment-processes-in-municipal-wastewater-treatment-plants
#20
Jangwoo Lee, Jong Hun Jeon, Jingyeong Shin, Hyun Min Jang, Sungpyo Kim, Myoung Seok Song, Young Mo Kim
In this study, quantitative and qualitative changes in antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) were investigated in two municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) treating pretreated livestock or industrial wastewater as well as municipal sewage. Total eight ARGs (tetX, tetM, tetA, sul1, sul2, ermB, qnrD, and blaTEM) were quantified, and their relative abundance was assessed by ARGs copies/16S rRNA gene copies. The fate of ARGs was observed to be different between two WWTPs: sul, qnrD, and blaTEM were proliferated during the treatment processes only in the WWTP1 which received pretreated livestock wastewater...
July 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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