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Vagus nerve

Israel Ugalde, Ibrar Anjum, Saberio Lo Presti, Alfonso Tolentino
Acute coronary syndrome usually presents with retrosternal chest pain, nausea, vomiting, sweating, and jaw and arm pain. Some patients only present with neck, epigastric, or ear discomfort. A 47-year-old male with a history of hypertension and coronary artery disease presented to the emergency department complaining of bilateral otalgia. He never felt chest pain, jaw pain, nausea, diaphoresis, or shortness of breath. He had a history of 2 acute coronary events and had a stress test 2 months prior to admission, which was unremarkable...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Riccardo Calvani, Anna Picca, Maria Rita Lo Monaco, Francesco Landi, Roberto Bernabei, Emanuele Marzetti
In recent years, an extensive body of literature focused on the gut-brain axis and the possible role played by the gut microbiota in modulating brain morphology and function from birth to old age. Gut microbiota has been proposed as a relevant player during the early phases of neurodevelopment, with possible long-standing effects in later life. The reduction in gut microbiota diversity has also become one of the hallmarks of aging, and disturbances in its composition are associated with several (age-related) neurological conditions, including depression, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Max Ward, Joseph Doran, Boris Paskhover, Antonios Mammis
OBJECTIVES: Bibliometric analysis is a commonly used analytic tool for objective determination of the most influential and peer-recognized articles within a given field. This study is the first bibliometric analysis of the literature in the field of invasive neuromodulation, excluding deep brain stimulation. The objectives of this study are to identify the 50 most cited articles in invasive neuromodulation, provide an overview of the literature to assist in clinical education, and evaluate the effect of impact factor on manuscript recognition...
March 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
V Reggie Edgerton, Parag Gad
What are the implications of the vagus nerve being able to mediate the time-dependent plasticity of an array of sensorimotor networks?
March 16, 2018: ELife
Patrick D Ganzer, Michael J Darrow, Eric C Meyers, Bleyda R Solorzano, Andrea D Ruiz, Nicole M Robertson, Katherine S Adcock, Justin T James, Han S Jeong, April M Becker, Mark P Goldberg, David T Pruitt, Seth A Hays, Michael P Kilgard, Robert L Rennaker
Recovery from serious neurological injury requires substantial rewiring of neural circuits. Precisely-timed electrical stimulation could be used to restore corrective feedback mechanisms and promote adaptive plasticity after neurological insult, such as spinal cord injury (SCI) or stroke. This study provides the first evidence that closed-loop vagus nerve stimulation (CLV) based on the synaptic eligibility trace leads to dramatic recovery from the most common forms of SCI. The addition of CLV to rehabilitation promoted substantially more recovery of forelimb function compared to rehabilitation alone following chronic unilateral or bilateral cervical SCI in a rat model...
March 13, 2018: ELife
João Ferreira, Ana Franco, Tiago Teodoro, Miguel Coelho, Luísa Albuquerque
Vernet syndrome is a unilateral palsy of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection has rarely been described as a possible cause. A 76-year-old man presented with 1-week-long symptoms of dysphonia, dysphagia, and weakness of the right shoulder elevation, accompanied by a mild right temporal parietal headache with radiation to the ipsilateral ear. Physical examination showed signs compatible with a right XI, X, and XI cranial nerves involvement and also several vesicular lesions in the right ear's concha...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Atsushi Kurabayashi, Chiharu Tanaka, Waka Matsumoto, Seiji Naganuma, Mutsuo Furihata, Keiji Inoue, Yoshihiko Kakinuma
AIMS: Our previous study revealed that cyclic hindlimb ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) activates cardiac acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis through the cholinergic nervous system and cell-derived ACh accelerates glucose uptake. However, the mechanisms regulating glucose metabolism in vivo remain unknown. We investigated the effects and mechanisms of IR in mice under pathophysiological conditions. METHODS: Using IR-subjected male C57BL/6J mice, the effects of IR on blood sugar (BS), glucose uptake, central parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity, hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme expression and those of ACh on hepatocellular glucose uptake were assessed...
March 8, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Diana Y Wei, Rigmor H Jensen
Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia (TAC) encompasses 4 unique primary headache types: cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, hemicrania continua, and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with cranial autonomic symptoms. They are grouped on the basis of their shared clinical features of unilateral headache of varying durations and ipsilateral cranial autonomic symptoms. The shared clinical features reflect the underlying activation of the trigeminal-autonomic reflex...
March 7, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Yuchi Wu, Lihong Yang, Lingli Li, Xiuqing Wu, Zhicong Zhong, Zhiren He, Hongyan Ma, Lixin Wang, Zhaoyu Lu, Cun Cai, Daixin Zhao, Xiangxin Meng, Airong Qi, Aicheng Yang, Guobin Su, Xinfeng Guo, Xusheng Liu, Chuan Zou, Qizhan Lin
BACKGROUND: Patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) frequently complain of insomnia. Poor sleep quality impairs their quality of life and adversely affects long-term outcome. Previously we applied auricular acupressure therapy (AAT) for MHD patients with insomnia and yielded favorable results. AAT probably improves sleep quality by stimulating the vagus nerve and inhibiting sympathetic overactivity. However, the efficacy of AAT for insomnia in this population is still lacking. The proposed randomized controlled trial (RCT) will evaluate the efficacy and safety of AAT for improvement of sleep quality in MHD patients with insomnia...
March 7, 2018: Trials
Ryosuke Inoue, Kenya Kamimura, Takuro Nagoya, Norihiro Sakai, Takeshi Yokoo, Ryo Goto, Kohei Ogawa, Yoko Shinagawa-Kobayashi, Yukari Watanabe-Mori, Akira Sakamaki, Satoshi Abe, Hiroteru Kamimura, Norio Miyamura, Hiroshi Nishina, Shuji Terai
The development of therapeutic options to promote hepatic regeneration following severe liver injury is essential. While humoral factors have been reported as mechanisms of liver regeneration, the contributions of interorgan communication to liver regeneration have not been reported. In this study, we examined the effect of a neural relay on liver regeneration via activation of serotonin release from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Our results demonstrated that the afferent visceral nerve from the liver activates the efferent vagus nerve from the brain, leading to activation of serotonin release from the GI tract and contributing to liver regeneration...
March 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Diana A Monteiro, Edwin W Taylor, Marina R Sartori, André L Cruz, Francisco T Rantin, Cleo A C Leite
The present study has revealed that the lungfish has both structural and functional features of its system for physiological control of heart rate, previously considered solely mammalian, that together generate variability (HRV). Ultrastructural and electrophysiological investigation revealed that the nerves connecting the brain to the heart are myelinated, conferring rapid conduction velocities, comparable to mammalian fibers that generate instantaneous changes in heart rate at the onset of each air breath...
February 2018: Science Advances
Hanyue Li, Yingjie Hu, Jia Huang, Yunhai Yang, Kaichen Xing, Qingquan Luo
BACKGROUND: Vagus nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury are not rare complications of lung cancer surgery and can cause lethal consequences. Until now, no optimal method other than paying greater attention during surgery has been available. METHODS: Four patients underwent lung surgery that involved RLN or vagus nerve injury. The left RLN or vagus nerve was cut off and then reconstructed immediately during surgery. Two patients underwent direct anastomosis, while the remaining two underwent phrenic nerve replacing tension-relieving anastomosis...
March 2, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
Hong-Yun Liu, Zhao Yang, Fan-Gang Meng, Yu-Guang Guan, Yan-Shan Ma, Shu-Li Liang, Jiu-Luan Lin, Long-Sheng Pan, Ming-Ming Zhao, Wei Qu, Hong-Wei Hao, Guo-Ming Luan, Jian-Guo Zhang, Lu-Ming Li
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an adjunctive treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). However, it is still difficult to predict which patients will respond to VNS treatment and to what extent. We aim to explore the relationship between preoperative heart rate variability (HRV) and VNS outcome. 50 healthy control subjects and 63 DRE patients who had received VNS implants and had at least one year of follow up were included. The preoperative HRV were analyzed by traditional linear methods and heart rhythm complexity analyses with multiscale entropy (MSE)...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yirong Yang, Lisa Y Yang, Lilla Orban, Darnell Cuylear, Jeffrey Thompson, Bruce Simon, Yi Yang
BACKGROUND: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) significantly reduces infarct volume in rat models of cerebral ischemia, but the mechanism of this protective effect remains open. HYPOTHESIS: This study tested the hypothesis that non-invasive VNS (nVNS), during transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), protects the blood-brain barrier (BBB), leading to reduced infarct size in ischemic brain. METHODS: Spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs) were subjected to a 90 min MCAO...
February 15, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Paul Boon, Elien De Cock, Ann Mertens, Eugen Trinka
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurostimulation is becoming an increasingly accepted treatment alternative for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) who are unsuitable surgery candidates. Standardized guidelines on when or how to use the various neurostimulation modalities are lacking. We conducted a systematic review on the currently available neurostimulation modalities primarily with regard to effectiveness and safety. RECENT FINDINGS: For vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), there is moderate-quality evidence for its effectiveness in adults with drug-resistant partial epilepsies...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Chi Zhang, Xiang Hu
In the past, people only focused on surgical resection of gastric cancer to obtain satisfactory therapeutic effect, while the concept of function-preserving in gastric cancer surgery has not been emphasized. Gastric function-preserving surgery was originally performed by Japanese doctor Maki for surgical treatment of gastroduodenal ulcer. With the definition of early gastric cancer being accepted, the pylorus-preserving gastrectomy can be used continuously in the treatment of gastric cancer. Because of high incidence of early gastric cancer in Japan, a variety of application and research about function-preserving gastrectomy in other areas for treatment of early gastric cancer, such as proximal gastrectomy and jejunal interposition, segmental gastrectomy, gastric local resection and laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS) at the same time, and regional or sentinel lymph node dissection were performed for the purpose of radical cure...
February 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Emad Kandil, Khuzema Mohsin, Mohammad A Murcy, Gregory W Randolph
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Continuous intraoperative neuromonitoring (CIONM) of the vagus nerve was proposed to obtained frequent repetitive electromyography (EMG) data to recognize early change in intraoperative function of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. We examine our initial experience using this technology. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. METHODS: Data for all patients who underwent neck surgery by a single surgeon at a North American institution over a 5-year period were reviewed...
February 26, 2018: Laryngoscope
Robin M McAllen, Anthony D Shafton, Bradford O Bratton, David Trevaks, John B Furness
Vagal nerve stimulation is widely used therapeutically but the fiber groups activated are often unknown. Aim: To establish a simple protocol to define stimulus thresholds for vagal A, B and C fibers. Methods: The intact left or right cervical vagus was stimulated with 0.1 ms pulses in spontaneously breathing anesthetized rats. Heart and respiratory rate responses to vagal stimulation were recorded. The vagus was subsequently cut distally, and mass action potentials to the same stimuli were recorded...
January 2018: Bioelectron Med (Lond)
Priya Revathikumar, Johanna Estelius, Utsa Karmakar, Erwan Le Maître, Marina Korotkova, Per-Johan Jakobsson, Jon Lampa
The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) is an innate neural reflex where parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves work jointly to control inflammation. Activation of CAP by vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has paved way for novel therapeutic strategies in treating inflammatory diseases. Recently, we discovered that VNS mediated splenic acetylcholine (ACh) release and subsequent immunosuppression in response to LPS associated inflammation is impaired in mice lacking microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) expression, a key enzyme responsible for prostaglandin E2 synthesis...
2018: PloS One
K Murray, C Reardon
Inflammatory bowel disease negatively affects the quality of life of millions of patients around the world. Although the precise etiology of the disease remains elusive, aberrant immune system activation is an underlying cause. As such, therapies that selectively inhibit immune cell activation without broad immunosuppression are desired. Inhibition of immune cell activation preventing pro-inflammatory cytokine production through neural stimulation has emerged as one such treatment. These therapeutics are based on the discovery of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, a reflex arc that induces efferent vagal nerve signaling to reduce immune cell activation and consequently mortality during septic shock...
March 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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