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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137067/harlequin-syndrome-and-horner-syndrome-after-neck-schwannoma-excision-in-a-pediatric-patient-a-case-report
#1
Dong Hoon Lee, Jong Yuap Seong, Tae Mi Yoon, Joon Kyoo Lee, Sang Chul Lim
RATIONALE: Harlequin syndrome is an extremely rare benign condition characterized by unilateral facial flushing and sweating. PATIENT CONCERN: An 11-year-old boy presented with complaint of a right neck mass of 1-month duration. DIAGNOSIS: The preoperative diagnosis was neurogenic tumor of vagus nerve or sympathetic nerve. INTERVENTIONS: We performed right neck mass removal under general anesthesia. OUTCOMES: We report a case of harlequin syndrome associated with Horner syndrome in an 11-year boy who underwent excision of right neck schwannoma...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134359/anxiety-depression-and-the-microbiome-a-role-for-gut-peptides
#2
REVIEW
Gilliard Lach, Harriet Schellekens, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The complex bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain is finely orchestrated by different systems, including the endocrine, immune, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. Moreover, increasing evidence supports the role of the microbiome and microbiota-derived molecules in regulating such interactions; however, the mechanisms underpinning such effects are only beginning to be resolved. Microbiota-gut peptide interactions are poised to be of great significance in the regulation of gut-brain signaling...
November 13, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129819/nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-%C3%AE-7-subunit-improves-energy-homeostasis-and-inhibits-inflammation-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#3
Dong-Jie Li, Jian Liu, Xia Hua, Hui Fu, Fang Huang, Yi-Bo Fei, Wen-Jie Lu, Fu-Ming Shen, Pei Wang
OBJECTIVE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases worldwide; yet, the pathogenesis of the disorder is not completely understood. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subunit (α7nAChR) plays an indispensable role in the vagus nerve-regulated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the key role of α7nAChR in NAFLD development. Male wild-type (WT) and α7nAChR knockout (α7nAChR(-/-)) mice were fed a normal chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks to induce NAFLD...
November 9, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129793/the-interval-between-vns-tone-pairings-determines-the-extent-of-cortical-map-plasticity
#4
Michael S Borland, Crystal T Engineer, William A Vrana, Nicole A Moreno, Navzer D Engineer, Sven Vanneste, Pryanka Sharma, Meghan C Pantalia, Mark C Lane, Robert L Rennaker, Michael P Kilgard
Repeatedly pairing vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) with a tone or movement drives highly-specific and long-lasting plasticity in auditory or motor cortex, respectively. Based on this robust enhancement of plasticity, VNS paired with rehabilitative training has emerged as a potential therapy to improve recovery, even when delivered long after the neurological insult. Development of VNS delivery paradigms that reduce therapy duration and maximize efficacy would facilitate clinical translation. The goal of the current study was to determine whether primary auditory cortex (A1) plasticity can be generated more quickly by shortening the interval between VNS-tone pairing events or by delivering fewer VNS-tone pairing events...
November 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128975/transcutaneous-vagus-nerve-stimulation-tvns-modulates-flow-experience
#5
Lorenza S Colzato, Gina Wolters, Corinna Peifer
Flow has been defined as a pleasant psychological state that people experience when completely absorbed in an activity. Previous correlative evidence showed that the vagal tone (as indexed by heart rate variability) is a reliable marker of flow. So far, it has not yet been demonstrated that the vagus nerve plays a causal role in flow. To explore this we used transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), a novel non-invasive brain stimulation technique that increases activation of the locus coeruleus (LC) and norepinephrine release...
November 11, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124439/lennox-gastaut-syndrome-a-comprehensive-review
#6
Ali A Asadi-Pooya
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is considered an epileptic encephalopathy and is defined by a triad of multiple drug-resistant seizure types, a specific EEG pattern showing bursts of slow spike-wave complexes or generalized paroxysmal fast activity, and intellectual disability. The prevalence of LGS is estimated between 1 and 2% of all patients with epilepsy. The etiology of LGS is often divided into two groups: identifiable (genetic-structural-metabolic) in 65 to 75% of the patients and LGS of unknown cause in others...
November 9, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122764/mr-imaging-of-the-superior-cervical-ganglion-and-inferior-ganglion-of-the-vagus-nerve-structures-that-can-mimic-pathologic-retropharyngeal-lymph-nodes
#7
H Yokota, H Mukai, S Hattori, K Yamada, Y Anzai, T Uno
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The superior cervical ganglion and inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve can mimic pathologic retropharyngeal lymph nodes. We studied the cross-sectional anatomy of the superior cervical ganglion and inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve to evaluate how they can be differentiated from the retropharyngeal lymph nodes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study consists of 2 parts. Cohort 1 concerned the signal intensity of routine neck MR imaging with 2D sequences, apparent diffusion coefficient, and contrast enhancement of the superior cervical ganglion compared with lymph nodes with or without metastasis in 30 patients...
November 9, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122559/constant-hepatic-atp-concentrations-during-prolonged-fasting-and-absence-of-effects-of-cerbomed-nemos-%C3%A2-on-parasympathetic-tone-and-hepatic-energy-metabolism
#8
Sofiya Gancheva, Alessandra Bierwagen, Daniel F Markgraf, Gidon J Bönhof, Kevin G Murphy, Erifili Hatziagelaki, Jesper Lundbom, Dan Ziegler, Michael Roden
OBJECTIVE: Brain insulin-induced improvement in glucose homeostasis has been proposed to be mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system. Non-invasive transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) activating afferent branches of the vagus nerve may prevent hyperglycemia in diabetes models. We examined the effects of 14-min taVNS vs sham stimulation by Cerbomed Nemos(®) on glucose metabolism, lipids, and hepatic energy homeostasis in fasted healthy humans (n = 10, age 51 ± 6 yrs, BMI 25...
October 25, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101567/vagus-nerve-preserving-versus-conventional-laparoscopic-splenectomy-and-azygoportal-disconnection
#9
Dou-Sheng Bai, Ping Chen, Sheng-Jie Jin, Jian-Jun Qian, Guo-Qing Jiang
BACKGROUND: Conventional open and conventional laparoscopic splenectomy and azygoportal disconnection (CLSD) result in poor quality of life because of damage to the vagal nerve. We have developed vagus nerve-preserving laparoscopic splenectomy and azygoportal disconnection (VLSD). This study aimed to evaluate whether VLSD is effective and safe, and to determine whether a reduction in the incidence of postoperative complications improves postoperative quality of life compared with CLSD...
November 3, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093707/add-on-pyridostigmine-enhances-cd4-t-cell-recovery-in-hiv-1-infected-immunological-non-responders-a-proof-of-concept-study
#10
Sergio I Valdés-Ferrer, José C Crispín, Pablo F Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Carlos A Rodríguez-Osorio, Bernardo Cacho-Díaz, Jorge Alcocer-Varela, Carlos Cantú-Brito, Juan Sierra-Madero
Background: In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, persistent T-cell activation leads to rapid turnover and increased cell death, leading to immune exhaustion and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Stimulation of the vagus nerve increases acetylcholine (ACh) release and modulates inflammation in chronic inflammatory conditions, a neural mechanism known as the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP). Pyridostigmine (PDG), an ACh-esterase inhibitor, increases the half-life of endogenous ACh, therefore mimicking the CAP...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089157/a-rare-case-of-bilateral-vagus-nerve-schwanomatosis
#11
Makoto Hosoya, Nobuko Yamamoto, Takeshi Wakabayashi, Keitaro Toshikuni, Haruna Yabe, Shujiro B Minami
Schwanomatosis is the third most common form of neurofibromatosis. Schwanomatosis affecting the vagus nerve is particularly rare. In this report, we describe an extremely rare case bilateral vagus nerve schwanomatosis in a 45-year-old male patient. The patient initially presented with bilateral neck tumors and hoarseness arising after thoracic surgery. We performed left neck surgery in order to diagnose and resect the remaining tumors followed by laryngeal framework surgery to improve vocal cord closure and symptoms of hoarseness...
October 28, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080623/relationship-between-abnormal-vagus-nerve-tension-and-basal-ganglia-cerebral-infarction-induced-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation
#12
Wen-Bo Cheng, Dong Li, Qin Yang, Yue-Mei Hou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between basal ganglia cerebral infarction and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) caused by abnormal vagus nerve tension. METHODS: A total of 1483 cases of elder patients with cerebral infarction who received head CT or MRI examination during the period were enrolled, including 830 male and 613 female, with the average age as 78 years. These cases were divided into basal infarction ganglia group (n = 1045) and non-basal ganglia infarction group (n = 438) according to the anatomic site of cerebral infarction...
September 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079124/laryngocardiac-reflex-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
REVIEW
Christian S Pingree, Jacob S Majors, Nelson S Howard, Robert L Eller
INTRODUCTION: The vagus nerve has sensory and motor function in the larynx, as well as parasympathetic function in the thorax and abdomen. Stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve can cause reflexive bradycardia. CASE: We describe a case of a 45-year-old man with pre-syncopal symptoms while exercising, and bradycardia found during cardiology workup. Radiography and flexible laryngoscopy showed evidence of a right-sided, vascular laryngeal mass. Exercise testing before and after superior laryngeal nerve block showed reversal of the symptoms with the block...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078572/continuous-intraoperative-vagus-nerve-stimulation-for-monitoring-of-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve-during-minimally-invasive-esophagectomy
#14
REVIEW
Ian Wong, Daniel K H Tong, Raymond K Y Tsang, Claudia L Y Wong, Desmond K K Chan, Fion S Y Chan, Simon Law
For squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus, extended mediastinal lymphadenectomy especially around the bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerves (RLN) is associated with high risk of nerve injury. This does not only result in hoarseness of voice, increase the chance of pulmonary complications, but would also affect the quality of life of patients in the long term. Methods to improve safety of lymphadenectomy are desirable. Continuous intraoperative nerve monitoring (CIONM) based on a system using vagus nerve stimulation was tested...
2017: J Vis Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078343/dual-origin-of-enteric-neurons-in-vagal-schwann-cell-precursors-and-the-sympathetic-neural-crest
#15
Isabel Espinosa-Medina, Ben Jevans, Franck Boismoreau, Zoubida Chettouh, Hideki Enomoto, Thomas Müller, Carmen Birchmeier, Alan J Burns, Jean-François Brunet
Most of the enteric nervous system derives from the "vagal" neural crest, lying at the level of somites 1-7, which invades the digestive tract rostro-caudally from the foregut to the hindgut. Little is known about the initial phase of this colonization, which brings enteric precursors into the foregut. Here we show that the "vagal crest" subsumes two populations of enteric precursors with contrasted origins, initial modes of migration, and destinations. Crest cells adjacent to somites 1 and 2 produce Schwann cell precursors that colonize the vagus nerve, which in turn guides them into the esophagus and stomach...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078087/epilepsy-in-tuberous-sclerosis-patients-in-sweden-healthcare-utilization-treatment-morbidity-and-mortality-using-national-register-data
#16
Karl-Olof Welin, Peter Carlqvist, Anders Svensson, Rikard Althin, Erik Eklund, Olof Rask
PURPOSE: This study is designed to estimate the prevalence of epilepsy associated with TSC in Sweden and to describe treatment, morbidity, and mortality of TSC patients with epilepsy. METHODS: Register data for 2004-2014 was obtained from the National Board of Health and Welfare in Sweden. Patients with TSC were identified using ICD-10 codes. Epilepsy was identified using ICD-10 codes, interventions aimed to treat epilepsy, or prescriptions for antiepileptic drugs...
October 7, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078029/constipation-is-not-associated-with-dat-dopaminergic-pathology-in-early-de-novo-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Gennaro Pagano, Tayyabah Yousaf, Heather Wilson, Flavia Niccolini, Sotirios Polychronis, Kallol Ray Chaudhuri, Marios Politis
BACKGROUND: Constipation is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease. Deposition of α-synuclein inclusions that spread from the gut to the substantia nigra through the vagus nerve has been recently speculated as a pre-motor and early stage of Parkinson's disease. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether constipation is associated with dopaminergic pathology at DAT SPECT in early de novo (untreated) Parkinson's disease patients. Our hypothesis is that constipation is associated with other signs of pre-motor Parkinson's disease and independent of DAT dopaminergic pathology...
October 27, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077707/a-novel-controller-based-on-state-transition-models-for-closed-loop-vagus-nerve-stimulation-application-to-heart-rate-regulation
#18
Hector M Romero-Ugalde, Virginie Le Rolle, Jean-Luc Bonnet, Christine Henry, Alain Bel, Philippe Mabo, Guy Carrault, Alfredo I Hernández
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an established adjunctive therapy for pharmacologically refractory epilepsy and depression and is currently in active clinical research for other applications. In current clinical studies, VNS is delivered in an open-loop approach, where VNS parameters are defined during a manual titration phase. However, the physiological response to a given VNS configuration shows significant inter and intra-patient variability and may significantly evolve through time. VNS closed-loop approaches, allowing for the optimization of the therapy in an adaptive manner, may be necessary to improve efficacy while reducing side effects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076212/high-resolution-multi-scale-computational-model-for-non-invasive-cervical-vagus-nerve-stimulation
#19
Antonios P Mourdoukoutas, Dennis Q Truong, Devin K Adair, Bruce J Simon, Marom Bikson
OBJECTIVES: To develop the first high-resolution, multi-scale model of cervical non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) and to predict vagus fiber type activation, given clinically relevant rheobase thresholds. METHODS: An MRI-derived Finite Element Method (FEM) model was developed to accurately simulate key macroscopic (e.g., skin, soft tissue, muscle) and mesoscopic (cervical enlargement, vertebral arch and foramen, cerebral spinal fluid [CSF], nerve sheath) tissue components to predict extracellular potential, electric field (E-Field), and activating function along the vagus nerve...
October 27, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072022/-progress-on-the-relationship-between-the-regulation-of-gastrointestinal-system-function-by-acupuncture-and-central-nuclei
#20
Fan-You Bu, Feng Wei, Xue-Shuang Dai, Qi-Wen Tan, Bin Cheng
Acupuncture has a good curative effect in the treatment of gastrointestinal system diseases, such as functional dyspepsia, ulcerative colitis, and constipation. The central nuclei which are involved in the mechanism of acupuncture in regulating the gastrointestinal system have become a research hotspot in recent years. In the present paper, the authors summarized the effect of acupuncture and the central nervous system on gastrointestinal function regulation. It was found that the regulation of gastrointestinal function by acupuncture involved many brain regions such as the amygdala, paraventricular nucleus, locus coeruleus, raphe nucleus, and dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve...
August 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
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