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Vagus nerve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346953/lennox-gastaut-syndrome-a-state-of-the-art-review
#1
Mario Mastrangelo
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a severe age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy usually with onset between 1 and 8 years of age. Functional neuroimaging studies recently introduced the concept of Lennox-Gastaut as "secondary network epilepsy" resulting from dysfunctions of a complex system involving both cortical and subcortical structures (default-mode network, corticoreticular connections, and thalamus). These dysfunctions are produced by different disorders including hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathies, meningoencephalitis, cortical malformations, neurocutaneous disorders, or tumors...
March 27, 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344898/the-non-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve-a-meta-analysis-and-clinical-considerations
#2
Brandon Michael Henry, Silvia Sanna, Matthew J Graves, Jens Vikse, Beatrice Sanna, Iwona M Tomaszewska, R Shane Tubbs, Jerzy A Walocha, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski
BACKGROUND: The Non-Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve (NRLN) is a rare embryologically-derived variant of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve (RLN). The presence of an NRLN significantly increases the risk of iatrogenic injury and operative complications. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive meta-analysis of the overall prevalence of the NRLN, its origin, and its association with an aberrant subclavian artery. METHODS: Through March 2016, a database search was performed of PubMed, CNKI, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, BIOSIS, SciELO, and Web of Science...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337432/the-current-and-future-role-of-heart-rate-variability-for-assessing-and-training-compassion
#3
James N Kirby, James R Doty, Nicola Petrocchi, Paul Gilbert
The evolution of mammalian caregiving involving hormones, such as oxytocin, vasopressin, and the myelinated vagal nerve as part of the ventral parasympathetic system, enables humans to connect, co-regulate each other's emotions and create prosociality. Compassion-based interventions draw upon a number of specific exercises and strategies to stimulate these physiological processes and create conditions of "interpersonal safeness," thereby helping people engage with, alleviate, and prevent suffering. Hence, compassion-based approaches are connected with our evolved caring motivation and attachment and our general affiliative systems that help regulate distress...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326007/evaluation-of-the-cortical-silent-period-of-the-laryngeal-motor-cortex-in-healthy-individuals
#4
Mo Chen, Rebekah L S Summers, George S Goding, Sharyl Samargia, Christy L Ludlow, Cecília N Prudente, Teresa J Kimberley
Objective: This work aimed to evaluate the cortical silent period (cSP) of the laryngeal motor cortex (LMC) using the bilateral thyroarytenoid (TA) muscles with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Methods: In 11 healthy participants, fine-wire electromyography (EMG) was used to record bilateral TA muscle responses to single pulse TMS delivered to the LMC in both hemispheres. Peripheral responses to stimulation over the mastoid, where the vagus nerve exits the skull, were collected to verify the central origin of the cortical stimulation responses by comparing the latencies...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321533/perioperative-antibiotic-use-in-vagus-nerve-stimulator-implantation-a-clinical-series
#5
Jeffrey S Raskin, Daniel Hansen, Arvind Mohan, I-Wen Pan, Daniel J Curry, Sandi Lam
PURPOSE: Preoperative antibiosis contributes up to one third of total antibiotic use in major hospitals. Choice of antibiotic is not uniformly standardized, and polypharmacy regimens may be used without knowing the effect on rates of surgical site infection, nonsurgical infections, or antibiotic resistance. Careful examination of trends in surgical prophylaxis is warranted. In this study, we aimed to examine our institution's experience with vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) implantation, focusing on association between perioperative antibiotic practices and postoperative infectious outcomes...
March 20, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320117/use-of-social-media-to-assess-the-effectiveness-of-vagal-nerve-stimulation-in-dravet-syndrome-a-caregiver-s-perspective
#6
Rushna Ali, Mona Elsayed, Manpreet Kaur, Ellen Air, Naznin Mahmood, Jules Constantinou, Jason Schwalb
BACKGROUND: Dravet syndrome (DS) is a rare genetic epilepsy syndrome which is particularly pharmacoresistant. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is commonly used in the treatment of DS as an adjunct to medical therapy. A meaningful assessment of post-surgical outcomes with VNS is difficult given the rarity of the condition. OBJECTIVE: In a novel approach, we used social media to contact patients with DS to gather data on post-surgical seizure reduction and overall satisfaction with VNS...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299379/effects-of-hepatic-glycogen-on-food-intake-and-glucose-homeostasis-are-mediated-by-the-vagus-nerve-in-mice
#7
Iliana López-Soldado, Rebeca Fuentes-Romero, Jordi Duran, Joan J Guinovart
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Liver glycogen plays a key role in regulating food intake and blood glucose. Mice that accumulate large amounts of this polysaccharide in the liver are protected from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity by reduced food intake. Furthermore, these animals show reversal of the glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinaemia caused by the HFD. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of the hepatic branch of the vagus nerve in regulating food intake and glucose homeostasis in this model...
March 15, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298947/glomus-vagale-tumour-can-it-be-diagnosed-only-on-sonography
#8
Shuchi Bhatt, Pooja Verma, Neha Meena, Anupama Tandon, Nadeem Tanveer, Divya Bansal
Vagal paragangliomas are rare benign tumors accounting for only 3% of head and neck paragangliomas and arise from vagal ganglions, predominately the nodose ganglion in the carotid sheath. Imaging plays an important role in their diagnosis, differentiation from more common lesions presenting in the carotid space, and management. MRI is the method of choice for investigation when paragangliomas are clinically suspected. The typical salt-and-pepper appearance in T1-weighted images is well known but not specific to paragangliomas...
March 2017: Journal of Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298797/cervical-vagal-schwannoma-anesthetic-concerns
#9
Suman Saini, Nikki Sabharwal, Nidhi Agrawal, Bhupender Singh
Schwannomas arising from cervical vagus nerve is an extremely rare benign neoplasm. The majority of patients present with insidiously growing lateral neck mass without neurological deficit. We report a case of symptomatic cervical vagal nerve schwannoma in a 32-year-old female. Complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice. However, anesthetic management of these tumors can be challenging. We describe here the complications experienced during the management of the patient.
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294385/potential-excitatory-role-of-nitric-oxide-on-2-deoxy-d-glucose-induced-gastric-motility-in-rats
#10
A M Sevgili, Z D Balkanci, A Erdem
Previous studies have shown that 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) increases gastric motility via the vagus nerve, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Since nitric oxide (NO) is involved in gastric motility, a possible interplay between 2-DG and NO can be suggested. In the present study, Wistar rats (250-350 g) of both sexes were intravenously injected with 2-DG (200 mg·kg(-1) ), and the effects of the intravenous injection of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors; nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 10 mg·kg(-1) ) and N(ω) -nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA, 10 mg·kg(-1) ) were investigated...
March 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291971/can-gut-microbes-play-a-role-in-mental-disorders-and-their-treatment
#11
Klara Latalova, Miroslav Hajda, Jan Prasko
The gut microbes, collectively called microbiota, are linked to the brain through a bidirectional system that involves the vagus nerve, the immune system, and various neurotransmitters. Stress response, memory functions, social behavior, and mood are modulated by microbiota. Furthermore, microbiota play a role in the development of the central nervous system. These features, established largely in rodent studies, have informed hypotheses about the role of microbiota in human psychiatric disorders. Microbiota affect phenomena that are known to be parts of the depression phenotype, such as exaggerated response to stress and inflammatory features...
March 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286178/vagus-nerve-stimulation-suppresses-acute-noxious-activation-of-trigeminocervical-neurons-in-animal-models-of-primary-headache
#12
Simon Akerman, Bruce Simon, Marcela Romero-Reyes
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been reported to be effective in the abortive treatment of both migraine and cluster headache. Using validated animal models of acute dural-intracranial (migraine-like) and trigeminal-autonomic (cluster-like) head pain we tested whether VNS suppresses ongoing and nociceptive-evoked firing of trigeminocervical neurons to explain its abortive effects in migraine and cluster headache. Unilateral VNS was applied invasively via hook electrodes placed on the vagus nerve. A single dose of ipsilateral or contralateral VNS, to trigeminal recording and dural-stimulating side, suppressed ongoing spontaneous and noxious dural-evoked trigeminocervical neuronal firing...
March 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284397/optimizing-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-dravet-syndrome-recommendations-from-a-north-american-consensus-panel
#13
Elaine C Wirrell, Linda Laux, Elizabeth Donner, Nathalie Jette, Kelly Knupp, Mary Anne Meskis, Ian Miller, Joseph Sullivan, Michelle Welborn, Anne T Berg
OBJECTIVES: To establish standards for early, cost-effective, and accurate diagnosis; optimal therapies for seizures; and recommendations for evaluation and management of comorbidities for children and adults with Dravet syndrome, using a modified Delphi process. METHODS: An expert panel was convened comprising epileptologists with nationally recognized expertise in Dravet syndrome and parents of children with Dravet syndrome, whose experience and understanding was enhanced by their active roles in Dravet syndrome associations...
March 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280407/neurogenic-pathways-in-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-induced-cardioprotection-evidences-and-possible-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
Amritpal Singh Aulakh, Puneet Kaur Randhawa, Nirmal Singh, Amteshwar Singh Jaggi
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is an intrinsic phenomenon whereby 3~4 consecutive ischemia-reperfusion cycles to a remote tissue (noncardiac) increases the tolerance of the myocardium to sustained ischemiareperfusion induced injury. Remote ischemic preconditioning induces the local release of chemical mediators which activate the sensory nerve endings to convey signals to the brain. The latter consequently stimulates the efferent nerve endings innervating the myocardium to induce cardioprotection. Indeed, RIPC-induced cardioprotective effects are reliant on the presence of intact neuronal pathways, which has been confirmed using nerve resection of nerves including femoral nerve, vagus nerve, and sciatic nerve...
March 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279620/asystole-during-direct-laryngoscopy-for-vocal-fold-injection-in-a-healthy-patient
#15
Zahrah Taufique, Gregory R Dion, Milan R Amin
OBJECTIVES: This study aims (1) to present a case of asystole during direct laryngoscopy in an otherwise healthy patient at an outpatient surgery center and (2) to review literature on cardiac complications, specifically asystole and bradycardia, during direct laryngoscopy. METHODS: A 67-year-old woman with no prior cardiac history underwent induction with succinylcholine and remifentanil for direct laryngoscopy and vocal fold augmentation. During suspension laryngoscopy, the patient became asystolic, and advanced care life support measures were started...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271335/central-and-peripheral-neural-targets-for-neurostimulation-of-chronic-headaches
#16
REVIEW
Massimo Leone, Alberto Proietti Cecchini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic headache sufferers are estimated to be around 3% of the population. These patients have a high disease burden. When prophylactic treatments have low efficacy and tolerability, patients are in need of alternative therapeutic strategies and options. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last decade, a number of neuromodulation procedures have been introduced as treatment of chronic intractable headache patients when pharmacological treatments fail or are not well tolerated...
March 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268683/effect-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-on-neural-adaptation-in-thalamo-cortical-system-in-rats
#17
Tomoyo I Shiramatsu, Rie Hitsuyu, Kenji Ibayashi, Ryohei Kanzaki, Kensuke Kawai, Hirokazu Takahashi
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a therapy on medically refractory epilepsy, and recently reported to improve cognitive function including learning and memory. The thalamo-cortical system may underlie such VNS-induced cognitive improvements. Thus, the present study targeted the auditory cortex and thalamus in rats, and investigated whether and how VNS modulates stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) of the neural activity in these nuclei. A depth electrode array recorded auditory evoked potentials from the auditory thalamus and cortex under an oddball paradigm either with or without VNS...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267658/new-onset-refractory-status-epilepticus-treated-with-vagus-nerve-stimulation-a-case-report
#18
Tomohiro Yamazoe, Tohru Okanishi, Atsushi Yamamoto, Takehiro Yamada, Mitsuyo Nishimura, Ayataka Fujimoto, Hideo Enoki, Takuya Yokota, Keishiro Sato, Takamichi Yamamoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 24, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260711/two-cases-of-acute-gastric-dilation-after-radiofrequency-catheter-ablation-for-supraventricular-arrhythmia
#19
Masayuki Ueno, Yuichi Shimodate, Yousuke Mitani, Akira Doi, Naoyuki Nishimura, Hirokazu Mouri, Hiroyuki Takabatake, Kazuhiro Matsueda, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Motowo Mizuno
We describe our experience with two cases of acute gastric dilation after radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for supraventricular arrhythmia. After the RFCA procedure, patients experienced epigastric pain, abdominal distension, and vomiting. Computed tomography showed marked dilation of their stomachs, but without apparent obstruction of the gastric antrum or the duodenum. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and upper gastrointestinal series revealed significant gastroparesis. We considered that gastric hypomotility had been induced by vagus nerve injury after RFCA...
2017: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259536/disruption-of-re-intake-after-partial-withdrawal-of-gastric-food-contents-in-rats-lesioned-in-the-gelatinous-part-of-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract
#20
María A Zafra, Antonio D Agüera, Filomena Molina, Amadeo Puerto
Sensory information from the upper gastrointestinal tract is critical in food intake regulation. Signals from different levels of the digestive system are processed to the brain, among other systems, via the vagus nerve, which mainly projects towards the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST). The objective of this study was to analyze the participation of the gelatinous part (SolG) of the NST in short-term food intake. One-third of the stomach food content was withdrawn at 5 min after the end of a meal, and food was then available ad libitum for different time periods...
March 2, 2017: Appetite
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