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Glial stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035086/notch-signaling-is-essential-for-maturation-self-renewal-and-tri-differentiation-of-in-vitro-derived-human-neural-stem-cells
#1
Katari Venkatesh, L Vinod Kumar Reddy, Salar Abbas, Madhubanti Mullick, Erfath Thanjeem Begum Moghal, Janardhana Papayya Balakrishna, Dwaipayan Sen
Although neural stem cells (NSCs) have potential applications in treating neurological disorders, much still needs to be understood about the differentiation biology for their successful clinical translation. In this study, we aimed at deriving NSCs from human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) and explored the role of Notch signaling in the differentiation process. The hUCB-MSCs were characterized as per guidelines of the International Society of Cellular Therapy. NSCs were successfully generated from hUCB-MSCs by using epidermal and fibroblast growth factors under serum-free conditions...
October 16, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031901/als-and-ftd-insights-into-the-disease-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-targets
#2
Rajka M Liscic
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) are neurodegenerative disorders, related by signs of deteriorating motor and cognitive functions, and short survival. The causes are still largely unknown and no effective treatment currently exists. It has been shown that FTLD may coexist with ALS. The overlap between ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), the clinical syndrome associated with FTLD, occurs at clinical, genetic, and pathological levels. The hallmark proteins of the pathognomonic inclusions are SOD-1, TDP-43 or FUS, rarely the disease is caused by mutations in the respective genes...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024451/activation-of%C3%A2-group-ii-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-increases-proliferation-but-does-not-influence-neuronal-differentiation-of-a-human-neural-stem-cell-line
#3
Anne Dindler, Morten Blaabjerg, Morad Kamand, Helle Bogetofte, Morten Meyer
The multiple functions of glutamate include regulation of neural development and stem cells. While the importance of the ionotropic glutamate receptors is well established, less is known about the role of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). In this study, we examined the effects of pharmacological activation and inhibition of mGluR2/3 on proliferation, differentiation and viability of a human neural stem cell line. Immunofluorescence staining revealed the presence of mGluR2/3 receptors on both proliferating and differentiating stem cells, including cells differentiated into β-tubulin III-positive immature neurons and glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes...
October 11, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987284/lentivirus-carrying-the-neurod1-gene-promotes-the-conversion-from-glial-cells-into-neurons-in-a-spinal-cord-injury-model
#4
Wenhao Chen, Baoquan Zhang, Shuxia Xu, Ren Lin, Wei Wang
In this study, we aimed to reprogram reactive glial cells into neural stem cells and neurons in vivo, by up-regulating NeuroD1. 60 rats were randomly divided into three groups with equal numbers. All rats received a spinal cord injury. Group A received only normal saline injection. Group B received unloaded lentivirus injection. Group C received NeuroD1 recombinant lentivirus injection. The BBB scores of the animals were documented at 3, 7, 14, 21days after SCI. 5 random rats of each group were removed at those timings after SCI and sacrificed...
October 4, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987031/using-minimalist-self-assembling-peptides-as-hierarchical-scaffolds-to-stabilize-growth-factors-and-promote-stem-cell-integration-in-the-injured-brain
#5
A L Rodriguez, K F Bruggeman, Y Wang, T Y Wang, R J Williams, C L Parish, D R Nisbet
Neurotrophic growth factors are effective in slowing progressive degeneration and/or promoting neural repair through the support of residual host and/or transplanted neurons. However, limitations including short half-life and enzyme susceptibility of growth factors highlight the need for alternative strategies to prolong localised delivery at a site of injury. Here, we establish the utility of minimalist N-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) self-assembling peptides (SAPs) as growth factor delivery vehicle, targeted at supporting neural transplants in an animal model of Parkinson's disease...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979672/engrafted-peripheral-blood-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-locomotive-recovery-in-adult-rats-after-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Qiang Fu, Yi Liu, Xiu Liu, Qian Zhang, Long Chen, Jiachen Peng, Jun Ao, Yuwan Li, Shengmin Wang, Gongyu Song, Limei Yu, Jinwei Liu, Tao Zhang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe trauma of central nervous system (CNS). Numerous stem cells have been applied for SCI therapy. Peripheral blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PBMSCs) have captured researchers' attention by virtue of pluripotency and effectiveness. However, little work has been performed on whether PBMSCs play roles and what role, if any, in the lesion microenvironment. Through the investigation of the differentiation, neuroprotection and immunoloregulation of engrafted PBMSCs, we found that the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was inhibited...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962587/comparative-characteristics-of-laryngeal-resident-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-populations-isolated-from-distinct-sites-in-the-rat-larynx
#7
Songyi Lee, Yeseulmi Kim, Hyun-Soo Shin, Jae-Yol Lim
BACKGROUND: Although tissue-resident mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the larynx have been described, their distinct characteristics and roles have not been thoroughly explored. Therefore, we investigated stem cell characteristics and regenerative potentials of single clonal populations isolated from rat epiglottic mucosa (EM), lamina propria (LP), and macula flava (MF) to determine whether they comprised laryngeal tissue-resident stem cells. METHODS: Single clonal laryngeal cells were isolated following microdissection of the EM, LP, and MF from the rat larynx...
September 29, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951720/human-umbilical-cord-blood-cell-transplantation-in-neuroregenerative-strategies
#8
REVIEW
Luisa R Galieva, Yana O Mukhamedshina, Svetlana S Arkhipova, Albert A Rizvanov
At present there is no effective treatment of pathologies associated with the death of neurons and glial cells which take place as a result of physical trauma or ischemic lesions of the nervous system. Thus, researchers have high hopes for a treatment based on the use of stem cells (SC), which are potentially able to replace dead cells and synthesize neurotrophic factors and other molecules that stimulate neuroregeneration. We are often faced with ethical issues when selecting a source of SC. In addition to precluding these, human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) presents a number of advantages when compared with other sources of SC...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945795/cellular-heterogeneity-contributes-to-subtype-specific-expression-of-zeb1-in-human-glioblastoma
#9
Philipp Euskirchen, Josefine Radke, Marc Sören Schmidt, Eva Schulze Heuling, Eric Kadikowski, Meron Maricos, Felix Knab, Ulrike Grittner, Norman Zerbe, Marcus Czabanka, Christoph Dieterich, Hrvoje Miletic, Sverre Mørk, Arend Koch, Matthias Endres, Christoph Harms
The transcription factor ZEB1 has gained attention in tumor biology of epithelial cancers because of its function in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, DNA repair, stem cell biology and tumor-induced immunosuppression, but its role in gliomas with respect to invasion and prognostic value is controversial. We characterized ZEB1 expression at single cell level in 266 primary brain tumors and present a comprehensive dataset of high grade gliomas with Ki67, p53, IDH1, and EGFR immunohistochemistry, as well as EGFR FISH...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944869/promoting-potential-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-on-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#10
Jiayan Guo, Shu Guo, Yuxin Wang, Yanqiu Yu
The ultimate goal of treating peripheral nerve defects is reconstructing continuity of the nerve stumps to regain nerve conduction and functional recovery. Clinically, autologous nerve grafts and Schwann cell (SC) therapy have limitations, such as the need for secondary surgery, sacrifice of another nerve and donor site complication. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) may promise to be ideal alternative cells of SCs. To explore the potential of ADSCs promoting peripheral nerve regeneration, the present study investigated the influences of ADSCs on proliferation and neurotrophic function of SCs using co‑culture model in vitro...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940767/human-mesenchymal-factors-induce-rat-hippocampal-and-human-neural-stem-cell-dependent-oligodendrogenesis
#11
Janusz J Jadasz, Lena Tepe, Felix Beyer, Iria Samper Agrelo, Rainer Akkermann, Lucas-Sebastian Spitzhorn, Maria Elena Silva, Richard O C Oreffo, Hans-Peter Hartung, Alessandro Prigione, Francisco J Rivera, James Adjaye, Patrick Küry
The generation of new oligodendrocytes is essential for adult brain repair in diseases such as multiple sclerosis. We previously identified the multifunctional p57kip2 protein as a negative regulator of myelinating glial cell differentiation and as an intrinsic switch of glial fate decision in adult neural stem cells (aNSCs). In oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPCs), p57kip2 protein nuclear exclusion was recently found to be rate limiting for differentiation to proceed. Furthermore, stimulation with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived factors enhanced oligodendrogenesis by yet unknown mechanisms...
September 22, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938749/the-testicular-transcriptome-associated-with-spermatogonia-differentiation-initiated-by-gonadotrophin-stimulation-in-the-juvenile-rhesus-monkey-macaca-mulatta
#12
Suresh Ramaswamy, William H Walker, Paula Aliberti, Rahil Sethi, Gary R Marshall, Alyxzandria Smith, Seyedmehdi Nourashrafeddin, Alicia Belgorosky, Uma R Chandran, Mark P Hedger, Tony M Plant
STUDY QUESTION: What is the genetic landscape within the testis of the juvenile rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) that underlies the decision of undifferentiated spermatogonia to commit to a pathway of differentiation when puberty is induced prematurely by exogenous LH and FSH stimulation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Forty-eight hours of gonadotrophin stimulation of the juvenile monkey testis resulted in the appearance of differentiating B spermatogonia and the emergence of 1362 up-regulated and 225 down-regulated testicular mRNAs encoding a complex network of proteins ranging from enzymes regulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis to membrane receptors, and from juxtacrine and paracrine factors to transcriptional factors governing spermatogonial stem cell fate...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938545/overexpression-of-leptin-receptor-in-human-glioblastoma-correlation-with-vasculogenic-mimicry-and-poor-prognosis
#13
Guosheng Han, Yanan Li, Yiqun Cao, Zhijian Yue, Yuhui Zhang, Laixing Wang, Jianmin Liu
Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) was an important tumor blood supply to complement the endothelial cell-dependent angiogenesis, while leptin and receptor (ObR) involved in angiogenesis in glioblastoma has been reported on previous study, but the relationship between ObR expression and VM formation in human glioblastoma tissues, as well as their prognostic significance still remains unclear. In our study, we found that VM recognized by CD31-/PAS+ immunohistochemical staining in glioblastoma tissues showed a positive correlation with leptin expression (r = 0...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936798/conditioned-medium-of-human-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cells-increases-wound-closure-and-protects-human-astrocytes-following-scratch-assay-in-vitro
#14
Eliana Baez-Jurado, Oscar Hidalgo-Lanussa, Gina Guio-Vega, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Valentina Echeverria, Gjumrakch Aliev, George E Barreto
Astrocytes perform essential functions in the preservation of neural tissue. For this reason, these cells can respond with changes in gene expression, hypertrophy, and proliferation upon a traumatic brain injury event (TBI). Different therapeutic strategies may be focused on preserving astrocyte functions and favor a non-generalized and non-sustained protective response over time post-injury. A recent strategy has been the use of the conditioned medium of human adipose mesenchymal stem cells (CM-hMSCA) as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of various neuropathologies...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936466/mouse-m%C3%A3-ller-cell-isolation-and-culture
#15
Xiao Liu, Luosheng Tang, Yongqing Liu
Müller cells are the major supportive and protective glial cells across the retina. Unlike in fish, they have lost the capacity to regenerate the retina in mammals. But, mammalian Müller cells still retain certain retinal stem cell properties with various degree of self-renewal and differentiation potentials, and thereby held a merit in cell-based therapies for treating retinal degeneration diseases. In our laboratory, we use an enzymatic procedure to isolate, purify, and culture mouse Müller cells.
August 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932115/the-long-term-fate-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-labeled-with-magnetic-resonance-imaging-visible-polymersomes-in-cerebral-ischemia
#16
Xiaohui Duan, Liejing Lu, Yong Wang, Fang Zhang, Jiaji Mao, Minghui Cao, Bingling Lin, Xiang Zhang, Xintao Shuai, Jun Shen
Understanding the long-term fate and potential mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) after transplantation is essential for improving functional benefits of stem cell-based stroke treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered an attractive and clinically translatable tool for longitudinal tracking of stem cells, but certain controversies have arisen in this regard. In this study, we used SPION-loaded cationic polymersomes to label green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing MSCs to determine whether MRI can accurately reflect survival, long-term fate, and potential mechanisms of MSCs in ischemic stroke therapy...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929517/neural-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-human-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gene-modified-in-functionalized-self-assembling-peptide-hydrogel-in-vitro
#17
Hongbin Luo, Changsheng Xu, Zhiwei Liu, Lin Yang, Yunda Hong, Guisheng Liu, Huifen Zhong, Xinyi Cai, Xuping Lin, Xiaokun Chen, Changsheng Wang, Nanwen Zhang, Weihong Xu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the biocompatibility and differentiation of human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (hBDNF) gene-modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBDNF-rMSCs) in a functionalized self-assembling peptide hydrogel. METHODS: hBDNF were engineered in rMSCs using adenovirus vector and the enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP) was used as a reporter gene. MSC-specific surface markers (CD90,CD29 and CD45)were used for identifying rMSCs. Fluorescence microscope was used to detect the transfection of rMSCs...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926091/functional-role-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-neurodegenerative-diseases
#18
Debora Lo Furno, Giuliana Mannino, Rosario Giuffrida
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into not only cells of mesodermal lineages, but also into endodermal and ectodermal derived elements, including neurons and glial cells. For this reason, MSCs have been extensively investigated to develop cell-based therapeutic strategies, especially in pathologies whose pharmacological treatments give poor results, if any. As in the case of irreversible neurological disorders characterized by progressive neuronal death, in which behavioral and cognitive functions of patients inexorably decline as the disease progresses...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903548/role-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-the-development-of-central-nervous-system
#19
REVIEW
Naoya Murao, Hideki Nishitoh
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an intracellular homeostatic signalling pathway that is induced by accumulated misfolded/unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The UPR is closely associated with the development of disease in several tissues, including the central nervous system (CNS), in response to ER stress. More recently, the unique features and importance of the UPR have been revealed in neural stem cells (NSCs) and differentiated CNS cells [neurons and glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes)]...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901252/the-origin-and-identification-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-teeth-from-odontogenic-to-non-odontogenic
#20
Dixin Cui, Hongyu Li, Mian Wan, Yiran Peng, Xin Xu, Xuedong Zhou, Liwei Zheng
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in teeth have been exploited as vital seed cells for stem cell-based dental medicine. To date, several mesenchymal stem cell populations originated from odontogenic tissue have been isolated and characterized by their expression of MSC surface markers and capacity of multi-lineage differentiation, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) and so on. However, their identity in vivo remains elusive, which hinders further understanding of their application in stem cell-based tooth regeneration...
September 13, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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