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Myelination microglia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768974/brain-phospholipid-precursors-administered-post-injury-reduce-tissue-damage-and-improve-neurological-outcome-in-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Orli Thau-Zuchman, Rita Noutel Gomes, Simon Christopher Dyall, Meirion Davis, John V Priestley, Martine Groenendijk, Martijn DE Wilde, Jordi Lopez-Tremoleda, Adina T Michael-Titus
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to cellular loss, destabilisation of membranes, disruption of synapses and altered brain connectivity, and increased risk of neurodegenerative disease. A significant and long-lasting decrease in phospholipids (PL), essential membrane constituents, has recently been reported in plasma and brain tissue, in human and experimental TBI. We hypothesised that supporting PL synthesis post-injury could improve outcome after TBI. We tested this hypothesis using a multi-nutrient combination designed to support the biosynthesis of phospholipids and available for clinical use...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761389/isolation-and-phenotyping-of-adult-mouse-microglial-cells
#2
Kathleen Grabert, Barry W McColl
Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system parenchyma and fulfill crucial roles in brain development, homeostasis, and inflammation. The isolation of a pure microglia population from brain tissue enables the examination of microglial phenotypes without the interference of other cell populations. Microglial extractions from the neonatal brain have been described in various protocols, yet the more established and complex adult mouse brain poses a greater challenge. Here we describe a refined protocol including enzymatic and mechanical dissociation of adult mouse brain tissue and removal of myelin by Percoll density gradient...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759134/behavioural-alterations-and-morphological-changes-are-attenuated-by-the-lack-of-trpa1-receptors-in-the-cuprizone-induced-demyelination-model-in-mice
#3
Kata Bölcskei, Gábor Kriszta, Éva Sághy, Maja Payrits, Éva Sipos, Anett Vranesics, Zoltán Berente, Hajnalka Ábrahám, Péter Ács, Sámuel Komoly, Erika Pintér
We have recently reported that the Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) receptor deficiency significantly attenuated cuprizone-induced demyelination by reducing the apoptosis of mature oligodendrocytes. The aim of the present study was to gather additional data on the role of TRPA1 by investigating the time course of behavioural alterations and morphological changes in cuprizone-treated TRPA1 receptor gene-deficient mice. Demyelination was induced by feeding male wild-type (WT) and TRPA1 gene-deleted (TRPA1 KO) mice with 0...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746557/optic-tract-injury-after-closed-head-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice-a-model-of-indirect-traumatic-optic-neuropathy
#4
Nathan K Evanson, Fernanda Guilhaume-Correa, James P Herman, Michael D Goodman
Adult male C57BL/6J mice have previously been reported to have motor and memory deficits after experimental closed head traumatic brain injury (TBI), without associated gross pathologic damage or neuroimaging changes detectable by magnetic resonance imaging or diffusion tensor imaging protocols. The presence of neurologic deficits, however, suggests neural damage or dysfunction in these animals. Accordingly, we undertook a histologic analysis of mice after TBI. Gross pathology and histologic analysis using Nissl stain and NeuN immunohistochemistry demonstrated no obvious tissue damage or neuron loss...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740943/vanishing-white-matter-a-leukodystrophy-due-to-astrocytic-dysfunction
#5
Marianna Bugiani, Caroline Vuong, Marjolein Breur, Marjo S van der Knaap
VWM is one of the most prevalent leukodystrophies with unique clinical, pathological and molecular features. It mostly affects children, but may develop at all ages, from birth to senescence. It is dominated by cerebellar ataxia and susceptible to stresses that act as factors provoking disease onset or episodes of rapid neurological deterioration possibly leading to death. VWM is caused by mutations in any of the genes encoding the five subunits of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B). Although eIF2B is ubiquitously expressed, VWM primarily manifests as a leukodystrophy with increasing white matter rarefaction and cystic degeneration, meager astrogliosis with no glial scarring and dysmorphic immature astrocytes and increased numbers of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells that are restrained from maturing into myelin-forming cells...
May 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730168/adenosine-a-2a-receptor-blockade-attenuates-spatial-memory-deficit-and-extent-of-demyelination-areas-in-lyolecithin-induced-demyelination-model
#6
Atefeh Akbari, Mohsen Khalili-Fomeshi, Manouchehr Ashrafpour, Ali Akbar Moghadamnia, Maryam Ghasemi-Kasman
In recent years, inactivation of A2A adenosine receptors has been emerged as a novel strategy for treatment of several neurodegenerative diseases. Although numerous studies have shown the beneficial effects of A2A receptors blockade on spatial memory, the impacts of selective adenosine A2A receptors on memory performance has not yet been examined in the context of demyelination. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of A2A receptor antagonist SCH58261 on spatial memory and myelination in an experimental model of focal demyelination in rat fimbria...
May 3, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728852/glial-cells-shape-pathology-and-repair-after-spinal-cord-injury
#7
REVIEW
Andrew D Gaudet, Laura K Fonken
Glial cell types were classified less than 100 years ago by del Rio-Hortega. For instance, he correctly surmised that microglia in pathologic central nervous system (CNS) were "voracious monsters" that helped clean the tissue. Although these historical predictions were remarkably accurate, innovative technologies have revealed novel molecular, cellular, and dynamic physiologic aspects of CNS glia. In this review, we integrate recent findings regarding the roles of glia and glial interactions in healthy and injured spinal cord...
May 4, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722306/dissecting-the-multifactorial-nature-of-demyelinating-disease
#8
REVIEW
Karolina Kucharova, William B Stallcup
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan-4 (CSPG4) is a surface component of two key cell types (oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and myeloid cells) present in lysolecithin-induced lesions in mouse spinal cord. Two types of CSPG4 manipulations have been used to study the roles of these cells in myelin damage and repair: (1) OPC and myeloid-specific ablation of CSPG4, and (2) transplantation of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-labeled progenitors to distinguish between bone marrow-derived macrophages and resident microglia...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720228/characterization-of-a-murine-mixed-neuron-glia-model-and-cellular-responses-to-regulatory-t-cell-derived-factors
#9
Marie Dittmer, Andrew Young, Thomas O'Hagan, George Eleftheriadis, Peter Bankhead, Yvonne Dombrowski, Reinhold J Medina, Denise C Fitzgerald
One of the unmet clinical needs in demyelinating diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is to provide therapies that actively enhance the process of myelin regeneration (remyelination) in the central nervous system (CNS). Oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of the CNS, play a central role in remyelination and originate from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). We recently showed that depletion of regulatory T cells (Treg) impairs remyelination in vivo, and that Treg-secreted factors directly enhance oligodendrocyte differentiation...
May 2, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706930/a-preliminary-report-on-brain-derived-extracellular-vesicle-as-novel-blood-biomarkers-for-sport-related-concussions
#10
Keisuke Kawata, Masato Mitsuhashi, Randy Aldret
The purpose of the study was to test the utility of unique panel of blood biomarkers as a means to reflect one's recovery process after sport-related neurotrauma. We established a panel of biomarkers that reacted positive with CD81 (extracellular vesicle marker) and various neuron- and glia-specific antigens [e.g., neurofilament light polypeptide (NF-L), tau, synaptosome-associated protein 25 (SNAP25), glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein]. We first evaluated test-retest reliabilities of brain-derived exosome markers, followed by an application of these markers in eight professional ice hockey players to detect cumulative neuronal burden from a single ice hockey season...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695462/brain-ischemia-induces-diversified-neuroantigen-specific-t-cell-responses-that-exacerbate-brain-injury
#11
Wei-Na Jin, Rayna Gonzales, Yan Feng, Kristofer Wood, Zhi Chai, Jing-Fei Dong, Antonio La Cava, Fu-Dong Shi, Qiang Liu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Autoimmune responses can occur when antigens from the central nervous system are presented to lymphocytes in the periphery or central nervous system in several neurological diseases. However, whether autoimmune responses emerge after brain ischemia and their impact on clinical outcomes remains controversial. We hypothesized that brain ischemia facilitates the genesis of autoimmunity and aggravates ischemic brain injury. METHODS: Using a mouse strain that harbors a transgenic T-cell receptor to a central nervous system antigen, MOG35-55 (myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein) epitope (2D2), we determined the anatomic location and involvement of antigen-presenting cells in the development of T-cell reactivity after brain ischemia and how T-cell reactivity impacts stroke outcome...
April 25, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690837/neutralization-of-interleukin-1%C3%AE-following-diffuse-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-mouse-attenuates-the-loss-of-mature-oligodendrocytes
#12
Johanna Flygt, Karsten Ruscher, Amanda Norberg, Anis Mir, Hermann Gram, Fredrik Clausen, Niklas Marklund
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) commonly results in injury to the components of the white matter tracts, causing post-injury cognitive deficits. The myelin-producing oligodendrocytes (OLs) are vulnerable to TBI although may plausibly be replaced by proliferating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). The cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a key mediator of the complex inflammatory response, and when neutralized in experimental TBI behavioral outcome was improved. To evaluate the role of IL-1β on OL cell death and OPC proliferation, 116 adult male mice subjected to sham injury or the central fluid percussion injury (cFPI) model of traumatic axonal injury, were analyzed at 2, 7 and 14 days post-injury...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685293/anti-il-6-receptor-antibody-improves-pain-symptoms-in-mice-with-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#13
Kenichi Serizawa, Haruna Tomizawa-Shinohara, Mayu Magi, Kenji Yogo, Yoshihiro Matsumoto
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic pain is a prevalent symptom in patients with autoimmune encephalomyelitis such as multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. Although IL-6 is involved in various inflammatory and immune diseases, the roles of IL-6 in autoimmune-related pain have not been clarified. Therefore, we examined the effect of anti-IL-6 receptor antibody (MR16-1) on the pain sensitivity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EAE was induced in female C57BL/6J mice by subcutaneous immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 emulsified in adjuvant (Day 0)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662171/fatal-demyelinating-disease-is-induced-by-monocyte-derived-macrophages-in-the-absence-of-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#14
Harald Lund, Melanie Pieber, Roham Parsa, David Grommisch, Ewoud Ewing, Lara Kular, Jinming Han, Keying Zhu, Jik Nijssen, Eva Hedlund, Maria Needhamsen, Sabrina Ruhrmann, André Ortlieb Guerreiro-Cacais, Rasmus Berglund, Maria J Forteza, Daniel F J Ketelhuth, Oleg Butovsky, Maja Jagodic, Xing-Mei Zhang, Robert A Harris
The cytokine transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) regulates the development and homeostasis of several tissue-resident macrophage populations, including microglia. TGF-β is not critical for microglia survival but is required for the maintenance of the microglia-specific homeostatic gene signature1,2 . Under defined host conditions, circulating monocytes can compete for the microglial niche and give rise to long-lived monocyte-derived macrophages residing in the central nervous system (CNS)3-5 . Whether monocytes require TGF-β for colonization of the microglial niche and maintenance of CNS integrity is unknown...
April 16, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627579/genetic-detection-of-sonic-hedgehog-shh-expression-and-cellular-response-in-the-progression-of-acute-through-chronic-demyelination-and-remyelination
#15
Maria A Sanchez, Genevieve M Sullivan, Regina C Armstrong
Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease in which neurological deficits result from damage to myelin, axons, and neuron cell bodies. Prolonged or repeated episodes of demyelination impair remyelination. We hypothesized that augmenting Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling in chronically demyelinated lesions could enhance oligodendrogenesis and remyelination. Shh regulates oligodendrocyte development during postnatal myelination, and maintains adult neural stem cells. We used genetic approaches to detect Shh expression and Shh responding cells in vivo...
April 6, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604346/dithiolethione-acdt-suppresses-neuroinflammation-and-ameliorates-disease-severity-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#16
Ping-Chang Kuo, Dennis A Brown, Barbara A Scofield, Hallel C Paraiso, Pei-Yu Wang, I-Chen Yu, Jui-Hung Yen
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the central nervous system (CNS) infiltration of myelin-specific pathogenic T cells followed by brain inflammation in association with demyelination. Similarly, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of MS, also exhibits increased CNS infiltration of pathogenic T cells, including Th1 and Th17, leading to detrimental effects of neuroinflammation and demyelination. We previously reported that 3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T), the structurally-simplest of the sulfur-containing dithiolethiones, exerted a promising therapeutic effect in EAE...
March 28, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599706/lipoprotein-lipase-is-a-feature-of-alternatively-activated-microglia-and-may-facilitate-lipid-uptake-in-the-cns-during-demyelination
#17
Kimberley D Bruce, Sachi Gorkhali, Katherine Given, Alison M Coates, Kristen E Boyle, Wendy B Macklin, Robert H Eckel
Severe demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) such as multiple sclerosis (MS), can be devastating for many young lives. To date, the factors resulting in poor remyelination and repair are not well understood, and reparative therapies that benefit MS patients have yet to be developed. We have previously shown that the activity and abundance of Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL)-the rate-limiting enzyme in the hydrolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins-is increased in Schwann cells and macrophages following nerve crush injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), suggesting that LPL may help scavenge myelin-derived lipids...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593734/experimental-demyelination-and-axonal-loss-are-reduced-in-microrna-146a-deficient-mice
#18
Nellie A Martin, Viktor Molnar, Gabor T Szilagyi, Maria L Elkjaer, Arkadiusz Nawrocki, Justyna Okarmus, Agnieszka Wlodarczyk, Eva K Thygesen, Miklos Palkovits, Ferenc Gallyas, Martin R Larsen, Hans Lassmann, Eirikur Benedikz, Trevor Owens, Asa F Svenningsen, Zsolt Illes
Background: The cuprizone (CPZ) model of multiple sclerosis (MS) was used to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) related to in vivo de- and remyelination. We further investigated the role of miR-146a in miR-146a-deficient (KO) mice: this miRNA is differentially expressed in MS lesions and promotes differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) during remyelination, but its role has not been examined during demyelination. Methods: MicroRNAs were examined by Agilent Mouse miRNA Microarray in the corpus callosum during CPZ-induced demyelination and remyelination...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581224/vascular-cognitive-impairment-linked-to-brain-endothelium-inflammation-in-early-stages-of-heart-failure-in-mice
#19
Mateusz G Adamski, Magdalena Sternak, Tasnim Mohaissen, Dawid Kaczor, Joanna M Wierońska, Monika Malinowska, Iwona Czaban, Katarzyna Byk, Kristina S Lyngsø, Kamil Przyborowski, Pernille B L Hansen, Grzegorz Wilczyński, Stefan Chlopicki
BACKGROUND: Although advanced heart failure (HF) is a clinically documented risk factor for vascular cognitive impairment, the occurrence and pathomechanisms of vascular cognitive impairment in early stages of HF are equivocal. Here, we characterize vascular cognitive impairment in the early stages of HF development and assess whether cerebral hypoperfusion or prothrombotic conditions are involved. METHODS AND RESULTS: Tgαq*44 mice with slowly developing isolated HF triggered by cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of G-αq*44 protein were studied before the end-stage HF, at the ages of 3, 6, and 10 months: before left ventricle dysfunction; at the stage of early left ventricle diastolic dysfunction (with preserved ejection fraction); and left ventricle diastolic/systolic dysfunction, respectively...
March 26, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567503/transcriptomic-characterization-of-mri-contrast-with-focus-on-the-t1-w-t2-w-ratio-in-the-cerebral-cortex
#20
Jacob Ritchie, Spiro P Pantazatos, Leon French
Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain are of immense clinical and research utility. At the atomic and subatomic levels, the sources of MR signals are well understood. However, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the macromolecular correlates of MR signal contrast. To address this gap, we used genome-wide measurements to correlate gene expression with MR signal intensity across the cerebral cortex in the Allen Human Brain Atlas (AHBA). We focused on the ratio of T1-weighted and T2-weighted intensities (T1-w/T2-w ratio image) which is considered to be a useful proxy for myelin content...
March 19, 2018: NeuroImage
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