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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770647/neuromodulation-for-tinnitus-treatment-an-overview-of-invasive-and-non-invasive-techniques
#1
REVIEW
Nicole Peter, Tobias Kleinjung
Tinnitus is defined as a perception of sound without any external sound source. Chronic tinnitus is a frequent condition that can affect the quality of life. So far, no causal cure for tinnitus has been documented, and most pharmacologic and psychosomatic treatment modalities aim to diminish tinnitus' impact on the quality of life. Neuromodulation, a novel therapeutic modality, which aims at alternating nerve activity through a targeted delivery of a stimulus, has emerged as a potential option in tinnitus treatment...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759717/low-level-vagus-nerve-stimulation-suppresses-post-operative-atrial-fibrillation-and-inflammation-a-randomized-study
#2
Stavros Stavrakis, Mary Beth Humphrey, Benjamin Scherlag, Omer Iftikhar, Purvi Parwani, Mubasher Abbas, Adrian Filiberti, Christian Fleming, Yanqing Hu, Paul Garabelli, Arthur McUnu, Marvin Peyton, Sunny S Po
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine the efficacy of low-level vagus nerve stimulation (LLVNS) in suppressing post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) and inflammatory cytokines in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. BACKGROUND: POAF often complicates cardiac surgery. METHODS: Patients undergoing cardiac surgery were randomized to active or sham LLVNS. In all patients, a bipolar wire was sutured to the vagus nerve pre-ganglionic fibers alongside the lateral aspect of the superior vena cava...
September 2017: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751824/inoculation-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-preformed-fibrils-into-the-mouse-gastrointestinal-tract-induces-lewy-body-like-aggregates-in-the-brainstem-via-the-vagus-nerve
#3
Norihito Uemura, Hisashi Yagi, Maiko T Uemura, Yusuke Hatanaka, Hodaka Yamakado, Ryosuke Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Intraneuronal α-synuclein (α-Syn) aggregates known as Lewy bodies (LBs) and the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) are the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). Braak's hypothesis based on autopsy studies suggests that Lewy pathology initially occurs in the enteric nervous system (ENS) and then travels retrogradely to the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (dmX), proceeding from there in a caudo-rostral direction...
May 11, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751028/role-of-c1-neurons-in-anti-inflammatory-reflex-mediation-between-afferents-and-efferents
#4
REVIEW
Chikara Abe, Tsuyoshi Inoue
Neuroimmune communication, the connection between the autonomic regulatory pathway and immune cells, has been implicated in the regulation of immune function and inflammation. The role of afferents (vagal afferent and somatic sensory nerves) and efferents (autonomic nervous and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal systems) in the inflammatory reflex has been well studied; however, the central pathway remains unknown. C1 neurons include both catecholaminergic and glutamatergic neurons, which are located in the rostral ventrolateral medulla...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744667/vagus-nerve-stimulation-exerts-cardioprotection-against-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-predominantly-through-its-efferent-vagal-fibers
#5
Watthana Nuntaphum, Wanpitak Pongkan, Suwakon Wongjaikam, Savitree Thummasorn, Pongpan Tanajak, Juthamas Khamseekaew, Kannaporn Intachai, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn, Krekwit Shinlapawittayatorn
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been shown to exert cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, whether the cardioprotection of VNS is mainly due to direct activation through its ipsilateral efferent fibers (motor) rather than indirect effects mediated by the afferent fibers (sensory) have not been clearly understood. We hypothesized that VNS exerts cardioprotection predominantly through its efferent vagal fibers. Thirty swine (30-35 kg) were randomized into five groups: I/R no VNS (I/R), and left mid-cervical VNS with both vagal trunks intact (LC-VNS), with left vagus nerve transection (LtVNX), with right vagus nerve transection (RtVNX) and with atropine pretreatment (Atropine), respectively...
May 9, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740975/similarities-between-the-responses-to-ant-dbs-and-prior-vns-in-refractory-epilepsy
#6
Toni Kulju, Joonas Haapasalo, Kai Lehtimäki, Sirpa Rainesalo, Jukka Peltola
OBJECTIVES: Neurostimulation has offered new treatment options in refractory epilepsy, first with vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and more recently with deep brain stimulation (DBS). There is a lack of previous detailed data assessing the relationship between VNS and ANT-DBS. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential correlation between therapeutic responses to VNS and ANT-DBS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 11 patients with previous VNS therapy underwent ANT-DBS implantation...
May 8, 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738985/single-center-long-term-results-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-for-epilepsy-a-10-17-year-follow-up-study
#7
Jan Chrastina, Zdeněk Novák, Tomáš Zeman, Jitka Kočvarová, Martin Pail, Irena Doležalová, Jiří Jarkovský, Milan Brázdil
PURPOSE: The paper presents a long-term follow-up study of VNS patients, analyzing seizure outcome, medication changes, and surgical problems. METHOD: 74 adults with VNS for 10 to 17 years were evaluated yearly as: non-responder - NR (seizure frequency reduction <50%), responder - R (reduction ≥ 50% and <90%), and 90% responder - 90R (reduction ≥ 90%). Delayed R or 90R (≥ 4 years after surgery), patients with antiepileptic medication changes and battery or complete system replacement were identified...
April 30, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735654/identification-of-cytokine-specific-sensory-neural-signals-by-decoding-murine-vagus-nerve-activity
#8
Theodoros P Zanos, Harold A Silverman, Todd Levy, Tea Tsaava, Emily Battinelli, Peter W Lorraine, Jeffrey M Ashe, Sangeeta S Chavan, Kevin J Tracey, Chad E Bouton
The nervous system maintains physiological homeostasis through reflex pathways that modulate organ function. This process begins when changes in the internal milieu (e.g., blood pressure, temperature, or pH) activate visceral sensory neurons that transmit action potentials along the vagus nerve to the brainstem. IL-1β and TNF, inflammatory cytokines produced by immune cells during infection and injury, and other inflammatory mediators have been implicated in activating sensory action potentials in the vagus nerve...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732591/differential-conduction-and-cgrp-release-in-visceral-versus-cutaneous-peripheral-nerves-in-the-mouse
#9
Roberto De Col, Karl Messlinger, Tali Hoffmann
Cutaneous afferent nerves convey sensory information from the external, visceral nerves from the internal environment. The saphenous nerve arising from lumbar dorsal root ganglia and the vagus nerve originating in the nodosum ganglia are prototypic examples of such cutaneous and visceral nerves. Despite a common sensory role, these two nerves have distinct embryonic origin and vary in neuropeptide expression. Because of their distinct physiological roles, it is plausible that they differ also in conductive properties...
May 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731661/electrophysiologic-alterations-in-the-excitability-of-the-sciatic-and-vagus-nerves-during-early-stages-of-sepsis
#10
Lúcio Ricardo Leite Diniz, Viviane Gomes Portella, Kerly Shamira da Silva Alves, Pâmella Cristina da Costa Araújo, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti de Albuquerque Júnior, Aline Alice Cavalcante de Albuquerque, Andrelina Noronha Coelho-de-Souza, José Henrique Leal-Cardoso
Background: Nonspecific and delayed diagnosis of neurologic damage contributes to the development of neuropathies in patients with severe sepsis. The present study assessed the electrophysiologic parameters related to the excitability and conductibility of sciatic and vagus nerves during early stages of sepsis. Materials and methods: Twenty-four hours after sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model, sciatic and vagus nerves of septic (CLP group) and control (sham group) rats were removed, and selected electric stimulations were applied to measure the parameters of the first and second components of the compound action potential...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716843/short-trains-of-transcutaneous-auricular-vagus-nerve-stimulation-tavns-have-parameter-specific-effects-on-heart-rate
#11
Bashar W Badran, Oliver J Mithoefer, Caroline E Summer, Nicholas T LaBate, Chloe E Glusman, Alan W Badran, William H DeVries, Philipp M Summers, Christopher W Austelle, Lisa M McTeague, Jeffrey J Borckardt, Mark S George
BACKGROUND: Optimal parameters of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) are still undetermined. Given the vagus nerve's role in regulating heart rate (HR), it is important to determine safety and HR effects of various taVNS parameters. OBJECTIVE: We conducted two sequential trials to systematically test the effects of various taVNS parameters on HR. METHODS: 15 healthy individuals participated in the initial two-visit, crossover exploratory trial, receiving either tragus (active) or earlobe (control) stimulation each visit...
April 6, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716529/severe-localised-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-wegener-s-granulomatosis-manifesting-with-extensive-cranial-nerve-palsies-and-cranial-diabetes-insipidus-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
James E Peters, Vivek Gupta, Ibtisam T Saeed, Curtis Offiah, Ali S M Jawad
BACKGROUND: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, formerly Wegener's granulomatosis) is a multisystem vasculitis of small- to medium-sized blood vessels. Cranial involvement can result in cranial nerve palsies and, rarely, pituitary infiltration. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the case of a 32 year-old woman with limited but severe GPA manifesting as progressive cranial nerve palsies and pituitary dysfunction. Our patient initially presented with localised ENT involvement, but despite treatment with methotrexate, she deteriorated...
May 1, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713957/variable-heart-rate-and-a-flexible-mind-higher-resting-state-heart-rate-variability-predicts-better-task-switching
#13
Lorenza S Colzato, Bryant J Jongkees, Matthijs de Wit, Melle J W van der Molen, Laura Steenbergen
The neurovisceral integration model proposes that heart rate variability (HRV) is linked to prefrontal cortex activity via the vagus nerve, which connects the heart and the brain. HRV, an index of cardiac vagal tone, has been found to predict performance on several cognitive control tasks that rely on the prefrontal cortex. However, the link between HRV and the core cognitive control function "shifting" between tasks and mental sets is under-investigated. Therefore, the present study tested the neurovisceral integration model by examining, in 90 participants, the relationship between vagally mediated resting-state HRV and performance in a task-switching paradigm that provides a relatively process-pure measure of cognitive flexibility...
April 30, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709876/chronic-vagus-nerve-stimulation-reverses-heart-rhythm-complexity-in-patients-with-drug-resistant-epilepsy-an-assessment-with-multiscale-entropy-analysis
#14
Hongyun Liu, Zhao Yang, Fangang Meng, Lei Huang, Wei Qu, Hongwei Hao, Jianguo Zhang, Luming Li
OBJECTIVE: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an adjunctive treatment in drug-resistant epilepsy. The alterations in heart rate dynamics through VNS are not well understood. This study aimed to determine changes in heart rhythm complexity in association with VNS and to relate the findings to the outcome of VNS treatment in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 32 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, who underwent VNS implantation, and 32 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects...
April 26, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705856/sculpting-the-sculptors-methods-for-studying-the-fetal-cholinergic-signaling-on-systems-and-cellular-scales
#15
Martin G Frasch, Patrick Burns, Javier Benito, Marina Cortes, Mingju Cao, Gilles Fecteau, André Desrochers
The non-neuronal, immunological effects of the cholinergic signaling are exerted on the system's scale of observation via the vagus nerve and on the cellular scale via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) signaling in myeloid cells of the periphery or brain's microglia and astrocytes. The developmental effects of such multi-scale signaling can be conceived of as an example of psychoneuroimmunological (PNI) homeokinesis and, while reported in the literature, are not yet systematically well studied. To be better understood, the intricacy of the multi-scale interactions requires relevant preclinical animal models...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703055/treatment-of-ramsay-hunt-s-syndrome-with-multiple-cranial-nerve-involvement-and-severe-dysphagia-a-case-report
#16
Jong Min Kim, Zeeihn Lee, Seungwoo Han, Donghwi Park
RATIONALE: Ramsay-Hunt's syndrome (RHS) is a disorder characterized by facial paralysis, herpetic eruptions on the auricle, and otic pain due to the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus in the geniculate ganglion. A few cases of multiple cranial nerve invasion including the vestibulocochlear nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve and vagus nerve have been reported. However, there has been no report about RHS with delayed onset multiple cranial nerve involvement causing severe aspiration, and a clinical course that improved after more than one year of dysphagia rehabilitation and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702412/vagus-nerve-stimulation-for-6-to-12-year-old-children-with-refractory-epilepsy-impact-on-seizure-frequency-and-parenting-stress-index
#17
Hueng-Chuen Fan, Ting-Rong Hsu, Kai-Ping Chang, Shyi-Jou Chen, Jeng-Dau Tsai
OBJECTIVES: Refractory epilepsy (RE) is frequently associated with neuropsychological impairment in children and may disrupt their social development. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) had been reported to have beneficial effects on behavioral outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare Parenting Stress Index (PSI) scores before and after VNS device implantation in children with RE, especially those who experienced seizure frequency reduction. METHODS: We conducted a one-group pretest-posttest study in school age children with RE...
April 24, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702382/flexible-multichannel-vagus-nerve-electrode-for-stimulation-and-recording-for-heart-failure-treatment
#18
Ning Xue, Ignacio Delgado Martinez, Jianhai Sun, Yuhua Cheng, Chunxiu Liu
Vagus nerve stimulation is an emerging bioelectronic medicine to modulate cardiac function, as the nerve provides parasympathetic innervation to the heart. In this study, we developed a polyimide based 2D cuff electrode to wrap around on the vagus nerve. Thanks to the tiny size and bendable protruding structure of the contact tips of the device, the electrode sites are able to flexibly bend to touch the nerve, selectively record and stimulate the vagus nerve. Gold, platinum and platinum black materials were chosen to compose the electrodes for nerve stimulation and recording, respectively...
April 20, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701558/syringobulbia-in-pediatric-patients-with-chiari-malformation-type-i
#19
Arnold H Menezes, Jeremy D W Greenlee, Brian J Dlouhy
OBJECTIVE Syringobulbia (SB) is a rare entity, with few cases associated with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) in the pediatric population. The authors reviewed all pediatric cases of CM-I-associated SB managed at their institution in order to better understand the presentation, treatment, and surgical outcomes of this condition. METHODS A prospectively maintained institutional database of craniovertebral junction abnormalities was analyzed to identify all cases of CM-I and SB from the MRI era (i.e., after 1984)...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701047/-the-effects-of-electroacupuncture-at-shu-and-mu-points-of-stomach-on-gastric-motility-the-nmda-of-vagus-nerve-dorsal-nucleus-and-serum-no-expression-in-functional-dyspepsia-rats
#20
Liur Wang, Guoming Shen, Hao Wang, Mengjie Hu, Yongchuan Yao, Shu Ye
OBJECTIVE: To research the central molecular mechanism of gastric motility in functional dyspepsia (FD) rats treated with electroacupuncture (EA) at shu and mu points of stomach. METHODS: A total of 30 SD rats were randomized into a blank group, a model group, a Zhongwan+Weishu group, a Weishu group and a Zhongwan group, 6 rats in each group. FD rats were established by moderate clipping tail infuriation and irregular feeding except in the blank group. EA was used at "Zhongwan"(CV 12),"Weishu"(BL 21), and"Zhongwan"(CV 12) +"Weishu"(BL 21) in the corresponding groups for 7 days, once a day, and 20 min a time...
March 12, 2018: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
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