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Coagulation cascade

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643538/do-methodological-differences-account-for-the-current-controversy-on-tissue-factor-expression-in-platelets
#1
Marta Brambilla, Laura Rossetti, Chiara Zara, Paola Canzano, Peter L A Giesen, Elena Tremoli, Marina Camera
Tissue factor (TF), the key activator of the blood coagulation cascade and of thrombus formation, is also expressed by circulating human platelets. Despite the documented in-depth characterization of platelet TF carried out in the past 15 years, some authors still fail to identify TF in platelets, especially when assessment in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or washed platelets is carried out. This study aims to extend the characterization of the subset of TF-positive platelets in PRP from healthy subjects and to verify how different centrifugation forces, used to prepare the PRP, could affect the analysis of TF-positive platelets...
June 23, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641140/effect-of-c1-inh-on-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-a-porcine-limb-ex-vivo-perfusion-model
#2
Mai M Abdelhafez, Jane Shaw, Damian Sutter, Jonas Schnider, Yara Banz, Hansjörg Jenni, Esther Voegelin, Mihai A Constantinescu, Robert Rieben
Revascularization of an amputated limb within 4-6h is essential to avoid extensive ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury leading to vascular leakage, edema and tissue necrosis. I/R injury is a pathological inflammatory condition that occurs during reperfusion of an organ or tissue after prolonged ischemia. It is characterized by a complex crosstalk between endothelial cell activation and the activation of plasma cascades. Vasculoprotective pharmacological intervention to prevent I/R injury might be an option to prolong the time window between limb amputation and successful replantation...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640782/perioperative-venous-thromboembolism-a-review
#3
Ronald J Gordon, Frederick W Lombard
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant problem in the perioperative period, increasing patient morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. It is also considered the most preventable of the major postoperative complications. Despite widespread adoption of prophylaxis guidelines, it appears that morbidity from the disease has not substantially changed within the past 2 decades. It is becoming clear that current prophylaxis efforts are not sufficient. Using more potent anticoagulants may decrease the incidence of VTE, but increase the risk for bleeding and infection...
June 20, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630267/a-structured-review-of-antithrombotic-therapy-in-peripheral-artery-disease-with-a-focus-on-revascularization-a-tasc-intersociety-consensus-for-the-management-of-peripheral-artery-disease-initiative
#4
REVIEW
Connie N Hess, Lars Norgren, Gary M Ansel, Warren H Capell, John P Fletcher, F Gerry R Fowkes, Anders Gottsäter, Kerry Hitos, Michael R Jaff, Joakim Nordanstig, William R Hiatt
Peripheral artery disease affects >200 million people worldwide and is associated with significant limb and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Limb revascularization is recommended to improve function and quality of life for symptomatic patients with peripheral artery disease with intermittent claudication who have not responded to medical treatment. For patients with critical limb ischemia, the goals of revascularization are to relieve pain, help wound healing, and prevent limb loss. The baseline risk of cardiovascular and limb-related events demonstrated among patients with stable peripheral artery disease is elevated after revascularization and related to atherothrombosis and restenosis...
June 20, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628948/platelet-hyperaggregability-is-associated-with-decreased-adamts13-activity-and-enhanced-endotoxemia-in-patients-with-acute-cholangitis
#5
Hiroaki Takaya, Hideto Kawaratani, Takuya Kubo, Kenichiro Seki, Yasuhiko Sawada, Kosuke Kaji, Yasushi Okura, Kosuke Takeda, Mitsuteru Kitade, Kei Moriya, Tadashi Namisaki, Akira Mitoro, Masanori Matsumoto, Hiroshi Fukui, Hitoshi Yoshiji
AIM: Insufficient ADAMTS13 activity (ADAMTS13:AC) leads to increased levels of unusually large von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers and causes microcirculatory disturbance and multiple organ failure (MOF). Endotoxin (Et) triggers the activation of coagulation and cytokine cascades, leading to MOF in severe inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Here, we investigated the potential role of endotoxemia-related ADAMTS13 in acute cholangitis. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with acute cholangitis, including 7 with severe acute cholangitis, were recruited in this study...
June 19, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628220/importance-of-endothelial-dysfunction-biomarkers-in-patients-with-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever
#6
Mustafa Arslan, Gürdal Yilmaz, Ahmet Mentese, Hülya Yilmaz, S Caner Karahan, Iftihar Koksal
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and the cause of the hemorrhage are not yet fully understood. However, the endothelium plays a key role in the pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate endothelial dysfunction markers [asymmetrical dimethyl arginine(ADMA), endothelin 1(ET-1), thrombomodulin(TM), von Willebrand factor(vWf) and intercellular adhesion molecule(ICAM-1)] in serum in patients with CCHF and their associations with hemorrhage...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625215/assessing-coagulation-by-rotational-thromboelastometry-rotem-in-rivaroxaban-anticoagulated-blood-using-hemostatic-agents
#7
Jonathan Bar, Alexa David, Tarek Khader, Mary Mulcare, Christopher Tedeschi
Introduction The use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) such as rivaroxaban (Xarelto) is increasingly common. However, therapies for reversing anticoagulation in the event of hemorrhage are limited. This study investigates the ability of hemostatic agents to improve the coagulation of rivaroxaban-anticoagulated blood, as measured by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). Hypothesis/Problem If a chitosan-based hemostatic agent (Celox), which works independently of the clotting cascade, is applied to rivaroxaban-anticoagulated blood, it should improve coagulation by decreasing clotting time (CT), decreasing clot formation time (CFT), and increasing maximum clot firmness (MCF)...
June 19, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621927/hemocompatibility-of-degrading-polymeric-biomaterials-degradable-polar-hydrophobic-ionic-polyurethane-d-phi-vs-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-plga
#8
Kathryne Saini Brockman, Benjamin F L Lai, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu, J Paul Santerre
The use of degradable polymers in vascular tissue regeneration has sparked the need to characterize polymer biocompatibility during degradation. While tissue compatibility has been frequently addressed, studies on polymer hemocompatibility during degradation are limited. The current study evaluated the differences in hemocompatibility (platelet response, complement activation, and coagulation cascade initiation) between as-made and hydrolyzed poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and degradable polar hydrophobic ionic polyurethane (D-PHI)...
June 16, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602553/proteomic-profiling-of-the-brain-of-mice-with-experimental-cerebral-malaria
#9
Ehab Moussa, Honglei Huang, Malika Ahras, Amar Lall, Marie L Thezenas, Roman Fischer, Benedikt M Kessler, Arnab Pain, Oliver Billker, Climent Casals-Pascual
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe neurological complication of malaria infection in both adults and children. In pursuit of effective treatment of CM, clinical studies, postmortem analysis and animal models have been employed to understand the pathology and identify effective interventions. In this study, a shotgun proteomics analysis was conducted to profile the proteomic signature of the brain tissue of mice with experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) in order to further understand the underlying pathology. To identify CM-associated response, proteomic signatures of the brains of C57/Bl6N mice infected with P...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595568/differences-in-responses-of-grass-carp-to-different-types-of-grass-carp-reovirus-gcrv-and-the-mechanism-of-hemorrhage-revealed-by-transcriptome-sequencing
#10
Libo He, Aidi Zhang, Yongyan Pei, Pengfei Chu, Yongming Li, Rong Huang, Lanjie Liao, Zuoyan Zhu, Yaping Wang
BACKGROUND: Grass carp is an important farmed fish in China that is affected by serious disease, especially hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV). The mechanism underlying the hemorrhagic symptoms in infected fish remains to be elucidated. Although GCRV can be divided into three distinct subtypes, differences in the pathogenesis and host immune responses to the different subtypes are still unclear. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive insight into the grass carp response to different GCRV subtypes and to elucidate the mechanism underlying the hemorrhagic symptoms...
June 8, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594052/coagulation-factor-and-protease-pathways-in-thrombosis-and-cardiovascular-disease
#11
Hugo Ten Cate, Tilman M Hackeng, Pablo García de Frutos
The biochemical characterization of the proteolytic pathways that constitute blood coagulation was one of the most relevant achievements in biomedical research during the second half of the 20th century. Understanding these pathways was of crucial importance for improving global health through application in haemostasis and thrombosis pathologies. Immediately after the cloning of the genes corresponding to these proteins, mutations were discovered in them that were associated with imbalances in haemostasis...
June 8, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594051/antithrombotic-therapy-for-acute-coronary-syndrome-past-present-and-future
#12
Dirk Sibbing, Dominick J Angiolillo, Kurt Huber
Plaque erosions and ruptures are the histopathological hallmarks of arterial thrombus formation in the coronary arteries. The clinical condition associated with this process is usually referred to as acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Importantly, both blood platelets and the coagulation cascade are key players for initiation, amplification and perpetuation of ACS. There has been great progress in ACS treatment in recent decades, both at the technical level of (percutaneous) revascularisation and at the level of antithrombotic treatment...
June 8, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593875/intrauterine-growth-restriction-and-placental-gene-expression-in-severe-preeclampsia-comparing-early-onset-and-late-onset-forms
#13
Jaana Nevalainen, Sini Skarp, Eeva-Riitta Savolainen, Markku Ryynänen, Jouko Järvenpää
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate placental gene expression in severe early- or late-onset preeclampsia with intrauterine growth restriction compared to controls. STUDY DESIGN: Chorionic villus sampling was conducted after cesarean section from the placentas of five women with early- or late-onset severe preeclampsia and five controls for each preeclampsia group. Microarray analysis was performed to identify gene expression differences between the groups. RESULTS: Pathway analysis showed over-representation of gene ontology (GO) biological process terms related to inflammatory and immune response pathways, platelet development, vascular development, female pregnancy and reproduction in early-onset preeclampsia...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593108/nano-hemostats-and-a-pilot-study-of-their-use-in-a-large-animal-model-of-major-vessel-hemorrhage-in-endoscopic-skull-base-surgery
#14
Alistair Jukes, Jae Murphy, Sarah Vreugde, Alkis Psaltis, P J Wormald
Nano-hemostats are synthetic amino acid chains that self-assemble into a scaffold under certain conditions. These have been shown to be effective in stopping bleeding in small animal models of hemorrhage. Proposed mechanisms for their effect are that they form a mesh analogous to the fibrin plug in native hemostasis and that they may potentiate both platelet activation and the coagulation cascade. These may potentially become valuable adjuncts to endoscopic skull base surgery where there is the potential for both major vessel injury and smaller perforator injury to eloquent areas where bipolar cautery may not be suitable...
June 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576875/genome-editing-of-factor-x-in-zebrafish-reveals-unexpected-tolerance-of-severe-defects-in-the-common-pathway
#15
Zhilian Hu, Yang Liu, Michael C Huarng, Marzia Menegatti, Deepak Reyon, Megan S Rost, Zachary G Norris, Catherine E Richter, Alexandra N Stapleton, Neil C Chi, Flora Peyvandi, J Keith Joung, Jordan A Shavit
Deficiency of factor X (F10) in humans is a rare bleeding disorder with a heterogeneous phenotype and limited therapeutic options. Targeted disruption of F10 and other common pathway factors in mice results in embryonic/neonatal lethality with rapid resorption of homozygous mutants, hampering further studies. Several of these mutants also display yolk sac vascular defects, suggesting a role for thrombin signaling in vessel development. The zebrafish is a vertebrate model that demonstrates conservation of the mammalian hemostatic and vascular systems...
June 2, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570146/recombinant-c1-esterase-inhibitor-reduces-cytokine-storm-in-an-ex-vivo-whole-blood-model
#16
Vladimir A Bobkov, Roman V Tikhonov, Alexander M Shuster, Dmitry A Poteryaev, Veronika N Bade
C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH) is an abundant component of blood plasma (the average concentration is 250 mg/L); it is known to be involved in several biological processes, for instance, in the regulation of the coagulation system, adhesion of leukocytes on endothelial cells, and in the regulation of complement and kallikrein cascades. Lately, the role of C1INH in immunomodulation has gained considerable attention. We used an ex vivo whole blood model to examine the influence of C1INH and its mutated variants on the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and IL-1β...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567671/downregulation-of-the-complement-cascade-in-vitro-in-mice-and-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-disease-by-the-bet-protein-inhibitor-apabetalone-rvx-208
#17
Sylwia Wasiak, Dean Gilham, Laura M Tsujikawa, Christopher Halliday, Cyrus Calosing, Ravi Jahagirdar, Jan Johansson, Michael Sweeney, Norman C Wong, Ewelina Kulikowski
Apabetalone (RVX-208) is an epigenetic regulator developed to treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) that targets BET proteins. Through transcriptional regulation RVX-208 modulates pathways that underlie CVD including reverse cholesterol transport, vascular inflammation, coagulation, and complement. Using transcriptomics and proteomics we show that complement is one of the top pathways downregulated by RVX-208 in primary human hepatocytes (PHH) and in plasma from CVD patients. RVX-208 reduces basal and cytokine-driven expression of complement factors in PHH and in chimeric mice with humanized livers...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554835/transcriptome-profiling-of-the-macrobrachium-rosenbergii-lymphoid-organ-under-the-white-spot-syndrome-virus-challenge
#18
Jun Cao, Lei Wu, Min Jin, Tingting Li, Kaimin Hui, Qian Ren
Macrobrachium rosenbergii is a crustacean with economic importance, and adult prawns are generally thought to be tolerant to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Although certain genes are known to respond to WSSV infection and lymphoid tissue is an important immune organ, the response of lymphoid organ to WSSV infection is unclear. Next-generation sequencing was employed in this study to determine the transcriptome differences between WSSV infection and mock lymphoid organs. A total of 44,606,694 and 40,384,856 clean reads were generated and assembled into 73,658 and 72,374 unigenes from the control sample and the WSSV infection sample, respectively...
May 26, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552561/fxii-promotes-proteolytic-processing-of-the-lrp1-ectodomain
#19
Lukasz Wujak, Christina Hesse, Katherina Sewald, Danny Jonigk, Peter Braubach, Gregor Warnecke, Hans-Gerd Fieguth, Armin Braun, Günter Lochnit, Philipp Markart, Liliana Schaefer, Malgorzata Wygrecka
BACKGROUND: Factor XII (FXII) is a serine protease that is involved in activation of the intrinsic blood coagulation, the kallikrein-kinin system and the complement cascade. Although the binding of FXII to the cell surface has been demonstrated, the consequence of this event for proteolytic processing of membrane-anchored proteins has never been described. METHODS: The effect of FXII on the proteolytic processing of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) ectodomain was tested in human primary lung fibroblasts (hLF), alveolar macrophages (hAM) and in human precision cut lung slices (hPCLS)...
August 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549866/venom-of-the-peruvian-snake-bothriopsis-oligolepis-detection-of-antibacterial-activity-and-involvement-of-proteolytic-enzymes-and-c-type-lectins-in-growth-inhibition-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#20
M A Sulca, C Remuzgo, J Cárdenas, S Kiyota, E Cheng, M P Bemquerer, M T Machini
There is a rising interest in snake venoms proteins (SVPs) because these macromolecules are related to pharmacological properties that manifest themselves during poisoning and can lead to secondary microbial infections. Interestingly, researchers have somehow neglected the antimicrobial activity of SVPs. The aims of this study were: (i) to verify whether the venom of the Peruvian snake Bothriopsis oligolepis displays such activity; (ii) to isolate and identify some of its antimicrobial constituents. Liquid growth inhibition assays revealed that the crude venom inhibited the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but not of Candida species...
May 23, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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