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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245174/larger-temperature-response-of-autumn-leaf-senescence-than-spring-leaf-out-phenology
#1
Yongshuo H Fu, Shilong Piao, Nicolas Delpierre, Fanghua Hao, Heikki Hänninen, Yongjie Liu, Wenchao Sun, Ivan A Janssens, Matteo Campioli
Climate warming is substantially shifting the leaf phenological events of plants, and thereby impacting on their individual fitness and also on the structure and functioning of ecosystems. Previous studies have largely focused on the climate impact on spring phenology, and to date the processes underlying leaf senescence and their associated environmental drivers remain poorly understood. In this study, experiments with temperature gradients imposed during the summer and autumn were conducted on saplings of European beech to explore the temperature responses of leaf senescence...
December 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245126/geographic-and-social-disparities-in-exposure-to-air-neurotoxicants-at-u-s-public-schools
#2
Sara E Grineski, Timothy W Collins
Children are especially vulnerable to the health and developmental impacts of environmental hazards and they spend significant portions of their days at school. Yet there are no national-level studies examining school-level environmental inequalities and few have examined disparate exposure to neurological air toxicants, even though chronic exposure to air pollution impacts children's brain functioning. We paired information about the geographic locations and demographics of each public school in the US with air neurotoxicant exposure estimates pertaining to 24 known neurotoxicants included in the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Air Toxics Assessment...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245113/the-temporal-relationship-between-activity-of-the-pelvic-floor-muscles-and-motion-of-selected-urogenital-landmarks-in-healthy-nulliparous-women
#3
Stéphanie Thibault-Gagnon, Cindy Auchincloss, Ryan Graham, Linda McLean
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between pelvic floor muscle (PFM) electromyographic (EMG) activation and urogenital landmark motion measured using 2D transperineal ultrasound (US) imaging. METHODS: Eight healthy, nulliparous women performed maximum voluntary PFM contractions while EMG and transperineal US images were acquired simultaneously. Changes in the levator plate length (LPL), bladder neck (BN) position and urethral position were determined by visual inspection...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245108/learning-and-transfer-of-working-memory-gating-policies
#4
Apoorva Bhandari, David Badre
knowledge about the tasks we encounter enables us to rapidly and flexibly adapt to novel task contexts. Previous research has focused primarily on abstract rules that leverage shared structure in stimulus-response (S-R) mappings as the basis of such task knowledge. Here we provide evidence that working memory (WM) gating policies - a type of control policy required for internal control of WM during a task - constitute a form of abstract task knowledge that can be transferred across contexts. In two experiments, we report specific evidence for the transfer of selective WM gating policies across changes of task context...
December 12, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245055/high-proportion-of-abnormal-pap-smear-tests-and-cervical-dysplasia-in-women-with-cystic-fibrosis
#5
Christine Rousset-Jablonski, Quitterie Reynaud, Raphaëlle Nove-Josserand, Isabelle Ray-Coquard, Yahia Mekki, François Golfier, Isabelle Durieu
OBJECTIVES: Insufficient gynecological follow-up and cervical screening has been reported in women with cystic fibrosis (CF). Some of these patients will require a pulmonary transplantation, known to be associated with a higher risk of cervical dysplasia. The aim of this study was to explore the results of cervical screening in adult women with CF, and to report the prevalence of abnormal pap smear tests in this population. STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively analyzed medical records of sexually active women with CF who attended a gynecological consultation in Lyon University CF referral center between June 2014 and December 2015...
December 9, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245031/nanometer-precise-optical-length-measurement-using-near-field-scanning-optical-microscopy-with-sharpened-single-carbon-nanotube-probe
#6
Takehiro Tachizaki, Toshihiko Nakata, Kaifeng Zhang, Ichiro Yamakawa, Shin-Ichi Taniguchi
We have developed and characterized a plasmon-excitation scattering-type near-field scanning optical microscope with sharpened single carbon nanotube probe. The developed microscope can optically capture differences in the refractive index of single-nanometer surface structures. Statistical analysis enabled us to estimate the precision of the optical length measurement to 1.8 nm.
December 7, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245020/killing-two-birds-with-one-stone-association-between-tobacco-and-alcohol-consumption
#7
REVIEW
A M Reis, C Quintal, Ó Lourenço
OBJECTIVES: Tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption are addictive behaviours, listed among the 10 leading risk factors that cause death and disability in the world, and health consequences are greater if their consumption is combined. There is sparse empirical evidence on the variables that influence the simultaneous consumption of tobacco and alcohol. This study aims to identify the variables that influence the joint decision to consume alcohol and tobacco, and that encourage drinkers to smoke...
December 12, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244995/proceedings-of-the-strategy-meeting-for-the-development-of-an-international-consortium-for-chinese-medicine-and-cancer
#8
Jeffrey D White, Hongsheng Lin, Libin Jia, Roy S Wu, Stephen Lam, Jie Li, Jinhui Dou, Nagi Kumar, Lizhu Lin, Lixing Lao
On November 3, 2014, in Bethesda, MD, the Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine of the National Cancer Institute held a meeting to examine the potential utility and feasibility of establishing an international consortium for Chinese medicine and cancer. There is significant interest in the West in using components of Chinese medicine (CM) -such as botanicals and herbal medicines, acupuncture and acupressure, and qigong-in the field of oncology, as potential anticancer agents, for symptom management, and to improve quality of life...
December 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244829/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-introducing-malaria-diagnostic-testing-in-drug-shops-a-cluster-randomised-trial-in-uganda
#9
Kristian Schultz Hansen, Siân E Clarke, Sham Lal, Pascal Magnussen, Anthony K Mbonye
BACKGROUND: Private sector drug shops are an important source of malaria treatment in Africa, yet diagnosis without parasitological testing is common among these providers. Accurate rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs) require limited training and present an opportunity to increase access to correct diagnosis. The present study was a cost-effectiveness analysis of the introduction of mRDTs in Ugandan drug shops. METHODS: Drug shop vendors were trained to perform and sell subsidised mRDTs and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in the intervention arm while vendors offered ACTs following presumptive diagnosis of malaria in the control arm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244823/cost-effectiveness-of-national-health-insurance-programs-in-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#10
Son Nghiem, Nicholas Graves, Adrian Barnett, Catherine Haden
OBJECTIVES: National health insurance is now common in most developed countries. This study reviews the evidence and synthesizes the cost-effectiveness information for national health insurance or disability insurance programs across high-income countries. DATA SOURCES: A literature search using health, economics and systematic review electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Medline, Econlit, RepEc, Cochrane library and Campbell library), was conducted from April to October 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244641/pavlovian-control-of-escape-and-avoidance
#11
Alexander J Millner, Samuel J Gershman, Matthew K Nock, Hanneke E M den Ouden
To survive in complex environments, animals need to have mechanisms to select effective actions quickly, with minimal computational costs. As perhaps the computationally most parsimonious of these systems, Pavlovian control accomplishes this by hardwiring specific stereotyped responses to certain classes of stimuli. It is well documented that appetitive cues initiate a Pavlovian bias toward vigorous approach; however, Pavlovian responses to aversive stimuli are less well understood. Gaining a deeper understanding of aversive Pavlovian responses, such as active avoidance, is important given the critical role these behaviors play in several psychiatric conditions...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244613/kinetics-study-on-recombinant-alkaline-phosphatase-and-correlation-with-the-fluorescent-signal-generated
#12
Vanessa Susini, Veronica Lucia Rossi, Antonio Sanesi, Laurent Drazek
Alkaline phosphatase (AP) (EC 3.1.3.1) is one of the most used enzymes in immunoassays. In VIDAS® assays (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) AP catalyses the hydrolysis of 4-Methylumbelliferyl phosphate (4-MUP) in 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU) producing a fluorescent signal. This work introduces an original method of characterization of the kinetics parameter Km, Vmax and Kcat of AP embedded in VIDAS® assays. Assessment of such constants allows us to predict the fluorescent signal generated for given amounts of enzyme and its associated substrate; in the particular case of VIDAS®, it has been estimated that 0...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244483/biomembrane-permeabilization-statistics-of-individual-leakage-events-harmonize-the-interpretation-of-vesicle-leakage
#13
Stefan Braun, Šárka Pokorná, Radek Šachl, Martin Hof, Heiko Heerklotz, Maria Hoernke
The mode of action of membrane-active molecules such as antimicrobial, anticancer, cell penetrating, and fusion peptides and their synthetic mimics, transfection agents and drug permeation enhancers, biological signaling molecules (e.g., quorum sensing), involves either the general or local destabilization of the target membrane or the formation of defined, rather stable pores. Some effects aim at killing the cell, others need to be limited in space and time to avoid serious damage. Biological tests reveal translocation of compounds and cell death but do not provide a detailed, mechanistic, and quantitative understanding of the modes of action and their molecular basis...
December 15, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244177/online-bayesian-phylogenetic-inference-theoretical-foundations-via-sequential-monte-carlo
#14
Vu Dinh, Aaron E Darling, Frederick A Matsen Iv
Phylogenetics, the inference of evolutionary trees from molecular sequence data such as DNA, is an enterprise that yields valuable evolutionary understanding of many biological systems. Bayesian phylogenetic algorithms, which approximate a posterior distribution on trees, have become a popular if computationally expensive means of doing phylogenetics. Modern data collection technologies are quickly adding new sequences to already substantial databases. With all current techniques for Bayesian phylogenetics, computation must start anew each time a sequence becomes available, making it costly to maintain an up-to-date estimate of a phylogenetic posterior...
December 13, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244173/magnitude-of-clinical-benefit-of-cancer-drugs-approved-by-the-us-food-and-drug-administration
#15
Ariadna Tibau, Consolación Molto, Alberto Ocana, Arnoud J Templeton, Luis P Del Carpio, Joseph C Del Paggio, Agustí Barnadas, Christopher M Booth, Eitan Amir
Background: It is uncertain whether drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have clinically meaningful benefit as determined by validated scales such as the European Society for Medical Oncology Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO-MCBS). Methods: We searched the Drugs@FDA website for applications of anticancer drugs from January 2006 to December 2016. Study characteristics, outcomes, and regulatory pathways were collected from drug labels and reports of registration trials...
December 13, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244096/treatment-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-past-and-present
#16
Dmitry Borisovich Giller, Boris Dmitrievich Giller, Galina Vitalievna Giller, Galina Vladimirovna Shcherbakova, Anuar Bahtibaevich Bizhanov, Inga Igorevna Enilenis, Aleksey Aleksandrovich Glotov
OBJECTIVES: Surgical interventional has been key in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) for a long time. Its importance diminished after the emergence of chemotherapy. However, the spread of rapid multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB has led us to return to surgery to treat TB. Today, every second patient in Russia with destructive TB has either MDR or XDR TB, which is the reason for the low efficacy of conservative treatment. In 2015, treatment with drugs resulted in clinical recovery in only 29...
December 12, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244030/static-response-of-deformable-microchannels-a-comparative-modelling-study
#17
Tanmay C Shidhore, Ivan C Christov
We present a comparative modelling study of fluid--structure interactions in microchannels. Through a mathematical analysis based on plate theory and the lubrication approximation for low-Reynolds-number flow, we derive models for the flow rate--pressure drop relation for long shallow microchannels with both thin and thick deformable top walls. These relations are tested against full three-dimensional two-way-coupled fluid--structure interaction simulations. Three types of microchannels, representing different elasticity regimes and having been experimentally characterized previously, are chosen as benchmarks for our theory and simulations...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244013/cache-and-energy-efficient-algorithms-for-nussinov-s-rna-folding
#18
Chunchun Zhao, Sartaj Sahni
BACKGROUND: An RNA folding/RNA secondary structure prediction algorithm determines the non-nested/pseudoknot-free structure by maximizing the number of complementary base pairs and minimizing the energy. Several implementations of Nussinov's classical RNA folding algorithm have been proposed. Our focus is to obtain run time and energy efficiency by reducing the number of cache misses. RESULTS: Three cache-efficient algorithms, ByRow, ByRowSegment and ByBox, for Nussinov's RNA folding are developed...
December 6, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244006/framework-for-reanalysis-of-publicly-available-affymetrix%C3%A2-genechip%C3%A2-data-sets-based-on-functional-regions-of-interest
#19
Ernur Saka, Benjamin J Harrison, Kirk West, Jeffrey C Petruska, Eric C Rouchka
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of microarrays in 1995, researchers world-wide have used both commercial and custom-designed microarrays for understanding differential expression of transcribed genes. Public databases such as ArrayExpress and the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) have made millions of samples readily available. One main drawback to microarray data analysis involves the selection of probes to represent a specific transcript of interest, particularly in light of the fact that transcript-specific knowledge (notably alternative splicing) is dynamic in nature...
December 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243998/adjacent-segment-disease-after-thoracic-pedicle-screw-fixation
#20
Nitin Agarwal, Robert F Heary, Prateek Agarwal
OBJECTIVE Pedicle screw fixation is a technique widely used to treat conditions ranging from spine deformity to fracture stabilization. Pedicle screws have been used traditionally in the lumbar spine; however, they are now being used with increasing frequency in the thoracic spine as a more favorable alternative to hooks, wires, or cables. Although safety concerns, such as the incidence of adjacent-segment disease (ASD) after cervical and lumbar fusions, have been reported, such issues in the thoracic spine have yet to be addressed thoroughly...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
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