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Cosmic Radiation

Vipan K Parihar, Barrett D Allen, Chongshan Caressi, Stephanie Kwok, Esther Chu, Katherine K Tran, Nicole N Chmielewski, Erich Giedzinski, Munjal M Acharya, Richard A Britten, Janet E Baulch, Charles L Limoli
The Mars mission will result in an inevitable exposure to cosmic radiation that has been shown to cause cognitive impairments in rodent models, and possibly in astronauts engaged in deep space travel. Of particular concern is the potential for cosmic radiation exposure to compromise critical decision making during normal operations or under emergency conditions in deep space. Rodents exposed to cosmic radiation exhibit persistent hippocampal and cortical based performance decrements using six independent behavioral tasks administered between separate cohorts 12 and 24 weeks after irradiation...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Dimitra Atri
Photosynthesis is a mechanism developed by terrestrial life to utilize the energy from photons of solar origin for biological use. Subsurface regions are isolated from the photosphere, and consequently are incapable of utilizing this energy. This opens up the opportunity for life to evolve alternative mechanisms for harvesting available energy. Bacterium Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator, found 2.8 km deep in a South African mine, harvests energy from radiolysis, induced by particles emitted from radioactive U, Th and K present in surrounding rock...
October 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Gavin Gillmore, David Wertheim, Simon Crust
Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) are used extensively for monitoring alpha particle radiation, neutron flux and cosmic ray radiation. Radon gas inhalation is regarded as being a significant contributory factor to lung cancer deaths in the UK each year. Gas concentrations are often monitored using CR39 based SSNTDs as the natural decay of radon results in alpha particles which form tracks in these detectors. Such tracks are normally etched for about 4h to enable microscopic analysis. This study examined the effect of etching time on the appearance of alpha tracks in SSNTDs by collecting 2D and 3D image datasets using laser confocal microscope imaging techniques...
September 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Bent Ehresmann, Donald M Hassler, Cary Zeitlin, Jingnan Guo, Jan Köhler, Robert F Wimmer-Schweingruber, Jan K Appel, David E Brinza, Scot C R Rafkin, Stephan I Böttcher, Sönke Burmeister, Henning Lohf, Cesar Martin, Eckart Böhm, Daniel Matthiä, Günther Reitz
The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) started its 253-day cruise to Mars on November 26, 2011. During cruise the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), situated on board the Curiosity rover, conducted measurements of the energetic-particle radiation environment inside the spacecraft. This environment consists mainly of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), as well as secondary particles created by interactions of these GCRs with the spacecraft. The RAD measurements can serve as a proxy for the radiation environment a human crew would encounter during a transit to Mars, for a given part of the solar cycle, assuming that a crewed vehicle would have comparable shielding...
August 2016: Life Sciences in Space Research
Paschal Ikenna Enyinna
Radiological risk parameters associated with aircrew members traveling from Houston Intercontinental Airport to Lagos International Airport have been computed using computer software called EPCARD (version 3.2). The mean annual effective dose of radiation was computed to be 2.94 mSv/year. This result is above the standard permissible limit of 1 mSv/year set for the public and pregnant aircrew members but below the limit set for occupationally exposed workers. The Risk of cancer mortality and excess career time cancer risk computed ranged from 3...
July 2016: Journal of Medical Physics
Tatsuhiko Sato
After the release of the Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee of the Effects of Atomic Radiation in 2000 (UNSCEAR2000), it became commonly accepted that the world population-weighted effective dose due to cosmic-ray exposure is 0.38 mSv, with a range from 0.3 to 2 mSv. However, these values were derived from approximate projections of altitude and geographic dependences of the cosmic-ray dose rates as well as the world population. This study hence re-evaluated the population-weighted annual effective doses and their probability densities for the entire world as well as for 230 individual nations, using a sophisticated cosmic-ray flux calculation model in tandem with detailed grid population and elevation databases...
2016: Scientific Reports
Chen Zhao, Xue-Mei Tian, Guang-Yuan Wang, Ai-Rong Song, Wen-Xing Liang
A new Grifola frondosa mutant, M270, was successfully isolated for high production of exopolysaccharides (EPSs) using cosmic radiation-induced mutagenesis. We found that the mutant M270 had a clearer and thicker EPS layer (~10 µm) adhering to mycelia than those of its parent strain 265 after Congo red staining. In the 20-L batch fermentation for M270, 10.3 g/L of EPS and 17.9 g/L of dry mycelia biomass were obtained after 204 hours of fermentation. Furthermore, a main water-soluble fraction (EP1) in the EPS was purified from M270 and then confirmed to be heteroglycan-protein complex with 91% (w/w) total carbohydrates and 9% (w/w) total proteins...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Yi-Fu Cai, Salvatore Capozziello, Mariafelicia De Laurentis, Emmanuel N Saridakis
Over recent decades, the role of torsion in gravity has been extensively investigated along the main direction of bringing gravity closer to its gauge formulation and incorporating spin in a geometric description. Here we review various torsional constructions, from teleparallel, to Einstein-Cartan, and metric-affine gauge theories, resulting in extending torsional gravity in the paradigm of f (T) gravity, where f (T) is an arbitrary function of the torsion scalar. Based on this theory, we further review the corresponding cosmological and astrophysical applications...
October 2016: Reports on Progress in Physics
Lynne E Pinkerton, Misty J Hein, Jeri L Anderson, Mark P Little, Alice J Sigurdson, Mary K Schubauer-Berigan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association of breast cancer incidence with cosmic radiation dose and circadian rhythm disruption in a cohort of 6093 US female flight attendants. METHODS: The association of breast cancer risk with cumulative cosmic radiation dose, time spent working during the standard sleep interval, and time zones crossed (all lagged by ten years), adjusted for non-occupational breast cancer risk factors, was evaluated using Cox regression...
August 23, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
A J Bennett
Measurements of atmospheric electrical and standard meteorological parameters were made at coastal and inland sites in southern England during the 20 March 2015 partial solar eclipse. Clear evidence of a reduction in air temperature resulting from the eclipse was found at both locations, despite one of them being overcast during the entire eclipse. The reduction in temperature was expected to affect the near-surface electric field (potential gradient (PG)) through a reduction in turbulent transfer of space charge...
September 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Oleg V Belov, Ksenia V Belokopytova, Ara S Bazyan, Vladimir S Kudrin, Viktor B Narkevich, Aleksandr A Ivanov, Yury S Severiukhin, Gennady N Timoshenko, Eugene A Krasavin
Planning of the deep-space exploration missions raises a number of questions on the radiation protection of astronauts. One of the medical concerns is associated with exposure of a crew to highly energetic particles of galactic cosmic rays. Among many other health disorders, irradiation with these particles has a substantial impact on the central nervous system (CNS). Although radiation damage to CNS has been addressed extensively during the last years, the mechanisms underlying observed impairments remain mostly unknown...
September 2016: Physica Medica: PM
B R Macias, F Lima, J M Swift, Y Shirazi-Fard, E S Greene, M R Allen, J Fluckey, H A Hogan, L Braby, Suojin Wang, S A Bloomfield
Exploration missions to the Moon or Mars will expose astronauts to galactic cosmic radiation and low gravitational fields. Exposure to reduced weightbearing and radiation independently result in bone loss. However, no data exist regarding the skeletal consequences of combining low-dose, high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and partial weightbearing. We hypothesized that simulated galactic cosmic radiation would exacerbate bone loss in animals held at one-sixth body weight (G/6) without radiation exposure...
September 2016: Radiation Research
Tatsuhiko Sato
A new model called "PHITS-based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere (PARMA) version 4.0" was developed to facilitate instantaneous estimation of not only omnidirectional but also angular differential energy spectra of cosmic ray fluxes anywhere in Earth's atmosphere at nearly any given time. It consists of its previous version, PARMA3.0, for calculating the omnidirectional fluxes and several mathematical functions proposed in this study for expressing their zenith-angle dependences. The numerical values of the parameters used in these functions were fitted to reproduce the results of the extensive air shower simulation performed by Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS)...
2016: PloS One
Zhen Yang, Bo Chen, Weihai Zhuo, Chao Zhao, Weiyuan Zhang
For discriminative measurements of the different components of external ionizing radiation by passive dosimeters, a new monitoring post consisting of a 3-layer lead chamber and 4 sets of passive dosimeters was designed in this study. Based on the theoretical studies, the thicknesses of the lead layers were determined and the algorithm for quantifying the different components of external ionizing radiation was derived. To testify the design, in-situ measurements were carried out at two different sites throughout a year...
July 23, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Xin Li, Li-ming Zhang, Hong-yao Chen, Wei-wei Xu
The multispectral remote sensing technology has been a primary means in the research of biomass monitoring, climate change, disaster prediction and etc. The spectral sensitivity is essential in the quantitative analysis of remote sensing data. When the sensor is running in the space, it will be influenced by cosmic radiation, severe change of temperature, chemical molecular contamination, cosmic dust and etc. As a result, the spectral sensitivity will degrade by time, which has great implication on the accuracy and consistency of the physical measurements...
March 2016: Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi, Guang Pu
Tine Verreet, Mieke Verslegers, Roel Quintens, Sarah Baatout, Mohammed A Benotmane
Ionizing radiation is omnipresent. We are continuously exposed to natural (e.g., radon and cosmic) and man-made radiation sources, including those from industry but especially from the medical sector. The increasing use of medical radiation modalities, in particular those employing low-dose radiation such as CT scans, raises concerns regarding the effects of cumulative exposure doses and the inappropriate utilization of these imaging techniques. One of the major goals in the radioprotection field is to better understand the potential health risk posed to the unborn child after radiation exposure to the pregnant mother, of which the first convincing evidence came from epidemiological studies on in utero exposed atomic bomb survivors...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Filippo Ambroglini, Roberto Battiston, William J Burger
A manned mission to Mars would present an important long-term health risk to the crew members due to the prolonged exposure to the ionizing radiation of galactic cosmic-rays. The radiation levels would largely exceed those encountered in the Apollo missions. An increase in the passive shielding provided by the spacecraft implies a significant increase of the mass. The advent of superconducting magnets in the early 1960s was considered an attractive alternative. The technology allows to generate magnetic fields capable to deflect the cosmic-rays in a manner analogous to the reduction of the particle fluxes in the upper atmosphere due to the Earth's dipole magnetic field...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Jianhui Chang, Yi Luo, Yingying Wang, Rupak Pathak, Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, Tamako Jones, Xiao Wen Mao, Gregory Nelson, Marjan Boerma, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Daohong Zhou, Lijian Shao
One of the major health risks to astronauts is radiation on long-duration space missions. Space radiation from sun and galactic cosmic rays consists primarily of 85% protons, 14% helium nuclei and 1% high-energy high-charge (HZE) particles, such as oxygen (16O), carbon, silicon, and iron ions. HZE particles exhibit dense linear tracks of ionization associated with clustered DNA damage and often high relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Therefore, new knowledge of risks from HZE particle exposures must be obtained...
2016: PloS One
O Adriani, G C Barbarino, G A Bazilevskaya, R Bellotti, M Boezio, E A Bogomolov, M Bongi, V Bonvicini, S Bottai, A Bruno, F Cafagna, D Campana, P Carlson, M Casolino, G Castellini, C De Santis, V Di Felice, A M Galper, A V Karelin, S V Koldashov, S A Koldobskiy, S Y Krutkov, A N Kvashnin, A Leonov, V Malakhov, L Marcelli, M Martucci, A G Mayorov, W Menn, M Mergé, V V Mikhailov, E Mocchiutti, A Monaco, N Mori, R Munini, G Osteria, B Panico, P Papini, M Pearce, P Picozza, M Ricci, S B Ricciarini, M Simon, R Sparvoli, P Spillantini, Y I Stozhkov, A Vacchi, E Vannuccini, G I Vasilyev, S A Voronov, Y T Yurkin, G Zampa, N Zampa, M S Potgieter, E E Vos
Cosmic-ray electrons and positrons are a unique probe of the propagation of cosmic rays as well as of the nature and distribution of particle sources in our Galaxy. Recent measurements of these particles are challenging our basic understanding of the mechanisms of production, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays. Particularly striking are the differences between the low energy results collected by the space-borne PAMELA and AMS-02 experiments and older measurements pointing to sign-charge dependence of the solar modulation of cosmic-ray spectra...
June 17, 2016: Physical Review Letters
A Aab, P Abreu, M Aglietta, E J Ahn, I Al Samarai, I F M Albuquerque, I Allekotte, P Allison, A Almela, J Alvarez Castillo, J Alvarez-Muñiz, R Alves Batista, M Ambrosio, A Aminaei, G A Anastasi, L Anchordoqui, S Andringa, C Aramo, F Arqueros, N Arsene, H Asorey, P Assis, J Aublin, G Avila, N Awal, A M Badescu, C Baus, J J Beatty, K H Becker, J A Bellido, C Berat, M E Bertaina, X Bertou, P L Biermann, P Billoir, S G Blaess, A Blanco, M Blanco, J Blazek, C Bleve, H Blümer, M Boháčová, D Boncioli, C Bonifazi, N Borodai, J Brack, I Brancus, T Bretz, A Bridgeman, P Brogueira, P Buchholz, A Bueno, S Buitink, M Buscemi, K S Caballero-Mora, B Caccianiga, L Caccianiga, M Candusso, L Caramete, R Caruso, A Castellina, G Cataldi, L Cazon, R Cester, A G Chavez, A Chiavassa, J A Chinellato, J Chudoba, M Cilmo, R W Clay, G Cocciolo, R Colalillo, A Coleman, L Collica, M R Coluccia, R Conceição, F Contreras, M J Cooper, A Cordier, S Coutu, C E Covault, J Cronin, R Dallier, B Daniel, S Dasso, K Daumiller, B R Dawson, R M de Almeida, S J de Jong, G De Mauro, J R T de Mello Neto, I De Mitri, J de Oliveira, V de Souza, L Del Peral, O Deligny, N Dhital, C Di Giulio, A Di Matteo, J C Diaz, M L Díaz Castro, F Diogo, C Dobrigkeit, W Docters, J C D'Olivo, A Dorofeev, Q Dorosti Hasankiadeh, R C Dos Anjos, M T Dova, J Ebr, R Engel, M Erdmann, M Erfani, C O Escobar, J Espadanal, A Etchegoyen, H Falcke, K Fang, G Farrar, A C Fauth, N Fazzini, A P Ferguson, B Fick, J M Figueira, A Filevich, A Filipčič, O Fratu, M M Freire, T Fujii, B García, D Garcia-Gamez, D Garcia-Pinto, F Gate, H Gemmeke, A Gherghel-Lascu, P L Ghia, U Giaccari, M Giammarchi, M Giller, D Głas, C Glaser, H Glass, G Golup, M Gómez Berisso, P F Gómez Vitale, N González, B Gookin, J Gordon, A Gorgi, P Gorham, P Gouffon, N Griffith, A F Grillo, T D Grubb, F Guarino, G P Guedes, M R Hampel, P Hansen, D Harari, T A Harrison, S Hartmann, J L Harton, A Haungs, T Hebbeker, D Heck, P Heimann, A E Herve, G C Hill, C Hojvat, N Hollon, E Holt, P Homola, J R Hörandel, P Horvath, M Hrabovský, D Huber, T Huege, A Insolia, P G Isar, I Jandt, S Jansen, C Jarne, J A Johnsen, M Josebachuili, A Kääpä, O Kambeitz, K H Kampert, P Kasper, I Katkov, B Keilhauer, E Kemp, R M Kieckhafer, H O Klages, M Kleifges, J Kleinfeller, R Krause, N Krohm, D Kuempel, G Kukec Mezek, N Kunka, A W Kuotb Awad, D LaHurd, L Latronico, R Lauer, M Lauscher, P Lautridou, S Le Coz, D Lebrun, P Lebrun, M A Leigui de Oliveira, A Letessier-Selvon, I Lhenry-Yvon, K Link, L Lopes, R López, A López Casado, K Louedec, A Lucero, M Malacari, M Mallamaci, J Maller, D Mandat, P Mantsch, A G Mariazzi, V Marin, I C Mariş, G Marsella, D Martello, H Martinez, O Martínez Bravo, D Martraire, J J Masías Meza, H J Mathes, S Mathys, J Matthews, J A J Matthews, G Matthiae, D Maurizio, E Mayotte, P O Mazur, C Medina, G Medina-Tanco, R Meissner, V B B Mello, D Melo, A Menshikov, S Messina, M I Micheletti, L Middendorf, I A Minaya, L Miramonti, B Mitrica, L Molina-Bueno, S Mollerach, F Montanet, C Morello, M Mostafá, C A Moura, M A Muller, G Müller, S Müller, S Navas, P Necesal, L Nellen, A Nelles, J Neuser, P H Nguyen, M Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M Niechciol, L Niemietz, T Niggemann, D Nitz, D Nosek, V Novotny, L Nožka, L A Núñez, L Ochilo, F Oikonomou, A Olinto, N Pacheco, D Pakk Selmi-Dei, M Palatka, J Pallotta, P Papenbreer, G Parente, A Parra, T Paul, M Pech, J Pȩkala, R Pelayo, I M Pepe, L Perrone, E Petermann, C Peters, S Petrera, Y Petrov, J Phuntsok, R Piegaia, T Pierog, P Pieroni, M Pimenta, V Pirronello, M Platino, M Plum, A Porcelli, C Porowski, R R Prado, P Privitera, M Prouza, E J Quel, S Querchfeld, S Quinn, J Rautenberg, O Ravel, D Ravignani, D Reinert, B Revenu, J Ridky, M Risse, P Ristori, V Rizi, W Rodrigues de Carvalho, J Rodriguez Rojo, M D Rodríguez-Frías, D Rogozin, J Rosado, M Roth, E Roulet, A C Rovero, S J Saffi, A Saftoiu, H Salazar, A Saleh, F Salesa Greus, G Salina, J D Sanabria Gomez, F Sánchez, P Sanchez-Lucas, E Santos, E M Santos, F Sarazin, B Sarkar, R Sarmento, C Sarmiento-Cano, R Sato, C Scarso, M Schauer, V Scherini, H Schieler, D Schmidt, O Scholten, H Schoorlemmer, P Schovánek, F G Schröder, A Schulz, J Schulz, J Schumacher, S J Sciutto, A Segreto, M Settimo, A Shadkam, R C Shellard, G Sigl, O Sima, A Śmiałkowski, R Šmída, G R Snow, P Sommers, S Sonntag, J Sorokin, R Squartini, Y N Srivastava, D Stanca, S Stanič, J Stapleton, J Stasielak, M Stephan, A Stutz, F Suarez, M Suarez Durán, T Suomijärvi, A D Supanitsky, M S Sutherland, J Swain, Z Szadkowski, O A Taborda, A Tapia, A Tepe, V M Theodoro, C Timmermans, C J Todero Peixoto, G Toma, L Tomankova, B Tomé, A Tonachini, G Torralba Elipe, D Torres Machado, P Travnicek, M Trini, R Ulrich, M Unger, M Urban, J F Valdés Galicia, I Valiño, L Valore, G van Aar, P van Bodegom, A M van den Berg, S van Velzen, A van Vliet, E Varela, B Vargas Cárdenas, G Varner, R Vasquez, J R Vázquez, R A Vázquez, D Veberič, V Verzi, J Vicha, M Videla, L Villaseñor, B Vlcek, S Vorobiov, H Wahlberg, O Wainberg, D Walz, A A Watson, M Weber, K Weidenhaupt, A Weindl, C Welling, F Werner, A Widom, L Wiencke, H Wilczyński, T Winchen, D Wittkowski, B Wundheiler, S Wykes, L Yang, T Yapici, A Yushkov, E Zas, D Zavrtanik, M Zavrtanik, A Zepeda, B Zimmermann, M Ziolkowski, F Zuccarello
We measure the energy emitted by extensive air showers in the form of radio emission in the frequency range from 30 to 80 MHz. Exploiting the accurate energy scale of the Pierre Auger Observatory, we obtain a radiation energy of 15.8±0.7(stat)±6.7(syst)  MeV for cosmic rays with an energy of 1 EeV arriving perpendicularly to a geomagnetic field of 0.24 G, scaling quadratically with the cosmic-ray energy. A comparison with predictions from state-of-the-art first-principles calculations shows agreement with our measurement...
June 17, 2016: Physical Review Letters
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