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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746263/treatment-outcomes-of-children-with-hiv-infection-and-drug-resistant-tb-in-three-provinces-in-south-africa-2005-2008
#1
Eric W Hall, Sapna B Morris, Brittany K Moore, Linda Erasmus, Ronel Odendaal, Heather Menzies, Martie van der Walt, Sarah E Smith
OBJECTIVE: To describe outcomes of HIV-infected pediatric patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR TB). METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from pediatric patient charts treated for DR TB during 2005-2008 were collected retrospectively from five MDR TB hospitals in South Africa. Data were summarized and Pearson's chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test were used to assess differences in variables of interest by HIV status. A time-to-event analysis was conducted using days from start of treatment to death...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739268/xpert%C3%A2-mtb-rif-usefulness-for-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-and-resistance-to-rifampicin
#2
REVIEW
Andrea Vergara Gómez, Julià González-Martín, Alberto L García-Basteiro
The advent of the Xpert® MTB/RIF technique was a revolution in the diagnosis of tuberculosis, especially in areas with high incidence and low resources. It allows the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and simultaneously the most common resistance mutations to rifampicin in less than 2h. For respiratory samples the sensitivity is very high, but it decreases for extrapulmonary samples and children. Although it is faster and simpler than conventional methods, it presents some limitations and new and better techniques are needed to reduce the number of cases and deaths caused by tuberculosis...
July 21, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734517/tuberculosis-in-children
#3
REVIEW
Tania A Thomas
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the leading cause of death worldwide from a single bacterial pathogen. The World Health Organization estimates that annually 1 million children have tuberculosis (TB) disease and many more harbor a latent form. Accurate estimates are hindered by under-recognition and challenges in diagnosis. To date, an accurate diagnostic test to confirm TB in children does not exist. Treatment is lengthy but outcomes are generally favorable with timely initiation. With the End TB Strategy, there is an urgent need for improved diagnostics and treatment to prevent the unnecessary morbidity and mortality from TB in children...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731663/-pulmonary-actinomycosis-and-tuberculosis-a-comorbidity-pediatric-case
#4
Elsa D Bisero, Graciela F Luque, Cristina N Rizzo, Alejandra E Zapata, María S Cuello
Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative infection, produced by anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria or microaerobic Actinomyces species. It is rare in children and adolescents and it is more common in immunocompromised. Mycobacterium tuberculosis collaborates on the development of the disease. Pulmonary involvement appears as a picture of chronic condensation that does not improve with conventional antibiotic treatment. Classic complications affecting the thoracic wallwith drainage in «sulfur granule» and fistulization are described less frequently nowadays...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729186/-tuberculosis-treatment-for-children-an-update
#5
María José Mellado Peña, Begoña Santiago García, Fernando Baquero-Artigao, David Moreno Pérez, Roi Piñeiro Pérez, Ana Méndez Echevarría, José Tomás Ramos Amador, David Gómez-Pastrana Durán, Antoni Noguera Julian
Tuberculosis (TB) is the most important infectious disease all over the world, with a high morbidity and mortality. Pediatric tuberculosis has been a neglected epidemic, due to the difficulties in assessing its global impact, reduced incidence and lower infectivity compared to adults. In 2015, the WHO reported 1 million cases of paediatric TB and 169,000 deaths. In Europe, the emergence of MDR TB is a major concern, representing 16% of the new diagnosis in Eastern Europe. In 2014, it was estimated that about 219,000 children were infected by MDR-TB-strains in Europe, and 2,120 developed the disease...
July 17, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724962/novel-transcriptional-signatures-for-sputum-independent-diagnostics-of-tuberculosis-in-children
#6
John Espen Gjøen, Synne Jenum, Dhanasekaran Sivakumaran, Aparna Mukherjee, Ragini Macaden, Sushil K Kabra, Rakesh Lodha, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Marielle C Haks, Timothy Mark Doherty, Christian Ritz, Harleen M S Grewal
Pediatric tuberculosis (TB) is challenging to diagnose, confirmed by growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at best in 40% of cases. The WHO has assigned high priority to the development of non-sputum diagnostic tools. We therefore sought to identify transcriptional signatures in whole blood of Indian children, capable of discriminating intra-thoracic TB disease from other symptomatic illnesses. We investigated the expression of 198 genes in a training set, comprising 47 TB cases (19 definite/28 probable) and 36 asymptomatic household controls, and identified a 7- and a 10-transcript signature, both including NOD2, GBP5, IFITM1/3, KIF1B and TNIP1...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724359/the-burden-of-hiv-on-tuberculosis-patients-in-the-volta-region-of-ghana-from-2012-to-2015-implication-for-tuberculosis-control
#7
Eric Osei, Joyce Der, Richard Owusu, Philip Kofie, Wisdom Kudzo Axame
BACKGROUND: The impact of HIV on TB, and the implications for TB control, has been acknowledged as a public health challenge. It is imperative therefore to assess the burden of HIV on TB patients as an indicator for monitoring the control efforts of the two diseases in this part of the world. This study aimed at determining the burden of HIV infection in TB patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of TB registers in five districts of the Volta Region of Ghana...
July 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723333/enhanced-prophylaxis-plus-antiretroviral-therapy-for-advanced-hiv-infection-in-africa
#8
James Hakim, Victor Musiime, Alex J Szubert, Jane Mallewa, Abraham Siika, Clara Agutu, Simon Walker, Sarah L Pett, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Abbas Lugemwa, Symon Kaunda, Mercy Karoney, Godfrey Musoro, Sheila Kabahenda, Kusum Nathoo, Kathryn Maitland, Anna Griffiths, Margaret J Thomason, Cissy Kityo, Peter Mugyenyi, Andrew J Prendergast, A Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the rate of death from infection (including tuberculosis and cryptococcus) shortly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is approximately 10%. METHODS: In this factorial open-label trial conducted in Uganda, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya, we enrolled HIV-infected adults and children 5 years of age or older who had not received previous ART and were starting ART with a CD4+ count of fewer than 100 cells per cubic millimeter...
July 20, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722570/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-close-childhood-contacts-of-adults-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-is-increased-by-secondhand-exposure-to-tobacco
#9
Ifedayo M O Adetifa, Lindsay Kendall, Simon Donkor, Moses D Lugos, Abdulrahman S Hammond, Patrick K Owiafe, Martin O C Ota, Roger H Brookes, Philip C Hill
Tobacco use is a major risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). Secondhand smoke (SHS) is also a risk factor for TB and to a lesser extent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection without disease. We investigated the added risk of M. tuberculosis infection due to SHS exposure in childhood contacts of TB cases in The Gambia. Participants were childhood household contacts aged ≤ 14 years of newly diagnosed pulmonary TB (PTB) cases. The intensity of exposure to the case was categorized according to whether contacts slept in the same room, same house, or a different house as the case...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719610/a-decade-of-hiv-care-in-rural-tanzania-trends-in-clinical-outcomes-and-impact-of-clinic-optimisation-in-an-open-prospective-cohort
#10
Fiona Vanobberghen, Emilio Letang, Anna Gamell, Dorcas K Mnzava, Diana Faini, Lameck B Luwanda, Herry Mapesi, Kim Mwamelo, George Sikalengo, Marcel Tanner, Christoph Hatz, Hansjakob Furrer, Manuel Battegay, Tracy R Glass
OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to describe trends in enrolment and clinical outcomes in the open, prospective Kilombero and Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort (KIULARCO) in the Morogoro region of southern Tanzania, and identify strengths and areas for improvement in the care of HIV-positive individuals in rural Tanzania. METHODS: We included adults (≥15 years) and children (<15 years) enrolled in the cohort in 2005-2014. The cohort underwent significant changes from autumn 2012 to optimise care...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719497/serologic-responses-in-childhood-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#11
Bareng A S Nonyane, Mark P Nicol, Nicholas J Andreas, Stefanie Rimmele, Nicole Schneiderhan-Marra, Lesley J Workman, Mark D Perkins, Thomas Joos, Tobias Broger, Jerrold J Ellner, David Alland, Beate Kampmann, Susan E Dorman, Heather J Zar
BACKGROUND: Identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunoproteome and antigens associated with serologic responses in adults has renewed interest in developing a serologic test for childhood tuberculosis (TB). We investigated IgG antibody responses against M. tuberculosis antigens in children with well-characterized TB. METHODS: We studied archived sera obtained from hospitalized children with suspected pulmonary TB, and classified as having confirmed TB (culture-confirmed), unlikely TB (clinical improvement without TB treatment), or unconfirmed TB (all others)...
July 15, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705514/bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-bcg-vaccination-patterns-in-the-province-of-qu%C3%A3-bec-canada-1956-1974
#12
Marie-Claude Rousseau, Florence Conus, Khady Kâ, Mariam El-Zein, Marie-Élise Parent, Dick Menzies
BACKGROUND: In the province of Québec, Canada, the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine was offered to newborns and school-age children from the 1950s to mid-1970s in an organized tuberculosis prevention program. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the annual rates of skin test administration, proportion of skin tests that were positive, and rates of BCG vaccination from 1956 to 1974 according to age, sex, and administrative region. METHODS: For rates, numerators were extracted from the Québec BCG Vaccination Registry whereas population denominators were obtained from the Canadian Census and governmental publications...
July 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705268/description-and-factors-affecting-the-referral-of-presumptive-tuberculosis-patients-in-china
#13
Tao Li, Hui Zhang, Li Xia Wang, Yu Pang, Xin DU
To describe and analyze the factors affecting the referral of presumptive tuberculosis patients between health-care facilities that are not affiliated with the National TB Control Program (NTP) and NTP-designated medical facilities in China, we carried out a retrospective study based on data collected in the Tuberculosis Information Management System in 2015. Out of 324,221 presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases reported by non-NTP health-care facilities, 302,006 (93.1%) reported cases successfully arrived at designated medical facilities and 22,215 cases (6...
June 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695838/ruptured-pulmonary-cystic-echinococcosis-mimicking-tuberculosis-in-childhood-a-case-report
#14
Elif Ünver Korğalı, Meriç Kaymak Cihan, Özgür Ceylan, Melih Kaptanoğlu
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic disease; in places such as Turkey where livestock is common, it is an endemic health concern. The most commonly involved organ is the lungs in children. Pulmonary cysts can be asymptomatic; in some cases, they may rupture and become symptomatic. Ruptured lung hydatid cysts may often be confused with tuberculosis (Tbc) radiologically and clinically. . In this report, we present an 8-year-old female patient admitted with cough, fever, and sputum persisting since 2 weeks; her chest radiography and computed tomography (CT) findings initially indicated Tbc, but the follow-up surgery led to a diagnosis of ruptured lung CE...
June 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691431/low-dose-computed-tomography-in-assessment-of-pulmonary-abnormalities-in-children-with-febrile-neutropenia-suffering-from-malignant-diseases
#15
Urszula Zaleska-Dorobisz, Cyprian Michal Olchowy, Mateusz Łasecki, Dąbrówka Sokołowska-Dąbek, Aleksander Pawluś, Jowita Frączkiewicz, Ewa Gorczyńska
BACKGROUND: Management of febrile neutropenia in pediatric patients is challenging. Chest X-ray and CT help to identify infective foci; however, exposure to radiation is a risk factor for development of secondary cancer. For this reason, attention is paid to reduce radiation exposure. OBJECTIVES: TTo define the role of LDCT examination in early detection of pulmonary lesions in children during oncology or autoimmune treatment complicated by neutropenia related fever...
June 27, 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690615/impact-of-early-life-exposures-to-infections-antibiotics-and-vaccines-on-perinatal-and-long-term-health-and-disease
#16
REVIEW
Steven L Raymond, Jaimar C Rincon, James L Wynn, Lyle L Moldawer, Shawn D Larson
Essentially, all neonates are exposed to infections, antibiotics, or vaccines early in their lives. This is especially true for those neonates born underweight or premature. In contrast to septic adults and children who are at an increased risk for subsequent infections, exposure to infection during the neonatal period is not associated with an increased risk of subsequent infection and may be paradoxically associated with reductions in late-onset sepsis (LOS) in the most premature infants. Perinatal inflammation is also associated with a decreased incidence of asthma and atopy later in life...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687246/edwin-lawrence-kendig-jr-md-dsc-hon-1911-2003
#17
REVIEW
Barry V Kirkpatrick
Edwin Kendig, MD is considered one of the founders of pediatric pulmonology. Prompted by his own experience with tuberculosis, he opened a 'chest clinic' for children, where he worked for 50years. He systematically published his observations and was the original editor of the first textbook in pediatric pulmonology in 1967. His book, now called Kendig and Chernick's Disorders of the Respiratory Tract in Children will publish its 9th edition in 2018. All of this was in addition to his primary care pediatric practice, his teaching and his work at the national and international level of pediatric care...
June 11, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686692/estimating-influenza-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-associated-mortality-in-western-kenya-using-health-and-demographic-surveillance-system-data-2007-2013
#18
Gideon O Emukule, Peter Spreeuwenberg, Sandra S Chaves, Joshua A Mott, Stefano Tempia, Godfrey Bigogo, Bryan Nyawanda, Amek Nyaguara, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Koos van der Velden, John W Paget
BACKGROUND: Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) associated mortality has not been well-established in tropical Africa. METHODS: We used the negative binomial regression method and the rate-difference method (i.e. deaths during low and high influenza/RSV activity months), to estimate excess mortality attributable to influenza and RSV using verbal autopsy data collected through a health and demographic surveillance system in Western Kenya, 2007-2013. Excess mortality rates were calculated for a) all-cause mortality, b) respiratory deaths (including pneumonia), c) HIV-related deaths, and d) pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) related deaths...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670408/epidemiology-of-musculoskeletal-tuberculosis-in-an-area-with-high-disease-prevalence
#19
Michael F G Held, Sven Hoppe, Maritz Laubscher, Stewart Mears, Stewart Dix-Peek, Heather J Zar, Robert N Dunn
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of age and site of infection in patients with musculoskeletal tuberculosis (TB) and determine the number of TB/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfections as well as the incidence of multidrugresistant (MDR) TB. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Of all TB cases, 1%-3% show skeletal system involvement and 30% are HIV coinfected. Although the reported distribution of skeletal TB is majorly in the spine, followed by the hip, knee, and foot/ankle, the epidemiology of extrapulmonary TB and especially musculoskeletal TB remains largely unknown, particularly in areas with a high prevalence of the disease...
June 2017: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660649/neonatal-bcg-has-no-effect-on-allergic-sensitization-and-suspected-food-allergy-until-13-months
#20
Lisbeth Marianne Thøstesen, Henrik Fomsgaard Kjaer, Gitte Thybo Pihl, Thomas Nørrelykke Nissen, Nina Marie Birk, Jesper Kjaergaard, Aksel Karl Georg Jensen, Peter Aaby, Annette Wind Olesen, Lone Graff Stensballe, Dorthe Lisbeth Jeppesen, Christine Stabell Benn, Poul-Erik Kofoed
BACKGROUND: Vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is used in many countries as protection against tuberculosis. Studies have suggested that BCG may also have non-specific effects, reducing non-tuberculosis mortality, morbidity, and atopic manifestations. In this study we evaluated the effect of neonatal BCG vaccination on allergic sensitization and suspected food allergy at 13 months of age. METHODS: The Danish Calmette Study was conducted from 2012-2015 at three Danish hospitals...
June 29, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
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