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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324844/serotonin-transporter-and-receptor-ligands-with-antidepressant-activity-as-neuroprotective-and-proapoptotic-agents
#1
REVIEW
Zdzislaw Chilmonczyk, Andrzej J Bojarski, Andrzej Pilc, Ingebrigt Sylte
Serotonin exhibits multiple non-neural functions involved in essential hypertension, early embryogenesis, follicle maturation and behaviour. The growth stimulatory effects of the neurotransmitter have been described for a variety of cell types. 5-HT was found to induce migration of the human prostate cancer cell lines - PC-3 and Du145 - and several 5-HT1A antagonists and serotonin reuptake inhibitors were reported to inhibit the growth of different tumour cell lines in vitro. Recent studies suggest that neurogenesis is involved in the action of antidepressants and an involvement of antidepressants in adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been demonstrated...
January 22, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324820/the-relationship-between-motorcycle-rider-behaviour-questionnaire-scores-and-crashes-for-riders-in-australia
#2
A N Stephens, J Brown, L de Rome, M R J Baldock, R Fernandes, M Fitzharris
Motorcycle riders are over-represented in road fatalities in Australia. While riders represent 18% of the road users killed each year, motorcycle registrations constitute only 4.5% of the registered vehicle fleet. The Motorcycle Rider Behaviour Questionnaire (MRBQ) was developed with a view toward understanding behaviours likely to be associated with crash risk. These include behaviours that are either intentional (such as violations of road and speed regulations and stunts) or unintentional (such as errors relating to traffic or control of the motorcycle), as well as protective behaviours related to use of safety equipment...
March 18, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324812/the-effects-of-ovarian-biopsy-and-blood-sampling-methods-on-salivary-cortisol-and-behaviour-in-sows
#3
Jinhyeon Yun, Stefan Björkman, Merja Pöytäkangas, Olli Peltoniemi
In reproductive physiology research, experimental animals are often subjected to stressful procedures, including blood sampling and biopsy. In this present study, presence of pain or distress induced by four different procedures was examined using a measurement of salivary cortisol levels and activity observations in sows. The treatments were: 1) PAL: The ovary was palpated through the rectum without snaring, 2) TUB: transvaginal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the ovary was conducted without snaring, 3) SNA: a soft rope snare was placed around the maxilla, 4) CAT: A soft rope snare was placed around the maxilla, and an intravenous catheter was inserted through the ear vein of the sows...
March 11, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324299/fatal-familial-insomnia-clinical-aspects-and-molecular-alterations
#4
REVIEW
Franc Llorens, Juan-José Zarranz, Andre Fischer, Inga Zerr, Isidro Ferrer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fatal familiar insomnia (FFI) is an autosomal dominant inherited prion disease caused by D178N mutation in the prion protein gene (PRNP D178N) accompanied by the presence of a methionine at the codon 129 polymorphic site on the mutated allele. FFI is characterized by severe sleep disorder, dysautonomia, motor signs and abnormal behaviour together with primary atrophy of selected thalamic nuclei and inferior olives, and expansion to other brain regions with disease progression...
April 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324242/numerical-insights-into-the-phase-diagram-of-p-atic-membranes-with-spherical-topology
#5
A G Hansen, N Ramakrishnan, P B Sunil Kumar, J H Ipsen
The properties of self-avoiding p-atic membranes restricted to spherical topology have been studied by Monte Carlo simulations of a triangulated random surface model. Spherically shaped p-atic membranes undergo a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition as expected with topology induced mutually repelling disclinations of the p-atic ordered phase. For flexible membranes the phase behaviour bears some resemblance to the spherically shaped case with a p-atic disordered crumpled phase and p-atic ordered, conformationally ordered (crinkled) phase separated by a KT-like transition with proliferation of disclinations...
March 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324234/damage-induced-alarm-cues-influence-lateralized-behaviour-but-not-the-relationship-between-behavioural-and-habenular-asymmetry-in-convict-cichlids-amatitlania-nigrofasciata
#6
Michele K Moscicki, Peter L Hurd
Cerebral lateralization, the partitioning of functions into a certain hemisphere of the brain, is ubiquitous among vertebrates. Evidence suggests that the cognitive processing of a stimulus is performed with a specific hemisphere depending in part upon the emotional valence of the stimulus (i.e. whether it is appetitive or aversive). Recent work has implicated a predominance of right-hemisphere processing for aversive stimuli. In fish with laterally placed eyes, the preference to view an object with a specific eye has been used as a proxy for assessing cerebral lateralization...
March 21, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323985/utility-of-fdg-pet-imaging-for-risk-stratification-of-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumours-in-men-1
#7
E R Kornaczewski Jackson, O P Pointon, R Bohmer, J R Burgess
Context: Patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN 1) are at high risk of malignant pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours (pNETs). Structural imaging is typically used to screen for pNETs, but is suboptimal for stratifying malignant potential. Objective: To determine the utility of Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) for predicting the malignant potential of pNETs in MEN 1. Design: Retrospective observational study...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323874/c-type-allatostatins-mimic-stress-related-effects-of-alarm-pheromone-on-honey-bee-learning-and-memory-recall
#8
Elodie Urlacher, Jean-Marc Devaud, Alison R Mercer
As honey bee populations worldwide are declining there is an urgent need for a deeper understanding of stress reactivity in these important insects. Our data indicate that stress responses in bees (Apis mellifera L.) may be mediated by neuropeptides identified, on the basis of sequence similarities, as allatostatins (ASTA, ASTC and ASTCC). Effects of allatostatin injection are compared with stress-related changes in learning performance induced by the honeybee alarm pheromone, isopentylacetate (IPA). We find that bees can exhibit two markedly different responses to IPA, with opposing effects on learning behaviour and memory generalisation, and that strikingly similar responses can be elicited by allatostatins, in particular ASTCC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323851/the-effect-of-excluding-juveniles-on-apparent-adult-olive-baboons-papio-anubis-social-networks
#9
Piotr Fedurek, Julia Lehmann
In recent years there has been much interest in investigating the social structure of group living animals using social network analysis. Many studies so far have focused on the social networks of adults, often excluding younger, immature group members. This potentially may lead to a biased view of group social structure as multiple recent studies have shown that younger group members can significantly contribute to group structure. As proof of the concept, we address this issue by investigating social network structure with and without juveniles in wild olive baboons (Papio anubis) at Gashaka Gumti National Park, Nigeria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323817/hippocampal-and-prefrontal-processing-of-network-topology-to-simulate-the-future
#10
Amir-Homayoun Javadi, Beatrix Emo, Lorelei R Howard, Fiona E Zisch, Yichao Yu, Rebecca Knight, Joao Pinelo Silva, Hugo J Spiers
Topological networks lie at the heart of our cities and social milieu. However, it remains unclear how and when the brain processes topological structures to guide future behaviour during everyday life. Using fMRI in humans and a simulation of London (UK), here we show that, specifically when new streets are entered during navigation of the city, right posterior hippocampal activity indexes the change in the number of local topological connections available for future travel and right anterior hippocampal activity reflects global properties of the street entered...
March 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323506/emotional-and-psychosocial-factors-associated-with-drunkenness-and-the-use-of-tobacco-and-cannabis-in-adolescence-independent-or-interactive-effects
#11
Irene García-Moya, María José Ortiz Barón, Carmen Moreno
BACKGROUND: Although previous research has examined emotional and psychosocial factors associated with substance use, there is a paucity of studies examining both at the same time, and insufficient attention has been paid to how these factors may interact. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to simultaneously examine the contributions from emotional (emotional control and depression) and psychosocial (peers' conventional behavior, peers' substance use and parent-child relationships) factors to drunkenness and the use of tobacco and cannabis in adolescence...
March 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323457/n-of-1-study-of-weight-loss-maintenance-assessing-predictors-of-physical-activity-adherence-to-weight-loss-plan-and-weight-change
#12
Dominika Kwasnicka, Stephan U Dombrowski, Martin White, Falko F Sniehotta
OBJECTIVE: Behaviour change interventions are effective in supporting individuals to achieve clinically significant weight loss, but weight loss maintenance (WLM) is less often attained. This study examined predictive variables associated with WLM. DESIGN: N-of-1 study with daily ecological momentary assessment combined with objective measurement of weight and physical activity, collected with wireless devices (Fitbit™) for six months. Eight previously obese adults who had lost over 5% of their body weight in the past year took part...
March 21, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323423/bioinspired-layer-by-layer-microcapsules-based-on-cellulose-nanofibers-with-switchable-permeability
#13
Thomas Paulraj, Anastasia V Riazanova, Kun Yao, Richard L Andersson, Anette Müllertz, Anna J Svagan
Green, all-polysaccharide based microcapsules with mechanically robust capsule walls and fast, stimuli-triggered and switchable permeability behaviour show great promise in applications based on selective and timed permeability. Taking cue from nature, the build-up and composition of plant primary cell wall inspired the capsule wall assembly, because the primary cell walls in plants exhibit high mechanical properties despite being in a highly hydrated state, primarily owing to cellulose microfibrils. The microcapsules (16 ± 4 µm in diameter) were fabricated using the Layer-by-Layer technique on sacrificial CaCO3 templates, using plant polysaccharides (pectin, cellulose nanofibers and xyloglucan) only...
March 21, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320079/ketamine-reduces-the-need-for-intubation-in-patients-with-acute-severe-mental-illness-and-agitation-requiring-transport-to-definitive-care-an-observational-study
#14
Cathrin S Parsch, Adrianne Boonstra, David Teubner, Wade Emmerton, Brian McKenny, Daniel Y Ellis
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review mental health patients transported by a dedicated statewide critical care retrieval team before and after the implementation of a ketamine sedation guideline. METHODS: This is a a retrospective cohort study of mental health patients with acute behavioural disturbance, transported between January 2010 and December 2015. RESULTS: A total of 78 patients were transported in the study period, 50 before and 28 after implementation of the ketamine guideline in June 2013...
March 20, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320073/a-model-linking-video-gaming-sleep-quality-sweet-drinks-consumption-and-obesity-among-children-and-youth
#15
O Turel, A Romashkin, K M Morrison
There is a growing need to curb paediatric obesity. The aim of this study is to untangle associations between video-game-use attributes and obesity as a first step towards identifying and examining possible interventions. Cross-sectional time-lagged cohort study was employed using parent-child surveys (t1) and objective physical activity and physiological measures (t2) from 125 children/adolescents (mean age = 13.06, 9-17-year-olds) who play video games, recruited from two clinics at a Canadian academic children's hospital...
March 20, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320071/adherence-to-national-exercise-guidelines-by-patients-attending-emergency-departments-a-multi-site-survey
#16
Paul Berlingeri, Neil Cunningham, David McD Taylor, Jonathan Knott, Daniel McLean, Rex Gavan, Luke Plant, Hayley Chen, Tracey Weiland
OBJECTIVE: The proportion of adults in Australia meeting or exceeding the national guidelines for physical activity has remained relatively static over the past 10 years. The research objective was to measure self-reported physical activity and sedentary behaviour among ED patients in accordance with Australia's current physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines, revised in 2014. METHODS: A convenience sample of participants was recruited from three EDs in Melbourne between February and May 2016...
March 20, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319860/effects-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-survival-biomass-change-and-avoidance-behaviour-of-the-endogeic-earthworm-allolobophora-chlorotica
#17
C Brami, A R Glover, K R Butt, C N Lowe
Increasing commercial application of silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) and subsequent presence in wastewater and sewage sludge has raised concerns regarding their effects in the aquatic and terrestrial environment. Several studies have employed standardised acute and chronic earthworm-based tests to establish the toxicological effects of Ag NP within soil. These studies have relied heavily on the use of epigiec earthworm species which may have limited ecological relevance in mineral soil. This study assessed the influence of Ag NP (uncoated 80nm powder) and AgNO3 on survival, change in biomass and avoidance behaviour in a soil dwelling (endogiec) species, Allolobophora chlorotica...
March 15, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319858/identifying-adverse-effects-of-area-based-health-policy-an-ethnographic-study-of-a-deprived-neighbourhood-in-england
#18
Oli Williams
Health interventions commonly have adverse effects. Addressing these could significantly improve health outcomes. This paper addresses an adverse effect common in the promotion of health behaviours: exacerbation of health inequalities between low- and high-socioeconomic groups. Health behaviours - particularly, physical activity - are positioned within the context of social inequality and the inequitable spatial distribution of resources. Area-based health policy that targets deprived areas is assessed for its capacity to promote health behaviours without exacerbating inequality...
March 17, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319789/group-schema-therapy-for-personality-disorders-a-pilot-study-for-implementation-in-acute-psychiatric-in-patient-settings
#19
Igor Nenadić, Sina Lamberth, Neele Reiss
Group schema therapy (GST) has been proposed as a novel long-term treatment programme for borderline and cluster C personality disorders. We implemented a short-term GST programme (12-15 sessions, based on the manual by Farrell and Shaw (2012), including both cognitive / behavioural and experiential interventions for in-patients (n=9) with either borderline or cluster C personality disorders (and axis I co-morbidities) treated in a (sub)acute psychiatric in-patient setting. We evaluated pre- and post-treatment self-report of maladaptive and adaptive schema modes (using the SMI) and early maladaptive schemas (YSQ-3), as well as overall symptom severity (brief symptom check list, BSCL-53-S), patient satisfaction (ZUF-8) and group climate and coherence (GCQ-S)...
February 3, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319786/lower-cardiorespiratory-fitness-is-associated-with-more-time-spent-sedentary-in-first-episode-psychosis-a-pilot-study
#20
Davy Vancampfort, Marc De Hert, Inez Myin-Germeys, Ruud van Winkel, Joseph Firth, Tine Van Damme, Michel Probst
Patients with a psychotic disorder show lower cardiorespiratory fitness and higher mortality rates compared to healthy individuals. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore whether in patients with first-episode psychosis a low cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with decreased physical activity and increased sedentary levels. Twenty-nine outpatients (21 men; 22.8±5.1 years) performed a maximal exercise test to assess their maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), wore a Senswear armband for five consecutive days and were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale...
March 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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