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Cosmic Radiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624541/the-high-prevalence-and-clinical-socio-demographic-correlates-of-miscarriages-among-flight-attendants
#1
Bettina Heidecker, Rachel Maureen Spencer, Victoria Hayes, Sarah Hall, Nisha Parikh, Eveline Oestreicher Stock, Rita Redberg
BACKGROUND: There are many occupational health hazards associated with long hours of air travel including cosmic radiation exposure, circadian rhythm disruptions and secondhand smoke exposure prior, for flight attendants who flew prior to smoking bans initiated in the 90s. Previous studies in flight attendants have found increased incidence of breast cancer and melanoma. However, there is little information on the relationship of airline travel and reproductive health in flight attendants...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613990/different-sequences-of-fractionated-low-dose-proton-and-single-iron-radiation-induced-divergent-biological-responses-in-the-heart
#2
Sharath P Sasi, Xinhua Yan, Marian Zuriaga-Herrero, Hannah Gee, Juyong Lee, Raman Mehrzad, Jin Song, Jillian Onufrak, James Morgan, Heiko Enderling, Kenneth Walsh, Raj Kishore, David A Goukassian
Deep-space travel presents risks of exposure to ionizing radiation composed of a spectrum of low-fluence protons ((1)H) and high-charge and energy (HZE) iron nuclei (e.g., (56)Fe). When exposed to galactic cosmic rays, each cell in the body may be traversed by (1)H every 3-4 days and HZE nuclei every 3-4 months. The effects of low-dose sequential fractionated (1)H or HZE on the heart are unknown. In this animal model of simulated ionizing radiation, middle-aged (8-9 months old) male C57BL/6NT mice were exposed to radiation as follows: group 1, nonirradiated controls; group 2, three fractionated doses of 17 cGy (1)H every other day ((1)H × 3); group 3, three fractionated doses of 17 cGy (1)H every other day followed by a single low dose of 15 cGy (56)Fe two days after the final (1)H dose ((1)H × 3 + (56)Fe); and group 4, a single low dose of 15 cGy (56)Fe followed (after 2 days) by three fractionated doses of 17 cGy (1)H every other day ((56)Fe + (1)H × 3)...
June 14, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554510/cosmic-ray-interaction-data-for-designing-biological-experiments-in-space
#3
T Straume, T C Slaba, S Bhattacharya, L A Braby
There is growing interest in flying biological experiments beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) to measure biological responses potentially relevant to those expected during a human mission to Mars. Such experiments could be payloads onboard precursor missions, including unmanned private-public partnerships, as well as small low-cost spacecraft (satellites) designed specifically for biosentinel-type missions. It is the purpose of this paper to provide physical cosmic-ray interaction data and related information useful to biologists who may be planning such experiments...
May 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554507/track-structure-model-of-microscopic-energy-deposition-by-protons-and-heavy-ions-in-segments-of-neuronal-cell-dendrites-represented-by-cylinders-or-spheres
#4
Murat Alp, Francis A Cucinotta
Changes to cognition, including memory, following radiation exposure are a concern for cosmic ray exposures to astronauts and in Hadron therapy with proton and heavy ion beams. The purpose of the present work is to develop computational methods to evaluate microscopic energy deposition (ED) in volumes representative of neuron cell structures, including segments of dendrites and spines, using a stochastic track structure model. A challenge for biophysical models of neuronal damage is the large sizes (> 100µm) and variability in volumes of possible dendritic segments and pre-synaptic elements (spines and filopodia)...
May 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544977/environmental-radiation-dosimetry-at-argentine-antarctic-marambio-base-64%C3%A2-13-s-56%C3%A2-43-w-preliminary-results
#5
Alba Zanini, Vicente Ciancio, Monica Laurenza, Marisa Storini, Adolfo Esposito, Juan Carlos Terrazas, Paolo Morfino, Alessandro Liberatore, Gustavo Di Giovan
The preliminary results obtained in the first environmental radiation dosimetry campaign performed in the Antarctic region are presented. This experiment is carried out in the framework of CORA (COsmic Rays in Antarctica) Project, a collaboration between Argentine and Italian institutions. After a feasibility study performed in the Antarctic summer 2013, a new campaign has been carried out, started in March 2015, to measure various components of cosmic ray induced secondary atmospheric radiation at the Argentine Marambio Base (Antarctica; 196 m a...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523649/highly-sensitive-detection-of-ionizing-radiations-by-a-photoluminescent-uranyl-organic-framework
#6
Jian Xie, Yaxing Wang, Wei Liu, Xuemiao Yin, Lanhua Chen, Youming Zou, Juan Diwu, Zhifang Chai, Thomas E Albrecht-Schmitt, Guokui Liu, Shuao Wang
Precise detection of low-dose X- and γ-radiations remains a challenge and is particularly important for studying biological effects under low-dose ionizing radiation, safety control in medical radiation treatment, survey of environmental radiation background, and monitoring cosmic radiations. We report here a photoluminescent uranium organic framework, whose photoluminescence intensity can be accurately correlated with the exposure dose of X- or γ-radiations. This allows for precise and instant detection of ionizing radiations down to the level of 10(-4)  Gy, representing a significant improvement on the detection limit of approximately two orders of magnitude, compared to other chemical dosimeters reported up to now...
May 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500351/non-targeted-effects-models-predict-significantly-higher-mars-mission-cancer-risk-than-targeted-effects-models
#7
Francis A Cucinotta, Eliedonna Cacao
Cancer risk is an important concern for galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures, which consist of a wide-energy range of protons, heavy ions and secondary radiation produced in shielding and tissues. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors for surrogate cancer endpoints in cell culture models and tumor induction in mice vary considerable, including significant variations for different tissues and mouse strains. Many studies suggest non-targeted effects (NTE) occur for low doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, leading to deviation from the linear dose response model used in radiation protection...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456220/a-double-vacuum-window-mechanism-for-space-borne-applications
#8
K Zilic, A Aboobaker, F Aubin, C Geach, S Hanany, N Jarosik, M Milligan, I Sagiv
We present a vacuum window mechanism that is useful for applications requiring two different vacuum windows in series, with one of them movable and resealable. Such applications include space borne instruments that can benefit from a thin vacuum window at low ambient pressures but must also have an optically open aperture at atmospheric pressures. We describe the implementation and successful operation with the E and B experiment balloon-borne payload, a millimeter-wave instrument designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation...
April 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418703/radioresistance-of-adenine-to-cosmic-rays
#9
Gabriel S Vignoli Muniz, Christian F Mejía, Rafael Martinez, Basile Auge, Hermann Rothard, Alicja Domaracka, Philippe Boduch
The presence of nucleobases in carbonaceous meteorites on Earth is an indication of the existence of this class of molecules in outer space. However, space is permeated by ionizing radiation, which can have damaging effects on these molecules. Adenine is a purine nucleobase that amalgamates important biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, and ATP. Adenine has a unique importance in biochemistry and therefore life. The aim of this work was to study the effects of cosmic ray analogues on solid adenine and estimate its survival when exposed to corpuscular radiation...
April 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405645/a-new-model-of-the-chemistry-of-ionizing-radiation-in-solids-ciris
#10
Christopher N Shingledecker, Romane Le Gal, Eric Herbst
The collisions between high-energy ions and solids can result in significant physical and chemical changes to the material. These effects are potentially important for better understanding the chemistry of interstellar and planetary bodies, which are exposed to cosmic radiation and the solar wind, respectively; however, modeling such collisions on a detailed microscopic basis has thus far been largely unsuccessful. To that end, a new model, entitled CIRIS: the Chemistry of Ionizing Radiation in Solids, was created to calculate the physical and chemical effects of the irradiation of solid materials...
April 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338797/an-estimation-of-the-exposure-of-the-population-of-israel-to-natural-sources-of-ionizing-radiation
#11
L Epstein, J Koch, T Riemer, G Haquin, I Orion
The radiation dose to the population of Israel due to exposure to natural sources of ionizing radiation was assessed. The main contributor to the dose is radon that accounts for 60% of the exposure to natural sources. The dose due to radon inhalation was assessed by combining the results of a radon survey in single-family houses with the results of a survey in apartments in multi-storey buildings. The average annual dose due to radon inhalation was found to be 1.2 mSv. The dose rate due to exposure to cosmic radiation was assessed using a code that calculates the dose rate at different heights above sea level, taking into account the solar cycle...
February 18, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292593/aerosol-particle-size-distribution-of-atmospheric-lead-210-in-northern-finland
#12
Jussi Paatero, Alexandra Ioannidou, Jussi Ikonen, Jukka Lehto
Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected with a high-volume 6-stage cascade impactor at Sodankylä, Finland, 100 km north of the Arctic Circle. The (210)Pb content of the samples were determined with radiochemical separation of in-grown (210)Po followed by alpha spectrometry. Most of the (210)Pb activity was incorporated in accumulation mode aerosol particles. The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) ranged from 0.53 μm to 0.98 μm 38-61 per cent of (210)Pb activity was found to be associated with aerosol particles smaller than 0...
June 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276199/new-insights-into-a-hot-environment-for-early-life
#13
REVIEW
Jianghong Dai
Investigating the physical-chemical setting of early life is a challenging task. In this contribution, the author attempted to introduce a provocative concept from cosmology - cosmic microwave background (CMB), which is the residual thermal radiation from a hot early Universe - to the field. For this purpose, the author revisited a recently deduced biomarker, the 1,6-anhydro bond of sugars in bacteria. In vitro, the 1,6-anhydro bond of sugars reflects and captures residual thermal radiation in thermochemical processes and therefore is somewhat analogous to CMB...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275377/impact-of-particle-irradiation-on-the-immune-system-from-the-clinic-to-mars
#14
REVIEW
Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo, Sarah Baatout, Marjan Moreels
Despite the generalized use of photon-based radiation (i.e., gamma rays and X-rays) to treat different cancer types, particle radiotherapy (i.e., protons and carbon ions) is becoming a popular, and more effective tool to treat specific tumors due to the improved physical properties and biological effectiveness. Current scientific evidence indicates that conventional radiation therapy affects the tumor immunological profile in a particular manner, which in turn, might induce beneficial effects both at local and systemic (i...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262960/estimation-of-occupational-cosmic-radiation-exposure-among-airline-personnel-agreement-between-a-job-exposure-matrix-aggregate-and-individual-dose-estimates
#15
Madar Talibov, Raili Salmelin, Susanna Lehtinen-Jacks, Anssi Auvinen
BACKGROUND: Job-exposure matrices (JEM) are used for exposure assessment in occupational studies, but they can involve errors. We assessed agreement between the Nordic Occupational Cancer Studies JEM (NOCCA-JEM) and aggregate and individual dose estimates for cosmic radiation exposure among Finnish airline personnel. METHODS: Cumulative cosmic radiation exposure for 5,022 airline crew members was compared between a JEM and aggregate and individual dose estimates...
March 6, 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262946/effects-of-reduced-natural-background-radiation-on-drosophila-melanogaster-growth-and-development-as-revealed-by-the-flyinglow-program
#16
P Morciano, R Iorio, D Iovino, F Cipressa, G Esposito, A Porrazzo, L Satta, E Alesse, M A Tabocchini, G Cenci
Natural background radiation of Earth and cosmic rays played a relevant role during the evolution of living organisms. However, how chronic low doses of radiation can affect biological processes is still unclear. Previous data have indicated that cells grown at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS, L'Aquila) of National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) of Italy, where the dose rate of cosmic rays and neutrons is significantly reduced with respect to the external environment, elicited an impaired response against endogenous damage as compared to cells grown outside LNGS...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256877/unifying-inflation-with-the-axion-dark-matter-baryogenesis-and-the-seesaw-mechanism
#17
Guillermo Ballesteros, Javier Redondo, Andreas Ringwald, Carlos Tamarit
A minimal extension of the standard model (SM) with a single new mass scale and providing a complete and consistent picture of particle physics and cosmology up to the Planck scale is presented. We add to the SM three right-handed SM-singlet neutrinos, a new vectorlike color triplet fermion, and a complex SM-singlet scalar σ that stabilizes the Higgs potential and whose vacuum expectation value at ∼10^{11}  GeV breaks lepton number and a Peccei-Quinn symmetry simultaneously. Primordial inflation is produced by a combination of σ (nonminimally coupled to the scalar curvature) and the SM Higgs boson...
February 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254524/experiences-of-radiological-examinations-of-buildings-in-hungary
#18
Zsolt Homoki, Péter Rell, Zsolt Déri, Gábor Kocsy
Natural radioisotopes occur everywhere in the environment, being a source of exposure to the general population. Everyone is continuously exposed to terrestrial and cosmic radiations both indoors and outdoors, which are the main contributors to external exposure of individuals. There were made many ambient dose rate and indoor gamma radiation and radon concentration measurements in Hungarian by different laboratories. The main goal of the present work is the summarisation and evaluation of the latest results of the Laboratory of National Public Health Center National Research Directorate for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253197/assessment-of-the-skin-dose-for-aircrew
#19
Matthias M Meier, Daniel Matthiä
Epidemiological studies are a useful instrument for investigating the influence of environmental factors on human health. In this context, the determination and quantification of the corresponding exposure is a demanding challenge. With regard to the investigation of the potential health effects in aircrew due to cosmic radiation, their occupational exposure at aviation altitudes is usually assessed in terms of the radiation protection quantity effective dose, which is stored in and available from official dose registers in many countries...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206823/the-effect-of-high-dose-ionizing-radiation-on-the-isolated-photobiont-of-the-astrobiological-model-lichen-circinaria-gyrosa
#20
Joachim Meeßen, Theresa Backhaus, Annette Brandt, Marina Raguse, Ute Böttger, Jean-Pierre de Vera, Rosa de la Torre
Lichen symbioses between fungi and algae represent successful life strategies to colonize the most extreme terrestrial habitats. Consequently, space exposure and simulation experiments have demonstrated lichens' high capacity for survival, and thus, they have become models in astrobiological research with which to discern the limits and limitations of terrestrial life. In a series of ground-based irradiation experiments, the STARLIFE campaign investigated the resistance of astrobiological model organisms to galactic cosmic radiation, which is one of the lethal stressors of extraterrestrial environments...
February 2017: Astrobiology
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