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Myelination microglia

Charanjit Kaur, Eng-Ang Ling
Transitory cavities associated with the ventricular system represent probably one of the most unique features in the developing mammalian brain. In rodents, the cavities exist transiently in the developing brain and do not appear to be associated with any pathological events. Among the various cavities, the pyramidal-shaped cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) located beneath the corpus callosum and between the lateral ventricles is most well defined. In addition to the CSP are the bilateral subependymal cysts that are consistently associated with the third and fourth ventricles as well as the aqueduct...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Katherine Zukor, Hong Wang, Brett L Hurst, Venkatraman Siddharthan, Arnaud Van Wettere, Paul M Pilowsky, John D Morrey
Neurological respiratory deficits are serious outcomes of West Nile virus (WNV) disease. WNV patients requiring intubation have a poor prognosis. We previously reported that WNV-infected rodents also appear to have respiratory deficits when assessed by whole-body plethysmography and diaphragmatic electromyography. The purpose of this study was to determine if the nature of the respiratory deficits in WNV-infected rodents is neurological and if deficits are due to a disorder of brainstem respiratory centers, cervical spinal cord (CSC) phrenic motor neuron (PMN) circuitry, or both...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Samuel S Duffy, Chamini J Perera, Preet G S Makker, Justin G Lees, Pascal Carrive, Gila Moalem-Taylor
Pain is a widespread and debilitating symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Although central neuroinflammation and demyelination have been implicated in MS-related pain, the contribution of peripheral and central mechanisms during different phases of the disease remains unclear. In this study, we used the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) to examine both stimulus-evoked and spontaneous pain behaviors, and neuroinflammatory changes, over the course of chronic disease...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Arjun Saha, Susan Buntz, Paula Scotland, Li Xu, Pamela Noeldner, Sachit Patel, Amy Wollish, Aruni Gunaratne, Tracy Gentry, Jesse Troy, Glenn K Matsushima, Joanne Kurtzberg, Andrew E Balber
Microglia and monocytes play important roles in regulating brain remyelination. We developed DUOC-01, a cell therapy product intended for treatment of demyelinating diseases, from banked human umbilical cord blood (CB) mononuclear cells. Immunodepletion and selection studies demonstrated that DUOC-01 cells are derived from CB CD14(+) monocytes. We compared the ability of freshly isolated CB CD14(+) monocytes and DUOC-01 cells to accelerate remyelination of the brains of NOD/SCID/IL2Rγ(null) mice following cuprizone feeding-mediated demyelination...
August 18, 2016: JCI Insight
Aline Rideau Batista Novais, Hoa Pham, Yohan Van de Looij, Miguel Bernal, Jerome Mairesse, Elodie Zana-Taieb, Marina Colella, Pierre-Henri Jarreau, Julien Pansiot, Florent Dumont, Stéphane Sizonenko, Pierre Gressens, Christiane Charriaut-Marlangue, Mickael Tanter, Charlie Demene, Daniel Vaiman, Olivier Baud
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a major complication of human pregnancy, frequently resulting from placental vascular diseases and prenatal malnutrition, and is associated with adverse neurocognitive outcomes throughout life. However, the mechanisms linking poor fetal growth and neurocognitive impairment are unclear. Here, we aimed to correlate changes in gene expression induced by FGR in rats and abnormal cerebral white matter maturation, brain microstructure, and cortical connectivity in vivo. We investigated a model of FGR induced by low-protein-diet malnutrition between embryonic day 0 and birth using an interdisciplinary approach combining advanced brain imaging, in vivo connectivity, microarray analysis of sorted oligodendroglial and microglial cells and histology...
December 2016: Glia
Izumi Kawachi, Hans Lassmann
Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are autoimmune demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), having distinct immunological and pathological features. They have two pathogenic components, 'inflammation' and 'neurodegeneration', with different degrees of severity and pathogenetic mechanisms. The target antigen of autoimmunity in NMO is the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4), and antibodies directed against this antigen result in astrocyte damage. MS is a disease primarily affecting myelin and oligodendrocytes, but thus far, no MS-specific autoantigen has been identified...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Joel Kaye, Victor Piryatinsky, Tal Birnberg, Tal Hingaly, Emanuel Raymond, Rina Kashi, Einat Amit-Romach, Ignacio S Caballero, Fadi Towfic, Mark A Ator, Efrat Rubinstein, Daphna Laifenfeld, Aric Orbach, Doron Shinar, Yael Marantz, Iris Grossman, Volker Knappertz, Michael R Hayden, Ralph Laufer
Laquinimod is an oral drug currently being evaluated for the treatment of relapsing, remitting, and primary progressive multiple sclerosis and Huntington's disease. Laquinimod exerts beneficial activities on both the peripheral immune system and the CNS with distinctive changes in CNS resident cell populations, especially astrocytes and microglia. Analysis of genome-wide expression data revealed activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway in laquinimod-treated mice. The AhR pathway modulates the differentiation and function of several cell populations, many of which play an important role in neuroinflammation...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Antoine Marteyn, Anne Baron-Van Evercooren
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is a severe hypomyelinating leukodystrophy resulting from proteolipid protein 1 gene (PLP1) mutations leading to oligodendrocyte loss. While neuroinflammation has recently become a common feature and actor in neurodegenerative diseases, the involvement of inflammation in PMD physiopathology is still highly debated despite evidence for strong astrogliosis and microglial cell activation. Activation of the innate immune system, and more particularly, of microglia and astrocytes, is mostly associated with the deleterious role of neuroinflammation...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Starlee Lively, Sarah Hutchings, Lyanne C Schlichter
Within hours after stroke, potentially cytotoxic pro-inflammatory mediators are elevated within the brain; thus, one potential therapeutic strategy is to reduce them and skew the brain toward an anti-inflammatory state. Because interleukin-4 (IL-4) treatment induces an anti-inflammatory, "alternative-activation" state in microglia and macrophages in vitro, we tested the hypothesis that early supplementation of the brain with IL-4 can shift it toward an anti-inflammatory state and reduce damage after transient focal ischemia...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Ernesto Doncel-Pérez, Manuel Nieto-Sampedro
A combined approach in spinal cord injury (SCI) therapy is the modulation of the cellular and molecular processes involved in glial scarring. Aldaynoglial cells are neural cell precursors with a high capacity to differentiate into neurons, promote axonal growth, wrapping and myelination of resident neurons. These important characteristics of aldaynoglia can be combined with specific inhibition of the RhoGTPase activity in astroglia and microglia that cause reduction of glial proliferation, retraction of glial cell processes and myelin production by oligodendrocytes...
July 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Raffaella Moretti, Vibol Chhor, Donatella Bettati, Elena Banino, Silvana De Lucia, Tifenn Le Charpentier, Sophie Lebon, Leslie Schwendimann, Julien Pansiot, Sowmyalakshmi Rasika, Vincent Degos, Luigi Titomanlio, Pierre Gressens, Bobbi Fleiss
The cognitive and behavioral deficits caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) to the immature brain are more severe and persistent than injuries to the adult brain. Understanding this developmental sensitivity is critical because children under 4 years of age of sustain TBI more frequently than any other age group. One of the first events after TBI is the infiltration and degranulation of mast cells (MCs) in the brain, releasing a range of immunomodulatory substances; inhibition of these cells is neuroprotective in other types of neonatal brain injury...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Mariana Rinaldi, Laura Thomas, Patricia Mathieu, Pablo Carabias, Maria F Troncoso, Juana M Pasquini, Gabriel A Rabinovich, Laura A Pasquini
Galectin-1 (Gal-1), a member of a highly conserved family of animal lectins, binds to the common disaccharide [Galβ(1-4)-GlcNAc] on both N- and O-glycans decorating cell surface glycoconjugates. Current evidence supports a role for Gal-1 in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), one of the most prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases. Previous studies showed that Gal-1 exerts neuroprotective effects by promoting microglial deactivation in a model of autoimmune neuroinflammation and induces axonal regeneration in spinal cord injury...
September 6, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Rentaro Okazaki, Toru Doi, Kentaro Hayakawa, Kazuhito Morioka, Osamu Imamura, Kunio Takishima, Makoto Hamanoue, Yasuhiro Sawada, Motoshi Nagao, Sakae Tanaka, Toru Ogata
BACKGROUND: Brain inflammation is a crucial component of demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Although the initiation of inflammatory processes by the production of cytokines and chemokines by immune cells is well characterized, the processes of inflammatory aggravation of demyelinating diseases remain obscure. Here, we examined the contribution of Erk2, one of the isoforms of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, to demyelinating inflammation. METHODS: We used the cuprizone-induced demyelinating mouse model...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Guiyun Mi, Yunyun Gao, Shuai Liu, Enmao Ye, Yanyan Li, Xiao Jin, Hongju Yang, Zheng Yang
The cuprizone (CPZ) model has been widely used for the studies of de-and remyelination. The CPZ-exposed mice show oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) increase and mature oligodendrocytes decrease, suggesting an imbalance between proliferation and differentiation of OPCs. In the first experiment of this study, we examined the expression of cell cycle related genes in brains of mice following CPZ administration for 5 weeks by means of microarray assay. In addition, we performed a double labeling of BrdU and Ki-67 to calculate cell cycle exit index in the mice...
October 17, 2016: Cell Cycle
Junichi Ukai, Shiro Imagama, Tomohiro Ohgomori, Zenya Ito, Kei Ando, Naoki Ishiguro, Kenji Kadomatsu
Nogo receptor (NgR) is common in myelin-derived molecules, i.e., Nogo, MAG, and OMgp, and plays important roles in both axon fasciculation and the inhibition of axonal regeneration. In contrast to NgR's roles in neurons, its roles in glial cells have been poorly explored. Here, we found a dynamic regulation of NgR1 expression during development and neuronal injury. NgR1 mRNA was consistently expressed in the brain from embryonic day 18 to postnatal day 25. In contrast, its expression significantly decreased in the spinal cord during development...
August 2016: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
Nehal A Parikh, Christopher R Pierson, Jerome A Rusin
BACKGROUND: Diffuse excessive high signal intensity abnormality is the most common finding on term-equivalent age magnetic resonance imaging in extremely preterm infants. Yet its clinical significance remains a matter of debate, in part because of a lack of prior imaging-pathology correlational studies. CASE PRESENTATIONS: We present two 24-week-gestation infants with complicated clinical courses who died at 33 and 46 weeks postmenstrual age with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of diffuse excessive high signal intensity...
July 21, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Jie Wen, Prasanth S Ariyannur, Rachel Ribeiro, Mikiei Tanaka, John R Moffett, Batool F Kirmani, Aryan M A Namboodiri, Yumin Zhang
Melatonin and N-acetylserotonin (NAS) are tryptophan metabolites that have potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties in several animal models of neurological injury and disease including multiple sclerosis (MS). The therapeutic effect of NAS has not been reported previously in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a commonly used animal model of MS. Using a MOG-peptide induced EAE mouse model we examined the effects of melatonin and NAS on clinical score, inflammatory markers, free radical generation, and sparing of axons, oligodendrocytes and myelin...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Helena S Domingues, Camila C Portugal, Renato Socodato, João B Relvas
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fcell.2016.00071.].
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Mohammed Shaqura, Xiongjuan Li, Mahmoud Al-Khrasani, Mehdi Shakibaei, Sascha Tafelski, Susanna Fürst, Antje Beyer, Mitsuhiro Kawata, Michael Schäfer, Shaaban A Mousa
Glucocorticoids were long believed to primarily function through cytosolic glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation and subsequent classical genomic pathways. Recently, however, evidence has emerged that suggests the presence of rapid non-genomic GR-dependent signaling pathways within the brain, though their existence in spinal and peripheral nociceptive neurons remains elusive. In this paper, we aim to systemically identify GR within the spinal cord and periphery, to verify their putative membrane location and to characterize possible G protein coupling and pain modulating properties...
December 2016: Neuropharmacology
Peter Thériault, Serge Rivest
Growing evidence highlights the crucial physiological functions of microglia that rely on their phagocytic activities, which can be compromised with age. A new study reports the impaired clearance of myelin debris by microglia in the brain, leading to insoluble lysosomal inclusions and contributing to the immune dysfunction and senescence of these cells.
August 22, 2016: Current Biology: CB
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