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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776999/stumbling-corrective-reaction-elicited-by-mechanical-and-electrical-stimulation-of-the-saphenous-nerve-in-walking-mice
#1
William Paganini Mayer, Turgay Akay
The ability to walk around in a natural environment requires the capacity to cope with unexpected obstacles that may disrupt locomotion. One such mechanism is called the stumbling corrective reaction (SCR) that enables animals to step over obstacles that would otherwise disturb the progression of swing movement. Here we use in vivo motion analysis and physiological recording techniques to describe the SCR in mice. We show that SCR can be elicited consistently in mice during locomotion by inserting an obstacle along the path of leg movement during swing phase...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775941/effects-of-arm-weight-on-gait-performance-in-healthy-subjects
#2
Hyung Suk Yang, C Roger James, Lee T Atkins, Steven F Sawyer, Phillip S Sizer, Neeraj A Kumar, Jongyeol Kim
Previous studies have investigated how additional arm weights affect gait. Although light weights (0.45 kg) seemed to elicit performance improvements in Parkinsonian patients, it was not studied how light weights affect gait parameters in healthy individuals. It is important to understand normal responses in a healthy population so that clinical effects might be better understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of arm weights on arm swing amplitude, gait performance, and muscle activity in healthy people...
May 15, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774305/multi-slice-mri-reveals-heterogeneity-in-disease-distribution-along-the-length-of-muscle-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#3
Stephen M Chrzanowski, Celine Baligand, Rebecca J Willcocks, Jasjit Deol, Ilona Schmalfuss, Donovan J Lott, Michael J Daniels, Claudia Senesac, Glenn A Walter, Krista Vandenborne
Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) causes progressive pathologic changes to muscle secondary to a cascade of inflammation, lipid deposition, and fibrosis. Clinically, this manifests as progressive weakness, functional loss, and premature mortality. Though insult to whole muscle groups is well established, less is known about the relationship between intramuscular pathology and function. Objective: Differences of intramuscular heterogeneity across muscle length were assessed using an ordinal MRI grading scale in lower leg muscles of boys with DMD and correlated to patient's functional status...
September 2017: Acta Myologica: Myopathies and Cardiomyopathies: Official Journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768929/current-concepts-in-revision-hip-arthroscopy
#4
Renato Locks, Ioanna Bolia, Hajime Utsunomiya, Karen Briggs, Marc J Philippon
Hip arthroscopy is an evolving procedure and its indications have expanded. The number of patients undergoing this procedure has increased significantly as well as the number of surgeons being trained. This has resulted in a notable increase in post-operative complication rates creating the need to develop advanced hip arthroscopic techniques. Revision hip arthroscopy is often complex and many factors should be considered to achieve a satisfactory clinical outcome. Careful pre-operative planning and agreement of expectations between the physician and patient regarding the procedure are important...
May 1, 2018: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765493/long-term-exercise-protects-against-cellular-stresses-in-aged-mice
#5
Irina Belaya, Masataka Suwa, Tao Chen, Rashid Giniatullin, Katja M Kanninen, Mustafa Atalay, Shuzo Kumagai
The current study examined the effect of aging and long-term wheel-running on the expression of heat shock protein (HSP), redox regulation, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers in tibialis anterior (T.A.) and soleus muscle of mice. Male mice were divided into young (Y, 3-month-old), old-sedentary (OS, 24-month-old), and old-exercise (OE, 24-month-old) groups. The OE group started voluntary wheel-running at 3 months and continued until 24 months of age. Aging was associated with a higher thioredoxin-interacting protein (TxNiP) level, lower thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1) to TxNiP ratio-a determinant of redox regulation and increased CHOP, an indicator of ER stress-related apoptosis signaling in both muscles...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765181/assessment-of-leg-muscle-activity-using-toe-tapping-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-comparison-of-two-types-of-toe-tapping
#6
Seira Taniguchi, Ferdinand Peper, Tetsuya Shimokawa
[Purpose] This study investigates two types of toe tapping, i.e., "closed," with both feet on the floor, and "open," in which the foot does not touch the ground, and evaluates their usefulness in combination with monitoring of muscle activity during toe tapping. [Subjects and Methods] The study enrolled 11 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 9 controls (Controls). The tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius (GS) muscle activity during toe tapping was measured using surface electromyography...
May 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755168/amount-and-content-of-sensorimotor-therapy-delivered-in-three-stroke-rehabilitation-units-in-quebec-canada
#7
Carol L Richards, Francine Malouin, Sylvie Nadeau, Joyce Fung, Line D'Amours, Claire Perez, Anne Durand
Purpose: This study creates a baseline clinical portrait of sensorimotor rehabilitation in three stroke rehabilitation units (SRUs) as a first step in implementing a multi-centre clinical research platform. Method: Participants in this cross-sectional, descriptive study were the patients and rehabilitation teams in these SRUs. Prospective (recording of therapy time and content and a Web-based questionnaire) and retrospective (chart audit) methods were combined to characterize the practice of the rehabilitation professionals...
2018: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752246/a-novel-stimulation-paradigm-to-limit-the-habituation-of-the-nociceptive-withdrawal-reflex
#8
Sabata Gervasio, Christian B Laursen, Ole K Andersen, Kristian Hennings, Erika G Spaich
In gait rehabilitation, combining gait therapy with functional electrical stimulation based on the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) improves walking velocity and gait symmetry of hemiparetic patients. However, habituation of the NWR can affect the efficacy of training. The current study aimed at identifying the stimulation parameters that would limit, in healthy participants, the habituation of the NWR. The NWR was elicited at every heel-off while the participants walked on a treadmill. Three stimulation paradigms were tested: deterministic paradigm (fixed parameters), stochastic pulse duration paradigm (varying the pulse duration of the stimuli), and stochastic frequency paradigm (varying the frequency of the stimuli)...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751090/sex-dependent-and-sex-independent-muscle-activation-patterns-in-adult-gait-as-a-function-of-age
#9
Christopher A Bailey, Federica Corona, Giuseppina Pilloni, Micaela Porta, Maria Chiara Fastame, Paul Kenneth Hitchcott, Maria Pietronilla Penna, Massimiliano Pau, Julie N Côté
INTRODUCTION: Aging leads to poorer neuromuscular control that may impact mobility. However, the specific decades when these changes occur, and whether these time-based changes are sex-specific, are unclear. METHODS: Adults aged 20-82 years (N = 93, 51 females) walked six gait trials at their preferred speed over a 10-m platform. Electromyography (EMG) of the rectus femoris (RF), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) were measured using wireless surface sensors...
May 8, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746498/modulation-of-plantar-pressure-and-gastrocnemius-activity-during-gait-using-electrical-stimulation-of-the-tibialis-anterior-in-healthy-adults
#10
Maiki Moriguchi, Noriaki Maeshige, Mizuki Ueno, Yoshiyuki Yoshikawa, Hiroto Terashi, Hidemi Fujino
High plantar flexor moment during the stance phase is known to cause high plantar pressure under the forefoot; however, the effects on plantar pressure due to a change of gastrocnemius medialis (GM) activity during gait, have not been investigated to date. Reciprocal inhibition is one of the effects of electrical stimulation (ES), and is the automatic antagonist alpha motor neuron inhibition which is evoked by excitation of the agonist muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of ES of the tibialis anterior (TA) on plantar pressure and the GM activity during gait in healthy adults...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745890/pattern-of-muscle-involvement-in-inclusion-body-myositis-a-sonographic-study
#11
Jemima Albayda, Lisa Christopher-Stine, Clifton O Bingham Iii, Julie J Paik, Eleni Tiniakou, Seth Billings, O Manny Uy, Philippe Burlina
OBJECTIVES: Imaging plays a role in myositis assessment by detecting muscle changes indicative of pathology. This study was conducted to determine the ultrasonographic pattern of muscle involvement in patients with inclusion body myositis (IBM) through an assessment of muscle echointensity. METHODS: Sixty-two individuals were consecutively studied, 18 with IBM, 16 with polymyositis or dermatomyositis and 28 normal controls. Standardised scans were completed bilaterally for the deltoids, biceps, flexor digitorum profundus (FDP), flexor carpi ulnaris, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius assessing for muscle echointensity changes...
May 8, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743034/glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gdnf-attenuates-the-peripheral-neuromuscular-dysfunction-without-inhibiting-the-activation-of-spinal-microglia-monocyte
#12
Fei Xie, Fan Zhang, Su Min, Jingyuan Chen, Jun Yang, Xin Wang
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuromuscular dysfunctions were found in elderly individuals, and spinal microglia/monocyte plays an important role on this process. This study aims to test whether the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) could attenuate age-related neuromuscular dysfunction by inhibiting the activation of spinal microglia/monocyte. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into an adult group and an aged group. The aged rats were intrathecally injected with normal saline (NS) and GDNF...
May 9, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742800/reductions-in-muscle-quality-and-quantity-in-cidp-patients-assessed-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#13
Kevin J Gilmore, Timothy J Doherty, Kurt Kimpinski, Charles L Rice
INTRODUCTION: Weakness in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) may be caused by decreases in muscle quantity and quality, but these have not been explored. METHODS: Twelve patients with CIDP (mean 61 years) and ten age- matched (mean 59 years) control subjects were assessed for ankle dorsiflexion strength, and two different MRI scans (T1 and T2) of leg musculature. RESULTS: Isometric strength was lower in CIDP patients by 36% compared with controls...
May 9, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736693/feasibility-testing-of-hydrophobic-carbon-electrodes-for-acquisition-of-underwater-surface-electromyography-data
#14
Hugo Posada-Quintero, Yeonsik Noh, Caitlin Eaton-Robb, John P Florian, Ki H Chon
Underwater surface electromyography (sEMG) signals are especially of interest for rehabilitation and sports medicine applications. Silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) hydrogel electrodes, although the gold standard for sEMG data collection, require waterproofing for underwater applications. Having to apply waterproof tape over electrodes impedes the deployment of sEMG in immersed conditions. As a better alternative for underwater applications, we have developed carbon black/polydimethylsiloxane (CB/PDMS) electrodes for collecting sEMG signals under water...
May 7, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730196/functional-rescue-of-dystrophin-deficiency-in-mice-caused-by-frameshift-mutations-using-campylobacter-jejuni-cas9
#15
Taeyoung Koo, Ngoc B Lu-Nguyen, Alberto Malerba, Eunji Kim, Daesik Kim, Ornella Cappellari, Hee-Yeon Cho, George Dickson, Linda Popplewell, Jin-Soo Kim
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal, X-linked muscle-wasting disease caused by mutations in the DMD gene. In 51% of DMD cases, a reading frame is disrupted because of deletion of several exons. Here, we show that CjCas9 derived from Campylobacter jejuni can be used as a gene-editing tool to correct an out-of-frame Dmd exon in Dmd knockout mice. Herein, we used Cas9 derived from S. pyogenes to generate Dmd knockout mice with a frameshift mutation in Dmd gene. Then, we expressed CjCas9, its single-guide RNA, and the EGFP gene in the tibialis anterior muscle of the Dmd knockout mice using an all-in-one adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector...
March 30, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729594/motor-unit-number-index-correlates-with-disability-in-charcot-marie-tooth-disease
#16
Joachim Bas, Emilien Delmont, Farzad Fatehi, Emmanuelle Salort-Campana, Annie Verschueren, Jean Pouget, Marie-Noëlle Lefebvre, Aude-Marie Grapperon, Shahram Attarian
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of motor unit number index (MUNIX) technique in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and test the correlation between MUNIX and clinical impairment. METHODS: MUNIX technique was performed in the abductor pollicis brevis (APB), the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles in the nondominant side. A MUNIX sum score was calculated by adding the MUNIX of these 3 muscles. Muscle strength was measured using the MRC (medical research council) scale...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728834/graft-sources-do-not-affect-to-the-outcome-of-transtibial-posterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-a-systematic-review
#17
Yong Seuk Lee, Seung Hoon Lee, O-Sung Lee
INTRODUCTION: Despite numerous published reports on posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction in the past 30 years, the ideal graft source remains unclear, and few objective scientific data have been published that thoroughly evaluate the long-term outcomes according to the graft source. We, therefore, conducted a systematic review of available high-quality comparative studies that evaluated clinical and objective stability testing to compare the different graft sources for PCL reconstruction...
May 4, 2018: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727591/alpha-linolenic-acid-and-linoleic-acid-differentially-regulate-the-skeletal-muscle-secretome-of-obese-zucker-rats
#18
Alex Rajna, Heather Gibling, Ousseynou Sarr, Sarthak Matravadia, Graham P Holloway, David M Mutch
Evidence shows that proteins secreted from skeletal muscle influence a broad range of metabolic signaling pathways. We previously reported that essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) improved whole-body glucose homeostasis in obese Zucker rats; however, the mechanisms underlying these benefits remain enigmatic. While PUFA and obesity influence skeletal muscle function, their effects on the secretome are unknown. The aim of this work was to determine if improvements in whole-body glucose homeostasis in obese Zucker rats fed diets supplemented with either linoleic acid (LA) or alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) for 12-wks are related to changes in the skeletal muscle secretome...
May 4, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726007/alterations-in-the-muscle-force-transfer-apparatus-in-aged-rats-during-unloading-and-reloading-impact-of-microrna-31
#19
David C Hughes, George R Marcotte, Leslie M Baehr, Daniel W D West, Andrea G Marshall, Scott M Ebert, Arik Davidyan, Christopher M Adams, Sue C Bodine, Keith Baar
KEY POINTS: Force transfer is integral for maintaining skeletal muscle structure and function. One important component is dystrophin. There is limited understanding of how force transfer is impacted by age and loading. Here, we investigate the force transfer apparatus in muscles of adult and old rats exposed to periods of disuse and reloading. Our results demonstrate an increase in dystrophin protein during the reloading phase in the adult TA muscle that is delayed in old. The consequence of this delay is an increased susceptibility towards contraction-induced muscle injury...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723799/neuromuscular-variability-and-spatial-accuracy-in-children-and-older-adults
#20
Agostina Casamento-Moran, Rebecca Fleeman, Yen-Ting Chen, MinHyuk Kwon, Emily J Fox, Basma Yacoubi, Evangelos A Christou
Our ability to control movements is influenced by the developmental status of the neuromuscular system. Consequently, movement control improves from childhood to early adulthood but gradually declines thereafter. However, no study has compared movement accuracy between children and older adults. The purpose of this study was to compare endpoint accuracy during a fast goal-directed movement task in children and older adults. Ten pre-adolescent children (9.7 ± 0.67 yrs) and 19 older adults (71.95 ± 6...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
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