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Insulin resistance dementia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162091/increased-dementia-risk-predominantly-in-diabetes-mellitus-rather-than-in-hypertension-or-hyperlipidemia-a-population-based-cohort-study
#1
Yen-Chun Fan, Jung-Lung Hsu, Hong-Yi Tung, Chia-Chi Chou, Chyi-Huey Bai
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of insulin resistance-induced hypertension and hyperlipidemia might entail differences in dementia risk in cases with hypertension and hyperlipidemia without prior diabetes mellitus (DM). This study investigated whether incident hypertension, incident hyperlipidemia, or both, increased the dementia risk in patients with and without DM. METHODS: A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted. The study sample was obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database...
February 6, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094952/effect-of-an-enhanced-nose-to-brain-delivery-of-insulin-on-mild-and-progressive-memory-loss-in-the-senescence-accelerated-mouse
#2
Noriyasu Kamei, Misa Tanaka, Hayoung Choi, Nobuyuki Okada, Takamasa Ikeda, Rei Itokazu, Mariko Takeda-Morishita
Insulin is now considered to be a new drug candidate for treating dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease, whose pathologies are linked to insulin resistance in the brain. Our recent work has clarified that a noncovalent strategy involving cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) can increase the direct transport of insulin from the nasal cavity into the brain parenchyma. The present study aimed to determine whether the brain insulin level increased by intranasal coadministration of insulin with the CPP penetratin has potential for treating dementia...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071980/metabolic-syndrome-hypertension-and-nervous-system-injury-epidemiological-correlates
#3
Giovanna Ricci, Isabel Pirillo, Daniele Tomassoni, Ascanio Sirignano, Iolanda Grappasonni
: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a common and complex disorder combining hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. MetS represents a risk factor for changes in cognitive functions in older age, and several studies have suggested that MetS may be linked to dementia. This article reviews the main evidences about the relationship between MetS and neurodegenerative disease. Starting from an epidemiological point of view, the article analyzes medico-social aspects related to MetS, considering the reduction of work capacity and the condition of disability that it involves...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043897/natural-products-against-alzheimer-s-disease-pharmaco-therapeutics-and-biotechnological-interventions
#4
REVIEW
Abhijit Dey, Raktim Bhattacharya, Anuradha Mukherjee, Devendra Kumar Pandey
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe, chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with memory and cognition impairment ultimately leading to death. It is the commonest reason of dementia in elderly populations mostly affecting beyond the age of 65. The pathogenesis is indicated by accumulation of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in brain tissues and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein in neurons. The main cause is considered to be the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to oxidative stress...
December 30, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025127/glucose-tolerance-and-insulin-sensitivity-are-impaired-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice-prior-to-amyloid-plaque-pathogenesis-and-cognitive-decline
#5
Lauren Macklin, Chelsea M Griffith, Yan Cai, Gregory M Rose, Xiao-Xin Yan, Peter R Patrylo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition, neurofibrillary tangles and cognitive decline. Clinical data suggests that both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are risk factors for AD-related dementia and several clinical studies have demonstrated that AD patients show alterations in peripheral glucose regulation characterized by insulin resistance (hyperinsulinemia) or hypoinsulinemia. Whether animal models of AD exhibit a pre-diabetic phenotype without additional dietary or experimental manipulation is unclear however, with contradictory data available...
February 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911986/persistent-organic-pollutants-in-adipose-tissue-should-be-considered-in-obesity-research
#6
Y-M Lee, K-S Kim, D R Jacobs, D-H Lee
Although low doses of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), strong lipophilic chemicals with long half-lives, have been linked to various endocrine, immune, nervous and reproductive system diseases, few obesity studies have considered adipose tissue as an important POPs exposure source. Because the toxicodynamics of POPs relate directly to the dynamics of adiposity, POPs might explain puzzling findings in obesity research. In two people exposed to the same amounts of environmental POPs, the one having more adipose tissue may be advantaged because POPs storage in adipose tissue can reduce burden on other critical organs...
December 2, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863851/long-term-exposition-to-a-high-fat-diet-favors-the-appearance-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-depositions-in-the-brain-of-c57bl-6j-mice-a-potential-model-of-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Oriol Busquets, Miren Ettcheto, Mercè Pallàs, Carlos Beas-Zarate, Ester Verdaguer, Carme Auladell, Jaume Folch, Antoni Camins
AIMS: The sporadic and late-onset form of Alzheimer's disease (AD) constitutes the most common form of dementia. This non-familiar form could be a consequence of metabolic syndrome, characterized by obesity and the development of a brain-specific insulin resistance known as type III diabetes. This work demonstrates the development of a significant AD-like neuropathology due to these metabolic alterations. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice strain were divided into two groups, one fed with a diet rich in palmitic acid (high-fat diet, HFD) since their weaning until 16 months of age, and another group used as a control with a regular diet...
November 15, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789521/energy-expenditure-in-frontotemporal-dementia-a-behavioural-and-imaging-study
#8
Rebekah M Ahmed, Ramon Landin-Romero, Tinh-Hai Collet, Agatha A van der Klaauw, Emma Devenney, Elana Henning, Matthew C Kiernan, Olivier Piguet, I Sadaf Farooqi, John R Hodges
SEE FINGER DOI101093/AWW312 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Abnormal eating behaviour and metabolic parameters including insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and body mass index are increasingly recognized as important components of neurodegenerative disease and may contribute to survival. It has previously been established that behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia is associated with abnormal eating behaviour characterized by increased sweet preference. In this study, it was hypothesized that behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia might also be associated with altered energy expenditure...
January 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771511/high-fat-diet-induces-brain-insulin-resistance-and-cognitive-impairment-in-mice
#9
Vishal Kothari, Yuwen Luo, Talia Tornabene, Ann Marie O'Neill, Michael W Greene, Thangiah Geetha, Jeganathan Ramesh Babu
High fat diet-induced obesity is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and other chronic, diet related illnesses, including dementia. Alzheimer disease is the most common form of dementia, and is characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in brain. This study was designed to determine whether diet-induced changes in peripheral insulin sensitivity could contribute to alterations in brain insulin signaling and cognitive functions. Six week old, male C57BL/6NHsd mice were randomly assigned a high fat diet (40% energy from fat) with 42g/L liquid sugar (HFS) added to the drinking water or a normal chow diet (12% energy from fat) for 14weeks...
February 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754167/sy-12-3-are-ras-inhibitors-necessary-for-all-patients-with-diabetes-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#10
Shokei Kim-Mitsuyama
There is accumulating evidence that RAS inhibitors not only reduce blood pressure, but also exert pleiotropic effects, including a renoprotective effect, amelioration of insulin resistance, reduction in onset of diabetes, and suppression of cardiovascular remodelling,. However, the definite benefit of RAS inhibition in treatment of hypertension with CKD or DM is not conclusive. We previously performed the OlmeSartan and Calcium Antagonists Randomized (OSCAR) study comparing the preventive effect of high-dose ARB therapy versus ARB plus CCB combination therapy on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in 1164 Japanese elderly hypertensive patients with baseline type 2 diabetes and/or CVD (Am J Med (2012))...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714551/cerebral-perfusion-alterations-in-type-2-diabetes-and-its-relation-to-insulin-resistance-and-cognitive-dysfunction
#11
Ying Cui, Xia Liang, Hong Gu, Yuzheng Hu, Zhen Zhao, Xiang-Yu Yang, Cheng Qian, Yihong Yang, Gao-Jun Teng
To explore the effect of T2DM on cerebral perfusion, and the relationship between cerebral perfusion changes and cognitive impairment as well as diabetic variables, by using a whole-brain arterial spin-labeling (ASL) MRI technique. This prospective study was approved by the local institutional review board and was performed between November 2012 and October 2013. All subjects provided informed consent. Forty T2DM patients and 41 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls were included. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) map was obtained by pulsed ASL perfusion imaging at 3 T MRI...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643122/sy-12-3-are-ras-inhibitors-necessary-for-all-patients-with-diabetes-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#12
Shokei Kim-Mitsuyama
There is accumulating evidence that RAS inhibitors not only reduce blood pressure, but also exert pleiotropic effects, including a renoprotective effect, amelioration of insulin resistance, reduction in onset of diabetes, and suppression of cardiovascular remodelling,. However, the definite benefit of RAS inhibition in treatment of hypertension with CKD or DM is not conclusive. We previously performed the OlmeSartan and Calcium Antagonists Randomized (OSCAR) study comparing the preventive effect of high-dose ARB therapy versus ARB plus CCB combination therapy on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in 1164 Japanese elderly hypertensive patients with baseline type 2 diabetes and/or CVD (Am J Med (2012))...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636890/methylglyoxal-in-metabolic-disorders-facts-myths-and-promises
#13
REVIEW
Paulo Matafome, Tiago Rodrigues, Cristina Sena, Raquel Seiça
Glucose and fructose metabolism originates the highly reactive byproduct methylglyoxal (MG), which is a strong precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGE). The MG has been implicated in classical diabetic complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy, but has also been recently associated with cardiovascular diseases and central nervous system disorders such as cerebrovascular diseases and dementia. Recent studies even suggested its involvement in insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction, contributing to the early development of type 2 diabetes and creating a vicious circle between glycation and hyperglycemia...
September 16, 2016: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543086/metabolic-aberrations-impact-biophysical-integrity-of-macromolecular-protein-pools-in-the-default-mode-network
#14
Shaolin Yang, Minjie Wu, Olusola Ajilore, Melissa Lamar, Anand Kumar
The brain's default mode network (DMN), having a high rate of basal energy metabolism, is vulnerable to altered glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) due to insulin resistance and chronic hyperglycemia. Previous studies showed that functional connectivity and structural connectivity among the DMN nodal regions are compromised in T2DM. We applied magnetization transfer imaging to examine the impact of T2DM on the biophysical integrity of the DMN. The results showed that the biophysical integrity of macromolecular protein pools in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a central DMN hub region, was selectively compromised in T2DM, whereas the other nodal regions of the DMN, including the medial prefrontal cortex, lateral inferior parietal cortex, precuneus, and medial and lateral temporal cortices, were biophysically intact compared with those of control subjects without diabetes...
November 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508751/-op-5c-04-heart-rate-is-associated-with-glomerular-hyperfiltration-in-apparently-healthy-subjects
#15
A Vrdoljak, V Ivkovic, S Karanovic, Z Dika, V Domislovic, K Dapic, L Gallineo, E Ivandic, J Josipovic, I Vukovic, J Kos, M Laganovic, T Zeljkovic Vrkic, M Fistrek Prlic, I Pecin, M Fucek, J Sertic, N Leko, B Jelakovic
OBJECTIVE: Glomerular hyperfiltration (GHF) was associated with progression of kidney disease and hypertension (HT). It was reported that high metabolic risk is related to increase of GHF. Our aim was to analyze in apparently healthy subjects which factor(s) influence (s) GHF and determine(s) clinical course in long-term prospective study. DESIGN AND METHOD: Out of 954 subjects enrolled in ENAH follow-up study, 371 (137 m, 234w; mean age = 46years) were eligible for further analysis:100 with optimal, 72 with normal BP, 70 with PHT (high normal BP), and 129 with newly diagnosed untreated HT...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508620/-op-2b-03-glomerular-hyperfiltration-as-a-risk-factor-for-renal-impairment-and-hypertension-in-apparently-healthy-subjects
#16
A Vrdoljak, V Ivkovic, S Karanovic, Z Dika, V Domislovic, K Dapic, L Gallineo, E Ivandic, J Josipovic, I Vukovic, J Kos, M Laganovic, T Zeljkovic Vrkic, M Fistrek Prlic, I Pecin, M Fucek, J Sertic, N Leko, B Jelakovic
OBJECTIVE: Chronic kidney disease(CKD) is established CV risk factor, and already early renal impairment(RI) increases risk for hypertension(HT) and loss of renal function. It was reported that blood pressure (BP) and metabolic derangements are associated with glomerular hyperfiltration(GHF), and GHF increases risk of developing microalbuminuria (MA) in HT stage 1. Our aim was to analyze whether GHF predicts progression to HT and RI in apparently healthy subjects. DESIGN AND METHOD: Out of 954 subjects enrolled in ENAH follow-up study, 371 (137 m, 234 w; mean age = 46 years) were eligible for further analysis:100 with optimal, 72 with normal BP, 70 with PHT (high normal BP), and 129 with newly diagnosed untreated HT...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489306/brain-insulin-resistance-at-the-crossroads-of-metabolic-and-cognitive-disorders-in-humans
#17
REVIEW
Stephanie Kullmann, Martin Heni, Manfred Hallschmid, Andreas Fritsche, Hubert Preissl, Hans-Ulrich Häring
Ever since the brain was identified as an insulin-sensitive organ, evidence has rapidly accumulated that insulin action in the brain produces multiple behavioral and metabolic effects, influencing eating behavior, peripheral metabolism, and cognition. Disturbances in brain insulin action can be observed in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), as well as in aging and dementia. Decreases in insulin sensitivity of central nervous pathways, i.e., brain insulin resistance, may therefore constitute a joint pathological feature of metabolic and cognitive dysfunctions...
October 2016: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488909/insulin-resistance-is-associated-with-lower-arterial-blood-flow-and-reduced-cortical-perfusion-in-cognitively-asymptomatic-middle-aged-adults
#18
Siobhan M Hoscheidt, J Mikhail Kellawan, Sara E Berman, Leonardo A Rivera-Rivera, Rachel A Krause, Jennifer M Oh, Michal S Beeri, Howard A Rowley, Oliver Wieben, Cynthia M Carlsson, Sanjay Asthana, Sterling C Johnson, William G Schrage, Barbara B Bendlin
Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with poor cerebrovascular health and increased risk for dementia. Little is known about the unique effect of IR on both micro- and macrovascular flow particularly in midlife when interventions against dementia may be most effective. We examined the effect of IR as indexed by the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) on cerebral blood flow in macro- and microvessels utilizing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged individuals...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27395456/-epidemiology-of-diabetes-and-risk-of-dementia
#19
Tomoyuki Ohara
The association between diabetes and the risk of developing dementia has received much attention in epidemiological studies. An accurate population-based prospective cohort study has been conducted in the elderly population of the town of Hisayama in Japan since 1985 aiming to elucidate the secular trends in the prevalence of dementia and examine risk and protective factors for dementia in the Japanese population. The prevalence of all-cause dementia significantly increased from 1985 to 2012. In regard to subtypes of dementia, a similar trend was observed for Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
July 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27368351/metabolic-syndrome-as-a-risk-factor-for-alzheimer-s-disease-is-a%C3%AE-a-crucial-factor-in-both-pathologies
#20
Victoria Campos-Peña, Danira Toral-Rios, Fernando Becerril, Carmen Sanchez-Torres, Yair Emiliano Delgado-Namorado, Elimar Torres, Diana Franco-Bocanegra, Karla Carvajal
SIGNIFICANCE: Chronic degenerative diseases have recently become one of the main health problems worldwide. Such is the case of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS), whose expression can be influenced by different risk factors. RECENT ADVANCES: In recent decades, it has been widely described that MetS increases the risk of dementia. MetS pathogenesis involves several vascular risk factors such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension and insulin resistance...
July 1, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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