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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773559/serrate-notch-signaling-regulates-the-size-of-the-progenitor-cell-pool-in-drosophila-imaginal-rings
#1
Sheng-An Yang, Wu-Min Deng
Drosophila imaginal rings are larval tissues composed of progenitor cells that are essential for the formation of adult foreguts, hindguts and salivary glands. Specified from subsets of ectoderm in the embryo, imaginal ring cells are kept quiescent until mid-second larval instar, and undergo rapid proliferation during the third instar to attain adequate numbers of cells that will replace apoptotic larval tissues for adult organ formation. Here we show that Notch signaling is activated in all three imaginal rings from middle embryonic stage to early pupal stage and that Notch signaling positively controls cell proliferation in all three imaginal rings during the third larval instar...
May 17, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768079/the-spectrum-of-surgical-remediation-of-transoral-incisionless-fundoplication-related-failures
#2
Ruchir Puri, C Daniel Smith, Steven P Bowers
AIM: To evaluate outcomes of surgical remediation for symptomatic or anatomic failure after a transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF). METHODS: This retrospective study was performed on 11 patients who underwent a remedial operation following TIF failure between June 2011 and September 2016 at the Mayo Clinic in Florida for persistent foregut symptoms. Upper gastrointestinal workup characterized 1 patient as having normal post-TIF anatomy and 10 as having anatomic failure...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768039/loss-of-sonic-hedgehog-gene-leads-to-muscle-development-disorder-and-megaesophagus-in-mice
#3
Xueting Jia, Li Min, Shengtao Zhu, Shutian Zhang, Xiaofeng Huang
Sonic hedgehog ( Shh) is crucial for organogenesis in the foregut. This study investigated the function of Shh at the late-gestational stage; during which, the esophagus continues to differentiate. We established cytokeratin 14 ( CK14)-Cre;Shhfl/fl mice in which the down-regulation of Shh in the epithelium occurred at approximately the same time as esophageal muscle conversion. Hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining, with antibodies against keratin 14, Shh, patched 1 (Ptch1), Gli1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), high-molecular-weight caldesmon (hCD), myogenin, paired box 7 (Pax7), β3-tubulin, and protein gene product 9...
May 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754396/the-upper-pouch-in-oesophageal-atresia-shows-proportional-growth-during-late-fetal-life
#4
R B Tröbs, M Nissen, J Wald
Oesophageal atresia with trachea-oesophageal fistula is a rare foregut malformation that requires surgery soon after birth. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis is based on the presence of polyhydramnios, a small or non-visible fetal stomach and the blind ending oesophagus, called the upper pouch (1). Neonates present with salivation, coughing, choking and attacks of cyanosis. A diagnosis of oesophageal atresia is confirmed by inserting a nasogastric tube and a thoraco-abdominal X-ray. This article is protected by copyright...
May 12, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744782/comparative-study-on-the-gut-microbiotas-of-four-economically-important-asian-carp-species
#5
Xinghao Li, Yuhe Yu, Chang Li, Qingyun Yan
Gut microbiota of four economically important Asian carp species (silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix; bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis; grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella; common carp, Cyprinus carpio) were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 590,000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut, midgut and hindgut of these four carp species revealed high microbial diversity among the samples. The foregut samples of grass carp exhibited more than 1,600 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) and the highest alpha-diversity index, followed by the silver carp foregut and midgut...
May 7, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736839/stricturing-and-fistulizing-crohn-s-disease-is-associated-with-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-induced-psoriasis-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
Adam V Weizman, Robyn Sharma, N M Afzal, Wei Xu, Scott Walsh, Joanne M Stempak, Geoffrey C Nguyen, Ken Croitoru, A Hillary Steinhart, Mark S Silverberg
BACKGROUND: Paradoxical development of psoriasis in patients on anti-TNF agents has been increasingly reported. AIM: The aim was to characterize the prevalence and clinical characteristics of anti-TNF-associated psoriasis in a large cohort of inflammatory bowel disease patients. METHODS: Medical records of patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis treated with anti-TNF therapy at a single, tertiary IBD center were identified between 2004 and 2016...
May 8, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733905/bouffant-vs-skull-cap-and-impact-on-surgical-site-infection-does-operating-room-headgear-really-matter
#7
Shanu N Kothari, Madeline J Anderson, Andrew J Borgert, Kara J Kallies, Todd J Kowalski
BACKGROUND: The American College of Surgeons (ACS) guidelines indicate that skullcaps are acceptable, while the Association of periOperative Registered Nurses (AORN) recommends bouffant caps. However, no scientific evidence has shown a significant advantage in surgical site infection (SSI) reduction with either cap. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of surgical cap choice on SSIs. STUDY DESIGN: Data from a previously published prospective randomized trial on the impact of hair clipping on SSI were analyzed...
May 4, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733012/robotic-approach-in-benign-and-malignant-esophageal-tumors-a-preliminary-seven-case-series
#8
Victor Tomulescu, Codrut Stanescu, Cristian Blajut, Loredana Barbulescu, Gabriela Droc, Vlad Herlea, Irinel Popescu
Esophageal surgery has been recognized as very challenging for surgeons and risky for patients. Thoracoscopic approach have proved its benefit in esophageal surgery but has some drawbacks as tremor and limited degrees of freedom, contra-intuitive movements and fulcrum effect of the surgical tools. Robotic technology has been developed with the intent to overcome these limitations of the standard laparoscopy or thoracoscopy. These benefits of robotic procedure are most advantageous when operating in remote areas difficult to reach as in esophageal surgery...
March 2018: Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725500/gastric-cancer-and-hedgehog-signaling-pathway-emerging-new-paradigms
#9
REVIEW
Adamu Ishaku Akyala, Maikel P Peppelenbosch
Ever since its initial discovery in Drosophila, hedgehog signaling has been linked to foregut development, The mammalian genome expresses three Hedgehog paralogues, sonic hedgehog (Shh), Indian Hedgehog, and desert hedgehog. In the mucosa of the embryonic and adult foregut, Shh expression is the highest. It has now become clear that hedgehog signaling is of pivotal importance in gastric homeostasis. Aberrant activation of hedgehog signaling is associated with a range of pathological consequences including various cancers...
January 2018: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713739/barium-upper-gi-series-in-adults-a-surgeon-s-perspective
#10
Daniel T Dempsey
Barium upper GI series performed by an interested and competent radiologist is still a very useful study to evaluate a variety of esophagogastric disorders. It usually provides information complementary to upper endoscopy and other foregut studies. Barium upper GI series is an important part of the diagnostic workup for gastroesophageal reflux disease, hiatal hernia, and esophageal motility disorders including achalasia. It is also an important part of the follow-up after operation for these common problems and after other operations such as resection or bariatric surgery...
April 30, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696775/38th-annual-david-w-smith-workshop-on-malformations-and-morphogenesis-abstracts-of-the-2017-annual-meeting
#11
Cathy A Stevens, Ian Krantz
The 38th Annual David W. Smith Workshop on Malformations and Morphogenesis occurred on August 26th - 29th, 2017 at the Stoweflake Resort and Conference Center in Stowe, VT. The Workshop, which honors the legacy of David W Smith, brought together clinicians and researchers interested in congenital malformations and their underlying mechanisms of morphogenesis. The Workshop highlighted four themes besides mechanisms of morphogenesis and new syndromes: Disorders of Transcriptional Regulation, Dysmorphology (Syndromes and Malformations) in Minority and Unique Populations, Syndromes and Isolated Birth Defects Involving Malformations of the Developing Foregut, and the Natural History of Syndromes...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692775/microbiome-of-total-versus-live-bacteria-in-the-gut-of-rex-rabbits
#12
Xiangchao Fu, Bo Zeng, Ping Wang, Lihuan Wang, Bin Wen, Ying Li, Hanzhong Liu, Shiqie Bai, Gang Jia
Gastrointestinal bacteria are essential for host health, and only viable microorganisms contribute to gastrointestinal functions. When evaluating the gut microbiota by next generation sequencing method, dead bacteria, which compose a proportion of gut bacteria, may distort analysis of the live gut microbiota. We collected stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon contents from Rex rabbits. A modified propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment protocol was used to exclude DNA from dead bacteria. Analysis of untreated samples yielded total bacteria, and analysis of PMA-treated samples yielded live bacteria...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675560/patterns-of-differential-gene-expression-in-a-cellular-model-of-human-islet-development-and-relationship-to-type-2-diabetes-predisposition
#13
Marta Perez-Alcantara, Christian Honoré, Agata Wesolowska-Andersen, Anna L Gloyn, Mark I McCarthy, Mattias Hansson, Nicola L Beer, Martijn van de Bunt
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Most type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants identified via genome-wide association studies (GWASs) appear to act via the pancreatic islet. Observed defects in insulin secretion could result from an impact of these variants on islet development and/or the function of mature islets. Most functional studies have focused on the latter, given limitations regarding access to human fetal islet tissue. Capitalising upon advances in in vitro differentiation, we characterised the transcriptomes of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines differentiated along the pancreatic endocrine lineage, and explored the contribution of altered islet development to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes...
April 19, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673066/total-pancreaticoduodenectomy-with-autologous-islet-transplantation-fourteen-years-after-liver-contained-composite-visceral-transplantation
#14
Ahmed Nassar, Cristiano Quintini, Guilherme Costa, Elizabeth Lennon, Rita Bottino, Betul Hatipoglu, Koji Hashimoto, Masato Fujiki, Fouad Kandeel, R Matthew Walsh, Kareem Abu-Elmagd
Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a severely disabling disorder with potential detrimental effects on quality of life, gut function, and glucose homeostasis. Disease progression often results in irreversible morphological and functional abnormalities with development of chronic pain, mechanical obstruction, and pancreatic insufficiency. Along with comprehensive medical management, the concept of total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation (TP-AIT) was introduced forty years ago for patients with intractable pain and preserved beta-cell function...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670795/pulmonary-vasculitis-and-a-horseshoe-kidney-in-noonan-syndrome
#15
Surasak Puvabanditsin, Rosanna Abellar, Adaora Madubuko, Rajeev Mehta, Lauren Walzer
We report a term male neonate with congenital myeloproliferative disorder, thrombocytopenia, a horseshoe kidney, feeding difficulty secondary to dysphagia/foregut dysmotility, and respiratory failure. Prenatal molecular genetic analysis revealed a fetus carrying c.184T>G (p.Tyr62Asp) pathogenic variant in PTPN11 . The infant eventually succumbed to respiratory failure. Bacterial and viral cultures/studies were all no growth/negative. Pulmonary capillaritis and vasculitis were noted at autopsy. This report presents a new case of Noonan syndrome with unusual associated disorders and a review of the literature...
2018: Case Reports in Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663181/effects-of-dietary-organic-inorganic-and-nanoparticulate-selenium-sources-on-growth-hemato-immunological-and-serum-biochemical-parameters-of-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#16
Sadegh Saffari, Saeed Keyvanshokooh, Mohammad Zakeri, Seyed Ali Johari, Hossein Pasha-Zanoosi, Mansour Torfi Mozanzadeh
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to compare the effects of supplementing (0.7 mg kg-1 ) different dietary selenium (Se) sources including organic [selenomethionine (SeMet)], inorganic [sodium selenite (Na2 SeO3 )], and nanoparticulate Se (nano-Se) on physiological responses of common carp, Cyprinus carpio juveniles (9.7 ± 0.1 g). Basal diet without Se supplementation used as control. Fish fed nano-Se supplemented diet had the highest weight gain (97.2 ± 10.8%) and feed efficiency ratio (42...
April 16, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661123/pathological-and-microbiological-study-of-mortality-in-a-captive-breeding-colony-of-the-endangered-lord-howe-island-stick-insect-dryococelus-australis
#17
Christine Bayley, Christina Cheng, Michael Lynch
The authors describe pathological and microbiological features of mortalities in a captive breeding colony of Lord Howe Island stick insects ( Dryococelus australis) over a period of 18 months. There were 2 peaks of mortality in this period. In the first, insects presented dead with minimal premonitory signs of illness. In the second, affected insects were ataxic with contracted limbs and inability to climb or right themselves. Gross lesions were uncommon but included pigmented plaques on the gut and cloacal prolapse...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660852/etiology-and-functional-validation-of-gastrointestinal-motility-dysfunction-in-a-zebrafish-model-of-charge-syndrome
#18
Kellie Cloney, Shelby L Steele, Matthew R Stoyek, Roger P Croll, Frank M Smith, Sergey V Prykhozhij, Mary M Brown, Craig Midgen, Kim Blake, Jason N Berman
CHARGE syndrome is linked to autosomal dominant mutations in the CHD7 gene and results in a number of physiological and structural abnormalities, including heart defects, hearing and vision loss and gastrointestinal (GI) problems. Of these challenges, GI problems have a profound impact throughout an individual's life, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. A homologue of CHD7 has been identified in the zebrafish, the loss of which recapitulates many of the features of the human disease. Using a morpholino chd7 knockdown model complemented by a chd7 null mutant zebrafish line, we examined GI structure, innervation, and motility in larval zebrafish...
April 16, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659942/evolutionary-associations-of-endosymbiotic-ciliates-shed-light-on-the-timing-of-the-marsupial-placental-split
#19
Peter Vdacný
Trichostome ciliates are among the most conspicuous protists in the gastrointestinal tract of a large variety of vertebrates. However, little is still known about phylogeny of the trichostome/vertebrate symbiotic systems, evolutionary correlations between trichostome extrinsic traits, and character-dependent diversification of trichostomes. These issues were investigated here, using the relaxed molecular clock technique along with stochastic mapping of character evolution, and binary-state speciation and extinction models...
April 11, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655854/the-expression-and-distribution-of-a-leptin-receptor-in-the-central-nervous-system-digestive-organs-and-gonads-of-the-giant-freshwater-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii
#20
Jaruwan Poljaroen, Ruchanok Tinikul, Panat Anuracpreeda, Prasert Sobhon, Yotsawan Tinikul
In the present study, the presence and distribution of leptin receptor (LEP-R) in central nervous system, digestive organs, gonads of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were investigated with Western blot and immunohistochemistry. By Western blot a LEP-R with a molecular weight (MW) of 100 kDa was detected in the brain, thoracic ganglia, abdominal ganglia, hepatopancreas, all parts of the gastrointestinal tract, ovaries, and testes. In hepatopancreas and foregut, another intense positive band was detected at molecular weight of 30 kDa, which could be an isotype of LEP-R...
April 11, 2018: Acta Histochemica
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