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Cosmic Radiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236693/measurement-of-electrons-from-albedo-neutron-decay-and-neutron-density-in-near-earth-space
#1
Xinlin Li, Richard Selesnick, Quintin Schiller, Kun Zhang, Hong Zhao, Daniel N Baker, Michael A Temerin
The Galaxy is filled with cosmic-ray particles, mostly protons with kinetic energies greater than hundreds of megaelectronvolts. Around Earth, trapped energetic protons, electrons and other particles circulate at altitudes from about 500 to 40,000 kilometres in the Van Allen radiation belts. Soon after these radiation belts were discovered six decades ago, it was recognized that the main source of inner-belt protons (with kinetic energies of tens to hundreds of megaelectronvolts) is cosmic-ray albedo neutron decay (CRAND)...
December 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233237/medical-implications-of-space-radiation-exposure-due-to-low-altitude-polar-orbits
#2
Jeffery C Chancellor, Serena M Auñon-Chancellor, John Charles
INTRODUCTION: Space radiation research has progressed rapidly in recent years, but there remain large uncertainties in predicting and extrapolating biological responses to humans. Exposure to cosmic radiation and solar particle events (SPEs) may pose a critical health risk to future spaceflight crews and can have a serious impact on all biomedical aspects of space exploration. The relatively minimal shielding of the cancelled 1960s Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) program's space vehicle and the high inclination polar orbits would have left the crew susceptible to high exposures of cosmic radiation and high dose-rate SPEs that are mostly unpredictable in frequency and intensity...
January 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206597/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-the-hippocampus-of-rats-with-gcr-induced-spatial-memory-impairment
#3
Sucharita M Dutta, Melissa M Hadley, Scott Peterman, Jessica S Jewell, Vania D Duncan, Richard A Britten
NASA is planning future missions to Mars, which will result in astronauts being exposed to ∼13 cGy/year of galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). Previous ground-based experiments have demonstrated that low (15 cGy) doses of 1 GeV/n 56Fe ions impair hippocampus-dependent spatial memory in rats. However, some irradiated rats maintain a spatial memory performance comparable to that seen in the sham-irradiated rats, suggesting that some of these animals are able to ameliorate the deleterious effects of the GCR, while others are not...
December 5, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198317/effects-of-high-intensity-static-magnetic-fields-on-a-root-based-bioreactor-system-for-space-applications
#4
Maria Elena Villani, Silvia Massa, Vanni Lopresto, Rosanna Pinto, Anna Maria Salzano, Andrea Scaloni, Eugenio Benvenuto, Angiola Desiderio
Static magnetic fields created by superconducting magnets have been proposed as an effective solution to protect spacecrafts and planetary stations from cosmic radiations. This shield can deflect high-energy particles exerting injurious effects on living organisms, including plants. In fact, plant systems are becoming increasingly interesting for space adaptation studies, being useful not only as food source but also as sink of bioactive molecules in future bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS). However, the application of protective magnetic shields would generate inside space habitats residual magnetic fields, of the order of few hundreds milli Tesla, whose effect on plant systems is poorly known...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198311/comparison-of-methods-for-individualized-astronaut-organ-dosimetry-morphometry-based-phantom-library-versus-body-contour-autoscaling-of-a-reference-phantom
#5
Michelle M Sands, David Borrego, Matthew R Maynard, Amir A Bahadori, Wesley E Bolch
One of the hazards faced by space crew members in low-Earth orbit or in deep space is exposure to ionizing radiation. It has been shown previously that while differences in organ-specific and whole-body risk estimates due to body size variations are small for highly-penetrating galactic cosmic rays, large differences in these quantities can result from exposure to shorter-range trapped proton or solar particle event radiations. For this reason, it is desirable to use morphometrically accurate computational phantoms representing each astronaut for a risk analysis, especially in the case of a solar particle event...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165652/studies-of-cosmic-ray-muons-and-neutrons-in-a-five-story-concrete-building
#6
Wei-Lin Chen, Rong-Jiun Sheu
This study thoroughly determined the flux and dose rate distributions of cosmic-ray muons and neutrons in a five-story concrete building by comparing measurements with Monte Carlo simulations of cosmic-ray showers. An angular-energy-dependent surface source comprising secondary muons and neutrons at a height of 200 m above ground level was established and verified, which was used to concatenate the shower development in the upper atmosphere with subsequent simulations of radiation transport down to ground level, including the effect of the terrain and studied building...
November 18, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156538/combined-effects-of-simulated-microgravity-and-radiation-exposure-on-osteoclast-cell-fusion
#7
Srinivasan Shanmugarajan, Ye Zhang, Maria Moreno-Villanueva, Ryan Clanton, Larry H Rohde, Govindarajan T Ramesh, Jean D Sibonga, Honglu Wu
The loss of bone mass and alteration in bone physiology during space flight are one of the major health risks for astronauts. Although the lack of weight bearing in microgravity is considered a risk factor for bone loss and possible osteoporosis, organisms living in space are also exposed to cosmic radiation and other environmental stress factors. As such, it is still unclear as to whether and by how much radiation exposure contributes to bone loss during space travel, and whether the effects of microgravity and radiation exposure are additive or synergistic...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149894/comments-on-incidence-of-cancer-among-licensed-commercial-pilots-flying-north-atlantic-routes
#8
EDITORIAL
S M J Mortazavi
Gudmundsdottir et al. in their paper entitled "Incidence of cancer among licensed commercial pilots flying North Atlantic routes" published in Environmental Health have evaluated the effects of exposure to higher levels of cosmic radiation on cancer incidence in the pilots of commercial flights. Despite its remarkable strengths, the paper authored by Gudmundsdottir et al. has some shortcomings. The shortcomings of this paper such as not determining the shape of dose-response relationship for radiation-induced cancers, limitations in flight dose calculations, the weaknesses of CARI-6 as the program used by Gudmundsdottir et al...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136391/effects-of-1-h-16-o-charged-particle-irradiation-on-short-term-memory-and-hippocampal-physiology-in-a-murine-model
#9
Frederico Kiffer, Hannah Carr, Thomas Groves, Julie E Anderson, Tyler Alexander, Jing Wang, John W Seawright, Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, Gwendolyn Carter, Marjan Boerma, Antiño R Allen
Radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) poses a significant health risk for deep-space flight crews. GCR are unique in their extremely high-energy particles. With current spacecraft shielding technology, some of the predominant particles astronauts would be exposed to are (1)H + (16)O. Radiation has been shown to cause cognitive deficits in mice. The hippocampus plays a key role in memory and cognitive tasks; it receives information from the cortex, undergoes dendritic-dependent processing and then relays information back to the cortex...
November 14, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136055/skin-cancer-in-military-pilots-a-special-population-with-special-risk-factors
#10
Bart D Wilkison, Emily B Wong
Military pilots may be at greater risk for skin cancer, particularly melanoma. Military-specific studies are limited, but skin cancer rates in civilian pilots and aircrews have previously been examined. Risk factors for all pilots may include exposure to UV radiation (UVR) at higher altitudes, cosmic radiation, and electromagnetic energy from cockpit instruments, as well as altered sleep-wake cycles. The study of aviation-specific risk factors for skin cancer is relevant to all pilots and dermatologists who care for them...
October 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094687/origin-of-the-heavy-elements-in-binary-neutron-star-mergers-from-a-gravitational-wave-event
#11
Daniel Kasen, Brian Metzger, Jennifer Barnes, Eliot Quataert, Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz
The cosmic origin of elements heavier than iron has long been uncertain. Theoretical modelling shows that the matter that is expelled in the violent merger of two neutron stars can assemble into heavy elements such as gold and platinum in a process known as rapid neutron capture (r-process) nucleosynthesis. The radioactive decay of isotopes of the heavy elements is predicted to power a distinctive thermal glow (a 'kilonova'). The discovery of an electromagnetic counterpart to the gravitational-wave source GW170817 represents the first opportunity to detect and scrutinize a sample of freshly synthesized r-process elements...
November 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057337/the-cosmic-microwave-background-radiation-power-spectrum-as-a-random-bit-generator-for-symmetric-and-asymmetric-key-cryptography
#12
Jeffrey S Lee, Gerald B Cleaver
In this note, the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Radiation is shown to be capable of functioning as a Random Bit Generator, and constitutes an effectively infinite supply of truly random one-time pad values of arbitrary length. It is further argued that the CMB power spectrum potentially conforms to the FIPS 140-2 standard. Additionally, its applicability to the generation of a (n × n) random key matrix for a Vernam cipher is established.
October 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053152/heart-in-space-effect-of-the-extraterrestrial-environment-on-the-cardiovascular-system
#13
REVIEW
Richard L Hughson, Alexander Helm, Marco Durante
National space agencies and private corporations aim at an extended presence of humans in space in the medium to long term. Together with currently suboptimal technology, microgravity and cosmic rays raise health concerns about deep-space exploration missions. Both of these physical factors affect the cardiovascular system, whose gravity-dependence is pronounced. Heart and vascular function are, therefore, susceptible to substantial changes in weightlessness. The altered cardiovascular function in space causes physiological problems in the postflight period...
October 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051392/recent-discoveries-from-the-cosmic-microwave-background-a-review-of-recent-progress
#14
Suzanne Staggs, Lyman Page, Joanna Dunkley
Measurements of the anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation have provided a wealth of information about the cosmological model that describes the contents and evolution of the universe. These data have led to a standard model described by just six parameters. In this review we focus on discoveries made in the past decade from satellite and ground-based experiments, and look ahead to those anticipated in the coming decade. We provide an introduction to the key CMB observables including temperature and polarization anisotropies, and describe recent progress towards understanding the initial conditions of structure formation, and establishing the properties of the contents of the universe including neutrinos...
October 20, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036726/contribution-of-different-particles-measured-with-track-etched-detectors-onboard-iss
#15
I Ambrožová, M Davídková, K Pachnerová Brabcová, R V Tolochek, V A Shurshakov
Cosmic radiation consists of primary high-energy galactic and solar particles. When passing through spacecraft walls and astronauts' bodies, the spectrum becomes even more complex due to generating of secondary particles through fragmentation and nuclear interactions. Total radiation exposure is contributed by both these components. With an advantage, space research uses track etched detectors from the group of passive detectors visualizing the tracks of particles, in this case by etching. The detectors can discriminate between various components of cosmic radiation...
September 29, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036712/comparison-of-cosmic-ray-environments-on-earth-moon-mars-and-in-spacecarft-using-phits
#16
Tatsuhiko Sato, Aiko Nagamatsu, Haruka Ueno, Ryuho Kataoka, Shoko Miyake, Kazuo Takeda, Koji Niita
Estimation of cosmic-ray doses is of great importance not only in aircrew and astronaut dosimetry but also in evaluation of background radiation exposure to public. We therefore calculated the cosmic-ray doses on Earth, Moon and Mars as well as inside spacecraft, using Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System PHITS. The same cosmic-ray models and dose conversion coefficients were employed in the calculation to properly compare between the simulation results for different environments. It is quantitatively confirmed that the thickness of physical shielding including the atmosphere and soil of the planets is the most important parameter to determine the cosmic-ray doses and their dominant contributors...
September 29, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036445/development-validation-and-demonstration-of-the-nthu-flight-dose-calculator
#17
An-Lun Li, Wei-Fan Pan, Rong-Jiun Sheu
Galactic cosmic-ray-induced air showers constitute the largest source of radiation exposure for aircrew and passengers. To facilitate the evaluation of effective doses received by this population, a database containing dose rates of various radiation components in the atmosphere was established; the parameterization accounted for altitude, geomagnetic rigidity and solar modulation. Energy spectra of secondary cosmic rays and effective dose rates were calculated using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. An auxiliary MATLAB program with a graphical user interface was developed to estimate the aviation route dose through interpolation and integration...
September 23, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981845/response-of-the-greek-early-warning-system-reuter-stokes-ionization-chambers-to-terrestrial-and-cosmic-radiation-evaluated-in-comparison-with-spectroscopic-data-and-time-series-analysis
#18
F Leontaris, A Clouvas, S Xanthos, A Maltezos, C Potiriadis, E Kiriakopoulos, J Guilhot
The Telemetric Early Warning System Network of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission consists mainly of a network of 24 Reuter-Stokes high-pressure ionization chambers (HPIC) for gamma dose rate measurements and covers all Greece. In the present work, the response of the Reuter-Stokes HPIC to terrestrial and cosmic radiation was evaluated in comparison with spectroscopic data obtained by in situ gamma spectrometry measurements with portable hyper pure Germanium detectors (HPGe), near the Reuter-Stokes detectors and time series analysis...
August 10, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981812/radiation-exposure-of-the-population-from-222rn-and-other-natural-radionuclides-around-mochovce-nuclear-power-plant-slovakia
#19
Martin Bulko, Karol Holý, Žofia Pohronská, Monika Mullerová, Radoslav Böhm, Ol'ga Holá
In this article, the effective dose to the population from natural sources of ionizing radiation in the vicinity of Mochovce nuclear power plant in Slovakia is presented. All major contributions to the effective dose were taken into account, including the contributions from gamma radiation of soil and rocks, cosmic radiation, and indoor and outdoor radon and thoron. On the basis of recent indoor radon measurements in Slovak cities and publicly available data about radon concentration in the soil air, a roughly linear relationship was found between these variables...
September 18, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972622/untangling-the-methane-chemistry-in-interstellar-and-solar-system-ices-toward-ionizing-radiation-a-combined-infrared-and-reflectron-time-of-flight-analysis
#20
Matthew J Abplanalp, Brant M Jones, Ralf I Kaiser
Pure methane (CH4/CD4) ices were exposed to three ionizing radiation sources at 5.5 K under ultrahigh vacuum conditions to compare the complex hydrocarbon spectrum produced across several interstellar environments. These irradiation sources consisted of energetic electrons to simulate secondary electrons formed in the track of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), Lyman α (10.2 eV; 121.6 nm) photons simulated the internal VUV field in a dense cloud, and broadband (112.7-169.8 nm; 11.0-7.3 eV) photons which mimic the interstellar ultra-violet field...
October 3, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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