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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102835/spinal-cord-regeneration-in-xenopus-laevis
#1
Gabriela Edwards-Faret, Rosana Muñoz, Emilio E Méndez-Olivos, Dasfne Lee-Liu, Victor S Tapia, Juan Larraín
Here we present a protocol for the husbandry of Xenopus laevis tadpoles and froglets, and procedures to study spinal cord regeneration. This includes methods to induce spinal cord injury (SCI); DNA and morpholino electroporation for genetic studies; in vivo imaging for cell analysis; a swimming test to measure functional recovery; and a convenient model for screening for new compounds that promote neural regeneration. These protocols establish X. laevis as a unique model organism for understanding spinal cord regeneration by comparing regenerative and nonregenerative stages...
February 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100038/trim8-regulates-stemness-in-glioblastoma-through-pias3-stat3
#2
Changming Zhang, Subhas Mukherjee, Carol Tucker-Burden, James L Ross, Monica J Chau, Jun Kong, Daniel J Brat
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant form of primary brain tumor and GBM stem-like cells (GSCs) contribute to the rapid growth, therapeutic resistance and clinical recurrence of these fatal tumors. STAT3 signaling supports the maintenance and proliferation of GSCs, yet regulatory mechanisms are not completely understood. Here we report that tri-partite motif containing protein 8 (TRIM8) activates STAT3 signaling to maintain stemness and self-renewing capabilities of GSCs. TRIM8 (also known as "glioblastoma expressed ring finger protein") is expressed equally in GBM and normal brain tissues, despite its hemizygous deletion in the large majority of GBMs, and its expression is highly correlated with stem cell markers...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076568/immunohistochemical-analysis-of-retinoblastoma-cell-phenotype-using-neuronal-and-glial-cell-markers
#3
María Eugenia Orellana, Rubens Belfort, Emilia Antecka, Miguel Noel Burnier
Purpose: The cellular origin of retinoblastoma is uncertain as constituent tumor cells heterogeneously express markers of both immature and mature retinal cells. An immunohistochemical analysis of cellular origin may yield valuable insights into disease progression and treatment options. This study aimed to determine the cellular origin of retinoblastoma in a large case series and correlate these findings with histopathological prognostic factors. Methods: Thirty-nine retinoblastoma cases were histopathologically diagnosed and analyzed by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against the immature neural cell marker SRY-box containing gene 2 (SOX-2), the mature neuronal cell marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), and the mature glial cell marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075485/culturing-and-neuronal-differentiation-of-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells
#4
Sarita Goorha, Lawrence T Reiter
A major issue in studying human neurogenetic disorders, especially rare syndromes affecting the nervous system, is the ability to grow neuronal cultures that accurately represent these disorders for analysis. Although there has been some success in generating induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from both skin and blood, there are still limitations to the collection and production of iPS cells from these biospecimens. We have had significant success in collecting and growing human dental pulp stem (DPS) cells from exfoliated teeth sent to our laboratory by the parents of children with a variety of rare neurogenetic syndromes...
January 11, 2017: Current Protocols in Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070746/boundary-cap-neural-crest-stem-cells-promote-survival-of-mutant-sod1-motor-neurons
#5
Tanya Aggarwal, Jan Hoeber, Patrik Ivert, Svitlana Vasylovska, Elena N Kozlova
ALS is a devastating disease resulting in degeneration of motor neurons (MNs) in the brain and spinal cord. The survival of MNs strongly depends on surrounding glial cells and neurotrophic support from muscles. We previously demonstrated that boundary cap neural crest stem cells (bNCSCs) can give rise to neurons and glial cells in vitro and in vivo and have multiple beneficial effects on co-cultured and co-implanted cells, including neural cells. In this paper, we investigate if bNCSCs may improve survival of MNs harboring a mutant form of human SOD1 (SOD1(G93A)) in vitro under normal conditions and oxidative stress and in vivo after implantation to the spinal cord...
January 9, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070036/-hypoxic-condition-promotes-olfactory-mucosa-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-differentiate-into-neurons-and-%C3%A2-underlying-mechanisms
#6
Yi Zhuo, Ting Yuan, Da Duan, Lei Wang, Lite Ge, Pei Wu, Hao Wang, Ming Lu
To explore whether hypoxic condition could promote the olfactory mucosa mesenchymal stem cells (OM-MSCs) to differentiate into neurons with the olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) supernatant and the potential mechanisms.
 Methods: The OM-MSCs and OECs were isolated and cultured, and they were identified by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. The OM-MSCs were divided into three groups: a 3%O2+ HIF-1α inhibitors (lificiguat: YC-1) + OECs supernatant group (Group A) , a 3%O2 + OECs supernatant group (Group B) and a 21%O2 + OECs supernatant group (Control group)...
December 28, 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069497/a-modified-collagen-scaffold-facilitates-endogenous-neurogenesis-for-acute-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#7
Caixia Fan, Xing Li, Zhifeng Xiao, Yannan Zhao, Hui Liang, Bin Wang, Sufang Han, Xiaoran Li, Bai Xu, Nuo Wang, Sumei Liu, Weiwei Xue, Jianwu Dai
Due to irreversible neuronal loss and glial scar deposition, spinal cord injury (SCI) ultimately results in permanent neurological dysfunction. Neuronal regeneration of neural stem cells (NSCs) residing in the spinal cord could be an ideal strategy for replenishing the lost neurons and restore function. However, many myelin-associated inhibitors in the SCI microenvironment limit the ability of spinal cord NSCs to regenerate into neurons. Here, a linearly ordered collagen scaffold was used to prevent scar deposition, guide nerve regeneration and carry drugs to neutralize the inhibitory molecules...
January 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068836/electro-acupuncture-modulates-l1-adhesion-molecule-expression-after-mouse-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Zhe Wei, Yan Wang, Weijiang Zhao, Melitta Schachner
Spinal cord injury is a devastating neurological disease in desperate need of a cure. We have previously shown that overexpression of the adhesion molecule L1 contributes to locomotor recovery after injury and were therefore interested in how electro-acupuncture would influence the expression of this molecule. Here, we investigated the effects of electro-acupuncture at "Jiaji" points (EX-B2), newly established by us, in young adult mice to determine whether improved recovery via electro-acupuncture could be due to enhanced L1 expression...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060319/isolation-and-culture-of-adult-neural-stem-cells-from-the-mouse-subcallosal-zone
#9
Joo Yeon Kim, Ju-Hyun Lee, Woong Sun
Adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) can be used for the regeneration of damaged brain tissue. NSCs have the potential for differentiation and proliferation into three types of cells: neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Identifying aNSC-derived regions and characterizing the aNSC properties are critical for the potential use of aNSCs and for the elucidation of their role in neural regeneration. The subcallosal zone (SCZ), located between white matter and the hippocampus, has recently been reported to contain aNSCs and continuously give rise to neuroblasts...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051360/the-notch-ligand-jag1-regulates-gdnf-expression-in-sertoli-cells
#10
Thomas Xavier Garcia, Parag Parekh, Pooja Gandhi, Krishna M Sinha, Marie-Claude Hofmann
In the seminiferous epithelium of the testis, Sertoli cells are key niche cells directing proliferation and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) into spermatozoa. Sertoli cells produce glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), which is essential for SSC self-renewal and progenitor expansion. While the role of GDNF in the testis stem cell niche is established, little is known about how this factor is regulated. Our previous studies on NOTCH activity in Sertoli cells demonstrated a role of this pathway in limiting stem/progenitor cell numbers, thus ultimately down-regulating sperm cell output...
January 4, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051268/immunoregulatory-effect-of-neuronal-like-cells-in-inducting-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#11
J Xu, H Lu, Z-N Miao, W-J Wu, Y -Z Jiang, F Ge, W-F Fang, A-H Zhu, G Chen, J-H Zhou, Y-Z Lu, Z-F Tang, Y Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immune activity of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), and explore the biological characteristics and capabilities of BMSCs and the potential to be differentiated into neuronal cells in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The BMSCs were isolated and proliferated in vitro to generate the xenogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction. Moreover, peripheral BMSCs (pBMSCs) were added according to different ratios, which methods were stated as follows: 1: Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) + 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) + 1 μmol/L all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) + 20 μg/L basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) + 20 μg/L epidermal growth factor (EGF); 2: DMEM + 2% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) + 100 μmol/L butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051179/the-hypoparathyroidism-associated-mutation-in-drosophila-gcm-compromises-protein-stability-and-glial-cell-formation
#12
Xiao Xi, Lu Lu, Chun-Chun Zhuge, Xuebing Chen, Yuanfen Zhai, Jingjing Cheng, Haian Mao, Chang-Ching Yang, Bertrand Chin-Ming Tan, Yi-Nan Lee, Cheng-Ting Chien, Margaret S Ho
Differentiated neurons and glia are acquired from immature precursors via transcriptional controls exerted by factors such as proteins in the family of Glial Cells Missing (Gcm). Mammalian Gcm proteins mediate neural stem cell induction, placenta and parathyroid development, whereas Drosophila Gcm proteins act as a key switch to determine neuronal and glial cell fates and regulate hemocyte development. The present study reports a hypoparathyroidism-associated mutation R59L that alters Drosophila Gcm (Gcm) protein stability, rendering it unstable, and hyperubiquitinated via the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049045/in-vitro-models-reveal-differences-in-the-developmental-neurotoxicity-of-an-environmental-polycylic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-mixture-compared-to-benzo-a-pyrene-neuronotypic-pc12-cells-and-embryonic-neural-stem-cells
#13
Theodore A Slotkin, Samantha Skavicus, Jennifer Card, Richard T Di Giulio, Frederic J Seidler
In addition to their carcinogenic activity, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are suspected to be developmental neurotoxicants. We evaluated the effects of PAHs with two in vitro models that assess distinct "decision nodes" in neurodifferentiation: neuronotypic PC12 cells, which characterize the transition from cell replication to neurodifferentiation, neurite outgrowth and neurotransmitter specification; and embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs), which evaluate the origination of neurons and glia from precursors...
December 31, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035654/seven-days-post-injury-fate-and-effects-of-genetically-labelled-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-cells-on-a-rat-traumatic-brain-injury-experimental-model
#14
Ioanna Dori, Spyros Petrakis, Aggeliki Giannakopoulou, Chryssa Bekiari, Ioannis Grivas, Evangelia K Siska, Georgios Koliakos, Georgios C Papadopoulos
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been suggested to have beneficial effects on animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI), owing to their neurotrophic and immunomodulatory properties. Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are multipotent MSC that can be harvested with minimally invasive methods, show a high proliferative capacity, low immunogenicity if allogeneic, and can be used in autologous or heterologous settings. In the present study ASCs were genetically labelled using the Sleeping Beauty transposon to express the fluorescent protein Venus...
December 30, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018176/activated-microglia-induce-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-produce-glial-cell-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-protect-neurons-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-injury
#15
Bingke Lv, Feng Li, Jie Fang, Limin Xu, Chengmei Sun, Jianbang Han, Tian Hua, Zhongfei Zhang, Zhiming Feng, Qinghua Wang, Xiaodan Jiang
In this study, we investigated interactions among microglia (MG), bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and neurons in cerebral ischemia and the potential mechanisms using an in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model. Rat BMSCs were incubated with conditioned medium (CM) from in vitro cultures of OGD-activated rat MG and murine BV2 MG cells. Effects of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on rat neuron viability, apoptosis, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were analyzed in this model...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011165/a-robust-and-reproducible-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-model-of-neurite-outgrowth-in-a-three-dimensional-culture-system-and-its-application-to-study-neurite-inhibition
#16
Kirsty E Clarke, Daniel M Tams, Andrew P Henderson, Mathilde F Roger, Andrew Whiting, Stefan A Przyborski
The inability of neurites to grow and restore neural connections is common to many neurological disorders, including trauma to the central nervous system and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, there is need for a robust and reproducible model of neurite outgrowth, to provide a tool to study the molecular mechanisms that underpin the process of neurite inhibition and to screen molecules that may be able to overcome such inhibition. In this study a novel in vitro pluripotent stem cell based model of human neuritogenesis was developed...
December 20, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007647/rewiring-the-spinal-cord-direct-and-indirect-strategies
#17
REVIEW
Maria Teresa Dell'Anno, Stephen M Strittmatter
Spinal cord injury is currently incurable. Treatment is limited to minimizing secondary complications and maximizing residual function by rehabilitation. Neurologic recovery is prevented by the poor intrinsic regenerative capacity of neurons in the adult central nervous system and by the presence of growth inhibitors in the adult brain and spinal cord. Here we identify three approaches to rewire the spinal cord after injury: axonal regeneration (direct endogenous reconnection), axonal sprouting (indirect endogenous reconnection) and neural stem cell transplantation (indirect exogenous reconnection)...
December 19, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001323/prenatal-transplantation-of-epidermal-neural-crest-stem-cells-in-malformation-of-cortical-development-mouse-model
#18
Ameneh Omidi, Mohammad Akbari, Keywan Mortezaee, Ehsan Eqlimi, Cordian Beyer, Adib Zendedel, Iraj Ragerdi Kashani
Prenatal interventions may offer an immense opportunity in therapeutic protocols of malformations of cortical development (MCD). Epidermal neural crest stem cells (EPI-NCSCs) of the hair follicle bulge exhibit features of both embryonic and adult stem cells; these cells maintain their neurologic differentiation capability because of their neural crest origin. However, it is unknown if prenatal use of EPI-NCSCs could be beneficial in targeting methylazoxymethanol (MAM)-induced MCD, which further addressed in the present work...
December 21, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999773/in-vitro-evaluation-of-biocompatibility-of-uncoated-thermally-reduced-graphene-and-carbon-nanotube-loaded-pvdf-membranes-with-adult-neural-stem-cell-derived-neurons-and-glia
#19
Çağla Defteralı, Raquel Verdejo, Shahid Majeed, Adriana Boschetti-de-Fierro, Héctor R Méndez-Gómez, Eva Díaz-Guerra, Daniel Fierro, Kristian Buhr, Clarissa Abetz, Ricardo Martínez-Murillo, Daniela Vuluga, Michaël Alexandre, Jean-Michel Thomassin, Christophe Detrembleur, Christine Jérôme, Volker Abetz, Miguel Ángel López-Manchado, Carlos Vicario-Abejón
Graphene, graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are being investigated as potential substrates for the growth of neural cells. However, in most in vitro studies, the cells were seeded on these materials coated with various proteins implying that the observed effects on the cells could not solely be attributed to the GBN and CNT properties. Here, we studied the biocompatibility of uncoated thermally reduced graphene (TRG) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes loaded with multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) using neural stem cells isolated from the adult mouse olfactory bulb (termed aOBSCs)...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998933/microrna-202-maintains-spermatogonial-stem-cells-by-inhibiting-cell-cycle-regulators-and-rna-binding-proteins
#20
Jian Chen, Tanxi Cai, Chunwei Zheng, Xiwen Lin, Guojun Wang, Shangying Liao, Xiuxia Wang, Haiyun Gan, Daoqin Zhang, Xiangjing Hu, Si Wang, Zhen Li, Yanmin Feng, Fuquan Yang, Chunsheng Han
miRNAs play important roles during mammalian spermatogenesis. However, the function of most miRNAs in spermatogenesis and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we report that miR-202 is highly expressed in mouse spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), and is oppositely regulated by Glial cell-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) and retinoic acid (RA), two key factors for SSC self-renewal and differentiation. We used inducible CRISPR-Cas9 to knockout miR-202 in cultured SSCs, and found that the knockout SSCs initiated premature differentiation accompanied by reduced stem cell activity and increased mitosis and apoptosis...
December 19, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
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