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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776849/immune-factors-in-deep-vein-thrombosis-initiation
#1
REVIEW
Ivan Budnik, Alexander Brill
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major origin of morbidity and mortality. While DVT has long been considered as blood coagulation disorder, several recent lines of evidence demonstrate that immune cells and inflammatory processes are involved in DVT initiation. Here, we discuss these mechanisms, in particular, the role of immune cells in endothelial activation, and the immune cascades leading to expression of adhesion receptors on endothelial cells. We analyze the specific recruitment and functional roles of different immune cells, such as mast cells and leukocytes, in DVT...
May 15, 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772364/pathophysiology-and-non-surgical-treatment-of-chronic-subdural-hematoma-from-past-to-present-to-future
#2
REVIEW
Dana C Holl, Victor Volovici, Clemens M F Dirven, Wilco C Peul, Fop van Kooten, Korné Jellema, Niels A van der Gaag, Ishita P Miah, Kuan H Kho, Heleen M den Hertog, Hester F Lingsma, Ruben Dammers
BACKGROUND: Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is one of the more frequent pathological entities in daily neurosurgical practice. Historically, CSDH was considered a progressive, recurrent bleeding with a traumatic etiology. However, recent evidence suggests a complex intertwined pathway of inflammation, angiogenesis, local coagulopathy, recurrent microbleeds and exudates. The aim of the present review is to collect existing data on pathophysiology of CSDH in order to direct further research questions aiming to optimize treatment for the individual patient...
May 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761540/apixaban-decreases-brain-thrombin-activity-in-a-male-mouse-model-of-acute-ischemic-stroke
#3
Doron Bushi, Joab Chapman, Anton Wohl, Efrat Shavit Stein, Ekaterina Feingold, David Tanne
Factor Xa (FXa) plays a critical role in the coagulation cascade by generation of thrombin. During focal ischemia thrombin levels increase in the brain tissue and cause neural damage. This study examined the hypothesis that administration of the FXa inhibitor, apixaban, following focal ischemic stroke may have therapeutic potential by decreasing brain thrombin activity and infarct volume. Male mice were divided into a treated groups that received different doses of apixaban (2, 20, 100 mg/kg administered I...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760725/the-effects-of-hyperacute-serum-on-the-elements-of-the-human-subchondral-bone-marrow-niche
#4
Melinda Simon, Bálint Major, Gabriella Vácz, Olga Kuten, István Hornyák, Adél Hinsenkamp, Dorottya Kardos, Marcell Bagó, Domonkos Cseh, Adrienn Sárközi, Denes Horvathy, Stefan Nehrer, Zsombor Lacza
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in laboratory experiments as well as in human cell therapy. Their culture requires animal sera like fetal calf serum (FCS) as essential supplementation; however, animal sera pose a risk for clinical applications. Human blood derivatives, for example, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) releasates, are potential replacements of FCS; however, it is unclear which serum variant has the best effect on the given cell or tissue type. Additionally, blood derivatives are commonly used in musculoskeletal diseases like osteoarthritis (OA) or osteonecrosis as "proliferative agents" for the topical MSC pool...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758989/the-double-hazard-of-bleeding-and-thrombosis-in-hemostasis-from-a-clinical-point-of-view-a-global-assessment-by-rotational-thromboelastometry-rotem
#5
Olga Meltem Akay
Hemostasis is a complex dynamic process involving bleeding and thrombosis as two end-points. Conventional coagulation tests which are measured in plasma examine only isolated portions of the coagulation cascade, thereby giving no information on important interactions essential to the clinical evaluation of hemostatic function. Thromboelastography (TEG), originally described in 1948 has improved over the decades and become a valuable tool of coagulation testing because of the limitations of standard coagulation tests...
January 1, 2018: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745362/does-dietary-nitrate-say-no-to-cardiovascular-ageing-current-evidence-and-implications-for-research
#6
Mario Siervo, Filippo Scialò, Oliver M Shannon, Blossom C M Stephan, Ammar W Ashor
CVD are characterised by a multi-factorial pathogenesis. Key pathogenetic steps in the development of CVD are the occurrence of endothelial dysfunction and formation of atherosclerotic lesions. Reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is a primary event in the initiation of the atherosclerotic cascade. NO is a free radical with multiple physiological functions including the regulation of vascular resistance, coagulation, immunity and oxidative metabolism. The synthesis of NO proceeds via two distinct pathways identified as enzymatic and non-enzymatic...
May 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743514/transcriptomic-integration-of-d-4-r-and-mor-signaling-in-the-rat-caudate-putamen
#7
Alejandra Valderrama-Carvajal, Haritz Irizar, Belén Gago, Haritz Jiménez-Urbieta, Kjell Fuxe, María C Rodríguez-Oroz, David Otaegui, Alicia Rivera
Morphine binding to opioid receptors, mainly to μ opioid receptor (MOR), induces alterations in intracellular pathways essential to the initial development of addiction. The activation of the dopamine D4 receptor (D4 R), which is expressed in the caudate putamen (CPu), mainly counteracts morphine-induced alterations in several molecular networks. These involve transcription factors, adaptive changes of MOR signaling, activation of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway and behavioural effects, underlining functional D4 R/MOR interactions...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741099/economic-evaluation-of-prescribing-conventional-and-newer-oral-anticoagulants-in-older-adults
#8
Syed Shahzad Hasan, Chia Siang Kow, Louise E Curley, Darrin L Baines, Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar
Anticoagulants refer to a variety of agents that inhibit one or more steps in the coagulation cascade. Generally, clinical conditions that require the prescribing of an oral anticoagulant increase in frequency with age. However, a major challenge of anticoagulation use among older patients is that this group of patients also experience the highest bleeding risk. To date, economic evaluation of prescribing of anticoagulants that includes the novel or newer oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in older adults has not been conducted and is warranted...
May 9, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735342/dabigatran-reduces-endothelial-permeability-through-inhibition-of-thrombin-induced-cytoskeleton-reorganization
#9
Hyun-Jung Choi, Na-Eun Kim, Jayoung Kim, Sunho An, Seung-Hee Yang, Jimin Ha, Sunghee Cho, Il Kwon, Young Dae Kim, Hyo Suk Nam, Ji Hoe Heo
Dabigatran etexilate (DE), a new oral anti-coagulant, is a direct thrombin inhibitor. Clinical trials showed the favorable benefit-to-risk profile of DE compared to warfarin for the prevention of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. Remarkably, patients treated with dabigatran showed reduced rates of intracerebral hemorrhage compared to warfarin. As the breakdown of endothelial barrier integrity is associated with hemorrhagic events and as thrombin increases endothelial permeability, we hypothesized that dabigatran preserves the endothelial barrier by inhibiting thrombin-induced permeability...
April 25, 2018: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733494/evolutionary-conservation-of-the-allosteric-activation-of-factor-viia-by-tissue-factor-in-lamprey-comment
#10
J J Madsen, E Persson, O H Olsen
We read with great interest the article on allostery in a protease from the blood coagulation cascade by Beeler et al.(1) in a recent issue of Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Herein, the authors conclude that the allosteric activation of coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) by tissue factor (TF) in lamprey (l-) appears indistinguishable from, and conserved compared to, that in human (h-); meaning that l-FVIIa is assumed to be catalytically incompetent unless allosterically activated by l-TF. The lamprey, an ancient jawless eel-like vertebrate, is a fascinating creature and studying its coagulation system can certainly lead to insights into molecular mechanisms of coagulation as well as evolutionary adaptations over hundreds of millions of years (reviewed in (2))...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724133/discovery-of-fixa-inhibitors-by-combination-of-pharmacophore-modeling-molecular-docking-and-3d-qsar-modeling
#11
Penghua Li, Jiale Peng, Yeheng Zhou, Yaping Li, XingYong Liu, LiangLiang Wang, ZhiLi Zuo
Human Coagulation Factor IXa (FIXa), specifically inhibited at the initiation stage of the blood coagulation cascade, is an excellent target for developing selective and safe anticoagulants. To explore this inhibitory mechanism, 86 FIXa inhibitors were selected to generate pharmacophore models and subsequently SAR models. Both best pharmacophore model and ROC curve were built through the Receptor-Ligand Pharmacophore Generation module. CoMFA model based on molecular docking and PLS factor analysis methods were developed...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723040/role-of-the-blood-coagulation-cascade-in-hepatic-fibrosis
#12
Asmita Pant, Anna K Kopec, James P Luyendyk
Liver is the primary source of numerous proteins critical for normal function of the blood coagulation cascade. Because of this, diseases of the liver, particularly when affiliated with severe complications like cirrhosis, are associated with abnormalities of blood clotting. Although conventional interpretation has inferred cirrhosis as a disorder of uniform bleeding risk, it is now increasingly appreciated as a disease wherein the coagulation cascade is precariously rebalanced. Moreover, prothrombotic risk factors are also associated with a more rapid progression of fibrosis in humans, suggesting that coagulation proteases participate in disease pathogenesis...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716893/complement-c5-but-not-c3-is-expendable-for-tissue-factor-activation-by-cofactor-independent-antiphospholipid-antibodies
#13
Nadine Müller-Calleja, Svenja Ritter, Anne Hollerbach, Tanja Falter, Karl J Lackner, Wolfram Ruf
The complement and coagulation cascades interact at multiple levels in thrombosis and inflammatory diseases. In venous thrombosis, complement factor 3 (C3) is crucial for platelet and tissue factor (TF) procoagulant activation dependent on protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). Furthermore, C5 selectively contributes to the exposure of leukocyte procoagulant phosphatidylserine (PS), which is a prerequisite for rapid activation of monocyte TF and fibrin formation in thrombosis. Here, we show that monoclonal cofactor-independent antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) rapidly activate TF on myelomonocytic cells...
May 8, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704172/a-direct-oral-factor-xa-inhibitor-edoxaban-ameliorates-neointimal-hyperplasia-following-vascular-injury-and-thrombosis-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#14
Yoshiyuki Morishima, Yuko Honda
Vascular injury activates the coagulation cascade. Some studies report that coagulation factor Xa and thrombin are implicated in proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, edoxaban, on neointimal hyperplasia following the carotid artery injury in apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient mice. Vascular injury was induced by the application of 10% ferric chloride to the carotid artery for 3 min in ApoE-deficient mice...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703925/an-innovative-approach-for-the-integration-of-proteomics-and-metabolomics-data-in-severe-septic-shock-patients-stratified-for-mortality
#15
Alice Cambiaghi, Ramón Díaz, Julia Bauzá Martinez, Antonia Odena, Laura Brunelli, Pietro Caironi, Serge Masson, Giuseppe Baselli, Giuseppe Ristagno, Luciano Gattinoni, Eliandre de Oliveira, Roberta Pastorelli, Manuela Ferrario
In this work, we examined plasma metabolome, proteome and clinical features in patients with severe septic shock enrolled in the multicenter ALBIOS study. The objective was to identify changes in the levels of metabolites involved in septic shock progression and to integrate this information with the variation occurring in proteins and clinical data. Mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolomics and untargeted proteomics allowed us to quantify absolute metabolites concentration and relative proteins abundance...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701408/percutaneous-treatment-pseudo-aneurism-of-the-hand-in-hemophilic-patient
#16
Vítor Ferreira, Arlindo Matos, Duarte Rego, João Gonçalves, Gabriela Teixeira, Inês Antunes, Carlos Veiga, Daniel Mendes, Joana Martins, Rui Almeida
INTRODUCTION: Pseudo aneurysms of the hand are infrequent lesions, usually associated with perforating trauma. The diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion and image confirmation of a pulsatile swelling. Various treatment modalities are currently described in the literature. METHODS: Presentation of a clinical case and discussion of the treatment strategy instituted. RESULTS: Clinical case: Man, 35 years old, with hemophilia A. History of perforating trauma of the palmar face of the right hand 3 weeks ago, having been sutured in the local hospital...
July 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-torácica e Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701015/a-case-series-association-of-anaphylaxis-with-a-significant-decrease-in-platelet-levels-and-possible-secondary-risk-of-thrombosis
#17
Brian P Peppers, Anant Vatsayan, Jignesh Dalal, Tracey Bonfield, Haig Tcheurekdjian, Robert Hostoffer
INTRODUCTION: Anaphylaxis is a life threatening systemic inflammatory process that share mediators involved in the coagulation cascade. Platelet activating factor, known to increase platelet aggregation, has also been implicated as an important mediator of anaphylaxis. Although other inflammatory reactions are associated with an increased risk of thrombosis, anaphylaxis is currently not reported as one of them. Furthermore the role platelets may have in the perianaphylaxis period is not well understood...
April 26, 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692238/advances-in-the-development-of-novel-factor-xa-inhibitors-a-patent-review
#18
Atul N Khadse, Mayank Kumar Sharma, Prashant R Murumkar, Sadhana J Rajput, Mange Ram Yadav
Development of new anticoagulants has been in constant demand throughout the world due to increasing rate of morbidity and mortality caused by thrombotic diseases. Factor Xa (FXa), one of the enzymes and validated target for anticoagulation, regulates the production of thrombin in the coagulation cascade. The importance of oral FXa inhibitors like rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban in thromboembolic conditions is well supported by increasing number of patents and research publications during the recent years...
April 24, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686179/the-autoimmune-mechanism-in-dengue-hemorrhagic-fever
#19
Soroy Lardo, Marsetyawan Hne Soesatyo, Juffrie Juffrie, Sitti Rahmah Umniyati
The immune response of dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever is a series of immunopathogenesis processes starting from viral infection to the target on monocytes and macrophages. It may consequently cause a cascade of viremia in the circulation that stimulates the afferent, efferent, and effector mechanism by the interaction of the humoral and complement system. The cascade results in inflammatory substance that will affect capillary permeability and activate coagulation factors leading to further effects on endothelial level...
January 2018: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679324/controlling-fibrin-network-morphology-polymerization-and-degradation-dynamics-in-fibrin-gels-for-promoting-tissue-repair
#20
Erin P Sproul, Riley T Hannan, Ashley C Brown
Fibrin is an integral part of the clotting cascade and is formed by polymerization of the soluble plasma protein fibrinogen. Following stimulation of the coagulation cascade, thrombin activates fibrinogen, which binds to adjacent fibrin(ogen) molecules resulting in the formation of an insoluble fibrin matrix. This fibrin network is the primary protein component in clots and subsequently provides a scaffold for infiltrating cells during tissue repair. Due to its role in hemostasis and tissue repair, fibrin has been used extensively as a tissue sealant...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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