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Nafiseh Shekari, Maryam Vosough, Kourosh Tabar Heidar
In the current study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) fingerprinting of herbal slimming pills assisted by chemometric methods has been presented. Deconvolution of two-way chromatographic signals of nine herbal slimming pills into pure chromatographic and spectral patterns was performed. The peak clusters were resolved using multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) by employing appropriate constraints. It was revealed that more useful chemical information about the composition of the slimming pills can be obtained by employing sophisticated GC-MS method coupled with proper chemometric tools yielding the extended number of identified constituents...
March 19, 2018: Forensic Science International
Ornella Leone, Valentina Agostini, Alberto Foà, Bruna Cerbelli, Cira Rosaria Tiziana di Gioia, Mariarosaria Aromatario, Costantino Ciallella, Joaquin Lucena, Giulia d'Amati
Amphetamine congeners can be prescribed as anorexiant drugs despite their potential adverse effects, including cardiac toxicity. However, the morphologic features of cardiac damage related to protracted use of these compounds are unknown. We provide a detailed description of cardiac autopsy findings in 3 cases of sudden death associated with protracted use of high doses of phendimetrazine and/or phenylpropanolamine or bupropion prescribed as anorexiants, in association with other compounds. The main cardiac findings were similar in all 3 cases: (1) mild-moderate hypertrophy of the left ventricle and/or the septum; (2) myocardial nonischemic scarring (midmural and/or subepicardial) appearing as discrete foci or with a bandlike morphology; (3) mild-moderate intramural small vessel disease in the absence of significant epicardial coronary artery stenosis; and (4) acute/recent inflammatory lesions consistent with toxic myocarditis...
November 2017: Human Pathology
Joanna R Doley, Laura M Hart, Arthur A Stukas, Katja Petrovic, Ayoub Bouguettaya, Susan J Paxton
Stigma is a problem for individuals with eating disorders (EDs), forming a barrier to disclosure and help-seeking. Interventions to reduce ED stigma may help remove these barriers; however, it is not known which strategies (e.g., explaining etiology to reduce blame, contact with a person with an ED, or educating about ED) are effective in reducing stigma and related outcomes. This review described effectiveness of intervention strategies, and identified gaps in the literature. A search of four databases was performed using the terms (eating disorder* OR bulimi* OR anorexi* OR binge-eating disorder) AND (stigma* OR stereotyp* OR beliefs OR negative attitudes) AND (program OR experiment OR intervention OR education), with additional texts sought through LISTSERVs...
March 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Barak Shapira, Lee Goldstein, Amikam Reshef, Alina Poperno
BACKGROUND: Sibutramine, an oral anorexiant, is often found as an adulterant in various counterfeit herbal slimming products and dietary supplements. The use of sibutramine has been associated with various cardiovascular and psychiatric symptoms. Here, we report a rare case of psychomotor disturbances, in a patient with no previously diagnosed movement disorders. CASE: A 26-year-old woman developed abnormal behavior, visual hallucinations, hyperkinesia, facial flushing, and dizziness after taking a counterfeit dietary supplement which contained undeclared sibutramine and phenolphtalein...
May 2016: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Tiên T K Do, Grigorios Theocharis, Eike Reich
An HPTLC method is proposed to permit effective screening for the presence of three phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is; sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil) and eight of their analogs (hydroxyacetildenafil, homosildenafil, thiohomosildenafil, acetildenafil, acetaminotadalafil, propoxyphenyl hydroxyhomosildenafil, hydroxyhomosildenafil, and hydroxythiohomosildenafil) in finished products, including tablets, capsules, chocolate, instant coffee, syrup, and chewing gum. For all the finished products, the same simple sample preparation may be applied: ultrasound-assisted extraction in 10 mL methanol for 30 min followed by centrifugation...
September 2015: Journal of AOAC International
Rory M Murphy, Belal Bakir, Colm O'Brien, Janey L Wiggs, Louis R Pasquale
PURPOSE: We performed a literature synthesis to identify the full spectrum of compounds implicated in drug-induced, bilateral secondary angle-closure glaucoma (2° ACG). METHODS: Systematic PubMed literature review identified relevant bilateral 2° ACG case reports. We evaluated these reports with both the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale to assess the causality of reported drug reactions and a 2° ACG scale scoring system we developed to determine the likelihood that the event represented bilateral 2° ACG...
February 2016: Journal of Glaucoma
M A Katritzky
Human hirsuteness, or pathological hair growth, can be symptomatic of various conditions, including genetic mutation or inheritance, and some cancers and hormonal disturbances. Modern investigations into hirsuteness were initiated by nineteenth-century German physicians. Most early modern European cases of hypertrichosis (genetically determined all-over body and facial hair) involve German-speaking parentage or patronage, and are documented in German print culture. Through the Wild Man tradition, modern historians routinely link early modern reception of historical hypertrichosis cases to issues of ethnicity without, however, recognising early modern awareness of links between temporary hirsuteness and the pathological nexus of starvation and anorexia...
September 24, 2014: German Life and Letters
Gustavo Provensi, Roberto Coccurello, Hayato Umehara, Leonardo Munari, Giacomo Giacovazzo, Nicoletta Galeotti, Daniele Nosi, Silvana Gaetani, Adele Romano, Anna Moles, Patrizio Blandina, Maria Beatrice Passani
Key factors driving eating behavior are hunger and satiety, which are controlled by a complex interplay of central neurotransmitter systems and peripheral stimuli. The lipid-derived messenger oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is released by enterocytes in response to fat intake and indirectly signals satiety to hypothalamic nuclei. Brain histamine is released during the appetitive phase to provide a high level of arousal in anticipation of feeding, and mediates satiety. However, despite the possible functional overlap of satiety signals, it is not known whether histamine participates in OEA-induced hypophagia...
August 5, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Serge Adnot, Amal Houssaini, Shariq Abid, Elisabeth Marcos, Valérie Amsellem
The nature of the primary defect responsible for triggering and maintaining pulmonary artery smooth muscle (PA-SMC) proliferation in pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is poorly understood but may be either an inherent characteristic of PA-SMCs or a secondary response to an external abnormality, such as upregulation of growth factors. The serotonin hypothesis of PAH originated in the 1960s after an outbreak of the disease was reported among patients taking the anorexigenic drugs aminorex. The anorexiant dexfenfluramine which inhibits 5-HT neuronal uptake, causes 5-HT platelet depletion, and increases plasma levels of 5-HT, was then shown to increase the relative risk of developing PAH in the adults...
2013: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Radim Vrzal, Barbora Knoppová, Petr Bachleda, Zdeněk Dvořák
Sibutramine is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that was used for weight-loss management in obese patients. Even though it was officially withdrawn from the market in 2010, it is still present in some tainted weight-loss pills (as reported by US Food and Drug Administration). Thus, it is still reasonable to study the effects of this compound. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of sibutramine to induce CYP1A1/CY3A4 in human cancer cell lines and CYP1A1/2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes, a competent model of metabolically active cells...
December 2013: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Hans-Peter Müller, Heiko G Niessen, Thomas Kaulisch, Albert C Ludolph, Jan Kassubek, Detlef Stiller
PURPOSE: Body fat distribution changes are associated with multiple alterations in metabolism. Therefore, the assessment of body fat compartments by MRI in animal models is a promising approach to obesity research. Standard T1-weighted (T1w) whole body MRI was used here to quantify different effects in the subcutaneous and visceral fat compartments in rats under treatment with an anorexiant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty rats on a high caloric diet were investigated by the identical MRI protocol at baseline and after seven weeks...
September 2013: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Shuyu Xie, Fenghua Wang, Yan Wang, Luyan Zhu, Zhao Dong, Xiaofang Wang, Xihe Li, Wenzhong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Our previous studies demonstrated that tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticles (Til-HCO-SLN) are a promising formulation for enhanced pharmacological activity and therapeutic efficacy in veterinary use. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity of Til-HCO-SLN. METHODS: Two nanoparticle doses were used for the study in ICR mice. The low dose (766 mg/ with tilmicosin 7.5 times of the clinic dosage and below the median lethal dose (LD(50)) was subcutaneously administered twice on the first and 7th day...
2011: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Peng Wang, Dan Wang, Shi-Jie Chen, Ming-Can Wu, Xiang-Lin Cheng, Jun-Chuan Li, Ting-Xuan Chen, Zhan-Sheng Zhu
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to establish a cerebral schistosomiasis model in rabbits, to provide a valuable tool for morphological analysis, clinical manifestation observation, as well as investigations into immunological reactions and pathogenesis of focal inflammatory reaction in neuroschistosomiasis (NS). METHODS: Sixty New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned into operation, sham-operation and normal groups. Rabbits in the operation group received direct injection of dead schistosome eggs into the brain, while their counterparts in the sham-operation group received saline injection...
April 2011: Neuroscience Bulletin
Deborah H McCollister, Michelle Beutz, Vallerie McLaughlin, John Rumsfeld, Frederick A Masoudi, Mark Tripputi, Thomas Yaeger, Philippe Weintraub, David B Badesch
BACKGROUND: In patients with left-heart disease, depressive symptoms have a significant impact on functional status and quality of life. The prevalence of depressive symptoms, and their impact on patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is understudied. OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated the prevalence of depressive symptoms in PAH and their correlation with physical functioning. METHOD: Consecutive outpatients with PAH (idiopathic; or associated with scleroderma, congenital heart disease, or anorexiant use) seen in two university PAH clinics were screened...
July 2010: Psychosomatics
M Pistis, M Melis
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have long been known as mediators of several physiological functions, among which the best characterized are lipid metabolism, energy balance and anti-inflammation. Their rather large and promiscuous ligand binding site has been recently discovered to accommodate, among a plethora of lipid molecules and metabolic intermediates, endocannabinoids and their cognate compounds, specifically belonging to the Nacylethanolamine group. In fact, oleoylethanolamide, palmitoylethanolamide and probably anandamide bind with relatively high affinity to PPARs and have now been included among their endogenous ligands...
2010: Current Medicinal Chemistry
A Muruganathan
It is traditional to define obesity in reference to one individuals's body mass index. It is an important health problem in India. There are multiple conditions causing obesity eg, genetic, cultural, socioeconomic, behavioural, situational, metabolic and physiological. There are a number of comorbid conditions of obesity which have an impact on morbidity. Management in clinical practice should always be a patient oriented approach. The management consists of the following approaches: Evidence that reducing weight decreases disease risk, changing patient's expectations and goals, dietary management, physical activity--some general guidelines, behavioural therapy, selection of patient, centrally acting anorexiant medications, peripherally acting medications, the endocannabinoid system, surgery, etc...
July 2009: Journal of the Indian Medical Association
Sergueï O Fetissov, Michael M Meguid
AIM: To determine if central serotonin (5-HT)-induced satiety is altered in obesity. METHODS: Obese and lean Zucker rats received infusion of 5-HT (5 microg/0.5 microl/h) or saline into the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN) for 2 weeks. RESULTS: In lean rats, 5-HT decreased body weight (7%) and total food intake (15%) which was due to a decreased meal size during the dark phase. In obese rats, a decrease of food intake was also observed in the dark phase, but it was compensated by an increased food intake during the light phase, resulting in no significant changes of total food intake and body weight...
April 2010: Appetite
S Gaetani, W H Kaye, V Cuomo, D Piomelli
Fatty acids ethanolamides (FAEs) are a family of lipid mediators. A member of this family, anandamide, is an endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptors targeted by the marijuana constituent Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Anandamide is now established as a brain endocannabinoid messenger and multiple roles for other FAEs have also been proposed. One emerging function of these lipid mediators is the regulation of feeding behavior and body weight. Anandamide causes overeating in rats because of its ability to activate cannabinoid receptors...
September 2008: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
F García-Tamayo, N Malpica López, M Aguirre, L I Terrazas-Valdés
Prolonged stimulation of newborn mice by intraperitoneal injections with inactivated staphylococci induces a chronic neonatal inflammatory reaction and an associated oxidative-stress response. The chronically stimulated animals exhibit anorexy. show a reduction in their body weight and undergo a depression in both antibody synthesis andin vitro proliferativc response of Con A-stimulated splenic T-lymphocytes. These stressed animals also develop adrenal hyperplasia, hypozincamia and thymic hypoplasia. Despite this stress-mediated thymic involution, Con-A stimulated T-lymphocytes from thymus displayed increased theirin vitro proliferative response...
1999: Inflammopharmacology
M T Guagnano, M R Manigrasso, M Marinopiccoli, G Davì
The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly in most industrialized countries and it is known that obesity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Commonly, obesity is defined by the Body Mass Index (BMI). However, BMI fails to consider body fat distribution. The relationship between the risk of metabolic-cardiovascular diseases and body fat distribution indices, rather than measures of the degree of body fatness as expressed by BMI, has long been recognized. Clinical and epidemiological research has found waist circumference to be the best anthropometric indicator of both total body fat and intra-abdominal fat mass...
May 2007: La Clinica Terapeutica
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