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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778630/bcg-vaccination-protects-against-infection-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-ascertained-by-tuberculin-skin-testing
#1
Pelzer Pt, Mutayoba B, Cobelens Fgj
OBJECTIVES: There is conflicting evidence as to whether Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination offers protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection ascertained by a positive tuberculin skin test (TST). We investigated the association between BCG vaccination status and TST results in a set of surveys at increasing TST cut-off values to take cross-reactions to BCG vaccination into account. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data from three consecutive tuberculin surveys done among schoolchildren in Tanzania between 1990 and 2002...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775913/mobile-phone-based-evaluation-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-proof-of-concept-for-an-integrated-image-capture-and-analysis-system
#2
Safa Naraghi, Tinashe Mutsvangwa, René Goliath, Molebogeng X Rangaka, Tania S Douglas
BACKGROUND: The tuberculin skin test is the most widely used method for detecting latent tuberculosis infection in adults and active tuberculosis in children. We present the development of a mobile-phone based screening tool for measuring the tuberculin skin test induration. METHOD: The tool makes use of a mobile application developed on the Android platform to capture images of an induration, and photogrammetric reconstruction using Agisoft PhotoScan to reconstruct the induration in 3D, followed by 3D measurement of the induration with the aid of functions from the Python programming language...
May 8, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773279/-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-cervical-adenitis-in-children-2-cases
#3
N Sigg, S Bailleul, J-M Turmel, G Legrand, S Kettani, L Martin
BACKGROUND: Cervical lymphadenitis is the most common manifestation of infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in immunocompetent children. Nevertheless, it is poorly known by dermatologists. Its incidence, which is currently increasing since the cessation of BCG vaccination in 2007, raises several issues regarding its pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report two cases of NTM adenitis: one in a 2-year-old girl vaccinated with BCG and one in an unvaccinated 22-month-old boy, in whom a misleading presentation led to delayed diagnosis...
May 14, 2018: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762390/latent-tuberculosis-treatment-compliance-in-children-a-10-year-experience
#4
Elisabetta Venturini, Chiara Tersigni, Chiara Cordola, Maurizio de Martino, Luisa Galli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757583/what-immunological-defects-predispose-to-non-tuberculosis-mycobacterial-infections
#5
Esmaeil Mortaz, Milad Moloudizargari, Mohammad Varahram, Mehrnaz Movassaghi, Johan Garssen, Mehdi Kazempour Dizagie, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Ian M Adcock
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are categorized as one of the large and diverse groups of environmental organisms which are abundant in water and soil.  NTM cause a variety of diseases in humans that mainly affect the lung. A predisposition to pulmonary NTM is evident in patients with parenchymal structural diseases including bronchiectasis, emphysema, tuberculosis (TB), cystic fibrosis (CF), rheumatologic lung diseases and other chronic diseases with pulmonary manifestations. Lung infections are not the only consequences of being infected by NTM as they can also infect skin and soft tissue and may also cause lymphadenitis (predominantly in young children) and disseminated disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients or those with severely compromised immune system...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757395/genotyping-and-whole-genome-sequencing-to-identify-tuberculosis-transmission-to-pediatric-patients-in-british-columbia-canada-2005-2014
#6
Jennifer L Guthrie, Andy Delli Pizzi, David Roth, Clare Kong, Danielle Jorgensen, Mabel Rodrigues, Patrick Tang, Victoria J Cook, James Johnston, Jennifer L Gardy
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) in children is often an indicator of recent transmission. Genotyping and whole genome sequencing (WGS) can enhance pediatric TB investigations by confirming or refuting transmission events. Methods: Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from all pediatric patients <18 years with culture-confirmed TB in British Columbia (BC) from 2005-2014 (n=49) were genotyped by MIRU-VNTR and compared to adult isolates. Genotypically clustered cases underwent WGS...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756725/-tuberculosis-by-multiresistant-mycobacterium-africanum-pediatric-clinical-case
#7
Júlia Morata Alba, Paloma Beltrán Catalá, Nelson Orta Sibú
Tuberculosis, considered since 2003 by the World Health Organization a global health emergency, causes annual mortality of approximately 2 million people, mainly in developing countries. In the Spanish pediatric population, the incidence is 5 cases/100 000 children between 5 and 14 years and 13 cases/100 000 children between 0 and 4 years. The infection is transmitted through the respiratory tract by baciliferous patients. Children eliminate few bacilli in respiratory secretions and do not usually transmit the infection...
June 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752313/schistosomiasis-induces-persistent-dna-methylation-and-tuberculosis-specific-immune-changes
#8
Andrew R DiNardo, Tomoki Nishiguchi, Emily M Mace, Kimal Rajapakshe, Godwin Mtetwa, Alexander Kay, Gugu Maphalala, W Evan Secor, Rojelio Mejia, Jordan S Orange, Cristian Coarfa, Kapil N Bhalla, Edward A Graviss, Anna M Mandalakas, George Makedonas
Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, determine immune cell phenotype. To understand the epigenetic alterations induced by helminth coinfections, we evaluated the longitudinal effect of ascariasis and schistosomiasis infection on CD4+ T cell DNA methylation and the downstream tuberculosis (TB)-specific and bacillus Calmette-Guérin-induced immune phenotype. All experiments were performed on human primary immune cells from a longitudinal cohort of recently TB-exposed children. Compared with age-matched uninfected controls, children with active Schistosoma haematobium and Ascaris lumbricoides infection had 751 differentially DNA-methylated genes, with 72% hypermethylated...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751121/evaluation-of-dried-blood-spot-sampling-for-pharmacokinetic-research-and-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-anti-tuberculosis-drugs-in-children
#9
Lisa C Martial, Jordy Kerkhoff, Nilza Martinez, Mabel Rodríguez, Rosarito Coronel, Gladys Molinas, Myriam Roman, Roscio Gomez, Sarita Aguirre, Erwin Jongedijk, Justine Huisman, Daan J Touw, Domingo Pérez, Gilberto Chaparro, Felipe Gonzalez, Rob E Aarnoutse, Jan-Willem Alffenaar, Cecile Magis-Escurra
BACKGROUND: Dried blood spot sampling (DBS) for pharmacokinetic (PK) studies and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring has unique advantages over venous sampling. We aimed to evaluate a DBS method for first-line anti-TB drugs in children, implemented DBS to assess PK parameters. METHODS: Paraguayan children were treated according to the revised paediatric WHO dosing scheme. A PK curve was performed both with DBS and conventional venous sampling for rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750764/linezolid-containing-treatment-regimens-for-tuberculosis-in-children
#10
Luis M Prieto, Begoña Santiago, Teresa Del Rosal, Begoña Carazo, Ana B Jiménez, Beatriz Pérez-Gorricho, Felipe Rubio, Alfredo Tagarro, Daniel Blázquez, David Moreno-Pérez, María J Mellado, Fernando Baquero-Artigao
BACKGROUND: In recent years there is an increasing interest in the use of linezolid for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: Patients under 18 years of age who received linezolid within the Spanish Pediatric TB Network (pTBred) from 2001 to 2016 were retrospectively included. Treatment characteristics, adverse events (AEs) and outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Fifteen children were included (53% male) with a median age of 3.6 years (IQR: 1...
May 10, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750144/towards-the-elimination-of-paediatric-tuberculosis-in-high-income-immigrant-receiving-countries-a-25-year-conventional-and-molecular-epidemiological-case-study
#11
Vivek Dhawan, Jennifer Bown, Angela Lau, Deanne Langlois-Klassen, Dennis Kunimoto, Ravi Bhargava, Linda Chui, Simon M Collin, Richard Long
The epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in high-income countries is increasingly dictated by immigration. The influence of this trend on paediatric TB and TB elimination are not well defined. We undertook a 25-year conventional and molecular epidemiologic study of paediatric TB in Alberta, one of four major immigrant-receiving provinces in Canada. All isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were DNA fingerprinted using standard methodology. Between 1990 and 2014, 176 children aged 0-14 years were diagnosed with TB...
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743059/enhanced-surveillance-for-tuberculosis-among-foreign-born-persons-finland-2014-2016
#12
Pirre E Räisänen, Hanna Soini, Pirjo Turtiainen, Tuula Vasankari, Petri Ruutu, J Pekka Nuorti, Outi Lyytikäinen
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) in foreign-born residents is increasing in many European countries including Finland. We conducted enhanced TB surveillance to collect supplementary information on TB cases among recent immigrants and their children to provide data for revising TB control policies in Finland to take into account the decrease in native cases and increase in foreign-born cases. METHODS: TB cases were identified from the National Infectious Diseases Register...
May 9, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742640/treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-infection-in-children
#13
Andrea T Cruz, Anthony J Garcia-Prats, Jennifer Furin, James A Seddon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742144/mpt64-antigen-detection-test-improves-routine-diagnosis-of-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-in-a-low-resource-setting-a-study-from-the-tertiary-care-hospital-in-zanzibar
#14
Melissa Davidsen Jørstad, Msafiri Marijani, Anne Ma Dyrhol-Riise, Lisbet Sviland, Tehmina Mustafa
BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is a diagnostic challenge. An immunochemistry-based MPT64 antigen detection test (MPT64 test) has reported higher sensitivity in the diagnosis of EPTB compared with conventional methods. The objective of this study was to implement and evaluate the MPT64 test in routine diagnostics in a low-resource setting. METHODS: Patients with presumptive EPTB were prospectively enrolled at Mnazi Mmoja Hospital, Zanzibar, and followed to the end of treatment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742052/clinical-and-drug-resistance-characteristics-of-new-pediatric-tuberculosis-cases-in-northern-china
#15
Ting Wang, Fang Dong, Qin-Jing Li, Qing-Qin Yin, Wen-Qi Song, Igor Mokrousov, Wei-Wei Jiao, A-Dong Shen
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and characteristics of drug resistance in newly diagnosed pediatric tuberculosis (TB) patients in northern China. METHODS: Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were collected from September 2010 to October 2016 at the Beijing Children's Hospital. Patients were divided into two groups (resistant to at least one drug and pan-susceptible) according to drug susceptibility testing (DST) results. RESULTS: A total of 132 new cases, mainly from northern China (87...
May 9, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740714/xpert-mtb-rif-diagnosis-of-childhood-tuberculosis-from-sputum-and-stool-samples-in-a-high-tb-hiv-prevalent-setting
#16
Patrick Orikiriza, Margaret Nansumba, Dan Nyehangane, Mathieu Bastard, Ivan Taremwa Mugisha, Denis Nansera, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire, Yap Boum, Elias Kumbakumba, Maryline Bonnet
The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a major advance for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in high-burden countries but is limited in children by their difficulty to produce sputum. We investigated TB in sputum and stool from children with the aim of improving paediatric TB diagnosis. A prospective cohort of children with presumptive TB, provided two sputum or induced sputum at enrolment in a regional referral hospital in Uganda. Stool was collected from those started on TB treatment. All specimen were tested for Xpert MTB/RIF, mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT), Lowenstein Jensen cultures and microscopy (except stool)...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739700/catalysing-the-development-and-introduction-of-paediatric-drug-formulations-for-children-living-with-hiv-a-new-global-collaborative-framework-for-action
#17
Martina Penazzato, Melynda Watkins, Sébastien Morin, Linda Lewis, Fernando Pascual, Marissa Vicari, Janice Lee, Sally Hargreaves, Meg Doherty, George K Siberry
Progress in the development and introduction of paediatric formulations for key infectious diseases is poor in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although major steps have been made in the scale-up of antiretroviral medicines in LMICs, the development and deployment of formulations for infants and children is suboptimal. Of the children living with HIV globally (most in Africa), only 43% are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), many with suboptimal formulations. These shortfalls pose a series of challenges to meeting global treatment targets of 1·6 million children (aged 0-14 years) on ART by the end of 2018 (95% coverage) and to ensuring that 95% of those on ART are virologically suppressed...
May 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735782/an-overview-of-liver-transplant-pathology-data-from-a-tertiary-referral-centre-in-western-india
#18
Fiona Fonseca, Bijal Kulkarni, Meenal Hastak, Vinay Kumaran, Vibha Varma, Sorabh Kapoor
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: 1. Study of liver explants - Etiologic types of end-stage chronic liver disease (ESCLD) and acute liver failure (ALF) in adults and children. 2. Assessment of donor steatosis and incidental granulomas. 3. Post-transplant liver biopsies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Specimens of 180 explant hepatectomies, 173 donor wedge and 30 core liver biopsies, and 58 post transplant liver biopsies received in our department from April 2013 to March 2017. RESULTS: 1...
April 9, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731933/latent-tuberculosis-infection-diagnosis-and-treatment
#19
Biljana Ilievska-Poposka, Marija Metodieva, Maja Zakoska, Cveta Vragoterova, Dejan Trajkov
INTRODUCTION: Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is defined as a state of persistent immune response to stimulation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens without evidence of clinically manifested active tuberculosis (TB). Diagnosis and treatment for LTBI are important for TB, especially in high-risk populations. Tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) are used to diagnose LTBI. AIM: The study aims to present the first results with IGRA test compared with TST in the screening of LTBI and the treatment results in the cases with LTBI in Macedonia...
April 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731926/practical-approach-to-lung-health-experience-from-the-republic-of-macedonia
#20
Biljana Ilievska-Poposka, Maja Zakoska, Stefan Talevski
BACKGROUND: Among the adults and children aged 5 yrs who attend PHC settings, 20-30% seeks to care for respiratory symptoms. Over 80-90% of the respiratory patients suffer from acute respiratory infections (ARI), followed by chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), asthma, and less frequently with pneumonia and tuberculosis (TB). To improve the quality of care in patients who seek assistance for respiratory symptoms in PHC settings and the efficiency of respiratory service delivery within healthcare systems, WHO has designated several initiatives among which one is PAL (Practical Approach to Lung Health)...
April 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
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