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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937365/immunohistochemical-characterization-of-glandular-elements-in-glandular-cardiac-myxoma-study-of-six-cases
#1
Devajit Nath, Sudheer Arava, Ruma Ray, Amol Kumar Bhoje, Rachit Saxena, Shiv Kumar Chaudhary
Back ground: Glandular cardiac myxoma has varying clinical presentation with uncertain histogenesis and debatable immunohistochemical profile. Glandular epithelial differentiations are rare phenomenon known to be present as an intrinsic component of the tumor. The origin of the glands has been attributed to epithelial differentiation of a totipotent cardiomyogenic precursor cells or the entrapped foregut rests in the tumor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study includes six cases of glandular cardiac myxoma collected over a perior of 4 years...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928767/genome-wide-epigenetic-characterization-of-tissues-from-three-germ-layers-isolated-from-sheep-fetuses
#2
Emanuele Capra, Paola Toschi, Marcello Del Corvo, Barbara Lazzari, Pier A Scapolo, Pasqualino Loi, John L Williams, Alessandra Stella, Paolo Ajmone-Marsan
DNA methylation of regulatory and growth-related genes contributes to fetal programming which is important for maintaining the correct development of three germ layers of the embryo that develope into different tissues and organs, and which persists into adult life. In this study, a preliminary epigenetic screen was performed to define genomic regions that are involved in fetal epigenome remodeling. Embryonic ectodermic tissues (origin of nervous tissue), mesenchymal tissues (origin of connective and muscular tissues), and foregut endoderm tissues (origin of epithelial tissue), from day 28 sheep fetuses were collected and the distribution of methylated CpGs was analyzed using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927774/chronic-intestinal-pseudo-obstruction-in-a-child-with-treacher-collins-syndrome
#3
E Giabicani, J Lemale, L Dainese, S Boudjemaa, A Coulomb, P Tounian, B Dubern
BACKGROUND: Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) mainly presents with severe craniofacial developmental abnormalities characterized by a combination of bilateral downward-slanting palpebral fissures, colobomas of the lower eyelids, hypoplasia of the facial bones, cleft palate, malformation of the external ears, atresia of the external auditory canals, and bilateral conductive hearing loss. It is due to mutations in Treacher Collins syndrome 1 (TCOF1) (5q32-q33.1) and Polymerase RNA 1 polypeptides D and C (POLR1D [13q12...
September 15, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927459/microarchitecture-of-the-tsetse-fly-proboscis
#4
Wendy Gibson, Lori Peacock, Rachel Hutchinson
BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies (genus Glossina) are large blood-sucking dipteran flies that are important as vectors of human and animal trypanosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. Tsetse anatomy has been well described, including detailed accounts of the functional anatomy of the proboscis for piercing host skin and sucking up blood. The proboscis also serves as the developmental site for the infective metacyclic stages of several species of pathogenic livestock trypanosomes that are inoculated into the host with fly saliva...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892965/dunbar-syndrome-a-rare-cause-of-foregut-ischemia
#5
Tagore Sunkara, Megan E Caughey, Kevin Cai Zhen, Brian Chiong, Vinaya Gaduputi
Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome (MALS) is a condition that can result from an anatomical aberration. If the median arcuate ligament is located too inferiorly in relation to the celiac axis, it can impede circulation and lead to vascular compromise. Here, we present the case of a 63-year-old woman, who came to the hospital complaining of continuous epigastric pain and who was ultimately found to have MALS. Her epigastric pain could be the result of the ischemia caused by MALS that made it difficult for the duodenal ulcer to heal properly...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888066/the-interactions-between-gut-microbiota-and-entomopathogenic-fungi-a-potential-approach-for-biological-control-of-blattella-germanica-l
#6
Fan Zhang, Xiao X Sun, Xian C Zhang, Shuo Zhang, Jie Lu, Yong M Xia, Yan H Huang, Xue J Wang
BACKGROUND: Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana mainly infect insects through the cuticle; gut infection occasionally occurs. Microorganisms existing in the gut may play a crucial role in the evolution and ecology of host defenses to fungal pathogens. To evaluate whether the gut bacteria participate in antifungal activity, and to determine their role in host protection, the interactions between gut bacteria and M. anisopliae and the diversity of gut microbiota in cockroaches were studied...
September 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886687/-fleaing-the-plague-adaptations-of-yersinia-pestis-to-its-insect-vector-that-lead-to-transmission
#7
B Joseph Hinnebusch, Clayton O Jarrett, David M Bland
Interest in arthropod-borne pathogens focuses primarily on how they cause disease in humans. How they produce a transmissible infection in their arthropod host is just as critical to their life cycle, however. Yersinia pestis adopts a unique life stage in the digestive tract of its flea vector, characterized by rapid formation of a bacterial biofilm that is enveloped in a complex extracellular polymeric substance. Localization and adherence of the biofilm to the flea foregut is essential for transmission. Here, we review the molecular and genetic mechanisms of these processes and present a comparative evaluation and updated model of two related transmission mechanisms...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884888/foxp1-haploinsufficiency-phenotypes-beyond-behavior-and-intellectual-disability
#8
Angela Myers, Christèle du Souich, Connie L Yang, Lior Borovik, Jill Mwenifumbo, Rosemarie Rupps, Causes Study, Anna Lehman, Cornelius F Boerkoel
The forkhead box (FOX) transcription factors have roles in development, carcinogenesis, metabolism, and immunity. In humans FOXP1 mutations have been associated with language and speech defects, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, facial dysmorphisms, and congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. In mice, Foxp1 plays critical roles in development of the spinal motor neurons, lymphocytes, cardiomyocytes, foregut, and skeleton. We hypothesized therefore that mutations of FOXP1 affect additional tissues in some humans...
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874116/patterns-of-host-gene-expression-associated-with-harboring-a-foregut-microbial-community
#9
Kevin D Kohl, Kelly F Oakeson, Diane Dunn, David K Meyerholz, Colin Dale, Robert B Weiss, M Denise Dearing
BACKGROUND: Harboring foregut microbial communities is considered a key innovation that allows herbivorous mammals to colonize new ecological niches. However, the functions of these chambers have only been well studied at the molecular level in ruminants. Here, we investigate gene expression in the foregut chamber of herbivorous rodents and ask whether these gene expression patterns are consistent with results in ruminants. We compared gene expression in foregut tissues of two rodent species: Stephen's woodrat (Neotoma stephensi), which harbors a dense foregut microbial community, and the lab rat (Rattus norvegicus), which lacks such a community...
September 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840031/bronchopulmonary-foregut-malformation-presenting-as-extralobar-pulmonary-sequestration-associated-with-a-bronchogenic-cyst-an-unusual-clinical-and-radiological-feature-in-an-adolescent-patient
#10
Ji Yung Choo, Jinwook Hwang, Joo Han Lee, Ki Yeol Lee
We present a case of symptomatic complex bronchopulmonary foregut malformation (BPFM), including extralobar pulmonary sequestration and a bronchogenic cyst, in the left anterior mediastinum of a 15-year-old boy. Preoperative computed tomography showed a cystic mass with heterogeneous enhancement of adjacent soft tissue components and pleural effusion. We suggested the infected bronchogenic cyst as the first impression. However, pathological examination after surgical resection revealed extralobar pulmonary sequestration and a bronchogenic cyst with unusual manifestation, which was located in the left upper hemithorax and supplied by the pulmonary artery...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822441/-clinical-characteristics-of-bronchopulmonary-foregut-malformation
#11
J Liu, J Yin, X Y Liu, Y H Hu, X L Ma, R Zhang, Q Zeng, B P Xu, K L Shen
Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of bronchopulmonary foregut malformation(BPFM). Method: The clinical manifestations, imaging findings and treatment of 8 patients with BPFM were analyzed retrospectively from January 2006 to May 2016 in Beijing Children's Hospital. Result: The age of children varied from 2 months to 7 years and 3 children were male while 5 female. Symptoms showed cough in 6 cases, fever in 4 cases, bucking when intaking of fluids or foods in 3 cases, tachypnea in 1 case, wheezing in 1 case, vomiting in 1 case, haematemesis in 1 case Pulmonary signs were decreased breath sounds in 4 cases, phlegm rale in 3 cases, shortness of breath in 2 cases, wheeze in 1 case, and retraction in 1 case...
August 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818110/microbial-community-composition-along-the-digestive-tract-in-forage-and-grain-fed-bison
#12
Gaddy T Bergmann
BACKGROUND: Diversity and composition of microbial communities was compared across the 13 major sections of the digestive tract (esophagus, reticulum, rumen, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and rectum) in two captive populations of American bison (Bison bison), one of which was finished on forage, the other on grain. RESULTS: Microbial diversity fell to its lowest levels in the small intestine, with Bacteroidetes reaching their lowest relative abundance in that region, while Firmicutes and Euryarchaeota attained their highest relative abundances there...
August 17, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817086/non-destructive-analysis-of-the-internal-anatomical-structures-of-mosquito-specimens-using-optical-coherence-tomography
#13
Naresh Kumar Ravichandran, Ruchire Eranga Wijesinghe, Seung-Yeol Lee, Kwang Shik Choi, Mansik Jeon, Hee-Young Jung, Jeehyun Kim
The study of mosquitoes and analysis of their behavior are of crucial importance in the on-going efforts to control the alarming increase in mosquito-borne diseases. Furthermore, a non-destructive and real-time imaging technique to study the anatomical features of mosquito specimens can greatly aid the study of mosquitoes. In this study, we demonstrate the three-dimensional imaging capabilities of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for structural analysis of Anopheles sinensis mosquitoes. The anatomical features of An...
August 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802115/production-of-high-purity-alveolar-like-cells-from-ipscs-through-depletion-of-uncommitted-cells-after-afe-induction
#14
Adam Mitchell, Charles T Drinnan, Todd Jensen, Christine Finck
Protocols to differentiate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into specialized cells are continually evolving. iPSCs can be differentiated to alveolar cells with protocols that focus on development, specifically by inducing differentiation into definitive endoderm (DE), anterior foregut endoderm (AFE) and then lung bud progenitor intermediaries. However, current protocols result in a relatively low yield of the desired alveolar cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether depleting uncommitted cells after AFE induction would have a beneficial effect on alveolar cell yield...
August 3, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794470/endocrine-disruptors-induce-perturbations-in-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-mitochondria-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derivatives
#15
Uthra Rajamani, Andrew R Gross, Camille Ocampo, Allen M Andres, Roberta A Gottlieb, Dhruv Sareen
Persistent exposure to man-made endocrine disrupting chemicals during fetal endocrine development may lead to disruption of metabolic homeostasis contributing to childhood obesity. Limited cellular platforms exist to test endocrine disrupting chemical-induced developmental abnormalities in human endocrine tissues. Here we use an human-induced pluripotent stem cell-based platform to demonstrate adverse impacts of obesogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals in the developing endocrine system. We delineate the effects upon physiological low-dose exposure to ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemicals including, perfluoro-octanoic acid, tributyltin, and butylhydroxytoluene, in endocrine-active human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived foregut epithelial cells and hypothalamic neurons...
August 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793244/rho-associated-kinases-and-non-muscle-myosin-iis-inhibit-the-differentiation-of-human-ipscs-to-pancreatic-endoderm
#16
Taro Toyoda, Azuma Kimura, Hiromi Tanaka, Tomonaga Ameku, Atsushi Mima, Yurie Hirose, Masahiro Nakamura, Akira Watanabe, Kenji Osafune
There has been increasing success with the generation of pancreatic cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs); however, the molecular mechanisms of the differentiation remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to reveal novel molecular mechanisms for differentiation to PDX1(+)NKX6.1(+) pancreatic endoderm cells, which are pancreatic committed progenitor cells. PDX1(+) posterior foregut cells differentiated from hiPSCs failed to differentiate into pancreatic endoderm cells at low cell density, but Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) or non-muscle myosin II (NM II) inhibitors rescued the differentiation potential...
August 8, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782137/interkinetic-nuclear-migration-in-the-tracheal-and-esophageal-epithelia-of-the-mouse-embryo-possible-implications-for-tracheo-esophageal-anomalies
#17
Ryo Kaneda, Yuko Saeki, Dereje Getachew, Akihiro Matsumoto, Motohide Furuya, Noriko Ogawa, Tomoyuki Motoya, Ashiq Mahmood Rafiq, Esrat Jahan, Jun Udagawa, Ryuju Hashimoto, Hiroki Otani
Interkinetic nuclear migration (INM) is a cell polarity-based phenomenon in which progenitor cell nuclei migrate along the apico-basal axis of the pseudostratified epithelium in synchrony with the cell cycle. INM is suggested to be at least partially cytoskeleton-dependent and to regulate not only the proliferation/differentiation of stem/progenitor cells but also the localized/overall size and shape of organs/tissues. INM occurs in all three of the germ-layer derived epithelia, including the endoderm-derived gut...
August 6, 2017: Congenital Anomalies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777465/basal-progenitor-cells-bridge-the-development-malignant-cancers-and-multiple-diseases-of-esophagus
#18
REVIEW
Baoshun Lin, Fuan Xie, Zhangwu Xiao, Xiaoqian Hong, Liming Tian, Kuancan Liu
The esophagus is a pivotal organ originating from anterior foregut that links the mouth and stomach. Moreover, its development involves precise regulation of multiple signal molecules and signal transduction pathways. After abnormal regulation of these molecules in the basal cells of the esophagus occurs, multiple diseases, including esophageal atresia with or without tracheoesophageal fistula, Barrett esophagus, gastroesophageal reflux, and eosinophilic esophagitis, will take place as a result. Furthermore, expression changes of signal molecules or signal pathways in basal cells and the microenvironment around basal cells both can initiate the switch of malignant transformation...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757253/enhancer-reprogramming-promotes-pancreatic-cancer-metastasis
#19
Jae-Seok Roe, Chang-Il Hwang, Tim D D Somerville, Joseph P Milazzo, Eun Jung Lee, Brandon Da Silva, Laura Maiorino, Hervé Tiriac, C Megan Young, Koji Miyabayashi, Dea Filippini, Brianna Creighton, Richard A Burkhart, Jonathan M Buscaglia, Edward J Kim, Jean L Grem, Audrey J Lazenby, James A Grunkemeyer, Michael A Hollingsworth, Paul M Grandgenett, Mikala Egeblad, Youngkyu Park, David A Tuveson, Christopher R Vakoc
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is one of the most lethal human malignancies, owing in part to its propensity for metastasis. Here, we used an organoid culture system to investigate how transcription and the enhancer landscape become altered during discrete stages of disease progression in a PDA mouse model. This approach revealed that the metastatic transition is accompanied by massive and recurrent alterations in enhancer activity. We implicate the pioneer factor FOXA1 as a driver of enhancer activation in this system, a mechanism that renders PDA cells more invasive and less anchorage-dependent for growth in vitro, as well as more metastatic in vivo...
August 24, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756513/the-natural-history-of-perforated-foregut-ulcers-after-repair-by-omental-patching-or-primary-closure
#20
D Smith, M Roeser, J Naranjo, J A Carr
BACKGROUND: The treatment of perforated foregut ulcers by omental patching (OP) or primary closure has mostly replaced vagotomy and pyloroplasty/antrectomy (VPA). We sought to determine the natural history and recurrence rate of ulceration in patients treated by omental patching or primary closure. STUDY DESIGN: An 11-year retrospective study. RESULTS: From 2004 through 2015, 94 patients had perforated foregut ulcers, 53 gastric, and 41 duodenal...
July 29, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
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