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Glial stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820892/maternal-autoimmune-antibodies-alter-the-dendritic-arbor-and-spine-numbers-in-the-infragranular-layers-of-the-cortex
#1
Jeanelle Ariza, Jesus Hurtado, Haille Rogers, Raymond Ikeda, Michael Dill, Craig Steward, Donnay Creary, Judy Van de Water, Verónica Martínez-Cerdeño
An association between maternal IgG antibodies reactive against proteins in fetal brain and an outcome of autism in the child has been identified. Using a mouse model of prenatal intraventricular administration of autism-specific maternal IgG, we demonstrated that these antibodies produce behavioral alterations similar to those in children with ASD. We previously demonstrated that these antibodies bind to radial glial stem cells (RG) and observed an increase in the number of divisions of translocating RG in the developing cortex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819456/therapeutic-effect-of-astroglia-like-mesenchymal-stem-cells-expressing-glutamate-transporter-in-a-genetic-rat-model-of-depression
#2
Amit Shwartz, Oshra Betzer, Noam Kronfeld, Gila Kazimirsky, Simona Cazacu, Susan Finniss, Hae Kyung Lee, Menachem Motiei, Shani Yael Dagan, Rachela Popovtzer, Chaya Brodie, Gal Yadid
Recent studies have proposed that abnormal glutamatergic neurotransmission and glial pathology play an important role in the etiology and manifestation of depression. It was postulated that restoration of normal glutamatergic transmission, by enhancing glutamate uptake, may have a beneficial effect on depression. We examined this hypothesis using unique human glial-like mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which in addition to inherent properties of migration to regions of injury and secretion of neurotrophic factors, were differentiated to express high levels of functional glutamate transporters (excitatory amino acid transporters; EAAT)...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814327/neocortical-sox9-radial-glia-generate-glutamatergic-neurons-for-all-layers-but-lack-discernible-evidence-of-early-laminar-fate-restriction
#3
E S Kaplan, K A Ramos-Laguna, A B Mihalas, R A M Daza, R F Hevner
Glutamatergic neurons in the cerebral cortex are derived from embryonic neural stem cells known as radial glial progenitors (RGPs). Early RGPs, present at the onset of cortical neurogenesis, are classically thought to produce columnar clones of glutamatergic neurons spanning the cortical layers. Recently, however, it has been reported that a subset of early RGPs may undergo early commitment to upper layer neuron fates, thus bypassing genesis of deep layer neurons. However, the latter mode of early RGP differentiation was not confirmed in some other studies, and remains controversial...
August 16, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812231/the-neuroprotective-effect-of-conditioned-medium-from-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-is-impaired-by-n-acetyl-cysteine-supplementation
#4
Teodoro Palomares, María Cordero, Cristina Bruzos-Cidon, María Torrecilla, Luisa Ugedo, Ana Alonso-Varona
Oxidative stress is a common feature in neurodegenerative diseases associated with neuroinflammation, and therefore, has been proposed as a key target for novel therapies for these diseases. Recently, adipose-derived stem cell (ASC)-based cell therapy has emerged as a novel strategy for neuroprotection. In this study, we evaluate the therapeutic role of ASC-conditioned medium (ASC-CM) against H2O2-induced neurotoxicity in a new in vitro model of ec23/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-differentiated human SH-SY5Y neuron-like cells (SH-SY5Yd)...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808337/microrna-214-modulates-neural-progenitor-cell-differentiation-by-targeting-quaking-during-cerebral-cortex-development
#5
Pengcheng Shu, Hongye Fu, Xiangyu Zhao, Chao Wu, Xiangbin Ruan, Yi Zeng, Wei Liu, Ming Wang, Lin Hou, Pan Chen, Bin Yin, Jiangang Yuan, Boqin Qiang, Xiaozhong Peng
The accurate generation of an appropriate number of different neuronal and glial subtypes is fundamental to normal brain functions and requires tightly orchestrated spatial and temporal developmental programmes to maintain the balance between the proliferation and the differentiation of neural progenitor cells. However, the molecular mechanism governing this process has not been fully elucidated. Here, we found that miR-214-3p was highly expressed in neural progenitor cells and dynamically regulated during neocortical development...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798775/maintenance-of-a-schwann-like-phenotype-in-differentiated-adipose-derived-stem-cells-requires-the-synergistic-action-of-multiple-growth-factors
#6
Alice E Mortimer, Alessandro Faroni, Mahmut A Kilic, Adam J Reid
Differentiating human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) towards Schwann cells produces an unstable phenotype when stimulating factors are withdrawn. Here, we set out to examine the role of glial growth factor 2 (GGF-2) in the maintenance of Schwann-like cells. Following ASC differentiation to Schwann-like cells, stimulating factors were withdrawn such that cells either remained in media supplemented with all stimulating factors, GGF-2 alone, or underwent complete withdrawal of all factors. Furthermore, each stimulating factor was also removed from the growth medium individually...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796340/application-of-differentiated-human-tonsil-derived-stem-cells-to-trembler-j-mice
#7
Saeyoung Park, Yoonyoung Choi, Geon Kwak, Young Bin Hong, Namhee Jung, Jieun Kim, Byung-Ok Choi, Sung-Chul Jung
INTRODUCTION: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into various cell types. METHODS: We investigated the potential of human tonsil-derived MSCs (T-MSCs) for neuromuscular regeneration in trembler-J (Tr-J) mice: a model for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A. RESULTS: T-MSCs differentiated toward skeletal myocytes with increased expression of skeletal muscle-related markers (including troponin I type 1, and myogenin), and the formation of myotubes in vitro...
August 10, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796246/identification-and-characterization-of-a-new-source-of-adult-human-neural-progenitors
#8
Jinan Behnan, Biljana Stangeland, Tiziana Langella, Gaetano Finocchiaro, Giovanni Tringali, Torstein R Meling, Wayne Murrell
Adult neural progenitor cells (aNPCs) are a potential source for cell based therapy for neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic brain injuries. These cells have been traditionally isolated from hippocampus, subventricular zone and white matter. However, there is still a need for an easily accessible source with better yield to counter the limitations of small surgical samples of previously characterized aNPCs. Here we show that ultrasonic aspirate (UA) samples currently considered as 'biological waste after surgery,' offer a good source for aNPCs...
August 10, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791751/the-gene-network-underlying-the-glial-regenerative-response-to-central-nervous-system-injury
#9
REVIEW
Kentaro Kato, Maria Losada-Perez, Alicia Hidalgo
Although the central nervous system does not regenerate, injury induces repair and regenerative responses in glial cells. In mammals, activated microglia clear up apoptotic cells and debris resulting from the injury, astrocytes form a scar that contains the lesion, and NG2-glia elicit a prominent regenerative response. NG2-glia regenerate themselves and differentiate into oligodendrocytes, which remyelinate axons leading to some recovery of locomotion. The regenerative response of glial cells is evolutionarily conserved across the animals and Drosophila genetics revealed an underlying gene network...
August 9, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781091/dental-pulp-stem-cells-their-potential-in-reinnervation-and-angiogenesis-by-using-scaffolds
#10
Ivo Lambrichts, Ronald B Driesen, Yörg Dillen, Pascal Gervois, Jessica Ratajczak, Tim Vangansewinkel, Esther Wolfs, Annelies Bronckaers, Petra Hilkens
Dental pulp is a highly vascularized and innervated tissue containing a heterogeneous stem cell population with multilineage differentiation potential. Current endodontic treatments focus on the preservation of the pulp tissue and the regeneration of dental pulp after pathological insults. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) are currently investigated as stem cell-based therapy for pulp regeneration and for peripheral nerve injury in which neurons and Schwann cells display limited regenerative capacity. We have developed a neuronal differentiation protocol for hDPSCs that requires neurosphere formation before neuronal maturation...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777939/do-not-adjust-your-mind-the-fault-is-in-your-glia
#11
Robin J M Franklin, Edward T Bullmore
Glia have been implicated in schizophrenia, although whether they play a primary role is uncertain. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Windrem et al. (2017) transplant human glial progenitors from schizophrenia patients into mouse brains, which develop abnormalities and behaviors characteristic of schizophrenia, thereby suggesting a primary role for glia in the complex disease pathogenesis.
August 3, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771534/neural-stem-cell-mediated-recovery-is-enhanced-by-chondroitinase-abc-pretreatment-in-chronic-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Hidenori Suzuki, Christopher S Ahuja, Ryan P Salewski, Lijun Li, Kajana Satkunendrarajah, Narihito Nagoshi, Shinsuke Shibata, Michael G Fehlings
Traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) affect millions of people worldwide; the majority of whom are in the chronic phase of their injury. Unfortunately, most current treatments target the acute/subacute injury phase as the microenvironment of chronically injured cord consists of a well-established glial scar with inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) which acts as a potent barrier to regeneration. It has been shown that CSPGs can be degraded in vivo by intrathecal Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) to produce a more permissive environment for regeneration by endogenous cells or transplanted neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subacute phase of injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766905/evidence-for-reduced-neurogenesis-in-the-aging-human-hippocampus-despite-stable-stem-cell-markers
#13
Kathryn J Mathews, Katherine M Allen, Danny Boerrigter, Helen Ball, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Kay L Double
Reduced neurogenesis in the aging mammalian hippocampus has been linked to cognitive deficits and increased risk of dementia. We utilized postmortem human hippocampal tissue from 26 subjects aged 18-88 years to investigate changes in expression of six genes representing different stages of neurogenesis across the healthy adult lifespan. Progressive and significant decreases in mRNA levels of the proliferation marker Ki67 (MKI67) and the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (DCX) were found in the healthy human hippocampus over the lifespan...
August 1, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761436/polyethylene-glycol-as-a-promising-synthetic-material-for-repair-of-spinal-cord-injury
#14
REVIEW
Xian-Bin Kong, Qiu-Yan Tang, Xu-Yi Chen, Yue Tu, Shi-Zhong Sun, Zhong-Lei Sun
Polyethylene glycol is a synthetic, biodegradable, and water-soluble polyether. Owing to its good biological and material properties, polyethylene glycol shows promise in spinal cord tissue engineering applications. Although studies have examined repairing spinal cord injury with polyethylene glycol, these compelling findings have not been recently reviewed or evaluated as a whole. Thus, we herein review and summarize the findings of studies conducted both within and beyond China that have examined the repair of spinal cord injury using polyethylene glycol...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761428/monosialoganglioside-1-may-alleviate-neurotoxicity-induced-by-propofol-combined-with-remifentanil-in-neural-stem-cells
#15
Jiang Lu, Xue-Qin Yao, Xin Luo, Yu Wang, Sookja Kim Chung, He-Xin Tang, Chi Wai Cheung, Xian-Yu Wang, Chen Meng, Qing Li
Monosialoganglioside 1 (GM1) is the main ganglioside subtype and has neuroprotective properties in the central nervous system. In this study, we aimed to determine whether GM1 alleviates neurotoxicity induced by moderate and high concentrations of propofol combined with remifentanil in the immature central nervous system. Hippocampal neural stem cells were isolated from newborn Sprague-Dawley rats and treated with remifentanil (5, 10, 20 ng/mL) and propofol (1.0, 2.5, 5.0 μg/mL), and/or GM1 (12.5, 25, 50 μg/mL)...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757477/the-roles-and-mechanisms-of-the-hippo-yap-signaling-pathway-in-the-nervous-system
#16
Bao Xiaomei, He Qing, Wang Ying, Huang Zhihui, Yuan Zengqiang
The Hippo signaling pathway, consisting of a highly conserved kinase cascade and downstream transcription co-activators YAP (Yes-associated protein)/TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif), plays a key role in tissue homeostasis and organ size control by regulating the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of cells. During normal development, the precise control of neural cell numbers and spatial distributions of these neural cells is important for brain development. Recent studies have shown that the Hippo/YAP signaling pathway is actively involved in the self-renewal of neural stem cells, proliferation of neural progenitor cells, differentiation and activation of glial cells, and myelination of glial cells as well as in the development of neurological diseases...
July 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751200/gene-regulation-in-adult-neural-stem-cells-current-challenges-and-possible-applications
#17
Juan Manuel Encinas, Carlos P Fitzsimons
Adult neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) offer a unique opportunity for neural regeneration and niche modification in physiopathological conditions, harnessing the capability to modify from neuronal circuits to glial scar. Findings exposing the vast plasticity and potential of NSPCs have accumulated over the past years and we currently know that adult NSPCs can naturally give rise not only to neurons but also to astrocytes and reactive astrocytes, and eventually to oligodendrocytes through genetic manipulation...
July 25, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749199/hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-hap-stem-cells
#18
Yasuyuki Amoh, Robert M Hoffman
Various types of stem cells reside in the skin, including keratinocyte progenitor cells, melanocyte progenitor cells, and skin-derived precursors (SKPs), and nestin-expressing hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. HAP stem cells, located in the bulge area of the hair follicle, have been shown to differentiate to nerve cells, glial cells, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells, and melanocytes. HAP stem cells are positive forthe stem cell marker CD34, as well as K15-negative, suggestingtheir relatively undifferentiated state and therefore, HAP stem cells may be the most primitive stem cells in the skin...
July 27, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746822/astrocyte-enriched-feeder-layers-from-cryopreserved-cells-support-differentiation-of-spontaneously-active-networks-of-human-ipsc-derived-neurons
#19
Ryan J Schutte, Yunyao Xie, Nathan N Ng, Priscilla Figueroa, An T Pham, Diane K O'Dowd
BACKGROUND: Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neuronal cultures are a useful tool for studying the mechanisms of neurological disorders and developing novel therapeutics. While plating hiPSC-derived neuronal progenitors onto glial feeder layers prepared from rodent cortex has been reported to promote functional differentiation of neuronal networks, this has not been examined in detail. NEW METHOD: Here we describe a method of using cryopreserved cells from primary cultures for generation of mouse astrocyte-enriched, neuron-free feeder layers that grow from 10% to 100% confluence in 1 week...
July 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743043/neurotrophy-and-immunomodulation-of-induced-neural-stem-cell-grafts-in-a-mouse-model-of-closed-head-injury
#20
Mou Gao, Hui Yao, Qin Dong, Yan Zhang, Yang Yang, Yihua Zhang, Zhijun Yang, Minhui Xu, Ruxiang Xu
Closed head injury (CHI) usually results in severe and permanent neurological impairments, which are caused by several intertwined phenomena, such as cerebral edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, neuronal loss, astroglial scarring and inflammation. We previously reported that induced neural stem cells (iNSCs), similar to neural stem cells (NSCs), can accelerate neurological recovery in vivo and produce neurotrophic factors in vitro. However, the effects of iNSC neurotrophy following CHI were not determined...
July 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research
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