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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596608/the-dynamics-of-resting-fluctuations-in-the-brain-metastability-and-its-dynamical-cortical-core
#1
Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach, Viktor K Jirsa, Petra Ritter
In the human brain, spontaneous activity during resting state consists of rapid transitions between functional network states over time but the underlying mechanisms are not understood. We use connectome based computational brain network modeling to reveal fundamental principles of how the human brain generates large-scale activity observable by noninvasive neuroimaging. We used structural and functional neuroimaging data to construct whole- brain models. With this novel approach, we reveal that the human brain during resting state operates at maximum metastability, i...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595052/hierarchy-of-information-processing-in-the-brain-a-novel-intrinsic-ignition-framework
#2
REVIEW
Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach
A general theory of brain function has to be able to explain local and non-local network computations over space and time. We propose a new framework to capture the key principles of how local activity influences global computation, i.e., describing the propagation of information and thus the broadness of communication driven by local activity. More specifically, we consider the diversity in space (nodes or brain regions) over time using the concept of intrinsic ignition, which are naturally occurring intrinsic perturbations reflecting the capability of a given brain area to propagate neuronal activity to other regions in a given brain state...
June 7, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585020/experimental-manipulation-of-infant-temperament-affects-amygdala-functional-connectivity
#3
Madelon M E Riem, Marinus H Van Ijzendoorn, Christine E Parsons, Katherine S Young, Pietro De Carli, Morten L Kringelbach, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we examined neural processing of infant faces associated with a happy or a sad temperament in nulliparous women. We experimentally manipulated adult perception of infant temperament in a probabilistic learning task. In this task, participants learned about an infant's temperament through repeated pairing of the infant face with positive or negative facial expressions and vocalizations. At the end of the task, participants were able to differentiate between "mostly sad" infants who cried often and "mostly happy" infants who laughed often...
June 5, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507228/understanding-principles-of-integration-and-segregation-using-whole-brain-computational-connectomics-implications-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Louis-David Lord, Angus B Stevner, Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach
To survive in an ever-changing environment, the brain must seamlessly integrate a rich stream of incoming information into coherent internal representations that can then be used to efficiently plan for action. The brain must, however, balance its ability to integrate information from various sources with a complementary capacity to segregate information into modules which perform specialized computations in local circuits. Importantly, evidence suggests that imbalances in the brain's ability to bind together and/or segregate information over both space and time is a common feature of several neuropsychiatric disorders...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496095/duration-of-motherhood-has-incremental-effects-on-mothers-neural-processing-of-infant-vocal-cues-a-neuroimaging-study-of-women
#5
Christine E Parsons, Katherine S Young, Mikkel V Petersen, Else-Marie Jegindoe Elmholdt, Peter Vuust, Alan Stein, Morten L Kringelbach
The transition to motherhood, and the resultant experience of caregiving, may change the way women respond to affective, infant signals in their environments. Nonhuman animal studies have robustly demonstrated that mothers process both infant and other salient signals differently from nonmothers. Here, we investigated how women with and without young infants respond to vocalisations from infants and adults (both crying and neutral). We examined mothers with infants ranging in age (1-14 months) to examine the effects of duration of maternal experience...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343985/functional-connectivity-dynamically-evolves-on-multiple-time-scales-over-a-static-structural-connectome-models-and-mechanisms
#6
REVIEW
Joana Cabral, Morten Kringelbach, Gustavo Deco
Over the last decade, we have observed a revolution in brain structural and functional Connectomics. On one hand, we have an ever-more detailed characterization of the brain's white matter structural connectome. On the other, we have a repertoire of consistent functional networks that form and dissipate over time during rest. Despite the evident spatial similarities between structural and functional connectivity, understanding how different time-evolving functional networks spontaneously emerge from a single structural network requires analyzing the problem from the perspective of complex network dynamics and dynamical system's theory...
March 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315461/single-or-multiple-frequency-generators-in-on-going-brain-activity-a-mechanistic-whole-brain-model-of-empirical-meg-data
#7
Gustavo Deco, Joana Cabral, Mark W Woolrich, Angus B A Stevner, Tim J van Hartevelt, Morten L Kringelbach
During rest, envelopes of band-limited on-going MEG signals co-vary across the brain in consistent patterns, which have been related to resting-state networks measured with fMRI. To investigate the genesis of such envelope correlations, we consider a whole-brain network model assuming two distinct fundamental scenarios: one where each brain area generates oscillations in a single frequency, and a novel one where each brain area can generate oscillations in multiple frequency bands. The models share, as a common generator of damped oscillations, the normal form of a supercritical Hopf bifurcation operating at the critical border between the steady state and the oscillatory regime...
May 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028583/syncopation-affects-free-body-movement-in-musical-groove
#8
Maria A G Witek, Tudor Popescu, Eric F Clarke, Mads Hansen, Ivana Konvalinka, Morten L Kringelbach, Peter Vuust
One of the most immediate and overt ways in which people respond to music is by moving their bodies to the beat. However, the extent to which the rhythmic complexity of groove-specifically its syncopation-contributes to how people spontaneously move to music is largely unexplored. Here, we measured free movements in hand and torso while participants listened to drum-breaks with various degrees of syncopation. We found that drum-breaks with medium degrees of syncopation were associated with the same amount of acceleration and synchronisation as low degrees of syncopation...
April 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917958/functional-complexity-emerging-from-anatomical-constraints-in-the-brain-the-significance-of-network-modularity-and-rich-clubs
#9
Gorka Zamora-López, Yuhan Chen, Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach, Changsong Zhou
The large-scale structural ingredients of the brain and neural connectomes have been identified in recent years. These are, similar to the features found in many other real networks: the arrangement of brain regions into modules and the presence of highly connected regions (hubs) forming rich-clubs. Here, we examine how modules and hubs shape the collective dynamics on networks and we find that both ingredients lead to the emergence of complex dynamics. Comparing the connectomes of C. elegans, cats, macaques and humans to surrogate networks in which either modules or hubs are destroyed, we find that functional complexity always decreases in the perturbed networks...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877115/insights-into-brain-architectures-from-the-homological-scaffolds-of-functional-connectivity-networks
#10
Louis-David Lord, Paul Expert, Henrique M Fernandes, Giovanni Petri, Tim J Van Hartevelt, Francesco Vaccarino, Gustavo Deco, Federico Turkheimer, Morten L Kringelbach
In recent years, the application of network analysis to neuroimaging data has provided useful insights about the brain's functional and structural organization in both health and disease. This has proven a significant paradigm shift from the study of individual brain regions in isolation. Graph-based models of the brain consist of vertices, which represent distinct brain areas, and edges which encode the presence (or absence) of a structural or functional relationship between each pair of vertices. By definition, any graph metric will be defined upon this dyadic representation of the brain activity...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825955/the-most-relevant-human-brain-regions-for-functional-connectivity-evidence-for-a-dynamical-workspace-of-binding-nodes-from-whole-brain-computational-modelling
#11
Gustavo Deco, Tim J Van Hartevelt, Henrique M Fernandes, Angus Stevner, Morten L Kringelbach
In order to promote survival through flexible cognition and goal-directed behaviour, the brain has to optimize segregation and integration of information into coherent, distributed dynamical states. Certain organizational features of the brain have been proposed to be essential to facilitate cognitive flexibility, especially hub regions in the so-called rich club which show dense interconnectivity. These structural hubs have been suggested to be vital for integration and segregation of information. Yet, this has not been evaluated in terms of resulting functional temporal dynamics...
February 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625597/editorial-at-risk-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders-an-affective-neuroscience-approach-to-understanding-the-spectrum
#12
EDITORIAL
Raymond C K Chan, Morten L Kringelbach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613229/the-neural-basis-of-responsive-caregiving-behaviour-investigating-temporal-dynamics-within-the-parental-brain
#13
Katherine S Young, Christine E Parsons, Alan Stein, Peter Vuust, Michelle G Craske, Morten L Kringelbach
Whether it is the sound of a distressed cry or the image of a cute face, infants capture our attention. Parents and other adults alike are drawn into interactions to engage in play, nurturance and provide care. Responsive caregiving behaviour is a key feature of the parent-infant relationship, forming the foundation upon which attachment is built. Infant cues are considered to be 'innate releasers' or 'motivational entities' eliciting responses in nearby adults (Lorenz 1943; Murray, 1979) [42,43]. Through the advent of modern neuroimaging, we are beginning to understand the initiation of this motivational state at the neurobiological level...
September 6, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27223624/effects-of-infant-cleft-lip-on-adult-gaze-and-perceptions-of-cuteness
#14
Holly Rayson, Christine E Parsons, Katherine S Young, Timothy E E Goodacre, Morten L Kringelbach, James J Bonaiuto, Eugene McSorley, Lynne Murray
OBJECTIVE:   Early mother-infant interactions are impaired in the context of infant cleft lip and are associated with adverse child psychological outcomes, but the nature of these interaction difficulties is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to explore adult gaze behavior and cuteness perception, which are particularly important during early social exchanges, in response to infants with cleft lip, in order to investigate potential foundations for the interaction difficulties seen in this population...
May 25, 2016: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27211583/on-cuteness-unlocking-the-parental-brain-and-beyond
#15
REVIEW
Morten L Kringelbach, Eloise A Stark, Catherine Alexander, Marc H Bornstein, Alan Stein
Cuteness in offspring is a potent protective mechanism that ensures survival for otherwise completely dependent infants. Previous research has linked cuteness to early ethological ideas of a 'Kindchenschema' (infant schema) where infant facial features serve as 'innate releasing mechanisms' for instinctual caregiving behaviours. We propose extending the concept of cuteness beyond visual features to include positive infant sounds and smells. Evidence from behavioural and neuroimaging studies links this extended concept of cuteness to simple 'instinctual' behaviours and to caregiving, protection, and complex emotions...
July 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27195988/the-neural-mechanism-of-hedonic-processing-and-judgment-of-pleasant-odors-an-activation-likelihood-estimation-meta-analysis
#16
Lai-Quan Zou, Tim J van Hartevelt, Morten L Kringelbach, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan
OBJECTIVE: Pleasure is essential to normal healthy life. Olfaction, as 1 of the neurobehavioral probes of hedonic capacity, has a unique advantage compared to other sensory modalities. However, it is unclear how olfactory hedonic information is processed in the brain. This study aimed to investigate olfactory hedonic processing in the human brain. METHOD: We conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on 16 functional imaging studies that examined brain activation in olfactory hedonic processing-related tasks in healthy adults...
May 19, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27131472/erratum-metastability-and-coherence-extending-the-communication-through-coherence-hypothesis-using-a-whole-brain-computational-perspective-trends-in-neurosciences-39-3-125-135
#17
Gustavo Deco, Morten Kringelbach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27012492/time-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex
#18
COMMENT
Morten L Kringelbach, Kristina M Rapuano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26833259/metastability-and-coherence-extending-the-communication-through-coherence-hypothesis-using-a-whole-brain-computational-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach
Understanding the mechanisms for communication in the brain remains one of the most challenging scientific questions. The communication through coherence (CTC) hypothesis was originally proposed 10 years ago, stating that two groups of neurons communicate most effectively when their excitability fluctuations are coordinated in time (i.e., coherent), and this control by cortical coherence is a fundamental brain mechanism for large-scale, distant communication. In light of new evidence from whole-brain computational modelling of multimodal neuroimaging data, we link CTC to the concept of metastability, which refers to a rich exploration of the functional repertoire made possible by the underlying structural whole-brain connectivity...
March 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26822551/interpreting-infant-emotional-expressions-parenthood-has-differential-effects-on-men-and-women
#20
Christine E Parsons, Katherine S Young, Else-Marie Jegindoe Elmholdt, Alan Stein, Morten L Kringelbach
Interpreting and responding to an infant's emotional cues is a fundamental parenting skill. Responsivity to infant cues is frequently disrupted in depression, impacting negatively on child outcomes, which underscores its importance. It is widely assumed that women, and in particular mothers, show greater attunement to infants than do men. However, empirical evidence for sex and parental status effects, particularly in relation to perception of infant emotion, has been lacking. In this study, men and women with and without young infants were asked to rate valence in a range of infant facial expressions, on a scale of very positive to very negative...
March 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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