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Insulin resistance dementia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656802/impact-on-the-brain-of-the-inflammatory-response-to-surgery
#1
Sarah Saxena, Mervyn Maze
The brain is both the orchestrator as well as the target of the innate immune system's response to the aseptic trauma of surgery. When trauma-induced inflammation is not appropriately regulated persistent neuro-inflammation interferes with the synaptic plasticity that underlies the learning and memory aspects of cognition. The complications that ensue, include postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) at two poles of a constellation that is now termed perioperative neurocognitive disorders...
April 12, 2018: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629297/influences-of-pinpoint-plantar-long-wavelength-infrared-light-irradiation-stress-free-therapy-on-chorioretinal-hemodynamics-atherosclerosis-factors-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor
#2
Keisou Ishimaru, Takuma Nakajima, Yoshihisa Namiki, Kenji Ryotokuji
Background: We previously reported that pinpoint plantar long-wavelength infrared light irradiation (stress-free therapy; SFT) is useful for alleviating insulin resistance and improving intracranial blood flow in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study was undertaken to evaluate the influences of SFT on chorioretinal hemodynamics (retinal artery and vein blood flows) as well as atherosclerosis-related factors (TG, LDL-C) and VEGF in patients with dyslipidemia. Methods: Four patients with dyslipidemia received 15-minute irradiation with a stress-free apparatus (far-infrared wavelength, 30 mW)...
March 2018: Integrative Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598932/glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-likes-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Ilgin Yildirim Simsir, Utku Erdem Soyaltin, Sevki Cetinkalp
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a 30 amino acid long peptide hormone derived from the proglucagon gene and secreted in the distal small intestine when food enters the duodenum. GLP-1 is also produced in the central nervous system (CNS), predominantly in the brainstem, and subsequently transported to a large number of regions in the CNS. Neuronal cells in nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) can synthesize GLP-1 and extends to hypothalamus, some thalamic and cortical areas. A G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) provides the majority of GLP-1 actions...
March 16, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566703/cognitive-impairment-in-metabolically-obese-normal-weight-rats-identification-of-early-biomarkers-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#4
Margalida Cifre, Andreu Palou, Paula Oliver
BACKGROUND: Metabolically-obese, normal-weight (MONW) individuals are not obese in terms of weight and height but have a number of obesity-related features (e.g. greater visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease). The MONW phenotype is related to the intake of unbalanced diets, such as those rich in fat. Increasing evidence shows a relationship between high-fat diet consumption and mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Thus, MONW individuals could be at a greater risk of cognitive dysfunction...
March 22, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560372/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-reveals-abnormalities-of-glucose-metabolism-in-the-alzheimer-s-brain
#5
Roger Mullins, David Reiter, Dimitrios Kapogiannis
Objective: Brain glucose hypometabolism is a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and in this case-control study we used Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) to assess AD-related differences in the posterior cingulate/precuneal ratio of glucose, lactate, and other metabolites. Methods: J-modulated Point-Resolved Spectroscopy (J-PRESS) and Prior-Knowledge Fitting (ProFit) software was used to measure glucose and other metabolites in the posterior cingulate/precuneus of 25 AD, 27 older controls, and 27 younger control participants...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555333/nutritional-patterns-associated-with-the-maintenance-of-neurocognitive-functions-and-the-risk-of-dementia-and-alzheimer-s-disease-a-focus-on-human-studies
#6
REVIEW
Francesca Pistollato, Ruben Calderón Iglesias, Roberto Ruiz, Silvia Aparicio, Jorge Crespo, Luis Dzul Lopez, Piera Pia Manna, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio Battino
Ample epidemiological evidence suggests a strong correlation among diet, lifestyle factors and the onset and consolidation of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been demonstrated that AD, diabetes, obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease are strongly interconnected pathologies. Preventive strategies and nutritional interventions seem to be promising approaches to delay neurocognitive decline and reduce the risk of AD and other non-psychiatric co-morbidities. In this regard, healthy dietary patterns, characterized by high intake of plant-based foods, probiotics, antioxidants, soy beans, nuts, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a low intake of saturated fats, animal-derived proteins, and refined sugars, have been shown to decrease the risk of neurocognitive impairments and eventually the onset of AD...
March 16, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536165/interaction-of-amyloidogenic-proteins-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-from-subjects-with-synucleinopathies
#7
Ivan Martinez-Valbuena, Irene Amat-Villegas, Rafael Valenti-Azcarate, Maria Del Mar Carmona-Abellan, Irene Marcilla, Maria-Teresa Tuñon, Maria-Rosario Luquin
Parkinson's disease patients experience a wide range of non-motor symptoms that may be provoked by deposits of phosphorylated α-synuclein in the peripheral nervous system. Pre-existing diabetes mellitus might be a risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease, and indeed, nearly 60% of Parkinson's disease patients are insulin resistant. Thus, we have investigated whether phosphorylated α-synuclein is deposited in pancreatic tissue of subjects with synucleinopathies. We studied pancreatic tissue from 39 subjects diagnosed with Parkinson's disease, Lewy body Dementia or incidental Lewy bodies disease, as well as that from 34 subjects with diabetes mellitus and a normal neuropathological examination, and 52 subjects with a normal neuropathological examination...
March 13, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515352/the-role-of-insulin-igf-1-pi3k-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-signaling-in-parkinson-s-disease-dementia
#8
REVIEW
Liying Yang, Hongyan Wang, Lijun Liu, Anmu Xie
Dementia, a condition that frequently afflicts patients in advanced stages of Parkinson's disease (PD), results in decreased quality of life and survival time. Nevertheless, the pathological mechanisms underlying Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) are not completely understood. The symptoms characteristic of PDD may be the result of functional and structural deficiencies. The present study implicates the accumulation of Lewy bodies in the cortex and limbic system as a potent trigger in the development of PDD...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484146/biomarkers-for-cognitive-decline-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-evidence-from-clinical-studies
#9
Xue Zhao, Qing Han, You Lv, Lin Sun, Xiaokun Gang, Guixia Wang
Diabetes mellitus is considered as an important factor for cognitive decline and dementia in recent years. However, cognitive impairment in diabetic patients is often underestimated and kept undiagnosed, leading to thousands of diabetic patients suffering from worsening memory. Available reviews in this field were limited and not comprehensive enough. Thus, the present review aimed to summarize all available clinical studies on diabetic patients with cognitive decline, and to find valuable biomarkers that might be applied as diagnostic and therapeutic targets of cognitive impairment in diabetes...
January 26, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476033/midlife-insulin-resistance-apoe-genotype-and-late-life-brain-amyloid-accumulation
#10
Laura L Ekblad, Jarkko Johansson, Semi Helin, Matti Viitanen, Hanna Laine, Pauli Puukka, Antti Jula, Juha O Rinne
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether midlife insulin resistance is an independent risk factor for brain amyloid accumulation in vivo after 15 years, and whether this risk is modulated by APOE ε4 genotype. METHODS: This observational study examined 60 elderly volunteers without dementia (mean age at baseline 55.4 and at follow-up 70.9 years, 55.5% women) from the Finnish population-based, nationwide Health2000 study with [11 C]Pittsburgh compound B-PET imaging in 2014-2016...
February 23, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439247/mutual-relationship-between-tau-and-central-insulin-signalling-consequences-for-ad-and-tauopathies
#11
Maud Gratuze, Aurélie Joly-Amado, Didier Vieau, Luc Buée, David Blum
<br>Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder mainly characterized by cognitive deficits and neuropathological changes such as Tau lesions and amyloid plaques, but also associated with non-cognitive symptomatology. Metabolic and neuroendocrine abnormalities, such as alterations in body weight, brain insulin impairments and lower brain glucose metabolism, that often precede clinical diagnosis, have been extensively reported in AD patients. However, the origin of these symptoms and their relation to pathology and cognitive impairments remain misunderstood...
February 13, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424027/relationship-of-type-2-diabetes-to-human-brain-pathology
#12
Jeremy J Pruzin, Peter T Nelson, Erin L Abner, Zoe Arvanitakis
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Alzheimer disease (AD) are both highly prevalent diseases worldwide, and each is associated with high-morbidity and high-mortality. Numerous clinical studies have consistently shown that T2D confers a two-fold increased risk for a dementia, including dementia attributable to AD. Yet, the mechanisms underlying this relationship, especially non-vascular mechanisms, remain debated. Cerebral vascular disease (CVD) is likely to be playing a role. But increased AD neuropathologic changes (ADNC), specifically neuritic amyloid plaques (AP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), are also posited mechanisms...
February 8, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382127/the-implication-of-the-brain-insulin-receptor-in-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia
#13
REVIEW
Jaume Folch, Miren Ettcheto, Oriol Busquets, Elena Sánchez-López, Rubén D Castro-Torres, Ester Verdaguer, Patricia R Manzine, Saghar Rabiei Poor, María Luisa García, Jordi Olloquequi, Carlos Beas-Zarate, Carme Auladell, Antoni Camins
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by brain accumulation of the amyloid β peptide (Aβ), which form senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and, eventually, neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment. Interestingly, epidemiological studies have described a relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and this pathology, being one of the risk factors for the development of AD pathogenesis. Information as it is, it would point out that, impairment in insulin signalling and glucose metabolism, in central as well as peripheral systems, would be one of the reasons for the cognitive decline...
January 29, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382104/action-of-phytochemicals-on-insulin-signaling-pathways-accelerating-glucose-transporter-glut4-protein-translocation
#14
REVIEW
Abu Sadat Md Sayem, Aditya Arya, Hamed Karimian, Narendiran Krishnasamy, Ameya Ashok Hasamnis, Chowdhury Faiz Hossain
Diabetes is associated with obesity, generally accompanied by a chronic state of oxidative stress and redox imbalances which are implicated in the progression of micro- and macro-complications like heart disease, stroke, dementia, cancer, kidney failure and blindness. All these complications rise primarily due to consistent high blood glucose levels. Insulin and glucagon help to maintain the homeostasis of glucose and lipids through signaling cascades. Pancreatic hormones stimulate translocation of the glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) from an intracellular location to the cell surface and facilitate the rapid insulin-dependent storage of glucose in muscle and fat cells...
January 28, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377010/brain-insulin-resistance-in-type-2-diabetes-and-alzheimer-disease-concepts-and-conundrums
#15
REVIEW
Steven E Arnold, Zoe Arvanitakis, Shannon L Macauley-Rambach, Aaron M Koenig, Hoau-Yan Wang, Rexford S Ahima, Suzanne Craft, Sam Gandy, Christoph Buettner, Luke E Stoeckel, David M Holtzman, David M Nathan
Considerable overlap has been identified in the risk factors, comorbidities and putative pathophysiological mechanisms of Alzheimer disease and related dementias (ADRDs) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), two of the most pressing epidemics of our time. Much is known about the biology of each condition, but whether T2DM and ADRDs are parallel phenomena arising from coincidental roots in ageing or synergistic diseases linked by vicious pathophysiological cycles remains unclear. Insulin resistance is a core feature of T2DM and is emerging as a potentially important feature of ADRDs...
March 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249964/blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-precedes-cognitive-decline-and-neurodegeneration-in-diabetic-insulin-resistant-mouse-model-an-implication-for-causal-link
#16
Ryusuke Takechi, Virginie Lam, Emily Brook, Corey Giles, Nicholas Fimognari, Armin Mooranian, Hani Al-Salami, Stephanie H Coulson, Michael Nesbit, John C L Mamo
Diabetic insulin resistance and pro-diabetic diet are reported to increase dementia risk through unknown mechanisms. Emerging evidence suggests that the integrity of blood-brain barrier (BBB) is central to the onset and progression of neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment. Therefore, the current study investigated the effect of pro-diabetic diets on cognitive dysfunction in association to BBB integrity and its putative mechanisms. In C57BL/6J mice chronically ingested with a diet enriched in fat and fructose (HFF), Morris Water Maze (MWM) test indicated no significant cognitive decline after 4 weeks of HFF feeding compared to low-fat (LF) fed control...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226876/serum-c-peptide-visfatin-resistin-and-ghrelin-are-altered-in-sporadic-and-grn-associated-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration
#17
Roberta Zanardini, Luisa Benussi, Silvia Fostinelli, Claudia Saraceno, Miriam Ciani, Barbara Borroni, Alessandro Padovani, Giuliano Binetti, Roberta Ghidoni
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a group of complex neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive deterioration of the frontal and anterior temporal lobes of the brain resulting in different heterogeneous conditions, mainly characterized by personality changes, behavioral disturbances, such as binge eating, and deficits in language and executive functions. Null mutations in progranulin gene (GRN) are one of the most frequent genetic determinants in familial frontotemporal dementia. Recently, progranulin was recognized as an adipokine involved in diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance revealing its metabolic function...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180223/insulin-resistance-an-unmasked-culprit-in-depressive-disorders-promises-for-interventions
#18
REVIEW
Kathleen Watson, Carla Nasca, Linn Aasly, Bruce McEwen, Natalie Rasgon
Depressive disorders constitute a set of debilitating diseases with psychological, societal, economic and humanitarian consequences for millions of people worldwide. Scientists are beginning to understand the reciprocal communication between the brain and the rest of the body in the etiology of these diseases. In particular, scientists have noted a connection between depressive disorders, which are primarily seen as brain-based, and, insulin resistance (IR), a modifiable metabolic inflammatory state that is typically seen as peripheral...
November 26, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169962/impaired-peripheral-glucose-homeostasis-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
Nadeeja Wijesekara, Rafaella Araujo Gonçalves, Fernanda G De Felice, Paul E Fraser
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Recent studies suggest that metabolic disturbances, particularly type 2 diabetes (T2D) increase the risk of cognitive decline and AD. AD is also a risk factor for T2D, and a growing body of evidence indicates that these diseases are connected both at clinical and molecular levels. In T2D, peripheral insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and eventually insulin deficiency develops, leading to an overall decline in tissue health. More recently, brain insulin resistance has been shown to be a key feature of AD that is linked to neuronal dysfunction and cognitive impairment...
November 21, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165354/the-role-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp1-in-type-3-diabetes-glp-1-controls-insulin-resistance-neuroinflammation-and-neurogenesis-in-the-brain
#20
REVIEW
Choon Sang Bae, Juhyun Song
Alzheimer's disease (AD), characterized by the aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein and neuroinflammation, is the most common neurodegenerative disease globally. Previous studies have reported that some AD patients show impaired glucose utilization in brain, leading to cognitive decline. Recently, diabetes-induced dementia has been called "type 3 diabetes", based on features in common with those of type 2 diabetes and the progression of AD. Impaired glucose uptake and insulin resistance in the brain are important issues in type 3 diabetes, because these problems ultimately aggravate memory dysfunction in the brain...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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