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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451219/low-frequency-pulsed-electromagnetic-field-pretreated-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-the-regeneration-of-crush-injured-rat-mental-nerve
#1
NaRi Seo, Sung-Ho Lee, Kyung Won Ju, JaeMan Woo, BongJu Kim, SoungMin Kim, Jeong Won Jahng, Jong-Ho Lee
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been shown to promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) reportedly promotes the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of BMSCs. Low-frequency PEMF can induce the neuronal differentiation of BMSCs in the absence of nerve growth factors. This study was designed to investigate the effects of low-frequency PEMF pretreatment on the proliferation and function of BMSCs and the effects of low-frequency PEMF pre-treated BMSCs on the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve using in vitro and in vivo experiments...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450981/nurr1-promotes-neurogenesis-of-dopaminergic-neuron-and-represses-inflammatory-factors-in-the-transwell-coculture-system-of-neural-stem-cells-and-microglia
#2
Xiaoxiang Chen, Yuan Qian, Xiangpeng Wang, Zhiwei Tang, Jiaotian Xu, Hai Lin, Zhiyong Yang, Xiaobin Song, Di Lu, Jiazhi Guo, Ligong Bian, Yu Li, Lei Zhou, Xingli Deng
INTRODUCTION: Neural stem cells (NSCs) are the most promising cells for cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, a majority of the transplanted NSCs differentiated into glial cells, thereby limiting the clinical application. Previous studies indicated that chronic neuroinflammation plays a vital role in the degeneration of midbrain DA (mDA) neurons, which suggested the developing potential of therapies for PD by targeting the inflammatory processes. Thus, Nurr1 (nuclear receptor-related factor 1), a transcription factor, has been referred to play a pivotal role in both the differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in embryonic stages and the maintenance of the dopaminergic phenotype throughout life...
February 15, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447839/consensus-statement-on-the-need-for-innovation-transition-and-implementation-of-developmental-neurotoxicity-dnt-testing-for-regulatory-purposes
#3
Ellen Fritsche, Philippe Grandjean, Kevin M Crofton, Michael Aschner, Alan Goldberg, Tuula Heinonen, Ellen V S Hessel, Helena Hogberg, Susanne Hougaard Bennekou, Pamela J Lein, Marcel Leist, William R Mundy, Martin Paparella, Aldert H Piersma, Magdalini Sachana, Gabriele Schmuck, Roland Solecki, Andrea Terron, Florianne Monnet-Tschudi, Martin F Wilks, Hilda Witters, Marie-Gabrielle Zurich, Anna Bal-Price
This consensus statement voices the agreement of scientific stakeholders from regulatory agencies, academia and industry that a new framework needs adopting for assessment of chemicals with the potential to disrupt brain development. An increased prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders in children has been observed that cannot solely be explained by genetics and recently pre- and postnatal exposure to environmental chemicals has been suspected as a causal factor. There is only very limited information on neurodevelopmental toxicity, leaving thousands of chemicals, that are present in the environment, with high uncertainty concerning their developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) potential...
February 12, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436662/comparison-of-the-properties-of-neural-stem-cells-of-the-hippocampus-in-the-tree-shrew-and-rat-in%C3%A2-vitro
#4
Yuan-Dong Hu, Qiong Zhao, Xue-Rong Zhang, Liu-Lin Xiong, Zi-Bin Zhang, Piao Zhang, Rong-Ping Zhang, Ting-Hua Wang
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are characterized by the ability of self‑renewal and capacity to proliferate and produce new nervous tissue. NSCs are capable of differentiating to three lineages of neural cells, including neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Furthermore, hippocampal NSCs transplantation can improve the neurological deficits associated with expression of cytokines. Therefore, to compare the properties of NSCs of tree shrews and rats in vitro, NSCs from tree shrews (tsNSCs) and rats f(rNSCs) were isolated...
February 12, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435804/human-neural-stem-cells-with-gdnf-site-specific-integration-at-aavs1-by-using-aav-vectors-retained-their-stemness
#5
Jinju Zhang, Xiaomei Liu, Yun Zhang, Zuo Luan, Yinxiang Yang, Zhaoyan Wang, Chun Zhang
The neural stem cells (NSCs) have the ability to self-renew, and to migrate to pathologically altered regions of the central nervous system. Glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) could protect dopamine neurons and rescue motor neurons in vivo, which has been proposed as a promising candidate for the treatments of degenerative neurological diseases. In order to combine the advantages of neurotrophic factors and stem cells in clinical therapy, we established the modified hNSCs that has site-specific integration of GDNF gene by using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors...
February 12, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430457/evaluating-the-behavior-of-cultured-sertoli-cells-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-spermatogonial-stem-cell
#6
Masoome Jabarpour, Parviz Tajik
Background: The complex process of spermatogenesis is regulated by various factors. Several studies have been conducted to proliferate cells involved in the spermatogenesis process, in culture by used growth factors, different hormones and feeder cells. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of Sertoli cells on gene expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) and glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) after removal of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) from the culture medium...
2018: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420689/pdk1-deficit-impairs-the-development-of-the-dentate-gyrus-in-mice
#7
Min Xu, Xiaoning Han, Rui Liu, Yanjun Li, Cui Qi, Zhongzhou Yang, Chunjie Zhao, Jun Gao
3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) is crucial for the development of the dentate gyrus (DG), the first gateway receiving afferent inputs from the entorhinal cortex. However, the role of PDK1 in DG development is unclear. In the present study, by crossing Pdk1fl/fl mice with the Emx1-cre line, we identified that the ablation of PDK1 disrupted the development of DG via decreasing the proliferation, and increasing the differentiation of dentate neural progenitor cells, downregulating AKT activity and upregulating GSK3β signaling...
February 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416501/function-of-b-cell-cll-lymphoma-11b-in-glial-progenitor-proliferation-and-oligodendrocyte-maturation
#8
Chih-Yen Wang, Yuan-Ting Sun, Kuan-Min Fang, Chia-Hsin Ho, Chung-Shi Yang, Shun-Fen Tzeng
B-cell CLL/lymphoma 11B (Bcl11b) - a C2H2 zinc finger transcriptional factor - is known to regulate neuronal differentiation and function in the development of the central nervous system (CNS). Although its expression is reduced during oligodendrocyte (OLG) differentiation, its biological role in OLGs remains unknown. In this study, we found that the downregulation of Bcl11b gene expression in glial progenitor cells (GPCs) by lentivirus-mediated gene knockdown (KD) causes a reduction in cell proliferation with inhibited expression of stemness-related genes, while increasing the expression of cell cyclin regulator p21...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411421/tanycytes-and-hypothalamic-control-of-energy-metabolism
#9
Francis J P Ebling, Jo E Lewis
Studies from a number of areas of neuroendocrinology indicate that hypothalamic tanycytes play a key role in control of energy metabolism. First, profound annual changes in gene expression have been identified in these unusual glial cells in seasonal mammals, for example in genes relating to the transport and metabolism of thyroid hormone into the hypothalamus. The consequent changes in local thyroid hormone availability in the hypothalamus have been shown experimentally to regulate annual cycles in energy intake, storage and expenditure in seasonal species...
February 7, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407749/differentiation-of-stem-cells-from-human-deciduous-and-permanent-teeth-into-spiral-ganglion-neuron-like-cells
#10
Thanasup Gonmanee, Charoensri Thonabulsombat, Kutkao Vongsavan, Hathaitip Sritanaudomchai
OBJECTIVE: Stem cells from pulp tissue are a promising cell-based therapy for neurodegenerative patients based on their origin in the neural crest. The aim of this study was to differentiate and evaluate the ability of human dental pulp stem cells from permanent teeth (DPSC) and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) to differentiate into spiral ganglion neurons. DESIGN: After isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cell properties, DPSC and SHED were treated with the neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)...
February 1, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401502/attenuation-of-reactive-gliosis-in-stroke-injured-mouse-brain-does-not-affect-neurogenesis-from-grafted-human-ipsc-derived-neural-progenitors
#11
Cecilia Laterza, Naomi Uoshima, Daniel Tornero, Ulrika Wilhelmsson, Anna Stokowska, Ruimin Ge, Milos Pekny, Olle Lindvall, Zaal Kokaia
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) or their progeny, derived from human somatic cells, can give rise to functional improvements after intracerebral transplantation in animal models of stroke. Previous studies have indicated that reactive gliosis, which is associated with stroke, inhibits neurogenesis from both endogenous and grafted neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) of rodent origin. Here we have assessed whether reactive astrocytes affect the fate of human iPSC-derived NSPCs transplanted into stroke-injured brain...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396183/astrocytes-attenuate-mitochondrial-dysfunctions-in-human-dopaminergic-neurons-derived-from-ipsc
#12
Fang Du, Qing Yu, Allen Chen, Doris Chen, Shirley ShiDu Yan
Astrocytes, the most populous glial cell type in the brain, are critical for regulating the brain microenvironment. In various neurodegenerative diseases, astrocytes determine the progression and outcome of the neuropathological process. We have recently revealed the direct involvement of mitochondrial function in human pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived dopaminergic (DA) neuronal differentiation. Using the astroglial-neuronal co-culture system, we show here that astrocytes effectively rescue defects in neurogenesis of DA neurons with mitochondrial respiratory chain disruption...
January 26, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395907/a-translational-repression-complex-in-developing-mammalian-neural-stem-cells-that-regulates-neuronal-specification
#13
Siraj K Zahr, Guang Yang, Hilal Kazan, Michael J Borrett, Scott A Yuzwa, Anastassia Voronova, David R Kaplan, Freda D Miller
The mechanisms instructing genesis of neuronal subtypes from mammalian neural precursors are not well understood. To address this issue, we have characterized the transcriptional landscape of radial glial precursors (RPs) in the embryonic murine cortex. We show that individual RPs express mRNA, but not protein, for transcriptional specifiers of both deep and superficial layer cortical neurons. Some of these mRNAs, including the superficial versus deep layer neuron transcriptional regulators Brn1 and Tle4, are translationally repressed by their association with the RNA-binding protein Pumilio2 (Pum2) and the 4E-T protein...
January 26, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383547/new-aspects-of-glioblastoma-multiforme-revealed-by-similarities-between-neural-and-glioblastoma-stem-cells
#14
REVIEW
Yoichiro Kawamura, Jun Takouda, Koji Yoshimoto, Kinichi Nakashima
Neural stem cells (NSCs) undergo self-renewal and generate neurons and glial cells under the influence of specific signals from surrounding environments. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly lethal brain tumor arising from NSCs or glial precursor cells owing to dysregulation of transcriptional and epigenetic networks that control self-renewal and differentiation of NSCs. Highly tumorigenic glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) constitute a small subpopulation of GBM cells, which share several characteristic similarities with NSCs...
January 31, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379049/foxj1-expressing-ependymal-cells-do-not-contribute-new-cells-to-sites-of-injury-or-stroke-in-the-mouse-forebrain
#15
Nagendran Muthusamy, Andrew Brumm, Xuying Zhang, S Thomas Carmichael, H Troy Ghashghaei
The stem cell source of neural and glial progenitors in the periventricular regions of the adult forebrain has remained uncertain and controversial. Using a cell specific genetic approach we rule out Foxj1+ ependymal cells as stem cells participating in neurogenesis and gliogenesis in response to acute injury or stroke in the mouse forebrain. Non stem- and progenitor-like responses of Foxj1+ ependymal cells to injury and stroke remain to be defined and investigated.
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378863/notch-suppression-collaborates-with-ascl1-and-lin28-to-unleash-a-regenerative-response-in-fish-retina-but-not-in-mice
#16
Fairouz Elsaeidi, Peter Macpherson, Elizabeth A Mills, Jonathan Jui, John G Flannery, Daniel Goldman
Muller glial cells (MG) in the zebrafish retina respond to injury by acquiring retinal stem cell characteristics. Thousands of gene expression changes are associated with this event. Key among these changes are the induction of Ascl1a and Lin28a, two reprogramming factors whose expression is necessary for retina regeneration. Whether these factors are sufficient to drive MG proliferation and subsequent neuronal-fate specification remains unknown. To test this, we conditionally expressed Ascl1a and Lin28a in the uninjured retina of male and female fish...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375039/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-modeling-and-cell-based-therapy-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#17
M Csobonyeiova, S Polak, A Nicodemou, L Danisovic
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurological disease characterized by neuromuscular degeneration and the progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs), causing weakness and paralysis. However, the underlying mechanisms of this disease are still unknown and there is no cure, or even treatment to stop or reverse its pathology. Consequently, most ALS patients die within 3 - 5 years after disease onset. While considerable progress has been made in studying animal models of ALS, they lack clinical suitability due to genetic differences...
October 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364250/flow-cytometry-based-drug-screening-system-for-the-identification-of-small-molecules-that-promote-cellular-differentiation-of-glioblastoma-stem-cells
#18
Raffaella Spina, Dillon M Voss, Laura Asnaghi, Andrew Sloan, Eli E Bar
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most lethal primary brain tumor in adults, causing roughly 14,000 deaths each year in the U.S. alone. Median survival following diagnosis is less than 15 months with maximal surgical resection, radiation, and temozolomide chemotherapy. The challenges inherent in developing more effective GBM treatments have become increasingly clear, and include its unyielding invasiveness, its resistance to standard treatments, its genetic complexity and molecular adaptability, and subpopulations of GBM cells with phenotypic similarities to normal stem cells, herein referred to as glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs)...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361548/maturation-of-neural-stem-cells-and-integration-into-hippocampal-circuits-functional-study-in-post-ischemia-in-situ
#19
Olga Kopach, Oksana Rybachuk, Volodymyr Krotov, Vitalii Kyryk, Nana Voitenko, Tatyana Pivneva
The hippocampus is the most susceptible region of the brain to ischemic lesion, with highly vulnerable pyramidal interneurons to ischemic cell death. A restricted brain neurogenesis limits a withdrawal of massive cell death after stroke that endorses cell-based therapies for neuronal replacement strategies following cerebral ischemia. Neurons differentiated from neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) matured and integrated into host circuitry, improving recovery after stroke. However, how host environment regulates the NSPC behaviour in post-ischemic tissue remains unknown...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359518/store-operated-calcium-entries-control-neural-stem-cell-self-renewal-in-the-adult-brain-subventricular-zone
#20
Florence Domenichini, Elodie Terrié, Patricia Arnault, Thomas Harnois, Christophe Magaud, Patrick Bois, Bruno Constantin, Valérie Coronas
The subventricular zone (SVZ) is the major stem cell niche in the brain of adult mammals. Within this region, neural stem cells proliferate, self-renew and give birth to neurons and glial cells. Previous studies underlined enrichment in calcium signaling-related transcripts in adult neural stem cells. Because of their ability to mobilize sustained calcium influxes in response to a wide range of extracellular factors, store-operated channels (SOC) appear to be, among calcium channels, relevant candidates to induce calcium signaling in neural stem cells whose cellular activities are continuously adapted to physiological signals from the microenvironment...
January 23, 2018: Stem Cells
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