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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908501/review-of-modelling-air-pollution-from-traffic-at-street-level-the-state-of-the-science
#1
REVIEW
H Forehead, N Huynh
Traffic emissions are a complex and variable cocktail of toxic chemicals. They are the major source of atmospheric pollution in the parts of cities where people live, commute and work. Reducing exposure requires information about the distribution and nature of emissions. Spatially and temporally detailed data are required, because both the rate of production and the composition of emissions vary significantly with time of day and with local changes in wind, traffic composition and flow. Increasing computer processing power means that models can accept highly detailed inputs of fleet, fuels and road networks...
June 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908475/help-seeking-intention-for-depression-in-early-adolescents-associated-factors-and-sex-differences
#2
Shuntaro Ando, Atsushi Nishida, Satoshi Usami, Shinsuke Koike, Syudo Yamasaki, Sho Kanata, Shinya Fujikawa, Toshiaki A Furukawa, Masato Fukuda, Susan M Sawyer, Mariko Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Kiyoto Kasai
BACKGROUND: Seeking help from others is an essential behavioural intention for humans to adapt to the social environment. Transgenerational and gender-related mechanisms of how this intention is shaped is an important but unresolved question in adolescent development. This study aimed to comprehensively examine the factors promoting or inhibiting intention to seek help for depression in 10-year-olds, including transgenerational factors, and to investigate the sex differences in the effect of these factors...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908456/framework-for-the-assessment-of-pems-portable-emissions-measurement-systems-uncertainty
#3
Barouch Giechaskiel, Michael Clairotte, Victor Valverde-Morales, Pierre Bonnel, Zlatko Kregar, Vicente Franco, Panagiota Dilara
European regulation 2016/427 (the first package of the so-called Real-Driving Emissions (RDE) regulation) introduced on-road testing with Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) to complement the chassis dynamometer laboratory (Type I) test for the type approval of light-duty vehicles in the European Union since September 2017. The Not-To-Exceed (NTE) limit for a pollutant is the Type I test limit multiplied by a conformity factor that includes a margin for the additional measurement uncertainty of PEMS relative to standard laboratory equipment...
June 13, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908409/heroism-and-nursing-a-thematic-review-of-the-literature
#4
REVIEW
Kathleen MacDonald, Jessica De Zylva, Margaret McAllister, Donna Lee Brien
OBJECTIVES: Nursing history is replete with examples of heroic individuals acting courageously to meet the needs of vulnerable patients and communities. Heroism exemplifies the pinnacle of self-actualised behaviour. It fuels the plots of countless human stories, and enthrals and inspires people. Yet, heroism may be seen as an extreme behaviour that only exceptional individuals are capable of enacting, and may thus be seen as out of reach for ordinary nurses, and something that could be risky to teach and disseminate...
June 8, 2018: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908394/system-on-chip-design-of-the-cortical-diencephalic-centre-of-the-lower-urinary-tract
#5
Francisco Maciá Pérez, Leandro Zambrano Méndez, José Vicente Berná Martínez, Roberto Sepúlveda Lima
This article presents the design of a field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based prototype of a system on chip (SoC) capable of behaving as one of the nerve centres comprising the neuroregulatory system in humans: the cortical-diencephalic nerve centre. The neuroregulatory system is a complex nerve system consisting of a heterogeneous group of nerve centres. These centres are distributed throughout the length of the spinal cord, are autonomous, communicate via interneurons, and govern and regulate the behaviour of multiple organs and systems in the human body...
June 13, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908352/man1b-cdg-novel-variants-with-a-distinct-phenotype-and-review-of-literature
#6
Meena Balasubramanian, Diana S Johnson
BACKGROUND: Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a group of rare metabolic diseases due to impaired lipid and protein glycosylation. It comprises a characteristic high frequency of intellectual disability (ID) and a wide range of clinical phenotypes. OBJECTIVE: (s): To identify the underlying diagnosis in two families each with two siblings with variable level of ID through trio whole exome sequencing. METHODS: Both the families were recruited to the Deciphering Developmental Disorders (DDD) study to identify the aetiology for their ID...
June 13, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908336/positive-reinforcement-targeting-abstinence-in-substance-misuse-praise-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-rct-process-evaluation-of-contingency-management
#7
N Metrebian, T Weaver, S Pilling, J Hellier, S Byford, J Shearer, L Mitcheson, M Astbury, P Bijral, N Bogdan, O Bowden-Jones, E Day, J Dunn, E Finch, S Forshall, A Glasper, G Morse, S Akhtar, J Bajaria, C Bennett, E Bishop, V Charles, C Davey, R Desai, C Goodfellow, F Haque, N Little, H McKechnie, J Morris, F Mosler, J Mutz, R Pauli, D Poovendran, E Slater, J Strang
There are approximately 256,000 heroin and other opiate users in England of whom 155,000 are in treatment for heroin (or opiate) addiction. The majority of people in treatment receive opiate substitution treatment (OST) (methadone and buprenorphine). However, OST suffers from high attrition and persistent heroin use even whilst in treatment. Contingency management (CM) is a psychological intervention based on the principles of operant conditioning. It is delivered as an adjunct to existing evidence based treatments to amplify patient benefit and involves the systematic application of positive reinforcement (financial or material incentives) to promote behaviours consistent with treatment goals...
June 13, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908314/quality-control-of-goji-fruits-of-lycium-barbarum-l-and-l-chinense-mill-a-value-chain-analysis-perspective
#8
Ruyu Yao, Michael Heinrich, Zigui Wang, Caroline S Weckerle
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Goji (fruits of Lycium barbarum L. and L. chinense Mill., Solanaceae) have been used as a traditional food and medicine for hundreds of years in Asian countries and are now consumed globally. Quality of herbal medicines is critical for safe use and has been shown to be affected by value chains. AIM OF THE STUDY: Using a value chain (VC) framework, we aim at understanding the influence of different VC types on goji quality and revenue of stakeholders...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908274/characteristics-of-%C3%AE-glucan-extracted-from-raw-and-germinated-foxtail-setaria-italica-and-kodo-paspalum-scrobiculatum-millets
#9
Seema Sharma, Dharmesh C Saxena, Charanjit S Riar
β-glucan extracted from raw and germinated foxtail and kodo millets were evaluated for its functional, rheological and in vitro antioxidant characteristics. The in vitro activity determined in terms of diphenyl-p-picryl hydrazy (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activity was found higher in germinated kodo millet (78.74%, 48.98%) compared to foxtail millet (34.96%, 38.67%), respectively. Water binding capacity and swelling power of β-glucan extract of foxtail millet increased from 2...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908221/maternal-separation-stress-reduced-prenatal-ethanol-induced-increase-in-exploratory-behaviour-and-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-activity
#10
Patricia C Swart, Vivienne A Russell, Jacqueline J Dimatelis
In an attempt to better represent the aetiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and the associated psychological deficits, prenatal-ethanol exposure was followed by maternal separation in a rat model in order to account for the effects of early-life adversities in addition to in utero alcohol exposure. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (GSK3β) are converging points for many signalling cascades and have been implicated in models of FASD and models of early-life stress...
June 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908065/a-complex-interplay-between-the-extracellular-matrix-and-the-innate-immune-response-to-microbial-pathogens
#11
REVIEW
Hannah Tomlin, Anna Maria Piccinini
The role of the host extracellular matrix (ECM) in infection tends to be neglected. However, the complex interactions between invading pathogens, host tissues and immune cells occur in the context of the ECM. On the pathogen side, a variety of surface and secreted molecules, including microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMM) and tissue degrading enzymes, are employed that interact with different ECM proteins in order to effectively establish an infection at specific sites...
June 16, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908027/factors-affecting-empathetic-patient-care-behaviour-among-medical-doctors-and-nurses-an-integrative-literature-review
#12
REVIEW
Muntaha Elayyan, Janet Rankin, M W Chaarani
Background: Healthcare professionals' empathic behaviour is an important component of quality health care. Patients' reports suggest that empathy is often lacking. Specific factors that may facilitate or inhibit empathetic behaviour have not been extensively examined. In Qatar, empathy may be affected by a completely multicultural, multilinguistic setting where healthcare professionals and patients interact. Aim: The purpose of this integrative literature review is to provide the latest evidence on factors that influence the demonstration of empathetic behaviour of nurses and physicians toward patients and to draw general conclusions that increase understanding...
June 10, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908024/sociodemographic-predictors-of-tobacco-smoking-among-expatriate-and-national-adolescents-in-the-united-arab-emirates
#13
Ayesha Siddiqua, Rania Dghaim, Caroline Barakat-Haddad
Background: Tobacco use among adolescents is an important public health concern as it causes various forms of smokingrelated health problems and can create a gateway for other substance abuse. Aim: This study examined the prevalence, profile and predictors of tobacco use among expatriate and national adolescents living in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design (2007-2009), we collected data on the prevalence of tobacco use in 6363 adolescents aged 13-20 years, including current smokers of cigarettes, midwakh, shisha and any other form of tobacco...
June 10, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908023/prevalence-of-and-attitudes-to-waterpipe-smoking-among-saudi-arabian-physicians
#14
Mohammed Al Ghobain, Anwar Ahmed, Zynab Abdrabalnabi, Wjdan Mutairi, Ali Al Khathaami
Background: Tobacco smoking kills more than 5 million people annually and it is the most important cause of preventable death. Waterpipe smoking is common in the Middle East and is prevalent among young people. There is a misconception that it is less harmful than cigarette smoking. Physicians are considered role models in the community and their behaviours and attitudes towards smoking can have direct effects on cessation. Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate current prevalence, attitudes and associated factors in regard to waterpipe smoking among Saudi Arabian physicians...
June 10, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907973/biological-effect-of-the-abutment-material-on-the-stability-of-peri-implant-marginal-bone-levels-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Ignacio Sanz-Sánchez, Ignacio Sanz-Martín, Ana Carrillo de Albornoz, Elena Figuero, Mariano Sanz
OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the available evidence on the effect of the abutment material on the stability and health of the peri-implant hard tissues. METHODS: A protocol was developed to answer the following focused question: "Which is the effect of the abutment material on stability and health of the peri-implant hard tissues?" Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs) or prospective case series (CS) with at least 6 months of follow-up were included, and meta-analyses were performed to compare abutment materials vs...
June 15, 2018: Clinical Oral Implants Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907969/physiological-and-behavioural-responses-of-grazing-dairy-cows-to-an-acute-metabolic-challenge
#16
Esther Müller, Andreas Münger, Roi Mandel, Lukas Eggerschwiler, Ann-Catherine Schwinn, Josef J Gross, Rupert M Bruckmaier, H Dieter Hess, Frigga Dohme-Meier
Due to seasonal changes in the quality and quantity of herbage, the nutrient supply to grazing dairy cows is not always sufficient, which may increase their metabolic load. To investigate the temporal pattern of behavioural changes in relation to concomitant metabolic alterations, we subjected 15 multiparous early lactating Holstein dairy cows (24 (SD 7.4) days in milk) to a short-term metabolic challenge, which we provoked by abruptly withdrawing concentrate for 1 week. Cows grazed full-time and were supplemented with concentrate in experimental week (EW) 1 and EW 3, whereas concentrate was withdrawn in EW 2...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907865/unexplored-photoluminescence-from-bulk-and-mechanically-exfoliated-few-layers-of-bi-2-te-3
#17
Bipin Kumar Gupta, Rabia Sultana, Satbir Singh, Vijeta Singh, Geet Awana, Anurag Gupta, Bahadur Singh, A K Srivastava, O N Srivastava, S Auluck, V P S Awana
We report the exotic photoluminescence (PL) behaviour of 3D topological insulator Bi2 Te3 single crystals grown by customized self-flux method and mechanically exfoliated few layers (18 ± 2 nm)/thin flakes obtained by standard scotch tape method from as grown Bi2 Te3 crystals. The experimental PL studies on bulk single crystal and mechanically exfoliated few layers of Bi2 Te3 evidenced a broad red emission in the visible region from 600-690 nm upon 375 nm excitation wavelength corresponding to optical band gap of 2 eV...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907839/micro-scale-mid-scale-and-macro-scale-in-global-seismicity-identified-by-empirical-mode-decomposition-and-their-multifractal-characteristics
#18
Nicholas V Sarlis, Efthimios S Skordas, Apostolis Mintzelas, Konstantina A Papadopoulou
The magnitude time-series of the global seismicity is analyzed by the empirical mode decomposition giving rise to 14 intrinsic mode functions (IMF) and a trend. Using Hurst analysis one can identify three different sums of these IMFs and the trend which exhibit distinct multifractal behaviour and correspond to micro-, mid- and macro-scales. Their multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis reveals that the micro-scale time-series exhibits anticorrelated behaviour in contrast to the mid-scale one which is long-range correlated...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907808/rna-seq-reveals-large-quantitative-differences-between-the-transcriptomes-of-outbreak-and-non-outbreak-locusts
#19
M Bakkali, R Martín-Blázquez
Outbreaks of locust populations repeatedly devastate economies and ecosystems in large parts of the world. The consequent behavioural shift from solitarious to gregarious and the concomitant changes in the locusts' biology are of relevant scientific interest. Yet, research on the main locust species has not benefitted from recent advances in genomics. In this first RNA-Seq study on Schistocerca gregaria, we report two transcriptomes, including many novel genes, as well as differential gene expression results...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907777/social-status-and-prenatal-testosterone-exposure-assessed-via-second-to-fourth-digit-ratio-affect-6-9-year-old-children-s-prosocial-choices
#20
Lisa Horn, Niklas A Hungerländer, Sonja Windhager, Thomas Bugnyar, Jorg J M Massen
Prosocial behaviour (i.e., voluntary behaviour intended to benefit another) seems to be fully developed in children by the age of 6 years. However, questions about which factors modify prosocial behaviour at that age remain understudied. Here we used a resource allocation paradigm to test prosocial behaviour in 6-9-year-old school children. They could decide between a "selfish" (i.e., one sticker for themselves) and a "prosocial" option (i.e., one sticker for themselves and one for the receiver) and we tested whether friendship, social status and prenatal androgen exposure (approximated by the 2nd to 4th digit ratio; 2D:4D) influenced children's prosocial choices...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
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