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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156231/acute-organoaxial-gastric-volvulus-a-massive-problem-with-a-twist-case-report
#1
Fadi Al Daoud, Gul Sachwani Daswani, Vinu Perinjelil, Tina Nigam
INTRODUCTION: Gastric volvulus (GV) is a rare and life threatening condition if not treated promptly or wrongly diagnosed. The main complication of gastric volvulus is foregut obstruction. The extreme rotation can cut off blood supply to the stomach and even distal organs, which can lead to ischemia and necrosis of the affected area. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a case of a 41yo female that complained of severe abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting for approximately 3days after eating a large meal...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153832/drastic-genome-reduction-in-an-herbivore-s-pectinolytic-symbiont
#2
Hassan Salem, Eugen Bauer, Roy Kirsch, Aileen Berasategui, Michael Cripps, Benjamin Weiss, Ryuichi Koga, Kayoko Fukumori, Heiko Vogel, Takema Fukatsu, Martin Kaltenpoth
Pectin, an integral component of the plant cell wall, is a recalcitrant substrate against enzymatic challenges by most animals. In characterizing the source of a leaf beetle's (Cassida rubiginosa) pectin-degrading phenotype, we demonstrate its dependency on an extracellular bacterium housed in specialized organs connected to the foregut. Despite possessing the smallest genome (0.27 Mb) of any organism not subsisting within a host cell, the symbiont nonetheless retained a functional pectinolytic metabolism targeting the polysaccharide's two most abundant classes: homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan I...
November 10, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148080/genetic-risk-factors-for-perception-of-symptoms-in-gerd-an-observational-cohort-study
#3
A Patel, S Hasak, B D Nix, G S Sayuk, R D Newberry, C P Gyawali
BACKGROUND: Genetic polymorphisms in G-protein beta-3 subunit (GNβ3) and beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) are associated with pain and gut hypersensitivity, which can overlap with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). AIM: To evaluate relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within GNβ3 and ADRB2 systems, and reflux symptom burden, GERD phenotypes from ambulatory reflux monitoring, and quality of life. METHODS: Symptomatic adults undergoing ambulatory reflux testing were recruited and phenotyped based on acid burden and symptom reflux association; major oesophageal motor disorders and prior foregut surgery were exclusions...
November 17, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147138/an-update-on-prucalopride-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-constipation
#4
REVIEW
Anam Omer, Eamonn M M Quigley
Chronic constipation (CC) is a highly prevalent and often under-appreciated gastrointestinal disorder associated with significant impairment in quality of life. Symptoms of constipation are typically present for a number of years prior to a patient seeking help. Lifestyle modifications followed by, or coupled with, over-the-counter laxatives represent the initial treatment option; however, relief for many is limited and dissatisfaction rates for these approaches remain high. Over recent years, therefore, considerable effort has been exerted on the development of novel pharmacological approaches...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146657/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-duodenal-jejunal-bypass-sleeve-device-endobarrier-compared-with-standard-medical-therapy-for-the-management-of-obese-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Michael Alan Glaysher, Aruchuna Mohanaruban, Christina Gabriele Prechtl, Anthony P Goldstone, Alexander Dimitri Miras, Joanne Lord, Navpreet Chhina, Emanuela Falaschetti, Nicholas Andrew Johnson, Werd Al-Najim, Claire Smith, Jia V Li, Mayank Patel, Ahmed R Ahmed, Michael Moore, Neil Poulter, Stephen Bloom, Ara Darzi, Carel Le Roux, James P Byrne, Julian P Teare
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is increasing. Exclusion of the foregut, as occurs in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, has a key role in the metabolic improvements that occur following bariatric surgery, which are independent of weight loss. Endoscopically placed duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve devices, such as the EndoBarrier (GI Dynamics, Lexington, Massachusetts, USA), have been designed to create an impermeable barrier between chyme exiting the stomach and the mucosa of the duodenum and proximal jejunum...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145612/developmental-and-gut-related-changes-to-microbiomes-of-the-cultured-juvenile-spiny-lobster-panulirus-ornatus
#6
Mei C Ooi, Evan F Goulden, Gregory G Smith, Barbara F Nowak, Andrew R Bridle
With recent technologies making it possible for commercial scale closed life-cycle aquaculture production of spiny lobster (Panulirus ornatus) comes a strong impetus to further understand aspects of lobster health. The gut microbiome plays a crucial role in host health, affecting growth, digestion, immune responses and pathogen resistance. Herein we characterise and compare gut microbiomes across different developmental stages (6-7 d post-emergence [dpe], 52 dpe and 13 months post-emergence [mpe]) and gut regions (foregut, midgut and hindgut) of cultured P...
November 14, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133286/eosinophilic-esophagitis-update-on-management-and-controversies
#7
REVIEW
Joan W Chen, John Y Kao
Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic allergen driven immune mediated disease that is increasingly recognized as a leading cause of dysphagia and foregut symptoms in children and adults. Much knowledge has been gained in recent years on the genetic and environmental risk factors for this disease, the associated inflammatory milieu, and the long term complications from esophageal remodeling. In this review we will highlight recent progress made in research into this disease, focusing on adults. We will discuss ongoing efforts to develop a minimally invasive technique that may obviate the need for repeated endoscopic assessment of disease activity...
November 13, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129424/laparoscopic-ligation-of-cisterna-chyli-for-refractory-chylothorax-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Ilitch Diaz-Gutierrez, Madhuri Vasudev Rao, Rafael Santiago Andrade
OBJECTIVES: We describe an alternative surgical technique for the treatment of chylothorax in patients who have had failure of or are not candidates for transthoracic ligation or embolization by interventional radiology. METHODS: We describe our experience with laparoscopic ligation of the cisterna chyli in 3 such patients and compare our results with published literature. We used a 5-port approach as for foregut surgery. We retracted the liver, transected the gastrohepatic ligament, and retracted the stomach to the left...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127028/effects-of-dietary-panax-notoginseng-extract-on-growth-performance-fish-composition-immune-responses-intestinal-histology-and-immune-related-genes-expression-of-hybrid-grouper-epinephelus-lanceolatus-%C3%A2-%C3%A3-epinephelus-fuscoguttatus-%C3%A2-fed-high-lipid-diets
#9
Zhenzhu Sun, Xiaohong Tan, Huaqun Ye, Cuiyun Zou, Chaoxia Ye, Anli Wang
Growth, plasma biochemical parameters, fish composition, immune parameters, intestinal histology, and expressions of immune-related genes were examined in hybrid grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus ♂ × Epinephelus fuscoguttatus ♀) that fed respectively six diets containing Panax notoginseng extract (PNE) at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 10 g kg(-1) after 8 weeks. Results indicated that dietary PNE significantly improved growth, feed efficiency ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and protein deposit rate, and significantly increased crude protein and crude lipid levels of whole body and crude protein level of muscle...
November 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126986/functional-redundancy-of-glucose-acquisition-mechanisms-in-the-hindgut-of-pacific-hagfish-eptatretus-stoutii
#10
Alyssa M Weinrauch, Alexander M Clifford, Greg G Goss
This study examined the mechanisms of glucose acquisition in the hindgut of Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) using in vitro gut sac techniques. The intestine was determined to have the capacity to digest maltose into glucose along the entirety of the tract, including the foregut. Glucose uptake was biphasic and consisted of a high-affinity, low-capacity concentration-dependent component conforming to Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Km 0.37mM, Jmax 8.48nmol/cm(2)/h) as well as a diffusive component. There was no observed difference in glucose flux rate along the length of the intestine, similar to other nutrients investigated in the hagfish intestine...
November 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112748/intermittent-lighting-improves-resilience-of-broilers-during-the-peak-phase-of-sub-clinical-necrotic-enteritis-infection
#11
I Rodrigues, B Svihus, M R Bedford, R Gous, M Choct
Necrotic enteritis, either in its clinical or sub-clinical form is known to cause massive economic losses in the broiler chicken industry. Currently, the use of in-feed antibiotics as growth promoters is discouraged. Therefore, mechanisms to control NE through diet include reduction of digesta viscosity, promotion of lower pH in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) through acidification of feed, production of short-chain fatty acids and overall stimulation of beneficial bacteria growth. Intermittent lighting programs increase feed retention in the crop and reduce pH in the foregut compartments in comparison with standard commercial lighting programs and therefore may be a valuable, yet underexploited, barrier to prevent the invasion of the GIT by pathogens...
November 3, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111394/non-mammalian-toll-like-receptor-18-tlr18-recognizes-bacterial-pathogens-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-l-indications-for-a-role-of-participation-in-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#12
Shijuan Shan, Dezhi Liu, Rongrong Liu, Yaoyao Zhu, Ting Li, Fumiao Zhang, Liguo An, Guiwen Yang, Hua Li
Toll-like receptors are important pattern recognition receptors that can recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and play a critical role in innate immunity. In the present study, tlr18 was identified from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (named Cctlr18). The deduced amino acid sequence contained only a signal peptide, eight LRR (leucine-rich repeat) motifs, a transmembrane region and a TIR (Toll/IL-1 receptor) domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CcTlr18 was most closely related to Ctenopharyngodon idella Tlr18...
October 27, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109354/early-development-of-pleuroperitoneal-fold-of-the-diaphragm-in-the-rat-fetus
#13
Naoki Iwashita, Motoharu Sakaue, Mitsuyuki Shirai, Masako Yamamoto
The embryonic diaphragm comprises four major structural components derived from the transverse septum, the dorsal foregut mesentery, the pleuroperitoneal folds (PPFs), and the body wall. In this study, the appearance of PPFs and related factors were investigated using light microscopy of horizontal sections of rat fetuses from embryonic day 12 to 13. In rat fetuses, the sign of PPF projection was noted in the sidewall of the pericardioperitoneal canal at embryonic day 12, and was confirmed as folds at embryonic day 12...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108781/retinoic-acid-temporally-orchestrates-colonization-of-the-gut-by-vagal-neural-crest-cells
#14
Rosa A Uribe, Stephanie S Hong, Marianne E Bronner
The enteric nervous system arises from neural crest cells that migrate as chains into and along the primitive gut, subsequently differentiating into enteric neurons and glia. Little is known about the mechanisms governing neural crest migration en route to and along the gut in vivo. Here, we report that Retinoic Acid (RA) temporally controls zebrafish enteric neural crest cell chain migration. In vivo imaging reveals that RA loss severely compromises the integrity and migration of the chain of neural crest cells during the window of time window when they are moving along the foregut...
November 3, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108191/-an-interpretation-of-the-aasld-practice-guideline-on-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-2017
#15
Y M Nan, N Fu, W C Li, L L Kong, X W Yuan, S Y Zhang, L D Liu, Y Lu, L Y Cui
The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) updated and published the Practice Guidance for the Diagnosis and Management of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) in July 2017, which provides recommendations for the accurate diagnosis, treatment, and effective prevention of NAFLD. Related metabolic diseases should be considered during the initial evaluation of patients suspected of NAFLD. Noninvasive diagnostic techniques including transient elastography, magnetic resonance elastography, and serum biochemical models should be used to evaluate the development and progression of liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD...
September 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098716/neuroanatomy-of-hyalinella-punctata-common-patterns-and-new-characters-in-phylactolaemate-bryozoans
#16
Magdalena Ambros, Andreas Wanninger, Thomas F Schwaha
Studies on the bryozoan adult nervous system employing immunocytochemical techniques and confocal laser scanning microscopy are scarce. To gain a better view into the structure and evolution of the nervous system of the Phylactolaemata, the earliest extant branch and sister taxon to the remaining Bryozoa, this work aims to characterize the nervous system of Hyalinella punctata with immunocytochemical techniques and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The cerebral ganglion is located between the anus and the pharynx and contains a lumen...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098544/preserving-duodenal-jejunal-foregut-transit-does-not-impair-glucose-tolerance-and-diabetes-remission-following-gastric-bypass-in-type-2-diabetes-sprague-dawley-rat-model
#17
Ponnie R Dolo, Libin Yao, Chao Li, Xiaocheng Zhu, Linsen Shi, Jason Widjaja
BACKGROUND: Possible mechanisms underlying diabetes remission following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) include eradication of putative factor(s) with duodenal-jejunal bypass. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to observe the effects of duodenal-jejunal transit on glucose tolerance and diabetes remission in gastric bypass rat model. METHOD: In order to verify the effect of duodenal-jejunal transit on glucose tolerance and diabetes remission in gastric bypass, 22 type 2 diabetes Sprague-Dawley rat models established through high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) administered intraperitoneally were assigned to one of three groups: gastric bypass with duodenal-jejunal transit (GB-DJT n = 8), gastric bypass without duodenal-jejunal transit (RYGB n = 8), and sham (n = 6)...
November 2, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078343/dual-origin-of-enteric-neurons-in-vagal-schwann-cell-precursors-and-the-sympathetic-neural-crest
#18
Isabel Espinosa-Medina, Ben Jevans, Franck Boismoreau, Zoubida Chettouh, Hideki Enomoto, Thomas Müller, Carmen Birchmeier, Alan J Burns, Jean-François Brunet
Most of the enteric nervous system derives from the "vagal" neural crest, lying at the level of somites 1-7, which invades the digestive tract rostro-caudally from the foregut to the hindgut. Little is known about the initial phase of this colonization, which brings enteric precursors into the foregut. Here we show that the "vagal crest" subsumes two populations of enteric precursors with contrasted origins, initial modes of migration, and destinations. Crest cells adjacent to somites 1 and 2 produce Schwann cell precursors that colonize the vagus nerve, which in turn guides them into the esophagus and stomach...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069668/surgical-experience-and-learning-points-in-the-management-of-foregut-duplication-cysts
#19
Alberto Attilio Scarpa, Ashok Daya Ram, Giampiero Soccorso, Michael Singh, Dakshesh Parikh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2017: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057367/an-unusual-case-of-intradural-intramedullary-dorsal-bronchogenic-cyst-in-spine
#20
Tarun Dusad, Vishal Kundnani, Shumayou Dutta, Ankit Patel, Gaurav Mehta, Mahendra Singh
Bronchogenic cysts are congenital malformations derived from anomalous budding of the embryonic foregut. Intraspinal bronchogenic cysts are extremely rare and most of them are extramedullary. There has been only one case of intramedullary spinal bronchogenic cyst reported. We present an 18-year-old male patient with spastic paraparesis and bowel and bladder involvement. MRI revealed a 2 cm diameter intradural and intramedullary lesion at D2-D3 level which was hyperintense on T1 and hypointense on T2 imaging...
September 2017: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
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