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Vagus nerve

Sujita Kumar Kar, Siddharth Sarkar
Neuro-stimulation techniques have gradually evolved over the decades and have emerged potential therapeutic modalities for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, especially treatment refractory cases. The neuro-stimulation techniques involves modalities like electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and others. This review discusses the role of neuro-stimulation techniques in the treatment of anxiety disorders...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Scott Seaman, Paul Nelson, Jacob Alexander, Andrew Swift, James Fick
The authors present the case of a 53-year-old man who was referred with disabling retching provoked by left arm abduction. At the time of his initial evaluation, a cervical MRI study was available for review and revealed an anatomical variation of the ipsilateral juxtamedullary vertebrobasilar junction. After brain imaging revealed contact of the medulla by a dolichoectatic vertebral artery at the dorsal root entry zone of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves, the patient was successfully treated by microvascular decompression of the brainstem and cranial nerves...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Sekib Sokolovic, Samir Mehmedagic
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this paper was to present the effects of the vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) on a blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in arterial hypertension patient. DESIGN AND METHOD: The pilot study (SPM-005) was designed to evaluate the eficiancy and safety profile of the neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways using the active implantable device for the vagus nerve stimulation in rheumatoid arthritis patient. We investigated the VNS on the BP and HR in 68 years old female patient with a long-standing arterial hypertension and the lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide in a therapy...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Hanne Schevernels, Marlies E van Bochove, Leen De Taeye, Klaas Bombeke, Kristl Vonck, Dirk Van Roost, Veerle De Herdt, Patrick Santens, Robrecht Raedt, C Nico Boehler
In the current study, we explored whether vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in patients with epilepsy, which is believed to increase norepinephrine (NE) levels via activation of the locus coeruleus, would positively affect response inhibition. Moreover, we tried to identify the dynamics of the underlying neural processes by investigating event-related potentials (ERPs) and pupil size. Patients performed a stop-signal task once when stimulation was switched on and once when it was switched off. We found a correlational pattern suggesting that patients who clinically benefit more from VNS treatment also show a larger behavioral advantage, in terms of faster response inhibition, when the vagus nerve is being stimulated...
October 12, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Alberto M Saibene, Elena Zambrelli, Carlotta Pipolo, Alberto Maccari, Giovanni Felisati, Elena Felisati, Francesca Furia, Aglaia Vignoli, Maria Paola Canevini, Enrico Alfonsi
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a useful tool for drug-resistant epilepsy, but it induces known laryngeal side effects, with a significant role on patients' quality of life. VNS patients may show persistent left vocal fold (LVF) palsy at rest and/or recurrent LVF adduction during stimulation. This study aims at electromyographically evaluating laryngeal muscles abnormalities in VNS patients. We compared endoscopic laryngeal evaluation data in six VNS patients with laryngeal muscle electromyography (LMEMG) carried out on the thyroarytenoid, cricothyroid, posterior cricoarytenoid, and cricopharyngeal muscles...
October 13, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Clinical Privilege White Paper
Bing Cao, Jun Wang, Mahadi Shahed, Beth Jelfs, Rosa H M Chan, Ying Li
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) can enhance memory and cognitive functions in both rats and humans. Studies have shown that VNS influenced decision-making in epileptic patients. However, the sites of action involved in the cognitive-enhancement are poorly understood. By employing a conscious rat model equipped with vagus nerve cuff electrode, we assess the role of chronic VNS on decision-making in rat gambling task (RGT). Simultaneous multichannel-recordings offer an ideal setup to test the hypothesis that VNS may induce alterations of in both spike-field-coherence and synchronization of theta oscillations across brain areas in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA)...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yana Anfinogenova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Barış Akdemir, David G Benditt
The vagus nerve is a major component of the autonomic nervous system and plays a critical role in many body functions including for example, speech, swallowing, heart rate and respiratory control, gastric secretion, and intestinal motility. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) refers to any technique that stimulates the vagus nerve, with electrical stimulation being the most important. Implantable devices for VNS are approved therapy for refractory epilepsy and for treatment-resistant depression. In the case of heart disease applications, implantable VNS has been shown to be beneficial for treating heart failure in both preclinical and clinical studies...
October 2016: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Min-Jee Kim, Mi-Sun Yum, Eun-Hee Kim, Yun-Jeong Lee, Junkyo Lee, Seokho Hong, Su Jeong You, Yong Soon Hwang, Tae-Sung Ko
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in children and adolescents with intractable epilepsy and identify predictive factors for responsiveness to VNS. METHODS: Medical records of pediatric patients who underwent VNS implantation at two Korean tertiary centers were reviewed. At 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 years post-VNS implantation, the frequency of the most disabling seizures in each patient was assessed. Responders were defined as showing an overall 50 % reduction from baseline seizure frequency during follow-up...
October 6, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Simon Wostyn, Willeke Staljanssens, Leen De Taeye, Gregor Strobbe, Stefanie Gadeyne, Dirk Van Roost, Robrecht Raedt, Kristl Vonck, Pieter van Mierlo
The mechanism of action of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is yet to be elucidated. To that end, the effects of VNS on the brain of epileptic patients were studied. Both when VNS was switched "On" and "Off", the brain activity of responders (R, seizure frequency reduction of over 50%) was compared to the brain activity of nonresponders (NR, seizure frequency reduction of less than 50%). Using EEG recordings, a significant increase in P300 amplitude for R and a significant decrease in P300 amplitude for NR were found...
July 11, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
Marina Basalay, Svetlana Mastitskaya, Aleksander Mrochek, Gareth L Ackland, Ana Gutierrez Del Arroyo, Jenifer Sanchez, Per-Ove Sjoquist, John Pernow, Alexander V Gourine, Andrey Gourine
AIMS: Although the nature of the humoral factor which mediates cardioprotection established by remote ischaemic conditioning (RIc) remains unknown, parasympathetic (vagal) mechanisms appear to play a critical role. As the production and release of many gut hormones is modulated by the vagus nerve, here we tested the hypothesis that RIc cardioprotection is mediated by the actions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). METHODS AND RESULTS: A rat model of myocardial infarction (coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion) was used...
October 4, 2016: Cardiovascular Research
Licia Grazzi, Gabriella Egeo, Anne H Calhoun, Candace K McClure, Eric Liebler, Piero Barbanti
BACKGROUND: Menstrual migraine and menstrually related migraine attacks are typically longer, more disabling, and less responsive to medications than non-menstrual attacks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation for the prophylactic treatment of menstrual migraine/menstrually related migraine. METHODS: Fifty-six enrolled subjects (menstrual migraine, 9 %; menstrually related migraine, 91 %), 33 (59 %) of whom were receiving other prophylactic therapies, entered a 12-week baseline period...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
James Winter, Alexandra R Cook, Dawn H Patient, Stevan R Emmett, John Tattersall, Michael J Shattock
Pre-treatment with reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors is an effective strategy for reducing lethality following organophosphate nerve agent exposure. AChE inhibition may have unwanted cardiac side effects, which could be negated by adjunctive anti-cholinergic therapy. The aims of the present study were to examine the concentration-dependent effects of physostigmine on cardiac responses to vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), to test whether adjunctive treatment with hyoscine can reverse these effects and to assess the functional interaction and electrophysiological consequences of a combined pre-treatment...
September 28, 2016: Neurotoxicology
David Ojeda, Virginie Le Rolle, Hector M Romero-Ugalde, Clément Gallet, Jean-Luc Bonnet, Christine Henry, Alain Bel, Philippe Mabo, Guy Carrault, Alfredo I Hernández
Although the therapeutic effects of Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) have been recognized in pre-clinical and pilot clinical studies, the effect of different stimulation configurations on the cardiovascular response is still an open question, especially in the case of VNS delivered synchronously with cardiac activity. In this paper, we propose a formal mathematical methodology to analyze the acute cardiac response to different VNS configurations, jointly considering the chronotropic, dromotropic and inotropic cardiac effects...
2016: PloS One
Poul Jennum, Anne Sabers, Jakob Christensen, Rikke Ibsen, Jakob Kjellberg
PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the health costs and social outcomes in terms of education, employment and income level after insertion of a vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: This is a case-control study using Danish health care and socioeconomic register data. The analysis of the effect involved a comparison of the health care costs, occupation and income status of VNS-treated epilepsy patients with those of a control group of epilepsy patients who had a VNS implanted during the 12 months before the index date (pre-period) and during the two years after the index date (post-period)...
September 13, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
A M McDermott, M Sadadcharam, B J Manning, P Sheahan
We describe the case of a 37-year-old man with a slowly enlarging neck lump and compressive symptoms. He presented to a separate institution 10 years prior where an observational approach was advocated. Following preoperative investigations and embolization, an 11cm vagal schwannoma was excised and vagus nerve was sacrificed. Although conservative management is appropriate for a select patient population, surgical excision is treatment of choice for cervical neurogenic tumours and paraganglionomas and must be considered in young patients or rapidly expanding tumours to avoid compressive symptoms, as in this case...
2016: Irish Medical Journal
Yasmin da Silva Chaves, Afrânio Côgo Destefani
Introduction: The dumping syndrome is frequent in bariatric surgery. It is probably the most common syndrome following partial or complete gastrectomy. Its prevalence in partial gastrectomy can reach up to 50%, thus it can be a significant complication arising from some types of bariatric surgeries. Objective: Critical analysis on dumping syndrome, its pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. Methods: A literature review was performed using the key words: 'dumping syndrome', 'bariatric surgery' and 'rapid dumping syndrome'...
2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Paolo Del Rio, Piercosimo Nisi, Sara Benedicenti, Elisa Bertocchi, Enrico Luzietti, Mario Sianesi
AIM: To evaluate the learning curve in the use of intraoperative neuromonitoring of recurrent laryngeal nerve and vagus in thyroid surgery. MATERIALS OF THE STUDY: We analyzed 140 pts treated consecutively for thyroid disease. All the patients were neuromonitored with Intraoperative neuromonitoring of recurrent laryngeal nerve and vagus. We divided these patients in 7 groups to collect the adverse events during our learning curve. RESULTS: We monitored consecutively 271 nerves...
2016: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
Kevin D'Ostilio, Delphine Magis
Chronic primary headaches are widespread disorders which cause significant quality of life and socioprofessional impairment. Available pharmacological treatments have often a limited efficacy and/or can generate unbearable side effects. Electrical nerve stimulation is a well-known non-destructive method of pain modulation which has been recently applied to headache management. In this review, we summarise recent advances in invasive and non-invasive neurostimulation techniques targeting pericranial structures for the treatment of chronic primary headaches, chiefly migraine and cluster headache: occipital nerve, supraorbital nerve, vagus nerve, and sphenopalatine ganglion stimulations...
November 2016: Current Pain and Headache Reports
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