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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909741/the-role-of-epigenetic-modifiers-in-extended-cultures-of-functional-hepatocyte-like-cells-derived-from-human-neonatal-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#1
M Cipriano, J C Correia, S P Camões, N G Oliveira, P Cruz, H Cruz, M Castro, J L Ruas, J M Santos, J P Miranda
The development of predictive in vitro stem cell-derived hepatic models for toxicological drug screening is an increasingly important topic. Herein, umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hnMSCs) underwent hepatic differentiation using an optimized three-step core protocol of 24 days that mimicked liver embryogenesis with further exposure to epigenetic markers, namely the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA), the cytidine analogue 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895906/respiratory-distress-associated-with-heterotopic-gastrointestinal-cysts-of-the-oral-cavity-a-case-report
#2
Marco Antonio Méndez Sáenz, Mario de Jesús Villegas González, Marco A Ponce Camacho, Lucia M Cavazos Cavazos, Bárbara Sáenz Ibarra, Blanca I Esquivel García, José Luis Treviño González
Heterotopic gastrointestinal cysts of the oral cavity are benign lesions usually discovered during infancy. Their pathogenesis is not very clear. They are rare congenital anomalies that result from remnants of foregut-derived epithelium in the head, neck, thorax or abdomen during embryonic development. The majority of these lesions occur in the anterior ventral surface of the tongue and extend to the floor of the mouth. They are confused clinically by surgeons in cases of head and neck masses in children as ranulas, dermoid and thyroglossal cysts, and lymphangioma...
December 2016: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888064/molecular-cloning-and-nutrient-regulation-analysis-of-long-chain-acyl-coa-synthetase-1-gene-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-l
#3
Han-Liang Cheng, Shuai Chen, Jian-He Xu, Le-Fei Yi, Yong-Xing Peng, Qian Pan, Xin Shen, Zhi-Guo Dong, Xia-Qing Zhang, Wen-Xiang Wang
Long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1), a key regulatory enzyme of fatty acid metabolism, catalyzes the conversion of long-chain fatty acids to acyl-coenzyme A. The full-length cDNAs of ACSL1a and ACSL1b were cloned from the liver of a grass carp. Both cDNAs contained a 2094bp open reading frame encoding 697 amino acids. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that ACSL1a shared 73.5% sequence identity with ACSL1b. Each of the two ACSL1s proteins had a transmembrane domain, a P-loop domain, and L-, A-, and G- motifs, which were relatively conserved in comparison to other vertebrates...
November 22, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887938/molecular-profiles-in-foregut-oncology
#4
REVIEW
Prashant Sukharamwala, Daniel Hennessey, Thomas Wood, Shelly Singh, Carrie Ryan, Alexander Rosemurgy
Oncology is and will continue to evolve resulting from a better understanding of the biology and intrinsic genetic profile of each cancer. Tumor biomarkers and targeted therapies are the new face of precision medicine, so it is essential for all physicians caring for cancer patients to understand and assist patients in understanding the role and importance of such markers and strategies to target them. This review was initiated in an attempt to identify, characterize, and discuss literature supporting clinically relevant molecular markers and interventions...
October 29, 2016: Cancer Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877084/rna-interference-of-chitin-synthase-genes-inhibits-chitin-biosynthesis-and-affects-larval-performance-in-leptinotarsa-decemlineata-say
#5
Ji-Feng Shi, Li-Li Mu, Xu Chen, Wen-Chao Guo, Guo-Qing Li
Dietary introduction of bacterially expressed double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has great potential for management of Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Identification of the most attractive candidate genes for RNA interference (RNAi) is the first step. In the present paper, three complete chitin synthase cDNA sequences (LdChSAa, LdChSAb and LdChSB) were cloned. LdChSAa and LdChSAb, two splicing variants of LdChSA gene, were highly expressed in ectodermally-derived epidermal cells forming epidermis, trachea, foregut and hindgut, whereas LdChSB was mainly transcribed in midgut cells...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859814/black-rhinoceros-diceros-bicornis-and-domestic-horse-equus-caballus-hindgut-microflora-demonstrate-similar-fermentation-responses-to-grape-seed-extract-supplementation-in%C3%A2-vitro
#6
N F Huntley, H D Naumann, A L Kenny, M S Kerley
The domestic horse is used as a nutritional model for rhinoceros maintained under human care. The validity of this model for browsing rhinoceros has been questioned due to high prevalence of iron overload disorder (IOD) in captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Iron chelators, such as tannins, are under investigation as dietary supplements to ameliorate or prevent IOD in prone species. Polyphenolic compounds variably affect microbial fermentation, so the first objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE; a concentrated source of condensed tannins; CT) on black rhinoceros hindgut fermentation...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812032/direct-evidence-for-the-semipersistent-transmission-of-cucurbit-chlorotic-yellows-virus-by-a-whitefly-vector
#7
Jingjing Li, Xiangzhi Liang, Xueli Wang, Yan Shi, Qinsheng Gu, Yen-Wen Kuo, Bryce W Falk, Fengming Yan
Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) (genus Crinivirus, family Closteroviridae) is an emerging plant virus, and is now spreading and causing severe economic losses to cucurbit crops in many Asian countries. CCYV is believed to be transmitted specifically by the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, in a semipersistent manner. In the present study, we provide direct evidence for the semipersistent transmission of CCYV by Mediterranean (MED) cryptic species of B. tabaci complex. We investigated CCYV transmission characteristics, and immunofluorescently labeled and localized the virus retention site within the vector by laser confocal microscopy...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807587/two-cases-of-intraluminal-windsock-diverticula-resulting-in-partial-duodenal-obstruction
#8
Vikram Anand, Justin Provost, Maged Bakr, Christopher Bach, Prakriti Merchant, Christopher Brown, Claudia Gruss
An intraluminal duodenal diverticulum (IDD) is a rare congenital anomaly that is the result of incomplete recanalization of the embryologic foregut leaving a fenestrated membrane within the lumen of the duodenum. Years of peristalsis acting on the membrane result in the formation of a diverticulum. Most patients are asymptomatic, while some may have abdominal pain, bloating, or fullness. Rare complications include gastrointestinal bleeding, obstruction, pancreatitis, and cholangitis. We present 2 cases with endoscopic findings consistent with partially obstructing symptomatic IDD...
August 2016: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805961/intraoperative-adverse-events-in-abdominal-surgery-what-happens-in-the-operating-room-does-not-stay-in-the-operating-room
#9
Jordan D Bohnen, Michael N Mavros, Elie P Ramly, Yuchiao Chang, D Dante Yeh, Jarone Lee, Marc de Moya, David R King, Peter J Fagenholz, Kathryn Butler, George C Velmahos, Haytham M A Kaafarani
OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the impact of intraoperative adverse events (iAEs) on 30-day postoperative mortality, 30-day postoperative morbidity, and postoperative length of stay (LOS) among patients undergoing abdominal surgery. We hypothesized that iAEs would be associated with significant increases in each outcome. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The relationship between iAEs and postoperative clinical outcomes remains largely unknown. METHODS: The 2007 to 2012 institutional ACS-NSQIP and administrative databases for abdominal surgeries were matched then screened for iAEs using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's 15 Patient Safety Indicator, "Accidental Puncture/Laceration"...
November 1, 2016: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800659/characterization-of-a-laccase-from-a-wood-feeding-termite-coptotermes-formosanus
#10
Alei Geng, Jian Wu, Rong-Rong Xie, Xia Li, Fu-Xiang Chang, Jian-Zhong Sun
Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki is a wood-feeding termite, which secretes a series of lignolytic and cellulolytic enzymes for woody biomass degradation. However, the lignin modification mechanism in termite is largely ellusive, and the characteristics of most lignolytic enzymes in termite remain unknown. In this study, a laccase gene lac1 from C. formosanus was heterogeneously expressed in insect Sf9 cells. The purified Lac1 showed strong activities toward hydroquinone (305 mU/mg) and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2...
November 1, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787481/complications-of-robotic-foregut-surgery-risks-and-advantages
#11
Ran B Luo, Domingo Montalvo, Toshiaki Suzuki, Bryan J Sandler, Garth R Jacobsen, Santiago Horgan
INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic foregut surgeries are highly complex procedures that carry a high potential for morbidity and mortality should complications should occur. The robotic-assisted platform offers improved visualization of anatomy, optimal fine motor control, and a higher degree of instrumentation range of motion, which may potentially lead to better outcomes. This paper reviews the risks and benefits of the robotic platform in foregut procedures. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A web-based literature search was performed, in August 2016 using Pubmed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar from cited English publications from 1996 to 2016...
October 27, 2016: Minerva Chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785539/computed-tomography-and-upper-gastrointestinal-series-findings-of-esophageal-bronchi-in-infants
#12
Gabrielle C Colleran, Ciara E Ryan, Edward Y Lee, Brian Sweeney, David Rea, Clare Brenner
BACKGROUND: Esophageal bronchus is a rare form of communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformation and a rare but important cause of an opaque hemithorax on chest radiography. A higher incidence of esophageal bronchus is associated with esophageal atresia, tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF) and VACTERL (vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities) association. In the presence of these conditions, the pediatric radiologist may be the first to consider the diagnosis of esophageal bronchus or esophageal lung...
October 26, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785331/congenital-esophageal-duplication-cyst-a-rare-cause-of-dysphagia-in-an-adult
#13
Nikhil Sonthalia, Samit S Jain, Ravindra G Surude, Ashok R Mohite, Pravin M Rathi
Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital embryonal gastrointestinal (GI) malformation which is diagnosed most commonly in childhood. In adults, they can present with a variety of symptoms ranging from dysphagia, chest pain, epigastric discomfort, and vomiting to more serious complications including infections, hemorrhage, and ulcerations. A 30-year-old male presented with gradually progressive dysphagia to solids for 4 months without significant weight loss. Clinical examination and routine laboratory examination were unrevealing...
October 2016: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783698/the-gastric-phenotype-in-the-cypriniform-loaches-a-case-of-reinvention
#14
Odete Gonçalves, L Filipe C Castro, Adam J Smolka, António Fontainhas, Jonathan M Wilson
The stomach, which is characterized by acid peptic digestion in vertebrates, has been lost secondarily multiple times in the evolution of the teleost fishes. The Cypriniformes are largely seen as an agastric order; however, within the superfamily Cobitoidea, the closely related sister groups Nemacheilidae and Balitoridae have been identified as gastric families. The presence of these most recently diverged gastric families in an otherwise agastric clade indicates that either multiple (>2-3) loss events occurred with the Cyprinidae, Catostomidae and Cobitidae, or that gastric reinvention arose in a recent ancestor of the Nemacheilidae/Balitoridae sister clade...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781093/gut-chemosensing-implications-for-disease-pathogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Christopher J Berg, Jonathan D Kaunitz
The ability of humans to sense chemical signals in ingested substances is implicit in the ability to detect the five basic tastes; sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami. Of these, sweet, bitter, and umami tastes are detected by lingual G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recently, these receptors were also localized to the gut mucosa. In this review, we will emphasize recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of foregut luminal chemosensing, with special emphasis on cell surface GPCRs such as the sweet and proteinaceous taste receptors (TASRs), short- and long-chain fatty acid (FA) receptors, and bile acid receptors...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776507/geminin-prevents-dna-damage-in-vagal-neural-crest-cells-to-ensure-normal-enteric-neurogenesis
#16
Chrysoula Konstantinidou, Stavros Taraviras, Vassilis Pachnis
BACKGROUND: In vertebrate organisms, the neural crest (NC) gives rise to multipotential and highly migratory progenitors which are distributed throughout the embryo and generate, among other structures, the peripheral nervous system, including the intrinsic neuroglial networks of the gut, i.e. the enteric nervous system (ENS). The majority of enteric neurons and glia originate from vagal NC-derived progenitors which invade the foregut mesenchyme and migrate rostro-caudally to colonise the entire length of the gut...
October 24, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769969/management-of-neuroendocrine-tumors
#17
Clement Chung
PURPOSE: Current strategies for managing neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) in adult patients are reviewed, with a focus on medication safety concerns. SUMMARY: NETs usually originate in the gastrointestinal or bronchopulmonary tract. Symptoms due to hormonal hypersecretion often occur in patients with foregut or midgut NETs or liver metastases. Surgical resection is recommended for most localized NETs, while systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy is typically used for high-grade and pancreatic tumors...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765874/effect-of-whole-flax-seed-and-carbohydrase-enzymes-on-gastrointestinal-morphology-muscle-fatty-acids-and-production-performance-in-broiler-chickens
#18
K Denise Apperson, Gita Cherian
Flax seed is a rich source of α-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3). Feeding broiler birds flax seed can increase n-3 fatty acids in meat tissues. However, non-starch polysaccharides in flax seed decrease nutrient digestibility and can have a negative impact on bird performance and muscle fatty acid content. Addition of carbohydrase enzymes to flax-based broiler diets can decrease the anti-nutritive effects of non-starch polysaccharides. An experiment was conducted to investigate on the effect of flax seed and carbohydrase enzyme foregut morphology, muscle tissue, fatty acids, and bird performance...
October 19, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749423/a-rare-case-of-lateral-ectopic-thyroid
#19
Rosa Maria Paragliola, Giampaolo Papi, Rosa Maria Lovicu, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Salvatore M Corsello
Ectopic thyroid tissue is an abnormality caused by aberrant thyroid gland embryogenesis during its passage from the floor of the primitive foregut to its final position. The most frequent place of ectopic thyroid tissue is the base of tongue, whereas lateral thyroid gland is a very rare finding. The present case describes a case of thyroid dysgenesis, caused by a submandibular ectopic thyroid gland. Thyroid scintigraphy was crucial for the diagnosis: in fact, the patient was asymptomatic, and the diagnosis was performed only on the basis of subclinical hypothyroidism...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746170/best-of-foregut-esophagus-stomach-duodenum
#20
Fouad Otaki, Prasad G Iyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
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