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Cosmic Radiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523649/highly-sensitive-detection-of-ionizing-radiations-by-a-photoluminescent-uranyl-organic-framework
#1
Jian Xie, Yaxing Wang, Wei Liu, Xuemiao Yin, Lanhua Chen, Youming Zou, Juan Diwu, Zhifang Chai, Thomas E Albrecht-Schmitt, Guokui Liu, Shuao Wang
Precise detection of low-dose X- and γ-radiations remains a challenge and is particularly important for studying biological effects under low-dose ionizing radiation, safety control in medical radiation treatment, survey of environmental radiation background, and monitoring cosmic radiations. We report here a photoluminescent uranium organic framework, whose photoluminescence intensity can be accurately correlated with the exposure dose of X- or γ-radiations. This allows for precise and instant detection of ionizing radiations down to the level of 10(-4)  Gy, representing a significant improvement on the detection limit of approximately two orders of magnitude, compared to other chemical dosimeters reported up to now...
May 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500351/non-targeted-effects-models-predict-significantly-higher-mars-mission-cancer-risk-than-targeted-effects-models
#2
Francis A Cucinotta, Eliedonna Cacao
Cancer risk is an important concern for galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures, which consist of a wide-energy range of protons, heavy ions and secondary radiation produced in shielding and tissues. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors for surrogate cancer endpoints in cell culture models and tumor induction in mice vary considerable, including significant variations for different tissues and mouse strains. Many studies suggest non-targeted effects (NTE) occur for low doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, leading to deviation from the linear dose response model used in radiation protection...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456220/a-double-vacuum-window-mechanism-for-space-borne-applications
#3
K Zilic, A Aboobaker, F Aubin, C Geach, S Hanany, N Jarosik, M Milligan, I Sagiv
We present a vacuum window mechanism that is useful for applications requiring two different vacuum windows in series, with one of them movable and resealable. Such applications include space borne instruments that can benefit from a thin vacuum window at low ambient pressures but must also have an optically open aperture at atmospheric pressures. We describe the implementation and successful operation with the E and B experiment balloon-borne payload, a millimeter-wave instrument designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation...
April 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418703/radioresistance-of-adenine-to-cosmic-rays
#4
Gabriel S Vignoli Muniz, Christian F Mejía, Rafael Martinez, Basile Auge, Hermann Rothard, Alicja Domaracka, Philippe Boduch
The presence of nucleobases in carbonaceous meteorites on Earth is an indication of the existence of this class of molecules in outer space. However, space is permeated by ionizing radiation, which can have damaging effects on these molecules. Adenine is a purine nucleobase that amalgamates important biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, and ATP. Adenine has a unique importance in biochemistry and therefore life. The aim of this work was to study the effects of cosmic ray analogues on solid adenine and estimate its survival when exposed to corpuscular radiation...
April 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405645/a-new-model-of-the-chemistry-of-ionizing-radiation-in-solids-ciris
#5
Christopher N Shingledecker, Romane Le Gal, Eric Herbst
The collisions between high-energy ions and solids can result in significant physical and chemical changes to the material. These effects are potentially important for better understanding the chemistry of interstellar and planetary bodies, which are exposed to cosmic radiation and the solar wind, respectively; however, modeling such collisions on a detailed microscopic basis has thus far been largely unsuccessful. To that end, a new model, entitled CIRIS: the Chemistry of Ionizing Radiation in Solids, was created to calculate the physical and chemical effects of the irradiation of solid materials...
April 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338797/an-estimation-of-the-exposure-of-the-population-of-israel-to-natural-sources-of-ionizing-radiation
#6
L Epstein, J Koch, T Riemer, G Haquin, I Orion
The radiation dose to the population of Israel due to exposure to natural sources of ionizing radiation was assessed. The main contributor to the dose is radon that accounts for 60% of the exposure to natural sources. The dose due to radon inhalation was assessed by combining the results of a radon survey in single-family houses with the results of a survey in apartments in multi-storey buildings. The average annual dose due to radon inhalation was found to be 1.2 mSv. The dose rate due to exposure to cosmic radiation was assessed using a code that calculates the dose rate at different heights above sea level, taking into account the solar cycle...
February 18, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292593/aerosol-particle-size-distribution-of-atmospheric-lead-210-in-northern-finland
#7
Jussi Paatero, Alexandra Ioannidou, Jussi Ikonen, Jukka Lehto
Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected with a high-volume 6-stage cascade impactor at Sodankylä, Finland, 100 km north of the Arctic Circle. The (210)Pb content of the samples were determined with radiochemical separation of in-grown (210)Po followed by alpha spectrometry. Most of the (210)Pb activity was incorporated in accumulation mode aerosol particles. The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) ranged from 0.53 μm to 0.98 μm 38-61 per cent of (210)Pb activity was found to be associated with aerosol particles smaller than 0...
June 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276199/new-insights-into-a-hot-environment-for-early-life
#8
REVIEW
Jianghong Dai
Investigating the physical-chemical setting of early life is a challenging task. In this contribution, the author attempted to introduce a provocative concept from cosmology - cosmic microwave background (CMB), which is the residual thermal radiation from a hot early Universe - to the field. For this purpose, the author revisited a recently deduced biomarker, the 1,6-anhydro bond of sugars in bacteria. In vitro, the 1,6-anhydro bond of sugars reflects and captures residual thermal radiation in thermochemical processes and therefore is somewhat analogous to CMB...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275377/impact-of-particle-irradiation-on-the-immune-system-from-the-clinic-to-mars
#9
REVIEW
Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo, Sarah Baatout, Marjan Moreels
Despite the generalized use of photon-based radiation (i.e., gamma rays and X-rays) to treat different cancer types, particle radiotherapy (i.e., protons and carbon ions) is becoming a popular, and more effective tool to treat specific tumors due to the improved physical properties and biological effectiveness. Current scientific evidence indicates that conventional radiation therapy affects the tumor immunological profile in a particular manner, which in turn, might induce beneficial effects both at local and systemic (i...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262960/estimation-of-occupational-cosmic-radiation-exposure-among-airline-personnel-agreement-between-a-job-exposure-matrix-aggregate-and-individual-dose-estimates
#10
Madar Talibov, Raili Salmelin, Susanna Lehtinen-Jacks, Anssi Auvinen
BACKGROUND: Job-exposure matrices (JEM) are used for exposure assessment in occupational studies, but they can involve errors. We assessed agreement between the Nordic Occupational Cancer Studies JEM (NOCCA-JEM) and aggregate and individual dose estimates for cosmic radiation exposure among Finnish airline personnel. METHODS: Cumulative cosmic radiation exposure for 5,022 airline crew members was compared between a JEM and aggregate and individual dose estimates...
March 6, 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262946/effects-of-reduced-natural-background-radiation-on-drosophila-melanogaster-growth-and-development-as-revealed-by-the-flyinglow-program
#11
P Morciano, R Iorio, D Iovino, F Cipressa, G Esposito, A Porrazzo, L Satta, E Alesse, M A Tabocchini, G Cenci
Natural background radiation of Earth and cosmic rays played a relevant role during the evolution of living organisms. However, how chronic low doses of radiation can affect biological processes is still unclear. Previous data have indicated that cells grown at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS, L'Aquila) of National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) of Italy, where the dose rate of cosmic rays and neutrons is significantly reduced with respect to the external environment, elicited an impaired response against endogenous damage as compared to cells grown outside LNGS...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256877/unifying-inflation-with-the-axion-dark-matter-baryogenesis-and-the-seesaw-mechanism
#12
Guillermo Ballesteros, Javier Redondo, Andreas Ringwald, Carlos Tamarit
A minimal extension of the standard model (SM) with a single new mass scale and providing a complete and consistent picture of particle physics and cosmology up to the Planck scale is presented. We add to the SM three right-handed SM-singlet neutrinos, a new vectorlike color triplet fermion, and a complex SM-singlet scalar σ that stabilizes the Higgs potential and whose vacuum expectation value at ∼10^{11}  GeV breaks lepton number and a Peccei-Quinn symmetry simultaneously. Primordial inflation is produced by a combination of σ (nonminimally coupled to the scalar curvature) and the SM Higgs boson...
February 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254524/experiences-of-radiological-examinations-of-buildings-in-hungary
#13
Zsolt Homoki, Péter Rell, Zsolt Déri, Gábor Kocsy
Natural radioisotopes occur everywhere in the environment, being a source of exposure to the general population. Everyone is continuously exposed to terrestrial and cosmic radiations both indoors and outdoors, which are the main contributors to external exposure of individuals. There were made many ambient dose rate and indoor gamma radiation and radon concentration measurements in Hungarian by different laboratories. The main goal of the present work is the summarisation and evaluation of the latest results of the Laboratory of National Public Health Center National Research Directorate for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253197/assessment-of-the-skin-dose-for-aircrew
#14
Matthias M Meier, Daniel Matthiä
Epidemiological studies are a useful instrument for investigating the influence of environmental factors on human health. In this context, the determination and quantification of the corresponding exposure is a demanding challenge. With regard to the investigation of the potential health effects in aircrew due to cosmic radiation, their occupational exposure at aviation altitudes is usually assessed in terms of the radiation protection quantity effective dose, which is stored in and available from official dose registers in many countries...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206823/the-effect-of-high-dose-ionizing-radiation-on-the-isolated-photobiont-of-the-astrobiological-model-lichen-circinaria-gyrosa
#15
Joachim Meeßen, Theresa Backhaus, Annette Brandt, Marina Raguse, Ute Böttger, Jean-Pierre de Vera, Rosa de la Torre
Lichen symbioses between fungi and algae represent successful life strategies to colonize the most extreme terrestrial habitats. Consequently, space exposure and simulation experiments have demonstrated lichens' high capacity for survival, and thus, they have become models in astrobiological research with which to discern the limits and limitations of terrestrial life. In a series of ground-based irradiation experiments, the STARLIFE campaign investigated the resistance of astrobiological model organisms to galactic cosmic radiation, which is one of the lethal stressors of extraterrestrial environments...
February 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206821/simulated-space-radiation-impact-of-four-different-types-of-high-dose-ionizing-radiation-on-the-lichen-xanthoria-elegans
#16
Annette Brandt, Joachim Meeßen, Reiner U Jänicke, Marina Raguse, Sieglinde Ott
This study addresses the viability of the lichen Xanthoria elegans after high-dose ionizing irradiation in the frame of the STARLIFE campaign. The first set of experiments was intended to resemble several types of galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) as present beyond the magnetic shield of Earth. In the second set of experiments, γ radiation up to 113 kGy was applied to test the limit of lichen resistance to ionizing radiation. Entire thalli of Xanthoria elegans were irradiated in the anhydrobiotic state. After STARLIFE 1, the metabolic activity of both symbionts was quantified by live/dead staining with confocal laser scanning microscopy...
February 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151691/starlife-an-international-campaign-to-study-the-role-of-galactic-cosmic-radiation-in-astrobiological-model-systems
#17
Ralf Moeller, Marina Raguse, Stefan Leuko, Thomas Berger, Christine Elisabeth Hellweg, Akira Fujimori, Ryuichi Okayasu, Gerda Horneck
In-depth knowledge regarding the biological effects of the radiation field in space is required for assessing the radiation risks in space. To obtain this knowledge, a set of different astrobiological model systems has been studied within the STARLIFE radiation campaign during six irradiation campaigns (2013-2015). The STARLIFE group is an international consortium with the aim to investigate the responses of different astrobiological model systems to the different types of ionizing radiation (X-rays, γ rays, heavy ions) representing major parts of the galactic cosmic radiation spectrum...
February 2, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127878/melanin-is-effective-in-protecting-fast-and-slow-growing-fungi-from-various-types-of-ionizing-radiation
#18
Claudia Pacelli, Ruth A Bryan, Silvano Onofri, Laura Selbmann, Igor Shuryak, Ekaterina Dadachova
Melanin is a ubiquitous pigment with unique physicochemical properties. The resistance of melanized fungi to cosmic and terrestrial ionizing radiation suggests that melanin also plays a pivotal role in radioprotection. In this study, we compared the effects of densely-ionizing deuterons and sparsely-ionizing X-rays on two microscopic fungi capable of melanogenesis. We utilized the fast-growing pathogenic basiodiomycete forming an induced DOPA-melanin, Cryptococcus neoformans (CN); and the slow-growing environmental rock-inhabiting ascomycete synthesizing a constitutive DHN-melanin, Cryomyces antarcticus (CA); melanized and non-melanized counterparts were compared...
January 27, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115660/investigation-of-the-influence-of-the-position-inside-a-small-aircraft-on-the-cosmic-radiation-induced-dose
#19
A C M Prado, M T Pazianotto, O L Gonçalez, L R Dos Santos, A D Caldeira, H H C Pereira, G Hubert, C A Federico
This article report the measurements on-board a small aircraft at the same altitude and around the same geographic coordinates. The measurements of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate (H*(10)) were performed in several positions inside the aircraft, close and far from the pilot location and the discrimination between neutron and non-neutron components. The results show that the neutrons are attenuated close to fuel depots and the non-neutron component appears to have the opposite behavior inside the aircraft. These experimental results are also confronted with results from Monte Carlo simulation, obtained with the MCNPX code, using a simplified model of the Learjet-type aircraft and a modeling of the standard atmosphere, which reproduces the real energy and angular distribution of the particles...
January 23, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112195/neutron-radiation-tolerance-of-two-benchmark-thiophene-based-conjugated-polymers-the-importance-of-crystallinity-for-organic-avionics
#20
G M Paternò, V Robbiano, K J Fraser, C Frost, V García Sakai, F Cacialli
Aviation and space applications can benefit significantly from lightweight organic electronics, now spanning from displays to logics, because of the vital importance of minimising payload (size and mass). It is thus crucial to assess the damage caused to such materials by cosmic rays and neutrons, which pose a variety of hazards through atomic displacements following neutron-nucleus collisions. Here we report the first study of the neutron radiation tolerance of two poly(thiophene)s-based organic semiconductors: poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl), P3HT, and the liquid-crystalline poly(2,5-bis (3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene), PBTTT...
January 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
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