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Vikram Khanna, Kashish Khanna, Maddur Srinivas
A day-old neonate presented with bowel obstruction and an abdominal mass. Exploratory laparotomy revealed complete tubular midgut duplication from duodeno-jejunal junction up to terminal ileum which was communicating with the ileum distally. At the proximal end, another 5×5 cm duplication cyst was identified and excised. Postoperatively, complaints were relieved. During follow-up, 99m-Tc-pertechnetate-SPECT scan showed ectopic gastric mucosa in lower abdomen and in the right hemithorax. CECT-chest showed a 3×3 cm foregut duplication cyst, but there were no respiratory symptoms...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
D Diaz-Aguilar, T Niu, S Terterov, R Scharnweber, A Tucker, J Woodard, H Brara, C Merna, H Shah, S Wang, S Rahman
Background: Neurenteric cysts (NECs) are rare developmental malformations of the central nervous system (CNS) which originate as benign congenital lesions. They originate from developmental foregut precursors, and are presumed to be the result of abnormal partitioning of the embryonic notochord plate. Such NECs predominantly arise in the cervical region in patients around 6 years of age or in their twenties or thirties. Notably, NECs of the conus medullaris are exceedingly rare, especially in patients of advanced age...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Ming-Yan Cai, Bo-Qun Zhu, Mei-Dong Xu, Wen-Zheng Qin, Yi-Qun Zhang, Wei-Feng Chen, Marie Ooi, Quan-Lin Li, Li-Qing Yao, Ping-Hong Zhou
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The management of subepithelial tumors with a predominant extraluminal growth pattern or extra-gastrointestinal (GI) tumors can be challenging and traditionally requires a surgical resection that is not only invasive but may carry a significant risk of morbidity and mortality. We aim to assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of a novel endoscopic technique termed as submucosal tunnel endoscopic resection for Extraluminal Tumors (STER-ET). METHODS: We prospectively enrolled patients who underwent STER-ET for gastrointestinal subepithelial tumors with a predominant extraluminal growth pattern or extra-GI tumors located at the level of cardia or the proximal part of the lesser curvature of the stomach seen on cross-sectional imaging between January 2016 and March 2017...
February 27, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Juan C Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan Manuel Ríos, Andrés M Attademo
Assessment of organophosphorus (OP) pesticide exposure in non-target organisms rarely involves non-neural molecular targets. Here we performed a 30-d microcosm experiment with Lumbricus terrestris to determine whether the activity of digestive enzymes (phosphatase, β-glucosidase, carboxylesterase and lipase) was sensitive to chlorpyrifos (5 mg kg-1 wet soil). Likewise, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities were measured in the wall muscle and gastrointestinal tissues as indicators of OP exposure...
March 1, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Hope T Jackson, Monica T Young, H Alejandro Rodriguez, Andrew S Wright
BACKGROUND: Facebook is a popular online social networking platform increasingly used for professional collaboration. Literature regarding use of Facebook for surgeon professional development and education is limited. The Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) has established a Facebook group dedicated to discussion of surgery of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine-the "SAGES Foregut Surgery Masters Program." The aim of this study is to examine how this forum is used for professional development, education, and quality improvement...
March 1, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Hideo Takahashi, Matthew T Allemang, Andrew T Strong, Mena Boules, Zubaidah Nor Hanipah, Alfredo D Guerron, Kevin El-Hayek, John H Rodriguez, Matthew D Kroh
BACKGROUND: With the worldwide epidemic of obesity, an increasing number of bariatric operations and antireflux fundoplications are being performed. Despite low morbidity of the primary foregut surgery, completion gastrectomy may be necessary as a definitive procedure for complications of prior foregut surgery; however, the literature evaluating outcomes after completion gastrectomy with esophagojejunostomy (EJ) for benign diseases is limited. We present our experience of completion gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y EJ in the setting of benign disease at a single tertiary center...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Hinako Kidokoro, Sayuri Yonei-Tamura, Koji Tamura, Gary C Schoenwolf, Yukio Saijoh
In the initiation of cardiogenesis, the heart primordia transform from bilateral, flat sheets of mesoderm into an elongated, midline tube. Here, we discover that this rapid architectural change is driven by actomyosin-based oriented cell rearrangement and resulting dynamic tissue reshaping (convergent extension: CE). By labeling clusters of cells spanning the entire heart primordia, we show that the heart primordia converge toward the midline to form a narrow tube, while extending perpendicularly to rapidly lengthen it...
February 28, 2018: Development
Paul M Jeziorczak, Brad W Warner
Enteric duplications have been described throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract. The usual perinatal presentation is an abdominal mass. Duplications associated with the foregut have associated respiratory symptoms, whereas duplications in the midgut and hindgut can present with obstructive symptoms, perforation, nausea, emesis, hemorrhage, or be asymptomatic, and identified as an incidental finding. These are differentiated from other cystic lesions by the presence of a normal gastrointestinal mucosal epithelium...
March 2018: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery
Conrado A Rosi-Denadai, Melanie L Scallion, Craig G Merrett, Jayne E Yack
Insects have evolved a great diversity of sound-producing mechanisms largely attributable to their hardened exoskeleton, which can be rubbed, vibrated or tapped against different substrates to produce acoustic signals. However, sound production by forced air, while common in vertebrates, is poorly understood in insects. We report on a caterpillar that 'vocalizes' by forcing air into and out of its gut. When disturbed, larvae of the Nessus sphinx hawkmoth (Sphingidae: Amphion floridensis ) produce sound trains comprising a stereotyped pattern of long (370 ms) followed by multiple short-duration (23 ms) units...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Kentaro Mori, Harumi Nakamura, Hisanori Kurooka, Hitoshi Miyachi, Kota Tamada, Manabu Sugai, Toru Takumi, Yoshifumi Yokota
The cellular components and function of the gastrointestinal epithelium exhibit distinct characteristics depending on the region, e.g., stomach or intestine. How these region-specific epithelial characteristics are generated during development remains poorly understood. Here, we report on the involvement of the helix-loop-helix inhibitor Id2 in establishing the specific characteristics of the intestinal epithelium. Id2 -/- mice developed tumors in the small intestine. Histological analysis indicated that the intestinal tumors were derived from gastric metaplasia formed in the small intestine during development...
February 20, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Mouen A Khashab, Petros C Benias, Lee L Swanstrom
Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is an advanced endoscopic procedure classically performed for the treatment of achalasia. The procedure is based on principles of submucosal endoscopy and is comprised of a mucosal incision, submucosal tunneling, myotomy and mucosal closure. Multiple published studies that collectively include more than 6000 patients reported clinical success in more than 80-90% of patients. Recent literature also suggested durability of response over a medium-term follow-up. POEM is associated with a low rate of adverse events when performed by experienced operators...
February 15, 2018: Gastroenterology
Alei Geng, Yanbing Cheng, Yongli Wang, Daochen Zhu, Yilin Le, Jian Wu, Rongrong Xie, Joshua S Yuan, Jianzhong Sun
Background: Wood-feeding termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, represents a highly efficient system for biomass deconstruction and utilization. However, the detailed mechanisms of lignin modification and carbohydrate degradation in this system are still largely elusive. Results: In order to reveal the inherent mechanisms for efficient biomass degradation, four different organs (salivary glands, foregut, midgut, and hindgut) within a complete digestive system of a lower termite, C...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Lidia Castagneto Gissey, James Casella Mariolo, Geltrude Mingrone
Bariatric surgery is very effective in achieving and maintaining weight loss but it is also associated with improvement of obesity metabolic complications, primarily type 2 diabetes (T2D). Remission of T2D or at least a net improvement of glycemic control persists for at least 5 years. The bypass of duodenum and of the first portion of the jejunum up to the Treitz ligament as in Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB), or the bypass of the duodenum, the entire jejunum and the first tract of the ileum, such as in Bilio-Pancreatic Diversion (BPD), achieve different results on insulin sensitivity...
February 2018: Peptides
Dian-Han Kuo, Yu-Hsiang Hsiao
BACKGROUND: As an adaptation to the land, the clitellate annelid had reorganized its embryogenesis to develop "directly" without the ancestral planktonic larval stage. To study the evolution of gut development in the directly developing clitellates, we characterized the expression pattern of the conserved gut gene FoxA in the embryonic development of the leech. RESULTS: The leech has three FoxA paralogs. Hau-FoxA1 is first expressed in a subset of endoderm cells and then in the foregut and the midgut...
February 2, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Ji Eun Choi, Soyeoun Lim, Chang Ryul Park, Hee Jeong Cha, Woon-Jung Kwon
RATIONALE: A foregut duplication cyst (FDC) is an uncommon congenital disease. This report presents a case of mediastinal foregut duplication cyst that mimicked a diaphragmatic small bowel hernia. PATIENT CONCERN: A 27-month-old girl was first referred for a mediastinal lesion found incidentally on a chest radiograph. At that time, our impression was cystic lung lesion such as congenital pulmonary airway malformation or pulmonary sequestration. At the age 6 years, she presented with recurrent vomiting...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
David M Bland, Clayton O Jarrett, Christopher F Bosio, B Joseph Hinnebusch
Fleas can transmit Yersinia pestis by two mechanisms, early-phase transmission (EPT) and biofilm-dependent transmission (BDT). Transmission efficiency varies among flea species and the results from different studies have not always been consistent. One complicating variable is the species of rodent blood used for the infectious blood meal. To gain insight into the mechanism of EPT and the effect that host blood has on it, fleas were fed bacteremic mouse, rat, guinea pig, or gerbil blood; and the location and characteristics of the infection in the digestive tract and transmissibility of Y...
January 22, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Joshua J Weis, Matthew Goldblatt, Aurora Pryor, Brian J Dunkin, L Michael Brunt, Daniel B Jones, Daniel J Scott
BACKGROUND: The American health care system faces deficits in quality and quantity of surgeons. SAGES is a major stakeholder in surgical fellowship training and is responsible for defining the curriculum for the Advanced GI/MIS fellowship. SAGES leadership is actively adapting this curriculum. METHODS: The process of reform began in 2014 through a series of iterative meetings and discussions. A working group within the Resident and Fellow Training Committee reviewed case log data from 2012 to 2015...
January 17, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Louise E Daly, Éadaoin B Ní Bhuachalla, Derek G Power, Samantha J Cushen, Karl James, Aoife M Ryan
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition, weight loss, and muscle wasting are common in patients with foregut cancers (oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, and bile ducts) and are associated with adverse clinical outcomes. However, little is known about the changes in body composition that occur in these patients during chemotherapy and its impacts clinical outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study of adult foregut cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy between 2012 and 2016 was conducted...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Ximena Ibarra-Soria, Wajid Jawaid, Blanca Pijuan-Sala, Vasileios Ladopoulos, Antonio Scialdone, David J Jörg, Richard C V Tyser, Fernando J Calero-Nieto, Carla Mulas, Jennifer Nichols, Ludovic Vallier, Shankar Srinivas, Benjamin D Simons, Berthold Göttgens, John C Marioni
During gastrulation, cell types from all three germ layers are specified and the basic body plan is established 1 . However, molecular analysis of this key developmental stage has been hampered by limited cell numbers and a paucity of markers. Single-cell RNA sequencing circumvents these problems, but has so far been limited to specific organ systems 2 . Here, we report single-cell transcriptomic characterization of >20,000 cells immediately following gastrulation at E8.25 of mouse development. We identify 20 major cell types, which frequently contain substructure, including three distinct signatures in early foregut cells...
February 2018: Nature Cell Biology
Zahra Farzaneh, Mostafa Najarasl, Saeed Abbasalizadeh, Massoud Vosough, Hossein Baharvand
Dynamic suspension culture of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in stirred bioreactors provides a valuable scalable culture platform for integrated differentiation toward different lineages for potential research and therapeutic applications. However, current protocols for scalable and integrated differentiation of hPSCs limited due to high cost of growth factors and technical challenges. Here, hPSCs aggregates primed with 6 and 12 μM of CHIR99021 (CHIR), a Wnt agonist, in combination with different concentrations of high cost Activin A (10, 25, 50, 100 ng/mL)...
February 15, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
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