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Jared Strote, Matthew J Hickman
BACKGROUND: Emergency physicians encounter patient concerns of police use of excessive force (UOEF). However, unlike other forms of potential assault, there are no guidelines for documentation of these encounters. Our objective was to examine the adequacy of emergency department documentation of injuries from police encounters where formal complaints of UOEF were later filed with the law enforcement agency. METHODS: A retrospective cohort design was used, identifying all citizen complaints of UOEF to a single police department in a 3-year period...
July 17, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Alberto Valdeolivas, Laurent Tichit, Claire Navarro, Sophie Perrin, Gaëlle Odelin, Nicolas Levy, Pierre Cau, Elisabeth Remy, Anaïs Baudot
Motivation: Recentyears have witnessed anexponentialgrowthin thenumberof identified interactions between biological molecules. These interactions are usually represented as large and complex networks, callingforthedevelopmentof appropriated toolstoexploitthe functionalinformationtheycontain. Random walk with restart is the state-of-the-art guilt-by-association approach. It explores the network vicinity of gene/protein seeds to study their functions, based on the premise that nodes related to similar functions tend to lie close to each other in the networks...
July 18, 2018: Bioinformatics
Ke-Jun Ye, Jie Dai, Ling-Yun Liu, Meng-Jia Peng
The guilt by association (GBA) principle has been widely used to predict gene functions, and a network‑based approach may enhance the confidence and stability of the analysis compared with focusing on individual genes. Fetal growth restriction (FGR), is the second primary cause of perinatal mortality. Therefore, the present study aimed to predict the optimal gene functions for FGR using a network‑based GBA method. The method was comprised of four parts: Identification of differentially‑expressed genes (DEGs) between patients with FGR and normal controls based on gene expression data; construction of a co‑expression network (CEN) dependent on DEGs, using the Spearman correlation coefficient algorithm; collection of gene ontology (GO) data on the basis of a known confirmed database and DEGs; and prediction of optimal gene functions using the GBA algorithm, for which the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was obtained for each GO term...
June 29, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Christian L Williams, Howard Berenbaum
OBJECTIVE: The present study explored acts of omission (i.e., inactions) among military service members. We also investigated whether the meanings and interpretations that service members assign to their actions and inactions, particularly alterations to their conceptualization of themselves, others, and the world (i.e., altered worldviews) would be associated with psychological problems (specifically, depression, suicidality, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], and alcohol use). METHOD: A sample of 50 Iraq/Afghanistan military veterans (8% female) completed questionnaires measuring their (in)actions and the meanings and interpretations attached to those (in)actions...
July 16, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Jenny A Bannister, Peter J Colvonen, Abigail C Angkaw, Sonya B Norman
OBJECTIVE: Despite important conceptual differences between shame and guilt, literature distinguishing these emotions in relation to posttrauma functioning for veterans has been largely theoretical. This is the first study to concurrently examine trauma-related guilt and internalized shame in relation to PTSD severity as the dependent variable. Our primary aim was to examine guilt and shame on PTSD symptom severity within the same model. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether trauma-related guilt can occur independent of shame...
July 16, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Layla Tarazi Sahab, Lina Abi Rizk Khoury, Mayssa' El Husseini, Marie Rose Moro
In the context of the humanitarian crisis of Syrian refugees in Lebanon, a team of young Lebanese social workers attempted to identify the most economically vulnerable people. These professionals have themselves sometimes been exposed to social and economic difficulties, having in their own past experienced war and deprivation. They were confronted with experiences of war, poverty, inter-community conflicts, the recollection of their own family trauma or guilt. Support in the form of psychological care was provided to them...
July 2018: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
Emma E Levine, T Bradford Bitterly, Taya R Cohen, Maurice E Schweitzer
Existing trust research has disproportionately focused on what makes people more or less trusting, and has largely ignored the question of what makes people more or less trustworthy. In this investigation, we deepen our understanding of trustworthiness. Across six studies using economic games that measure trustworthy behavior and survey items that measure trustworthy intentions, we explore the personality traits that predict trustworthiness. We demonstrate that guilt-proneness predicts trustworthiness better than a variety of other personality measures, and we identify sense of interpersonal responsibility as the underlying mechanism by both measuring it and manipulating it directly...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Sarah Hubert, Isabelle Aujoulat
Until recently, research conducted on parental exhaustion was exclusively concerned with parents of sick children. However, situations where exhaustion occurs as a result of being physically and emotionally overwhelmed by one's parental role in the absence of a child's condition is gaining increasing interest. The aim of our study was to give voice to exhausted mothers, in order to get a better understanding of what it means to be exhausted in relation with one's parental role, from the perspective of those who have experienced it...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Heinz Boeker, Rainer Kraehenmann
A mechanism-based approach was developed focusing on the psychodynamic, psychological and neuronal mechanisms in healthy and depressed persons. In this integrative concept of depression, the self is a core dimension in depression. It is attributed to negative emotions (e.g., failure, guilt). The increased inward focus in depression is connected with a decreased environmental focus . The development of neuropsychodynamic hypotheses of the altered self-reference is based on the investigation of the emotional-cognitive interaction in depressed patients...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Libing Shen
Shame and guilt seem to be two synonymous moral emotions but actually lead to contrasting human behaviors or behavioral tendencies. Shame drives people to hide or deny their wrongdoings while guilt drives people to amend their mistakes. How shame and guilt evolved in humans is still obscure. Here we present a computer model featured with reciprocal altruism and gregarious lifestyle for studying this question. We tested ten different strategies in our model and the pairwise contests show that shame-driven-hiding strategy can dominate the other strategies such as tit-for-tat and Pavlov in more than half of parameter combinations...
2018: PloS One
Mille Nyboe Petersen, Christina Jessen-Winge, Anna Christine Meinertz Møbjerg
REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE: The objective of the review was to explore the experiences of Scandinavian women with abortions on request, that is, before, during and after the intervention. INTRODUCTION: In Scandinavia, the primary issues surrounding the abortion debate to date have been women's legal rights to an abortion, and, to a lesser extent, how women experience an abortion on request and how society could and should support them. This systematic review investigated Scandinavian women's experiences in relation to this intervention...
July 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Balsam Noueiri, Nahla Nassif
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) markedly alters the lives of individuals and their families. Family members can be affected by diabetes and its treatment, causing burden, distress, and reduced quality of life (QOL). Objective: The aim of this research is to study the relationship between the diabetic child and the family members, to evaluate the stress and emotional issues between siblings, and to weigh in on the psychological, affective, and financial burden that parents have to deal with in their daily life...
March 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
Luigi A Maglanoc, Nils Inge Landrø, Rune Jonassen, Tobias Kaufmann, Aldo Córdova-Palomera, Eva Hilland, Lars T Westlye
BACKGROUND: Depression is a complex disorder with large interindividual variability in symptom profiles that often occur alongside symptoms of other psychiatric domains, such as anxiety. A dimensional and symptom-based approach may help refine the characterization of depressive and anxiety disorders and thus aid in establishing robust biomarkers. We use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the brain functional connectivity correlates of a symptom-based clustering of individuals...
May 30, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Lois J Surgenor, Kate Diesfeld
Research focusing on disciplined health practitioners is growing though exploring lower level decisions is also important. This study examines the outcomes and characteristics of psychologists subject to formal notifications between 2004 and 2015. Data were extracted from archived notification files (N = 396) held by the New Zealand Psychologists Board alongside publically available decisions of the Health Practitioners Disciplinary Tribunal (N = 13). Annually, <2% of practising psychologists were subject of a notification...
April 2018: Journal of Law and Medicine
Sadie E Larsen, C J Eubanks Fleming, Patricia A Resick
OBJECTIVE: Although there are several evidence-based treatments that are effective in mitigating the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), rates of nonresponse to treatment as well as treatment dropout remain high. In order to determine which symptoms remain most problematic at the end of treatment for PTSD, the present study examined residual symptoms in a treatment study that evaluated the effects of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) and prolonged exposure (PE). METHOD: The sample consisted of 108 female rape survivors who initially met criteria for PTSD and who were then randomized into and completed either CPT or PE...
July 2, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Danielle M Shore, Magdalena Rychlowska, Job van der Schalk, Brian Parkinson, Antony S R Manstead
Intergroup exchanges are an integral part of social life but are compromised when one group pursues its interests at another group's expense. The present research investigates whether expressing emotion can mitigate the negative consequences of such actions. We examine how emotions communicated by either an ingroup or outgroup member following an ingroup member's breach of trust affect other ingroup members' feelings of guilt and pride, and subsequent allocation of resources. In both studies, groups of participants played a two-round trust game with another group...
July 2, 2018: Emotion
Moa Lidén, Minna Gräns, Peter Juslin
This research tests whether a police officer's decision to apprehend a suspect triggers confirmation bias during an interrogation. The study also tests two strategies to reduce confirmation bias: (1) decoupling decision to apprehend from interrogation and (2) reducing cognitive load for the interrogating police officer. In Experiment 1, Swedish police officers ( N = 60) were faced with 12 scenarios in which they either had to decide for themselves whether to apprehend a suspect or were informed about the corresponding decision by another police officer or a prosecutor...
July 2, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
Shan S Wong, Thomas J George, Melyssa Godfrey, Jennifer Le, Deidre B Pereira
PURPOSE: The quality of life (QOL) experiences of patients with pancreatic cancer and their caregivers is poorly understood. Psychological distress is high, but few studies examine the factors associated with psychological distress. The purpose of this study is to gain a richer understanding of the factors associated with psychological distress from patient and caregiver perspectives. METHODS: Twenty participants (13 patients, 7 caregivers) completed group discussions on the experiences of living with pancreatic cancer...
June 29, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Plousia Misailidi
The author examined the relation between individual differences in children's understanding of guilt and theory of mind (ToM) ability. Two hundred and eighteen 8- to 10-year-old children were asked to define what guilt is and report a personal experience in which they felt this emotion. ToM was assessed with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (Children's version; Baron-Cohen et al., 2001) and with the Strange Stories test (Happè, 1994). There were marked differences in children's understanding of guilt even after controlling for age...
July 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Nelson C Y Yeung, Yiwei Zhang, Lili Ji, Guohua Lu, Qian Lu
Caregiver guilt (i.e., feeling of inadequacy in providing care to patients) is commonly experienced and studied among husbands of breast cancer survivors in Western countries. However, little is known about the psychosocial correlates of caregiver guilt in their Chinese counterparts. A total of 176 husbands of Chinese breast cancer survivors completed a cross-sectional survey in Weifang, Shandong province, China. As expected, hierarchical regression results showed that higher caregiving burden was associated with higher levels of caregiver guilt...
June 29, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Care
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