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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816467/how-sure-are-you-that-this-is-the-man-you-saw-child-witnesses-can-use-confidence-judgments-to-identify-a-target
#1
Kaila C Bruer, Ryan J Fitzgerald, Heather L Price, James D Sauer
We tested whether an alternative lineup procedure designed to minimize problematic influences (e.g., metacognitive development) on decision criteria could be effectively used by children and improve child eyewitness identification performance relative to a standard identification task. Five hundred sixteen children (6- to 13-year-olds) watched a video of a target reading word lists and, the next day, made confidence ratings for each lineup member or standard categorical decisions for 8 lineup members presented sequentially...
August 17, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813348/moral-behavior-in-sport
#2
REVIEW
Maria Kavussanu, Nicholas Stanger
In this review paper, we provide an overview of recent research on prosocial and antisocial behaviors, in the context of sport, focusing mainly on antecedents and consequences of these behaviors. Motivational variables such as task orientation, mastery climate, autonomous motivation, and autonomy supportive climate are likely to promote prosocial behavior, whereas ego orientation, performance climate, controlled motivation, and controlling climate may lead to antisocial behavior. The effects of some motivational variables (i...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813323/emotions-and-emotion-regulation-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#3
REVIEW
Carmen P McLean, Edna B Foa
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with negative emotions such as shame, guilt, anger, and disgust, as well as impairments in the ability to effectively regulate these emotional states. There is evidence showing that each of these negative emotions and emotion regulation difficulties are related to the severity of PTSD stemming from various trauma types. In contrast, much less is known about the temporal relationship between these features and PTSD. Studies have found that treatments for PTSD often lead to improvements in these negative emotions and in emotion regulation difficulties, but how these features impact the efficacy of various PTSD treatments is less clear...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810377/self-esteem-moderates-the-associations-between-body-related-self-conscious-emotions-and-depressive-symptoms
#4
Jennifer Brunet, Eva Pila, Shauna Solomon-Krakus, Catherine M Sabiston, Jennifer O'Loughlin
The objectives of this study were to describe the cross-sectional associations between body-related self-conscious emotions and depressive symptoms in young adults and examine self-esteem as a moderator of these associations. Data from a population-based sample of 811 young adults were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate linear regression analysis. Body-related shame ( β = .26) and guilt ( β = .25) were positively related to frequency of depressive symptoms. Self-esteem was negatively related to frequency of depressive symptoms ( β = -...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809070/ambivalence-and-guilt-feelings-two-relevant-variables-for-understanding-caregivers-depressive-symptomatology
#5
Andrés Losada, María Márquez-González, Carlos Vara-García, Laura Gallego-Alberto, Rosa Romero-Moreno, Karl Pillemer
Providing care for a relative with dementia is considered to be a chronic stressor that has been linked to negative mental health consequences for caregivers. A theoretical model was developed and tested to assess the degree to which ambivalence and guilt feelings contribute to caregivers' depressive symptomatology. Participants included 212 dementia family caregivers. In addition to ambivalence and guilt feelings, sociodemographic characteristics, behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, and depressive symptomatology were assessed...
August 14, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808477/effect-of-lamotrigine-in-the-treatment-of-bipolar-depression-with-psychotic-features-a-case-report
#6
Tomoko Kajiya, Hiroko Sugawara, Yusuke Kajio, Satoru Morieda, Hibiki Tanaka, Tadashi Jono, Noboru Fujise, Mamoru Hashimoto
BACKGROUND: Major depressive episodes with psychotic features are more common in bipolar disorder than in major depressive disorder; however, there is little information on the optimal treatment for bipolar depression with psychotic features. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 69-year-old man. At the age of 66, he was admitted to the hospital for the treatment of bipolar depression with psychotic features. He was treated with a combination therapy of antipsychotics and antidepressants during long-term hospitalization...
2017: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806278/ce-original-research-the-experience-of-transitioning-to-a-caregiving-role-for-a-family-member-with-alzheimer-s-disease-or-related-dementia
#7
Kathleen Czekanski
Study findings suggest several areas for further research. ABSTRACT: Background: Alzheimer's disease is a chronic, debilitating disease that currently affects an estimated 5.5 million Americans. The majority are being cared for at home by family caregivers, who are known to have higher levels of burden than any other group of caregivers. PURPOSE: The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of people who transition to the role of caregiver for a family member with Alzheimer's disease or a related dementia...
August 10, 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805515/defense-of-the-pace-trial-is-based-on-argumentation-fallacies
#8
Steven Lubet
In defense of the PACE trial, Petrie and Weinman employ a series of misleading or fallacious argumentation techniques, including circularity, blaming the victim, bait and switch, non-sequitur, setting up a straw person, guilt by association, red herring, and the parade of horribles. These are described and explained.
August 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805438/situational-and-structural-variation-in-youth-perceptions-of-maternal-guilt-induction
#9
Wendy M Rote, Judith G Smetana
Parental induction of empathy-related guilt plays an important role in children's moral development. However, guilt induction can also be psychologically controlling and detrimental for youth adjustment. This study provided a more nuanced view of parental guilt induction by examining how the nature of a child's misdeed and the structure and content of the parental guilt inductive statement impact children's perceptions of it. Using hypothetical vignettes, this study experimentally examined the impact of the type (domain) of child behavior, highlighted victim, and focus of parental criticism on 156 children's and early and middle adolescents' (age: Ms = 8...
August 14, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799409/use-of-the-brief-shame-and-guilt-questionnaire-in-deaf-and-hard-of-hearing-children-and-adolescents
#10
Evelien Broekhof, Maartje Kouwenberg, Paul Oosterveld, Johan H M Frijns, Carolien Rieffe
No assessment tools are available to measure shame and guilt in children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH), while these self-conscious emotions might play a role in the frequently noted social and behavioral problems in this group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to validate the Brief Shame and Guilt Questionnaire (BSGQ) in DHH children. In addition, we examined associations of shame and guilt with social anxiety, self-esteem, delinquency, and psychopathic behaviors. A sum of 225 hearing ( Mage = 11...
August 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797822/mental-health-nurses-emotions-exposure-to-patient-aggression-attitudes-to-and-use-of-coercive-measures-cross-sectional-questionnaire-survey
#11
Rahul Jalil, Jorg W Huber, Judith Sixsmith, Geoffrey L Dickens
BACKGROUND: Mental health nurses are exposed to patient aggression, and required to manage and de-escalate aggressive incidents; coercive measures such as restraint and seclusion should only be used as a last resort. An improved understanding of links between nurses' exposure to aggression, attitudes to, and actual involvement in, coercive measures, and their emotions (anger, guilt, fear, fatigue, sadness), could inform preparation and education for prevention and management of violence...
July 31, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793379/illness-trajectories-in-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-how-illness-progression-is-related-to-life-narratives-and-interpersonal-relationships
#12
Sabrina Cipolletta, Giorgia Rosamaria Gammino, Arianna Palmieri
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to identify illness trajectories in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by analyzing personal, social and functional dimensions related to ALS progression. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have considered some psychological distinct variables that may moderate illness progression, but no research has combined an extensive qualitative understanding of ALS patients' psychological characteristics and illness progression. DESIGN: A mixed method approach was used to combine quantitative and qualitative measures...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786893/smokers-guilt-and-shame-reactions-to-smoking-and-to-providers-cessation-efforts
#13
Patti Rager Zuzelo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Holistic Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777999/perceptions-of-plagiarisers-the-influence-of-target-physical-attractiveness-transgression-severity-and-sex-on-attributions-of-guilt-and-punishment
#14
Viren Swami, Elizabeth Arthey, Adrian Furnham
The attractiveness-leniency effect (ALE) suggests that physically attractive targets are less likely to be perceived as guilty compared to less attractive targets. Here, we tested the ALE in relation to attributions of students who have committed plagiarism. British adults (N=165) were shown one of eight vignette-photograph pairings varying in target sex (female/male), physical attractiveness (high/low), and transgression severity (serious/minor), and provided attributions of guilt and severity of punishment...
August 1, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769829/interviewing-suspects-in-denial-on-how-different-evidence-disclosure-modes-affect-the-elicitation-of-new-critical-information
#15
Lennart May, Pär Anders Granhag, Serra Tekin
This study examines how different evidence disclosure modes affect the elicitation of new critical information. Two modes derived from the Strategic Use of Evidence (SUE) framework were compared against an early disclosure mode (i.e., the evidence was disclosed at the outset of the interview). Participants (N = 88) performed a mock crime consisting of several actions before they were interviewed as suspects. In both SUE conditions the interviewer elicited and disclosed statement-evidence inconsistencies in two phases after an introductory phase...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766733/a-riot-on-campus-the-effects-of-social-identity-complexity-on-emotions-and-reparative-attitudes-after-ingroup-perpetrated-violence
#16
Kristi A Costabile, Adrienne B Austin
When a group commits a transgression, members who identify closely with the group often engage in defensive strategies in which they are less likely to experience guilt and shame in response to the transgression than are less identified group members. Subsequently, highly identified group members are often less willing to offer reparations to the injured parties. Because appropriate emotional responses and reparations are critical to community reconciliation, the present investigation examined whether social identity complexity-the degree to which individuals perceive their multiple social identities as interrelated-reduced these defensive responses...
August 2, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760636/changing-the-paradigm-messages-for-hand-hygiene-education-and-audit-from-cluster-analysis
#17
D J Gould, D Navaïe, E Purssell, N S Drey, S Creedon
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is considered the foremost infection prevention measure. How health workers accept and make sense of the hand hygiene message is likely to contribute to success and sustainability of initiatives to improve performance, which is still often poor. METHODS: Survey of nurses in critical care units in three National Health Service trusts in England to explore opinions about hand hygiene, use of alcohol handrubs, audit with performance feedback and other key hand hygiene-related issues...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759966/trajectories-of-multidimensional-caregiver-burden-in-chinese-informal-caregivers-for-dementia-evidence-from-exploratory-and-confirmatory-factor-analysis-of-the-zarit-burden-interview
#18
Dan Li, Nan Hu, Yueyi Yu, Aihong Zhou, Fangyu Li, Jianping Jia
BACKGROUND: Despite its popularity, the latent structure of 22-item Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) remains unclear. There has been no study exploring how caregiver multidimensional burden changed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the work was to validate the latent structure of ZBI and to investigate how multidimensional burden evolves with increasing global burden. METHODS: We studied 1,132 dyads of dementia patients with informal caregivers. The caregivers completed the ZBI and a questionnaire regarding caregiving...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759277/the-experience-of-decision-making-in-the-care-of-children-with-palliative-care-needs-the-experiences-of-jordanian-mothers
#19
Maha Atout, Pippa Hemingway, Jane Seymour
The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of decision making in the care of children with palliative care needs in Jordan, from the perspective of their mothers. This study employed a collective qualitative case study approach. Data were collected in 3 pediatric wards in a Jordanian hospital. The study used 2 data collection methods: participant observation (197 observational hours) and 56 semi-structured interviews with 24 mothers, 12 physicians and 20 nurses. The findings show how Jordanian mothers seek to transfer the role of decision making to physicians, as they perceive themselves to be unable to make decisions about critical issues related to the treatment of their children...
July 31, 2017: Compr Child Adolesc Nurs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756103/prone-to-feel-guilty-self-evaluative-emotions-in-alcohol-dependence
#20
Delphine Grynberg, Philippe de Timary, Aude Van Heuverswijn, Pierre Maurage
BACKGROUND: Prior research has repeatedly shown that alcohol-dependence is associated with interpersonal difficulties. However, guilt and shame, two crucial self-evaluative emotions triggered by the transgression of social norms, have not been explored among alcohol-dependent individuals despite their important role in psychiatric disorders. The present study thus aimed to investigate whether alcohol-dependence is associated with greater proneness to negatively evaluate one's own behaviors (guilt) or the entire self (shame)...
July 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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