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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917958/functional-complexity-emerging-from-anatomical-constraints-in-the-brain-the-significance-of-network-modularity-and-rich-clubs
#1
Gorka Zamora-López, Yuhan Chen, Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach, Changsong Zhou
The large-scale structural ingredients of the brain and neural connectomes have been identified in recent years. These are, similar to the features found in many other real networks: the arrangement of brain regions into modules and the presence of highly connected regions (hubs) forming rich-clubs. Here, we examine how modules and hubs shape the collective dynamics on networks and we find that both ingredients lead to the emergence of complex dynamics. Comparing the connectomes of C. elegans, cats, macaques and humans to surrogate networks in which either modules or hubs are destroyed, we find that functional complexity always decreases in the perturbed networks...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877115/insights-into-brain-architectures-from-the-homological-scaffolds-of-functional-connectivity-networks
#2
Louis-David Lord, Paul Expert, Henrique M Fernandes, Giovanni Petri, Tim J Van Hartevelt, Francesco Vaccarino, Gustavo Deco, Federico Turkheimer, Morten L Kringelbach
In recent years, the application of network analysis to neuroimaging data has provided useful insights about the brain's functional and structural organization in both health and disease. This has proven a significant paradigm shift from the study of individual brain regions in isolation. Graph-based models of the brain consist of vertices, which represent distinct brain areas, and edges which encode the presence (or absence) of a structural or functional relationship between each pair of vertices. By definition, any graph metric will be defined upon this dyadic representation of the brain activity...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825955/the-most-relevant-human-brain-regions-for-functional-connectivity-evidence-for-a-dynamical-workspace-of-binding-nodes-from-whole-brain-computational-modelling
#3
Gustavo Deco, Tim J Van Hartevelt, Henrique M Fernandes, Angus Stevner, Morten L Kringelbach
In order to promote survival through flexible cognition and goal-directed behaviour, the brain has to optimize segregation and integration of information into coherent, distributed dynamical states. Certain organizational features of the brain have been proposed to be essential to facilitate cognitive flexibility, especially hub regions in the so-called rich club which show dense interconnectivity. These structural hubs have been suggested to be vital for integration and segregation of information. Yet, this has not been evaluated in terms of resulting functional temporal dynamics...
November 5, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625597/editorial-at-risk-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders-an-affective-neuroscience-approach-to-understanding-the-spectrum
#4
EDITORIAL
Raymond C K Chan, Morten L Kringelbach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613229/the-neural-basis-of-responsive-caregiving-behavior-investigating-temporal-dynamics-within-the-parental-brain
#5
Katherine S Young, Christine E Parsons, Alan Stein, Peter Vuust, Michelle G Craske, Morten L Kringelbach
Whether it is the sound of a distressed cry or the image of a cute face, infants capture our attention. Parents and other adults alike are drawn into interactions to engage in play, nurturance and provide care. Responsive caregiving behaviour is a key feature of the parent-infant relationship, forming the foundation upon which attachment is built. Infant cues are considered to be 'innate releasers' or 'motivational entities' eliciting responses in nearby adults (Lorenz 1943; Murray, 1979) [42,43]. Through the advent of modern neuroimaging, we are beginning to understand the initiation of this motivational state at the neurobiological level...
September 6, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27223624/effects-of-infant-cleft-lip-on-adult-gaze-and-perceptions-of-cuteness
#6
Holly Rayson, Christine E Parsons, Katherine S Young, Timothy E E Goodacre, Morten L Kringelbach, James J Bonaiuto, Eugene McSorley, Lynne Murray
OBJECTIVE:   Early mother-infant interactions are impaired in the context of infant cleft lip and are associated with adverse child psychological outcomes, but the nature of these interaction difficulties is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to explore adult gaze behavior and cuteness perception, which are particularly important during early social exchanges, in response to infants with cleft lip, in order to investigate potential foundations for the interaction difficulties seen in this population...
May 25, 2016: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27211583/on-cuteness-unlocking-the-parental-brain-and-beyond
#7
REVIEW
Morten L Kringelbach, Eloise A Stark, Catherine Alexander, Marc H Bornstein, Alan Stein
Cuteness in offspring is a potent protective mechanism that ensures survival for otherwise completely dependent infants. Previous research has linked cuteness to early ethological ideas of a 'Kindchenschema' (infant schema) where infant facial features serve as 'innate releasing mechanisms' for instinctual caregiving behaviours. We propose extending the concept of cuteness beyond visual features to include positive infant sounds and smells. Evidence from behavioural and neuroimaging studies links this extended concept of cuteness to simple 'instinctual' behaviours and to caregiving, protection, and complex emotions...
July 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27195988/the-neural-mechanism-of-hedonic-processing-and-judgment-of-pleasant-odors-an-activation-likelihood-estimation-meta-analysis
#8
Lai-Quan Zou, Tim J van Hartevelt, Morten L Kringelbach, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan
OBJECTIVE: Pleasure is essential to normal healthy life. Olfaction, as 1 of the neurobehavioral probes of hedonic capacity, has a unique advantage compared to other sensory modalities. However, it is unclear how olfactory hedonic information is processed in the brain. This study aimed to investigate olfactory hedonic processing in the human brain. METHOD: We conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on 16 functional imaging studies that examined brain activation in olfactory hedonic processing-related tasks in healthy adults...
May 19, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27131472/erratum-metastability-and-coherence-extending-the-communication-through-coherence-hypothesis-using-a-whole-brain-computational-perspective-trends-in-neurosciences-39-3-125-135
#9
Gustavo Deco, Morten Kringelbach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27012492/time-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex
#10
COMMENT
Morten L Kringelbach, Kristina M Rapuano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26833259/metastability-and-coherence-extending-the-communication-through-coherence-hypothesis-using-a-whole-brain-computational-perspective
#11
REVIEW
Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach
Understanding the mechanisms for communication in the brain remains one of the most challenging scientific questions. The communication through coherence (CTC) hypothesis was originally proposed 10 years ago, stating that two groups of neurons communicate most effectively when their excitability fluctuations are coordinated in time (i.e., coherent), and this control by cortical coherence is a fundamental brain mechanism for large-scale, distant communication. In light of new evidence from whole-brain computational modelling of multimodal neuroimaging data, we link CTC to the concept of metastability, which refers to a rich exploration of the functional repertoire made possible by the underlying structural whole-brain connectivity...
March 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26822551/interpreting-infant-emotional-expressions-parenthood-has-differential-effects-on-men-and-women
#12
Christine E Parsons, Katherine S Young, Else-Marie Jegindoe Elmholdt, Alan Stein, Morten L Kringelbach
Interpreting and responding to an infant's emotional cues is a fundamental parenting skill. Responsivity to infant cues is frequently disrupted in depression, impacting negatively on child outcomes, which underscores its importance. It is widely assumed that women, and in particular mothers, show greater attunement to infants compared with men. However, empirical evidence for sex and parental status effects, particularly in relation to perception of infant emotion, has been lacking. In this study, men and women with and without young infants were asked to rate valence in a range of infant facial expressions, on a scale of very positive to very negative...
January 28, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26656998/evidence-for-a-caregiving-instinct-rapid-differentiation-of-infant-from-adult-vocalizations-using-magnetoencephalography
#13
Katherine S Young, Christine E Parsons, Else-Marie Jegindoe Elmholdt, Mark W Woolrich, Tim J van Hartevelt, Angus B A Stevner, Alan Stein, Morten L Kringelbach
Crying is the most salient vocal signal of distress. The cries of a newborn infant alert adult listeners and often elicit caregiving behavior. For the parent, rapid responding to an infant in distress is an adaptive behavior, functioning to ensure offspring survival. The ability to react rapidly requires quick recognition and evaluation of stimuli followed by a co-ordinated motor response. Previous neuroimaging research has demonstrated early specialized activity in response to infant faces. Using magnetoencephalography, we found similarly early (100-200 ms) differences in neural responses to infant and adult cry vocalizations in auditory, emotional, and motor cortical brain regions...
March 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26412099/the-rediscovery-of-slowness-exploring-the-timing-of-cognition
#14
REVIEW
Morten L Kringelbach, Anthony R McIntosh, Petra Ritter, Viktor K Jirsa, Gustavo Deco
Slowness of thought is not necessarily a handicap but could be a signature of optimal brain function. Emerging evidence shows that neuroanatomical and dynamical constraints of the human brain shape its functionality in optimal ways, characterized by slowness during task-based cognition in the context of spontaneous resting-state activity. This activity can be described mechanistically by whole-brain computational modeling that relates directly to optimality in the context of theories arguing for metastability in the brain...
October 2015: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26344354/tractography-study-of-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-chronic-pain-key-to-improve-the-targeting
#15
Sandra G J Boccard, Henrique M Fernandes, Saad Jbabdi, Tim J Van Hartevelt, Morten L Kringelbach, Gerardine Quaghebeur, Liz Moir, Victor Piqueras Mancebo, Erlick A C Pereira, James J Fitzgerald, Alexander L Green, John Stein, Tipu Z Aziz
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a new treatment for alleviating intractable neuropathic pain. However, it fails to help some patients. The large size of the ACC and the intersubject variability make it difficult to determine the optimal site to position DBS electrodes. The aim of this work was therefore to compare the ACC connectivity of patients with successful versus unsuccessful DBS outcomes to help guide future electrode placement...
February 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26175675/evidence-from-a-rare-case-study-for-hebbian-like-changes-in-structural-connectivity-induced-by-long-term-deep-brain-stimulation
#16
Tim J van Hartevelt, Joana Cabral, Arne Møller, James J FitzGerald, Alexander L Green, Tipu Z Aziz, Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach
It is unclear whether Hebbian-like learning occurs at the level of long-range white matter connections in humans, i.e., where measurable changes in structural connectivity (SC) are correlated with changes in functional connectivity. However, the behavioral changes observed after deep brain stimulation (DBS) suggest the existence of such Hebbian-like mechanisms occurring at the structural level with functional consequences. In this rare case study, we obtained the full network of white matter connections of one patient with Parkinson's disease (PD) before and after long-term DBS and combined it with a computational model of ongoing activity to investigate the effects of DBS-induced long-term structural changes...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26081790/rethinking-segregation-and-integration-contributions-of-whole-brain-modelling
#17
REVIEW
Gustavo Deco, Giulio Tononi, Melanie Boly, Morten L Kringelbach
The brain regulates information flow by balancing the segregation and integration of incoming stimuli to facilitate flexible cognition and behaviour. The topological features of brain networks--in particular, network communities and hubs--support this segregation and integration but do not provide information about how external inputs are processed dynamically (that is, over time). Experiments in which the consequences of selective inputs on brain activity are controlled and traced with great precision could provide such information...
July 2015: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25950633/pleasure-systems-in-the-brain
#18
REVIEW
Kent C Berridge, Morten L Kringelbach
Pleasure is mediated by well-developed mesocorticolimbic circuitry and serves adaptive functions. In affective disorders, anhedonia (lack of pleasure) or dysphoria (negative affect) can result from breakdowns of that hedonic system. Human neuroimaging studies indicate that surprisingly similar circuitry is activated by quite diverse pleasures, suggesting a common neural currency shared by all. Wanting for reward is generated by a large and distributed brain system. Liking, or pleasure itself, is generated by a smaller set of hedonic hot spots within limbic circuitry...
May 6, 2015: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25936618/musical-rhythm-and-affect-comment-on-the-quartet-theory-of-human-emotions-an-integrative-and-neurofunctional-model-by-s-koelsch-et-al
#19
COMMENT
Maria A G Witek, Morten L Kringelbach, Peter Vuust
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2015: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25814941/reconceptualizing-anhedonia-novel-perspectives-on-balancing-the-pleasure-networks-in-the-human-brain
#20
REVIEW
Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Peter C Whybrow, Morten L Kringelbach
Anhedonia, the lack of pleasure, has been shown to be a critical feature of a range of psychiatric disorders. Yet, it is currently measured primarily through subjective self-reports and as such has been difficult to submit to rigorous scientific analysis. New insights from affective neuroscience hold considerable promise in improving our understanding of anhedonia and for providing useful objective behavioral measures to complement traditional self-report measures, potentially leading to better diagnoses and novel treatments...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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