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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683733/cep55-overexpression-causes-male-specific-sterility-in-mice-by-suppressing-foxo1-nuclear-retention-through-sustained-activation-of-pi3k-akt-signaling
#1
Debottam Sinha, Murugan Kalimutho, Josephine Bowles, Ai-Leen Chan, D Jo Merriner, Amanda L Bain, Jacinta L Simmons, Raimundo Freire, J Alejandro Lopez, Robin M Hobbs, Moira K O'Bryan, Kum Kum Khanna
Spermatogenesis is a dynamic process involving self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells, meiosis, and ultimately, the differentiation of haploid spermatids into sperm. Centrosomal protein (CEP)-55 is necessary for somatic cell abscission during cytokinesis. It facilitates equal segregation of cytoplasmic contents between daughter cells by recruiting endosomal sorting complex required for transport machinery (ESCRT) at the midbody. In germ cells, CEP55, in partnership with testes expressed-14 protein (TEX14), has also been shown to be an integral component of intercellular bridge before meiosis...
April 17, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682047/idh1-mutation-in-brain-stem-glioma-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#2
Seyed Amirhossein Javadi, Christian Hartmann, Gerhard Franz Walter, Roozbeh Banan, Amir Samii
The role of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation in brain stem glioma is not clear. To the best of our knowledge, six cases of brain stem gliomas carrying IDH1/2 mutations are currently reported in the literature. One case of diffuse brain stem glioma with IDH1 mutation, which was followed for 2 years, is presented and compared with IDH1 negative tumors. A 22-year-old lady was referred with diplopia and left arm palsy. Neuroimaging detected a nonenhancing, nonhomogeneous diffuse infiltrating brain stem tumor extending from pons to medulla...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681540/fgf2-has-distinct-molecular-functions-from-gdnf-in-the-mouse-germline-niche
#3
Kaito Masaki, Mizuki Sakai, Shunsuke Kuroki, Jun-Ichiro Jo, Kazuo Hoshina, Yuki Fujimori, Kenji Oka, Toshiyasu Amano, Takahiro Yamanaka, Makoto Tachibana, Yasuhiko Tabata, Tanri Shiozawa, Osamu Ishizuka, Shinichi Hochi, Seiji Takashima
Both glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) are bona fide self-renewal factors for spermatogonial stem cells, whereas retinoic acid (RA) induces spermatogonial differentiation. In this study, we investigated the functional differences between FGF2 and GDNF in the germline niche by providing these factors using a drug delivery system in vivo. Although both factors expanded the GFRA1+ subset of undifferentiated spermatogonia, the FGF2-expanded subset expressed RARG, which is indispensable for proper differentiation, 1...
April 16, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680669/exposing-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-chondroitin-sulphated-proteoglycans-reduces-their-angiogenic-and-neuro-adhesive-paracrine-activity
#4
Chelsea R Wood, Ibtesam R T Al Delfi, John F Innes, Peter Myint, William E B Johnson
The multifactorial complexity of spinal cord injuries includes the formation of a glial scar, of which chondroitin sulphated proteoglycans (CSPG) are an integral component. Previous studies have shown CSPG to have inhibitory effects on endothelial and neuronal cell growth, highlighting the difficulty of spinal cord regeneration. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are widely used a cell therapy, and there is mounting evidence for their angiogenic and neurotrophic paracrine properties. However, in vivo studies have observed poor engraftment and survival of MSC when injected into SCI...
April 19, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678571/the-transcription-factor-mef2a-plays-a-key-role-in-the-differentiation-maturation-of-rat-neural-stem-cells-into-neurons
#5
Bangfu Zhu, Ruth E Carmichael, Luis Solabre Valois, Kevin A Wilkinson, Jeremy M Henley
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing multipotent stem cells that can be proliferated in vitro and differentiated into neuronal and/or glial lineages, making them an ideal model to study the processes involved in neuronal differentiation. Here we have used NSCs to investigate the role of the transcription factor MEF2A in neuronal differentiation and development in vitro. We show that although MEF2A is present in undifferentiated NSCs, following differentiation it is expressed at significantly higher levels in a subset of neuronal compared to non-neuronal cells...
April 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663194/centrosome-inheritance-does-not-regulate-cell-fate-in-granule-neuron-progenitors-of-the-developing-cerebellum
#6
Anindo Chatterjee, Kaviya Chinnappa, Narendrakumar Ramanan, Shyamala Mani
An inherent asymmetry exists between the two centrosomes of a dividing cell. One centrosome is structurally more mature (mother centrosome) than the other (daughter centrosome). Post division, one daughter cell inherits the mother centrosome while the other daughter cell inherits the daughter centrosome. Remarkably, the kind of centrosome inherited is associated with cell fate in several developmental contexts such as in radial glial progenitors in the developing mouse cortex, Drosophila neuroblast divisions and in Drosophila male germline stem cells...
April 16, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663175/gfap-positive-progenitor-cell-production-is-concentrated-in-specific-encephalic-regions-in-young-adult-mice
#7
Zhibao Guo, Yingying Su, Huifang Lou
Previous genetic fate-mapping studies have indicated that embryonic glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive (GFAP+ ) cells are multifunctional progenitor/neural stem cells that can produce astrocytes as well as neurons and oligodendrocytes throughout the adult mouse central nervous system (CNS). However, emerging evidence from recent studies indicates that GFAP+ cells adopt different cell fates and generate different cell types in different regions. Moreover, the fate of GFAP+ cells in the young adult mouse CNS is not well understood...
April 16, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657241/expression-dynamics-of-self-renewal-factors-for-spermatogonial-stem-cells-in-the-mouse-testis
#8
Mizuki Sakai, Kaito Masaki, Shota Aiba, Masaaki Tone, Seiji Takashima
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) are bona fide self-renewal factors for spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Although GDNF is indispensable for the maintenance of SSCs, the role of FGF2 in the testis remains to be elucidated. To clarify this, the expression dynamics and regulatory mechanisms of Fgf2 and Gdnf in the mouse testes were analyzed. It is well known that Sertoli cells express Gdnf, and its receptor is expressed in a subset of undifferentiated spermatogonia, including SSCs...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656620/the-effect-of-recombinant-tyrosine-hydroxylase-expression-on-the-neurogenic-differentiation-potency-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#9
Gizem Turac, Gokhan Duruksu, Erdal Karaoz
OBJECTIVE: Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is a rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, making the enhancement of its activity a target for ensuring sufficient dopamine levels. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBM-MSCs) are known to synthesize TH after differentiating into neuronal cells through chemical induction, but the effect of its ectopic expression on these cells has not yet been determined. This study investigated the effects of ectopic recombinant TH expression on the stemness characteristics of rBM-MSCs...
March 2018: Neurospine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656561/advances-in-controlling-differentiation-of-adult-stem-cells-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#10
REVIEW
Metin Uz, Suprem R Das, Shaowei Ding, Donald S Sakaguchi, Jonathan C Claussen, Surya K Mallapragada
Adult stems cells, possessing the ability to grow, migrate, proliferate, and transdifferentiate into various specific phenotypes, constitute a great asset for peripheral nerve regeneration. Adult stem cells' ability to undergo transdifferentiation is sensitive to various cell-to-cell interactions and external stimuli involving interactions with physical, mechanical, and chemical cues within their microenvironment. Various studies have employed different techniques for transdifferentiating adult stem cells from distinct sources into specific lineages (e...
April 14, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656478/transplantation-of-neural-progenitor-cells-expressing-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-into-the-motor-cortex-as-a-strategy-to-treat-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#11
Gretchen M Thomsen, Pablo Avalos, Annie A Ma, Mor Alkaslasi, Noell Cho, Livia Wyss, Jean-Philippe Vit, Marlesa Godoy, Patrick Suezaki, Oksana Shelest, Krystof S Bankiewicz, Clive N Svendsen
Early dysfunction of cortical motor neurons may underlie the initiation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). As such, the cortex represents a critical area of ALS research and a promising therapeutic target. In the current study, human cortical-derived neural progenitor cells engineered to secrete glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) were transplanted into the SOD1G93A ALS rat cortex, where they migrated, matured into astrocytes, and released GDNF. This protected motor neurons, delayed disease pathology and extended survival of the animals...
April 15, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651947/transplantation-of-bdnf-gene-recombinant-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-adhesive-peptide-modified-hydrogel-scaffold-for-spinal-cord-repair
#12
Li-Ming Li, Ling-Ling Huang, Xin-Chi Jiang, Jia-Chen Chen, Hong-Wei OuYang, Jian-Qing Gao
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for nerve tissue engineering. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) secreted by MSCs can function to increase neural differentiation and relieve inflammation response. Gene transfection technology is an efficient strategy to increase the secretion levels of cytokines and enhance cellular functions. However, transfection and in vivo gene expression of environmentally sensitive stem cells have been one of the most challenging subjects due to the requirement in both safety and transfection efficiency...
April 13, 2018: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651746/human-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-derived-from-epileptic-human-brain-in-a-self-assembling-peptide-nanoscaffold-improve-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#13
Ali Jahanbazi Jahan-Abad, Sajad Sahab Negah, Hassan Hosseini Ravandi, Sedigheh Ghasemi, Maryam Borhani-Haghighi, Walter Stummer, Ali Gorji, Maryam Khaleghi Ghadiri
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a disruption in the brain functions following a head trauma. Cell therapy may provide a promising treatment for TBI. Among different cell types, human neural stem cells cultured in self-assembling peptide scaffolds have been suggested as a potential novel method for cell replacement treatment after TBI. In the present study, we accessed the effects of human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNS/PCs) derived from epileptic human brain and human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (hADSCs) seeded in PuraMatrix hydrogel (PM) on brain function after TBI in an animal model of brain injury...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651556/neurospheres-from-neural-stem-neural-progenitor-cells-nspcs-of-non-hydrocephalic-htx-rats-produce-neurons-astrocytes-and-multiciliated-ependyma-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-normal-and-hydrocephalic-rats-supports-such-a-differentiation
#14
Roberto Henzi, Montserrat Guerra, Karin Vío, César González, Cristian Herrera, Pat McAllister, Conrad Johanson, Esteban M Rodríguez
Fetal onset hydrocephalus and abnormal neurogenesis are two inseparable phenomena turned on by a cell junction pathology first affecting neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) and later the multiciliated ependyma. The neurological impairment of children born with hydrocephalus is not reverted by derivative surgery. NSPCs and neurosphere (NE) grafting into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of hydrocephalic fetuses thus appears as a promising therapeutic procedure. There is little information about the cell lineages actually forming the NE as they grow throughout their days in vitro (DIV)...
April 12, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649411/the-in-vitro-differentiation-of-gdnf-gene-engineered-amniotic-fluid-derived-stem-cells-into-renal-tubular-epithelial-like-cells
#15
Ying Lu, Zhuojun Wang, Lu Chen, Jia Wang, Shulin Li, Caixia Liu, Dong Sun
Amniotic fluid is an alternative source of stem cells, and human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSCs) obtained from a small amount of amniotic fluid collected during the second trimester represent a novel source for use in regenerative medicine. These AFSCs are characterized by lower diversity, a higher proliferation rate and a wider differentiation capability than adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). AFSCs are selected based on the cell surface marker c-kit receptor (CD117) using immunomagnetic sorting...
March 15, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649409/the-forkhead-transcription-factor-foxc2-is-required-for-maintaining-murine-spermatogonial-stem-cells
#16
Chao Wei, Hao Lin, Sheng Cui
Continuous spermatogenesis from puberty to old age in males relies on spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) that possess the property of self-renewal and differentiation. The delicate balance between self-renewal and differentiation is of great importance. In mice, SSCs exist as a subpopulation of undifferentiated spermatogonia. SSCs are controlled by intrinsic molecular pathways which can be activated by extrinsic signals. Our results here first show that the expression of forkhead box C2 (FOXC2) is restricted to GFRα1 positive spermatogonia in the testis...
March 13, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643528/-comparison-of-the-properties-of-cd146-positive-and-cd146-negative-subpopulations-of-stem-cells-from-human-exfoliated-deciduous-teeth
#17
X T Wang, N Q Rao, T Jz Fang, Y M Zhao, L H Ge
OBJECTIVE: Stem cells from human exfoliated teeth (SHED) were sorted by magnetically activated cell sorting (MACS) technique to obtain the CD146 positive and negative cell subpopulation. Then the biological characteristics of these subpopulations were compared to explore their specific application potential in tissue engineering. METHODS: In this study, freshly extracted deciduous teeth without any caries or dental pulp disease were obtained. SHED was isolated using enzyme digestion method and then sorted by MACS, CD146 positive cells and CD146 negative cells were obtained after cell sorting...
April 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625589/intramuscular-transplantation-of-bone-marrow-cells-prolongs-the-lifespan-of-sod1-g93a-mice-and-modulates-expression-of-prognosis-biomarkers-of-the-disease
#18
Amaya Rando, Diego Pastor, Mari Carmen Viso-León, Anna Martínez, Raquel Manzano, Xavier Navarro, Rosario Osta, Salvador Martínez
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness, paralysis and death. There is no effective treatment for ALS and stem cell therapy has arisen as a potential therapeutic approach. METHODS: SOD1 mutant mice were used to study the potential neurotrophic effect of bone marrow cells grafted into quadriceps femoris muscle. RESULTS: Bone marrow intramuscular transplants resulted in increased longevity with improved motor function and decreased motoneuron degeneration in the spinal cord...
April 6, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618286/neuronal-activity-dependent-control-of-postnatal-neurogenesis-and-gliogenesis
#19
Ragnihldur T Káradóttir, Chay T Kuo
The addition of new neurons and oligodendroglia in the postnatal and adult mammalian brain presents distinct forms of gray and white matter plasticity. Substantial effort has been devoted to understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling postnatal neurogenesis and gliogenesis, revealing important parallels to principles governing the embryonic stages. While during central nervous system development, scripted temporal and spatial patterns of neural and glial progenitor proliferation and differentiation are necessary to create the nervous system architecture, it remains unclear what driving forces maintain and sustain postnatal neural stem cell (NSC) and oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) production of new neurons and glia...
April 4, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615705/gdnf-expressing-macrophages-mitigate-loss-of-dopamine-neurons-and-improve-parkinsonian-symptoms-in-mitopark-mice
#20
Cang Chen, Xiuhua Li, Guo Ge, Jingwei Liu, K C Biju, Suzette D Laing, Yusheng Qian, Cori Ballard, Zhixu He, Eliezer Masliah, Robert A Clark, Jason C O'Connor, Senlin Li
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is the most potent neuroprotective agent tested in cellular and animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, CNS delivery of GDNF is restricted by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Using total body irradiation as transplant preconditioning, we previously reported that hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation (HSCT)-based macrophage-mediated gene therapy could deliver GDNF to the brain to prevent degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons in an acute murine neurotoxicity model...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
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