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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966977/novel-intrinsic-ignition-method-measuring-local-global-integration-characterizes-wakefulness-and-deep-sleep
#1
Gustavo Deco, Enzo Tagliazucchi, Helmut Laufs, Ana Sanjuán, Morten L Kringelbach
A precise definition of a brain state has proven elusive. Here, we introduce the novel local-global concept of intrinsic ignition characterizing the dynamical complexity of different brain states. Naturally occurring intrinsic ignition events reflect the capability of a given brain area to propagate neuronal activity to other regions, giving rise to different levels of integration. The ignitory capability of brain regions is computed by the elicited level of integration for each intrinsic ignition event in each brain region, averaged over all events...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943891/the-affective-core-of-emotion-linking-pleasure-subjective-well-being-and-optimal-metastability-in-the-brain
#2
Morten L Kringelbach, Kent C Berridge
Arguably, emotion is always valenced-either pleasant or unpleasant-and dependent on the pleasure system. This system serves adaptive evolutionary functions; relying on separable wanting, liking, and learning neural mechanisms mediated by mesocorticolimbic networks driving pleasure cycles with appetitive, consummatory, and satiation phases. Liking is generated in a small set of discrete hedonic hotspots and coldspots, while wanting is linked to dopamine and to larger distributed brain networks. Breakdown of the pleasure system can lead to anhedonia and other features of affective disorders...
July 2017: Emotion Review: Journal of the International Society for Research on Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863720/harmonic-brain-modes-a-unifying-framework-for-linking-space-and-time-in-brain-dynamics
#3
Selen Atasoy, Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach, Joel Pearson
A fundamental characteristic of spontaneous brain activity is coherent oscillations covering a wide range of frequencies. Interestingly, these temporal oscillations are highly correlated among spatially distributed cortical areas forming structured correlation patterns known as the resting state networks, although the brain is never truly at "rest." Here, we introduce the concept of harmonic brain modes-fundamental building blocks of complex spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity. We define these elementary harmonic brain modes as harmonic modes of structural connectivity; that is, connectome harmonics, yielding fully synchronous neural activity patterns with different frequency oscillations emerging on and constrained by the particular structure of the brain...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851996/uncovering-the-underlying-mechanisms-and-whole-brain-dynamics-of-deep-brain-stimulation-for-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Victor M Saenger, Joshua Kahan, Tom Foltynie, Karl Friston, Tipu Z Aziz, Alexander L Green, Tim J van Hartevelt, Joana Cabral, Angus B A Stevner, Henrique M Fernandes, Laura Mancini, John Thornton, Tarek Yousry, Patricia Limousin, Ludvic Zrinzo, Marwan Hariz, Paulo Marques, Nuno Sousa, Morten L Kringelbach, Gustavo Deco
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease is a highly effective treatment in controlling otherwise debilitating symptoms. Yet the underlying brain mechanisms are currently not well understood. Whole-brain computational modeling was used to disclose the effects of DBS during resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in ten patients with Parkinson's disease. Specifically, we explored the local and global impact that DBS has in creating asynchronous, stable or critical oscillatory conditions using a supercritical bifurcation model...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813266/intuitive-parenting-understanding-the-neural-mechanisms-of-parents-adaptive-responses-to-infants
#5
REVIEW
Christine E Parsons, Katherine S Young, Alan Stein, Morten L Kringelbach
When interacting with an infant, parents intuitively enact a range of behaviours that support infant communicative development. These behaviours include altering speech, establishing eye contact and mirroring infant expressions and are argued to occur largely in the absence of conscious intent. Here, we describe studies investigating early, pre-conscious neural responses to infant cues, which we suggest support aspects of parental intuitive behaviour towards infants. This work has provided converging evidence for rapid differentiation of infant cues from other salient social signals in the adult brain...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698644/cognitive-performance-in-healthy-older-adults-relates-to-spontaneous-switching-between-states-of-functional-connectivity-during-rest
#6
Joana Cabral, Diego Vidaurre, Paulo Marques, Ricardo Magalhães, Pedro Silva Moreira, José Miguel Soares, Gustavo Deco, Nuno Sousa, Morten L Kringelbach
Growing evidence has shown that brain activity at rest slowly wanders through a repertoire of different states, where whole-brain functional connectivity (FC) temporarily settles into distinct FC patterns. Nevertheless, the functional role of resting-state activity remains unclear. Here, we investigate how the switching behavior of resting-state FC relates with cognitive performance in healthy older adults. We analyse resting-state fMRI data from 98 healthy adults previously categorized as being among the best or among the worst performers in a cohort study of >1000 subjects aged 50+ who underwent neuropsychological assessment...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680119/increased-stability-and-breakdown-of-brain-effective-connectivity-during-slow-wave-sleep-mechanistic-insights-from-whole-brain-computational-modelling
#7
Beatrice M Jobst, Rikkert Hindriks, Helmut Laufs, Enzo Tagliazucchi, Gerald Hahn, Adrián Ponce-Alvarez, Angus B A Stevner, Morten L Kringelbach, Gustavo Deco
Recent research has found that the human sleep cycle is characterised by changes in spatiotemporal patterns of brain activity. Yet, we are still missing a mechanistic explanation of the local neuronal dynamics underlying these changes. We used whole-brain computational modelling to study the differences in global brain functional connectivity and synchrony of fMRI activity in healthy humans during wakefulness and slow-wave sleep. We applied a whole-brain model based on the normal form of a supercritical Hopf bifurcation and studied the dynamical changes when adapting the bifurcation parameter for all brain nodes to best match wakefulness and slow-wave sleep...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596608/the-dynamics-of-resting-fluctuations-in-the-brain-metastability-and-its-dynamical-cortical-core
#8
Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach, Viktor K Jirsa, Petra Ritter
In the human brain, spontaneous activity during resting state consists of rapid transitions between functional network states over time but the underlying mechanisms are not understood. We use connectome based computational brain network modeling to reveal fundamental principles of how the human brain generates large-scale activity observable by noninvasive neuroimaging. We used structural and functional neuroimaging data to construct whole- brain models. With this novel approach, we reveal that the human brain during resting state operates at maximum metastability, i...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595052/hierarchy-of-information-processing-in-the-brain-a-novel-intrinsic-ignition-framework
#9
REVIEW
Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach
A general theory of brain function has to be able to explain local and non-local network computations over space and time. We propose a new framework to capture the key principles of how local activity influences global computation, i.e., describing the propagation of information and thus the broadness of communication driven by local activity. More specifically, we consider the diversity in space (nodes or brain regions) over time using the concept of intrinsic ignition, which are naturally occurring intrinsic perturbations reflecting the capability of a given brain area to propagate neuronal activity to other regions in a given brain state...
June 7, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585020/experimental-manipulation-of-infant-temperament-affects-amygdala-functional-connectivity
#10
Madelon M E Riem, Marinus H Van Ijzendoorn, Christine E Parsons, Katherine S Young, Pietro De Carli, Morten L Kringelbach, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we examined neural processing of infant faces associated with a happy or a sad temperament in nulliparous women. We experimentally manipulated adult perception of infant temperament in a probabilistic learning task. In this task, participants learned about an infant's temperament through repeated pairing of the infant face with positive or negative facial expressions and vocalizations. At the end of the task, participants were able to differentiate between "mostly sad" infants who cried often and "mostly happy" infants who laughed often...
June 5, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507228/understanding-principles-of-integration-and-segregation-using-whole-brain-computational-connectomics-implications-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Louis-David Lord, Angus B Stevner, Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach
To survive in an ever-changing environment, the brain must seamlessly integrate a rich stream of incoming information into coherent internal representations that can then be used to efficiently plan for action. The brain must, however, balance its ability to integrate information from various sources with a complementary capacity to segregate information into modules which perform specialized computations in local circuits. Importantly, evidence suggests that imbalances in the brain's ability to bind together and/or segregate information over both space and time is a common feature of several neuropsychiatric disorders...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496095/duration-of-motherhood-has-incremental-effects-on-mothers-neural-processing-of-infant-vocal-cues-a-neuroimaging-study-of-women
#12
Christine E Parsons, Katherine S Young, Mikkel V Petersen, Else-Marie Jegindoe Elmholdt, Peter Vuust, Alan Stein, Morten L Kringelbach
The transition to motherhood, and the resultant experience of caregiving, may change the way women respond to affective, infant signals in their environments. Nonhuman animal studies have robustly demonstrated that mothers process both infant and other salient signals differently from nonmothers. Here, we investigated how women with and without young infants respond to vocalisations from infants and adults (both crying and neutral). We examined mothers with infants ranging in age (1-14 months) to examine the effects of duration of maternal experience...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343985/functional-connectivity-dynamically-evolves-on-multiple-time-scales-over-a-static-structural-connectome-models-and-mechanisms
#13
REVIEW
Joana Cabral, Morten L Kringelbach, Gustavo Deco
Over the last decade, we have observed a revolution in brain structural and functional Connectomics. On one hand, we have an ever-more detailed characterization of the brain's white matter structural connectome. On the other, we have a repertoire of consistent functional networks that form and dissipate over time during rest. Despite the evident spatial similarities between structural and functional connectivity, understanding how different time-evolving functional networks spontaneously emerge from a single structural network requires analyzing the problem from the perspective of complex network dynamics and dynamical system's theory...
March 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315461/single-or-multiple-frequency-generators-in-on-going-brain-activity-a-mechanistic-whole-brain-model-of-empirical-meg-data
#14
Gustavo Deco, Joana Cabral, Mark W Woolrich, Angus B A Stevner, Tim J van Hartevelt, Morten L Kringelbach
During rest, envelopes of band-limited on-going MEG signals co-vary across the brain in consistent patterns, which have been related to resting-state networks measured with fMRI. To investigate the genesis of such envelope correlations, we consider a whole-brain network model assuming two distinct fundamental scenarios: one where each brain area generates oscillations in a single frequency, and a novel one where each brain area can generate oscillations in multiple frequency bands. The models share, as a common generator of damped oscillations, the normal form of a supercritical Hopf bifurcation operating at the critical border between the steady state and the oscillatory regime...
May 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028583/syncopation-affects-free-body-movement-in-musical-groove
#15
Maria A G Witek, Tudor Popescu, Eric F Clarke, Mads Hansen, Ivana Konvalinka, Morten L Kringelbach, Peter Vuust
One of the most immediate and overt ways in which people respond to music is by moving their bodies to the beat. However, the extent to which the rhythmic complexity of groove-specifically its syncopation-contributes to how people spontaneously move to music is largely unexplored. Here, we measured free movements in hand and torso while participants listened to drum-breaks with various degrees of syncopation. We found that drum-breaks with medium degrees of syncopation were associated with the same amount of acceleration and synchronisation as low degrees of syncopation...
April 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917958/functional-complexity-emerging-from-anatomical-constraints-in-the-brain-the-significance-of-network-modularity-and-rich-clubs
#16
Gorka Zamora-López, Yuhan Chen, Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach, Changsong Zhou
The large-scale structural ingredients of the brain and neural connectomes have been identified in recent years. These are, similar to the features found in many other real networks: the arrangement of brain regions into modules and the presence of highly connected regions (hubs) forming rich-clubs. Here, we examine how modules and hubs shape the collective dynamics on networks and we find that both ingredients lead to the emergence of complex dynamics. Comparing the connectomes of C. elegans, cats, macaques and humans to surrogate networks in which either modules or hubs are destroyed, we find that functional complexity always decreases in the perturbed networks...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877115/insights-into-brain-architectures-from-the-homological-scaffolds-of-functional-connectivity-networks
#17
Louis-David Lord, Paul Expert, Henrique M Fernandes, Giovanni Petri, Tim J Van Hartevelt, Francesco Vaccarino, Gustavo Deco, Federico Turkheimer, Morten L Kringelbach
In recent years, the application of network analysis to neuroimaging data has provided useful insights about the brain's functional and structural organization in both health and disease. This has proven a significant paradigm shift from the study of individual brain regions in isolation. Graph-based models of the brain consist of vertices, which represent distinct brain areas, and edges which encode the presence (or absence) of a structural or functional relationship between each pair of vertices. By definition, any graph metric will be defined upon this dyadic representation of the brain activity...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825955/the-most-relevant-human-brain-regions-for-functional-connectivity-evidence-for-a-dynamical-workspace-of-binding-nodes-from-whole-brain-computational-modelling
#18
Gustavo Deco, Tim J Van Hartevelt, Henrique M Fernandes, Angus Stevner, Morten L Kringelbach
In order to promote survival through flexible cognition and goal-directed behaviour, the brain has to optimize segregation and integration of information into coherent, distributed dynamical states. Certain organizational features of the brain have been proposed to be essential to facilitate cognitive flexibility, especially hub regions in the so-called rich club which show dense interconnectivity. These structural hubs have been suggested to be vital for integration and segregation of information. Yet, this has not been evaluated in terms of resulting functional temporal dynamics...
February 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625597/editorial-at-risk-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders-an-affective-neuroscience-approach-to-understanding-the-spectrum
#19
EDITORIAL
Raymond C K Chan, Morten L Kringelbach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613229/the-neural-basis-of-responsive-caregiving-behaviour-investigating-temporal-dynamics-within-the-parental-brain
#20
Katherine S Young, Christine E Parsons, Alan Stein, Peter Vuust, Michelle G Craske, Morten L Kringelbach
Whether it is the sound of a distressed cry or the image of a cute face, infants capture our attention. Parents and other adults alike are drawn into interactions to engage in play, nurturance and provide care. Responsive caregiving behaviour is a key feature of the parent-infant relationship, forming the foundation upon which attachment is built. Infant cues are considered to be 'innate releasers' or 'motivational entities' eliciting responses in nearby adults (Lorenz 1943; Murray, 1979) [42,43]. Through the advent of modern neuroimaging, we are beginning to understand the initiation of this motivational state at the neurobiological level...
September 6, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
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