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Plant tissue culture, micropropagation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807436/artificial-neural-network-genetic-algorithm-as-powerful-tool-to-predict-and-optimize-in-vitro-proliferation-mineral-medium-for-g-%C3%A3-n15-rootstock
#1
Mohammad M Arab, Abbas Yadollahi, Abdolali Shojaeiyan, Hamed Ahmadi
One of the major obstacles to the micropropagation of Prunus rootstocks has, up until now, been the lack of a suitable tissue culture medium. Therefore, reformulation of culture media or modification of the mineral content might be a breakthrough to improve in vitro multiplication of G × N15 (garnem). We found artificial neural network in combination of genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) as a very precise and powerful modeling system for optimizing the culture medium, So that modeling the effects of MS mineral salts ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], Ca(2+), K(+), [Formula: see text], Mg(2+), and Cl(-)) on in vitro multiplication parameters (the number of microshoots per explant, average length of microshoots, weight of calluses derived from the base of stem explants, and quality index of plantlets) of G × N15...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553812/micropropagation-and-genetic-transformation-of-tylophora-indica-burm-f-merr-a-review
#2
Jaime A Teixeira da Silva, Sumita Jha
This review provides an in-depth and comprehensive overview of the in vitro culture of Tylophora species, which have medicinal properties. Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merr. is a climbing perennial vine with medicinal properties. The tissue culture and genetic transformation of T. indica, which has been extensively studied, is reviewed. Micropropagation using nodal explants has been reported in 25 % of all publications. Leaf explants from field-grown plants has been the explant of choice of independent research groups, which reported direct and callus-mediated organogenesis as well as callus-mediated somatic embryogenesis...
November 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478496/conservation-and-sustainable-use-of-medicinal-plants-problems-progress-and-prospects
#3
Shi-Lin Chen, Hua Yu, Hong-Mei Luo, Qiong Wu, Chun-Fang Li, André Steinmetz
Medicinal plants are globally valuable sources of herbal products, and they are disappearing at a high speed. This article reviews global trends, developments and prospects for the strategies and methodologies concerning the conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plant resources to provide a reliable reference for the conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants. We emphasized that both conservation strategies (e.g. in situ and ex situ conservation and cultivation practices) and resource management (e...
2016: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356371/-study-on-rapid-micropropagation-in-vitro-technique-of-guangfeng-medicinal-yam-dioscorea-opposita-plantlets
#4
Ming-Hua Yin, Zhi-Jian Xu, Sheng-qin Zhang, Si-Jie Lv, Yan-hong Zeng, You-zhang Fu, Sen-rong Hong
OBJECTIVE: In order to provide methodology reference for virus-free and germplasm conservation of Guangfeng medicinal yam (Dioscorea opposita) plantlets, rapid micropropagation in vitro technique of Guangfeng medicinal yam plantlets was studied. METHODS: Using the method of plant tissue culture, single factor test and flow-cytometry, the basic procedure of Guangfeng medicinal yam tissue culture was established and the DNA content of Guangfeng medicinal yam plantlets and its potted seedlings was detected...
November 2015: Zhong Yao Cai, Zhongyaocai, Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318708/detection-of-variation-in-long-term-micropropagated-mature-pistachio-via-dna-based-molecular-markers
#5
Hülya Akdemir, Veysel Suzerer, Engin Tilkat, Ahmet Onay, Yelda Ozden Çiftçi
Determination of genetic stability of in vitro-grown plantlets is needed for safe and large-scale production of mature trees. In this study, genetic variation of long-term micropropagated mature pistachio developed through direct shoot bud regeneration using apical buds (protocol A) and in vitro-derived leaves (protocol B) was assessed via DNA-based molecular markers. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) were employed, and the obtained PIC values from RAPD (0...
December 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27246994/effect-of-zinc-oxide-zno-nanoparticles-on-physiology-and-steviol-glycosides-production-in-micropropagated-shoots-of-stevia-rebaudiana-bertoni
#6
Rabia Javed, Muhammad Usman, Buhara Yücesan, Muhammad Zia, Ekrem Gürel
This study aims to address the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 or 1000 mg L(-1)) of engineered zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (34 nm in size) on growth parameters, steviol glycosides (rebaudioside A and stevioside) production and antioxidant activities in the tissue culture grown shoots of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. The highest percentage of shoot formation (89.6%) at 1 mg L(-1) of ZnO nanoparticles concentration suggests a positive influence of ZnO nanoparticles on S. rebaudiana growth as compared to other treatments with or without ZnO nanoparticles...
May 24, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242948/micropropagation-micromorphological-studies-and-in-vitro-flowering-in-rungia-pectinata-l
#7
Mahipal S Shekhawat, M Manokari, C P Ravindran
A tissue culture protocol was developed for an important medicinal plant Rungia pectinata L. in the present study. Nodal shoots were used as explants and surface-sterilized with 0.1% HgCl2 solution. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium was used to establish the cultures of R. pectinata. The bud break was reported on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). About 98% response was observed with this media combination and maximum 3.2 shoots per explant with 4.3 cm length were recorded...
2016: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27145892/the-effect-of-polar-auxin-transport-on-adventitious-branch-formation-in-gracilaria-lichenoides-in-vitro
#8
Wenlei Wang, Huanqin Li, Xiangzhi Lin, Fang Zhang, Baishan Fang, Zhaokai Wang
Seaweed tissue culture (STC) is an important micropropagation tool that has been applied for strain improvement, micropropagation and genetic engineering. Because the mechanisms associated with STC are poorly understood, however, its application to these organisms lags far behind that of tissue culture propagation of higher plants. Auxin, calcium (Ca(2+) ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) fluxes all play key roles during plant growth and development. In this study, we therefore measured indole-3-acetic acid, Ca(2+) and H2 O2 fluxes of Gracilaria lichenoides explants during adventitious branch (AB) formation for the first time using non-invasive micro-test technology...
May 5, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27108326/in-vitro-propagation-and-conservation-of-withania-somnifera-dunal-l
#9
Nigar Fatima, Naseem Ahmad, Mohammad Anis
Plant tissue culture offers several techniques for rapid clonal propagation, germplasm conservation, regeneration of genetically manipulated superior clones, production of phyto-constituents, and ex vitro conservation of valuable phytodiversity. An improved and efficient micropropagation protocol for Withania somnifera (L.), a drug-producing medicinal plant, using juvenile explants (nodal explants) has been developed. Highest multiplication and subsequent elongation of shoots is observed on MS medium containing BA and NAA...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27108323/in-vitro-shoot-cultures-and-analysis-of-steroidal-lactones-in-withania-coagulans-stocks-dunal
#10
Rohit Jain, Sumita Kachhwaha, S L Kothari
Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal (Solanaceae), also known as 'Panir Bandh' is an important medicinal plant that is extensively used as a home remedy for several diseases in the Indian subcontinent. The plant possesses specific steroidal lactones known as withanolides which show high level of pharmaceutical activity against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. Natural propagation of the plant occurs through Seed but due to unisexual nature of the flowers; chances of Seed setting are very limited and the plant is on the verge of extinction because of overexploitation and reproductive failure...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27108306/protocols-for-in-vitro-mass-multiplication-and-analysis-of-medicinally-important-phenolics-of-a-salep-orchid-satyrium-nepalense-d-don-salam-mishri
#11
Shashi B Babbar, Deepak K Singh
Satyrium nepalense is a rare and threatened medicinal orchid, populations of which in its native habitats are dwindling because of indiscriminate collections and habitat destruction, thus necessitating the development of methods for its in situ and ex situ conservation. Because of non-endospermous nature of the seeds and the immature embryos at seed dispersal stage, orchids cannot be seed-propagated as other plants. Micropropagation, using plant tissue culture techniques, offers an effective method for the multiplication of orchids...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26990734/comparative-analysis-of-bioactive-n-alkylamides-produced-by-tissue-culture-raised-versus-field-plantlets-of-spilanthes-ciliata-using-lc-q-tof-hrms
#12
Zubair Shanib Bhat, Neeharika Jaladi, Ravi Kant Khajuria, Zeeshan Hamid Shah, Neelakantan Arumugam
Spilanthes ciliata (S. ciliata) is a perennial herb of global importance owing to its luscious source of bioactive fatty acid derived amides known as N-alkylamides. It finds application in skin creams, mouth gels and toothpastes. Despite multifaceted applications, a major limitation associated for its commercial application is the scarcity of contamination free plant source, fluctuations in active metabolites due to variation in extraction procedures, and lack of rapid qualitative method for alkylamide profiling...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26662210/loss-of-cmd2-mediated-resistance-to-cassava-mosaic-disease-in-plants-regenerated-through-somatic-embryogenesis
#13
Getu Beyene, Raj Deepika Chauhan, Henry Wagaba, Theodore Moll, Titus Alicai, Douglas Miano, James C Carrington, Nigel J Taylor
Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) and cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) are the two most important viral diseases affecting cassava production in Africa. Three sources of resistance are employed to combat CMD: polygenic recessive resistance, termed CMD1, the dominant monogenic type, named CMD2, and the recently characterized CMD3. The farmer-preferred cultivar TME 204 carries inherent resistance to CMD mediated by CMD2, but is highly susceptible to CBSD. Selected plants of TME 204 produced for RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated resistance to CBSD were regenerated via somatic embryogenesis and tested in confined field trials in East Africa...
September 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26352475/loss-of-karma-transposon-methylation-underlies-the%C3%A2-mantled-somaclonal-variant-of-oil-palm
#14
Meilina Ong-Abdullah, Jared M Ordway, Nan Jiang, Siew-Eng Ooi, Sau-Yee Kok, Norashikin Sarpan, Nuraziyan Azimi, Ahmad Tarmizi Hashim, Zamzuri Ishak, Samsul Kamal Rosli, Fadila Ahmad Malike, Nor Azwani Abu Bakar, Marhalil Marjuni, Norziha Abdullah, Zulkifli Yaakub, Mohd Din Amiruddin, Rajanaidu Nookiah, Rajinder Singh, Eng-Ti Leslie Low, Kuang-Lim Chan, Norazah Azizi, Steven W Smith, Blaire Bacher, Muhammad A Budiman, Andrew Van Brunt, Corey Wischmeyer, Melissa Beil, Michael Hogan, Nathan Lakey, Chin-Ching Lim, Xaviar Arulandoo, Choo-Kien Wong, Chin-Nee Choo, Wei-Chee Wong, Yen-Yen Kwan, Sharifah Shahrul Rabiah Syed Alwee, Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi, Robert A Martienssen
Somaclonal variation arises in plants and animals when differentiated somatic cells are induced into a pluripotent state, but the resulting clones differ from each other and from their parents. In agriculture, somaclonal variation has hindered the micropropagation of elite hybrids and genetically modified crops, but the mechanism responsible remains unknown. The oil palm fruit 'mantled' abnormality is a somaclonal variant arising from tissue culture that drastically reduces yield, and has largely halted efforts to clone elite hybrids for oil production...
September 24, 2015: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26322052/meristem-micropropagation-of-cassava-manihot-esculenta-evokes-genome-wide-changes-in-dna-methylation
#15
Shedrack R Kitimu, Julian Taylor, Timothy J March, Fred Tairo, Mike J Wilkinson, Carlos M Rodríguez López
There is great interest in the phenotypic, genetic and epigenetic changes associated with plant in vitro culture known as somaclonal variation. In vitro propagation systems that are based on the use of microcuttings or meristem cultures are considered analogous to clonal cuttings and so widely viewed to be largely free from such somaclonal effects. In this study, we surveyed for epigenetic changes during propagation by meristem culture and by field cuttings in five cassava (Manihot esculenta) cultivars. Principal Co-ordinate Analysis of profiles generated by methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism revealed clear divergence between samples taken from field-grown cuttings and those recovered from meristem culture...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26162927/insights-into-the-multifaceted-application-of-microscopic-techniques-in-plant-tissue-culture-systems
#16
Mack Moyo, Adeyemi O Aremu, Johannes Van Staden
Microscopic techniques remain an integral tool which has allowed for the better understanding and manipulation of in vitro plant culture systems. The recent advancements will inevitably help to unlock the long-standing mysteries of fundamental biological mechanisms of plant cells. Beyond the classical applications in micropropagation aimed at the conservation of endangered and elite commercial genotypes, plant cell, tissue and organ cultures have become a platform for elucidating a myriad of fundamental physiological and developmental processes...
October 2015: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26046143/dendrobium-micropropagation-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Jaime A Teixeira da Silva, Jean Carlos Cardoso, Judit Dobránszki, Songjun Zeng
Dendrobium is one of the largest and most important (ornamentally and medicinally) orchid genera. Tissue culture is now an established method for the effective propagation of members of this genus. This review provides a detailed overview of the Dendrobium micropropagation literature. Through a chronological analysis, aspects such as explant, basal medium, plant growth regulators, culture conditions and final organogenic outcome are chronicled in detail. This review will allow Dendrobium specialists to use the information that has been documented to establish, more efficiently, protocols for their own germplasm and to improve in vitro culture conditions based on the optimized parameters detailed in this review...
May 2015: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25693491/dendrobium-micropropagation-a-review
#18
Jaime A Teixeira da Silva, Jean Carlos Cardoso, Judit Dobránszki, Songjun Zeng
Dendrobium is one of the largest and most important (ornamentally and medicinally) orchid genera. Tissue culture is now an established method for the effective propagation of members of this genus. This review provides a detailed overview of the Dendrobium micropropagation literature. Through a chronological analysis, aspects such as explant, basal medium, plant growth regulators, culture conditions and final organogenic outcome are chronicled in detail. This review will allow Dendrobium specialists to use the information that has been documented to establish, more efficiently, protocols for their own germplasm and to improve in vitro culture conditions based on the optimized parameters detailed in this review...
February 19, 2015: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25616932/genetic-fidelity-assessment-in-micropropagated-plants-using-cytogenetical-analysis-and-heterochromatin-distribution-a-case-study-with-nepenthes-khasiana-hook-f
#19
Soibam Purnima Devi, Suman Kumaria, Satyawada Rama Rao, Pramod Tandon
Rapid clonal propagation of selected genotypes has been one of the most extensively exploited approaches of biotechnology. However, inclusion of somaclonal variations in tissue-culture-derived plants results in the production of undesirable plant off-types which limits its applications in tissue culture industry. Therefore, the most critical concern has been the maintenance of genetic uniformity of micropropagated plants. Assessment of genetic fidelity in tissue-culture-raised plants of three consecutive regenerations of Nepenthes khasiana has been successfully carried out using chromosome counts and heterochromatin distribution pattern wherein changes in the number of chromosomes and the distribution of AT and GC base pairs were recorded...
September 2015: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25374578/the-role-of-silicon-in-plant-tissue-culture
#20
REVIEW
Iyyakkannu Sivanesan, Se Won Park
Growth and morphogenesis of in vitro cultures of plant cells, tissues, and organs are greatly influenced by the composition of the culture medium. Mineral nutrients are necessary for the growth and development of plants. Several morpho-physiological disorders such as hooked leaves, hyperhydricity, fasciation, and shoot tip necrosis are often associated with the concentration of inorganic nutrient in the tissue culture medium. Silicon (Si) is the most abundant mineral element in the soil. The application of Si has been demonstrated to be beneficial for growth, development and yield of various plants and to alleviate various stresses including nutrient imbalance...
2014: Frontiers in Plant Science
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