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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343774/an-improved-method-of-crafting-a-multi-electrode-spiral-cuff-for-the-selective
#1
Janez Rozman, Polona Pečlin, Samo Ribarič, Matjaž Godec, Jaka Burja
This article reviews an improved methodology and technology for crafting a multi-electrode spiral cuff for the selective activation of nerve fibres in particular superficial regions of a peripheral nerve. The analysis, structural and mechanical properties of the spot welds used for the interconnections between the stimulating electrodes and stainless-steel lead wires are presented. The cuff consisted of 33 platinum electrodes embedded within a self-curling 17-mm-long silicone spiral sheet with a nominal internal diameter of 2...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343638/commissural-neurons-transgress-the-cns-pns-boundary-in-absence-of-ventricular-zone-derived-netrin-1
#2
Juan Antonio Moreno-Bravo, Sergi Roig Puiggros, Heike Blockus, Chloé Dominici, Pavol Zelina, Patrick Mehlen, Alain Chédotal
During the development of the central nervous system (CNS), only motor axons project into peripheral nerves. Little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control the development of a boundary at the CNS surface and prevent CNS neuron emigration from the neural tube. It has previously been shown that a subset of spinal cord commissural axons abnormally invades sensory nerves in Ntn1 hypomorphic embryos and Dcc knockouts. However, whether netrin 1 also plays a similar role in the brain is unknown...
January 17, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337730/effects-of-electrical-transcutaneous-vagus-nerve-stimulation-on-the-perceived-intensity-of-repetitive-painful-heat-stimuli-a-blinded-placebo-and-sham-controlled-randomized-crossover-investigation
#3
Henriette Janner, Catharina Klausenitz, Nancy Gürtler, Klaus Hahnenkamp, Taras I Usichenko
BACKGROUND: Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (TVNS) is a promising treatment for acute and chronic pain. However, experimental studies yielded controversial results. We examined if TVNS reduces the perceived intensity of repetitive painful heat stimulation and temporal summation of pain (TSP) in healthy volunteers in comparison with placebo and sham stimulation, as well as no intervention. METHODS: In 4 sessions, 90 heat pulse stimuli at individual pain tolerance temperature were applied to the ventral forearm of 49 healthy volunteers (25 women) using a Contact Heat Evoked Potential Stimulator thermode (Medoc, Ramat Yishai, Israel)...
January 15, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336017/long-term-surveillance-of-sudep-in-drug-resistant-epilepsy-patients-treated-with-vns-therapy
#4
Philippe Ryvlin, Elson L So, Charles M Gordon, Dale C Hesdorffer, Michael R Sperling, Orrin Devinsky, Mark T Bunker, Bryan Olin, Daniel Friedman
OBJECTIVE: Limited data are available regarding the evolution over time of the rate of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy patients (SUDEP) in drug-resistant epilepsy. The objective is to analyze a database of 40 443 patients with epilepsy implanted with vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy in the United States (from 1988 to 2012) and assess whether SUDEP rates decrease during the postimplantation follow-up period. METHODS: Patient vital status was ascertained using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Death Index (NDI)...
January 16, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330874/safety-of-high-current-stimulation-for-intermittent-intraoperative-neural-monitoring-in-thyroid-surgery-a-porcine-model
#5
I-Cheng Lu, Pi-Ying Chang, Gregory W Randolph, Hsiu-Ya Chen, Kuang-Yi Tseng, Yi-Chu Lin, Feng-Yu Chiang, Che-Wei Wu
OBJECTIVES: During monitored thyroidectomy, displacement of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) or vagus nerve (VN) in some complicated cases can increase the risk of injury. Although increasing the stimulus current can facilitate nerve mapping and localization, the safety of a high-current stimulus remains unknown. Therefore, this study evaluated the safety of a high-current stimulus in a porcine model. METHODS: Short-duration (1 minute), high-current (3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 mA at 4Hz) stimulus pulses were repeatedly applied to the RLN or VN in six anesthetized piglets...
January 13, 2018: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326067/transcutaneous-vagus-nerve-stimulation-tvns-enhances-divergent-thinking
#6
Lorenza S Colzato, Simone M Ritter, Laura Steenbergen
Creativity is one of the most important cognitive skills in our complex and fast-changing world. Previous correlative evidence showed that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is involved in divergent but not convergent thinking. In the current study, a placebo/sham-controlled, randomized between-group design was used to test a causal relation between vagus nerve and creativity. We employed transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), a novel non-invasive brain stimulation technique to stimulate afferent fibers of the vagus nerve and speculated to increase GABA levels, in 80 healthy young volunteers...
January 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313275/microbiome-immunomodulation-and-the-neuronal-system
#7
REVIEW
Eric Marietta, Irina Horwath, Veena Taneja
Vertebrates harbor both symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria on the body and various mucosal surfaces. Of these surfaces, the intestine has the most diverse composition. This composition is dependent upon various environmental and genetic factors, with diet exerting the maximum influence. Significant roles of the intestinal bacteria are to stimulate the development of a competent mucosal immune system and to maintain tolerance within the intestine. One manner in which this is achieved is by the establishment of epithelial integrity by microbiota found in healthy individuals (healthy microbiota); however, in the case of a disrupted intestinal microbiome (dysbiosis), which can be caused by various conditions, the epithelial integrity is compromised...
January 8, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307938/malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumor-of-the-vagus-nerve-an-uncommon-cause-of-progressive-dyspnea
#8
Felipe Welter Langer, Daiane Dos Santos, Giordano Rafael Tronco Alves, Gustavo Suertegaray, Carlos Jesus Pereira Haygert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Radiologia Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306937/the-effects-of-stress-and-meditation-on-the-immune-system-human-microbiota-and-epigenetics
#9
Ayman Mukerji Househam, Christine Tara Peterson, Paul J Mills, Deepak Chopra
Context • Globally, more than 25% of individuals are affected by anxiety and depression disorders. Meditation is gaining popularity in clinical settings and its treatment efficacy is being studied for a wide array of psychological and physiological ailments. An exploration of stress physiology is an essential precursor to delineation of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of meditation practices. Objective • The review outlines a model of interconnected physiological processes that might support the continued inclusion and expansion of meditation in the treatment of diverse medical conditions and to investigate the role that gut microbiota may play in realizing well-being through meditation...
October 2017: Advances in Mind-body Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306322/curcumin-attenuates-collagen-induced-inflammatory-response-through-the-gut-brain-axis
#10
Yannong Dou, Jinque Luo, Xin Wu, Zhifeng Wei, Bei Tong, Juntao Yu, Ting Wang, Xinyu Zhang, Yan Yang, Xusheng Yuan, Peng Zhao, Yufeng Xia, Huijuan Hu, Yue Dai
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that oral administration of curcumin exhibited an anti-arthritic effect despite its poor bioavailability. The present study aimed to explore whether the gut-brain axis is involved in the therapeutic effect of curcumin. METHODS: The collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model was induced by immunization with an emulsion of collagen II and complete Freund's adjuvant. Sympathetic and parasympathetic tones were measured by electrocardiographic recordings...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305037/transauricular-vagus-nerve-stimulation-at-auricular-acupoints-kindey-co10-yidan-co11-liver-co12-and-shenmen-tf4-can-induce-auditory-and-limbic-cortices-activation-measured-by-fmri
#11
Liyan Peng, Ketao Mu, Aiguo Liu, Liangqiang Zhou, Yueyue Gao, Imrit Tejvansh Shenoy, Zhigang Mei, Qingguo Chen
The purpose of this study was to explore the central mechanism of transauricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) to human by fMRI and to find a suitable taVNS site for potential tinnitus treatment. 24 healthy subjects aged between 28 and 38 years were enrolled in the experiment. 8 subjects were stimulated in the auricular acupoints Kindey (CO10), Yidan (CO11), Liver (CO12) and Shenmen (TF4) in the left ear, 8 subjects were stimulated at the anterior wall of the auditory canal and left lower limb as an anterior stimulation group; 8 persons who were arranged in a sham group received taVNS at the left ear lobe and tail of the helix...
December 24, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299512/head-and-neck-paragangliomas-a-two-decade-institutional-experience-and-algorithm-for-management
#12
Joshua D Smith, Rachel N Harvey, Owen A Darr, Mark E Prince, Carol R Bradford, Gregory T Wolf, Tobias Else, Gregory J Basura
Objectives: Paragangliomas of the head and neck and cranial base are typically benign, slow-growing tumors arising within the jugular foramen, middle ear, carotid bifurcation, or vagus nerve proper. The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive characterization of our institutional experience with clinical management of these tumors and posit an algorithm for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing treatment for paragangliomas of the head and neck and cranial base at our institution from 2000-2017...
December 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298542/the-role-of-alpha7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-involvement-of-different-cellular-pathways
#13
Mohammad Seyedabadi, Reza Rahimian, Jean-Eric Ghia
Autonomic imbalance plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The central nervous system (CNS) cooperates dynamically with the immune system to regulate inflammation through humoral and neural pathways. In particular, acetylcholine (Ach), the main neurotransmitter in the vagus nerve, decreases the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines through a mechanism dependent on the α7 nicotinic Ach receptors (α7nAChRs). Areas covered: Here, we review the evidence for involvement of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) in IBD...
January 3, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297655/the-emerging-role-of-gammacore-in-the-management-of-cluster-headache-expert-panel-recommendations
#14
Stephen D Silberstein, Anne H Calhoun, Christina Treppendahl, David W Dodick, Alan M Rapoport, Avinash Mamidi, Peter Vargas, Thomas H Ebert, Stewart J Tepper
A panel of 9 experts, including neurologists, other headache specialists, and medical and pharmacy directors, from 4 health plans (1 integrated delivery network and 3 plans with commercial, Medicare, and Medicaid lines of business), convened to discuss cluster headache (CH). Topics covered included the current treatment landscape, treatment challenges, economic impact of disease, and gaps in care for patients with CH. One major challenge in the management of CH is that it is underrecognized and frequently misdiagnosed, leading to delays in and suboptimal treatment for patients who suffer from this painful and disabling condition...
November 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297654/review-of-non-invasive-vagus-nerve-stimulation-gammacore-efficacy-safety-potential-impact-on-comorbidities-and-economic-burden-for-episodic-and-chronic-cluster-headache
#15
Mkaya Mwamburi, Eric J Liebler, Andrew T Tenaglia
The FDA has cleared gammaCore (non-invasive vagus nerve stimulator [nVNS]) for the treatment of episodic cluster headache (eCH). With the exception of subcutaneous sumatriptan, all other treatments are used off label and have many limitations. The FDA approval process for devices differs from that of drugs. We performed a review of the literature to evaluate new evidence on various aspects of gammaCore treatment and impact. The ACute Treatment of Cluster Headache Studies (ACT1 and ACT2), both double-blind sham-controlled randomized trials, did not meet the primary endpoints of the trials but each demonstrated significant superiority of gammaCore among patients with eCH...
November 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297653/mechanism-of-action-of-non-invasive-cervical-vagus-nerve-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-primary-headaches
#16
Bruce Simon, Justyna Blake
Stimulation of the cervical vagus nerve with implanted vagus nerve stimulation (iVNS) has been used clinically for more than 20 years to treat patients with epilepsy. More recently, a non-invasive cervical vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS), gammaCore, was developed, which has been purported to also stimulate the vagus nerve without the cost and morbidity associated with an iVNS system. gammaCore has been used to acutely treat various types of primary headaches, including migraine and cluster headaches (CH), and for the prevention of episodic, chronic, and menstrual migraines and CH...
November 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290921/gut-brain-crosstalk-regulates-craving-for-fatty-food
#17
REVIEW
Rajendra Raghow
Patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery elicit striking loss of body weight. Anatomical re-structuring of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, leading to reduced caloric intake and changes in food preference, are thought to be the primary drivers of weight loss in bariatric surgery patients. However, the mechanisms by which RYGB surgery causes a reduced preference for fatty foods remain elusive. In a recent report, Hankir et al described how RYGB surgery modulated lipid nutrient signals in the intestine of rats to blunt their craving for fatty food...
December 15, 2017: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289803/application-of-a-rubber-band-with-hooks-on-both-ends-for-vagus-nerve-stimulator-implantation
#18
Hiroshi Hosoyama, Ryosuke Hanaya, Toshiaki Otsubo, Masanori Sato, Yumi Kashida, Sei Sugata, Masaya Katagiri, Koji Iida, Kazunori Arita
BACKGROUND: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a valuable therapeutic option for many types of drug-resistant epilepsy. Muscle hooks and carotid endarterectomy rings have been used for cervical delamination preceding the implantation of stimulation electrodes. The attachment on both sides of a rubber band of Kamiyama-style hanging needles, as are used for scalp and dural retraction during craniotomy, yields a useful tool for VNS implantation. Here we report our experience with this method...
December 28, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287215/impact-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-on-sleep-related-breathing-disorders-in-adults-with-epilepsy
#19
Aude Salvadé, Philippe Ryvlin, Andrea O Rossetti
BACKGROUND: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) can induce a sleep apnea syndrome (SAS), which in turn can worsen seizure control and represents a cardiovascular risk factor. Epidemiology of VNS-induced SAS has received little attention to date. The purpose of this study was to estimate the VNS-induced SAS prevalence and to explore clinical variables potentially correlating with its development. METHODS: We analyzed the computerized medical records of 18 consecutive adults treated for refractory epilepsy with VNS, implanted between May 2008 and October 2015...
December 26, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287185/insufficient-efficacy-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-for-epileptic-spasms-and-tonic-spasms-in-children-with-refractory-epilepsy
#20
Tohru Okanishi, Ayataka Fujimoto, Mitsuyo Nishimura, Sotaro Kanai, Hirotaka Motoi, Yoichiro Homma, Hideo Enoki
BACKGROUND: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) leads to palliation of refractory seizures. Epileptic spasms (ES) and tonic spasms (TS) appear in children with West syndrome and symptomatic generalized epilepsy. Both types of spasms are often characterized by truncal muscular contractions and ictal electroencephalography (EEG) findings comprising the contiguous phases: phase 1) 15-20 Hz, spindle-like fast activity (occur in 70%), 2) diffuse polyphasic δ/θ waves (100%), and 3) electrodecremental activity (70%)...
December 15, 2017: Epilepsy Research
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