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Insulin resistance dementia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615420/insulin-resistance-among-obese-middle-aged-is-associated-with-decreased-cerebrovascular-reactivity
#1
Olivia H Frosch, Po Lai Yau, Ricardo S Osorio, Henry Rusinek, Pippa Storey, Antonio Convit
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to mild hypercapnia in obese/overweight individuals with and without insulin resistance (IR) compared to comparable lean controls. METHODS: A total of 60 cognitively normal participants (20 lean controls and 24 obese/overweight individuals with and 16 without IR) were evaluated using a high spatial resolution arterial spin labeling MRI technique at rest and during mild hypercapnia. We analyzed group differences in CVR in cerebral cortex and ascertained the relationships between CVR, IR, and body mass index (BMI)...
June 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582862/midlife-metabolic-profile-and-the-risk-of-late-life-cognitive-decline
#2
Rosanna Tortelli, Madia Lozupone, Vito Guerra, Maria Rosaria Barulli, Bruno P Imbimbo, Rosa Capozzo, Alessandra Grasso, Marianna Tursi, Cristina Di Dio, Rodolfo Sardone, Gianluigi Giannelli, Davide Seripa, Giovanni Misciagna, Francesco Panza, Giancarlo Logroscino
Among metabolic syndrome components, the effects of higher plasma glucose levels on cognitive decline (CD) have been considered in few studies. We evaluated the associations among midlife glycemia, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, midlife insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-index)], and CD in the older subjects of the population-based MICOL Study (Castellana Grotte, Italy) at baseline (M1) and at follow-ups seven (M2) and twenty years later (M3)...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582855/diabetes-and-alzheimer-s-disease-can-tea-phytochemicals-play-a-role-in-prevention
#3
Fernando W M A D Binosha, Geeshani Somaratne, Shehan Williams, Kathryn G Goozee, Harjinder Singh, Ralph N Martins
Dementia and diabetes mellitus are prevalent disorders in the elderly population. While recognized as two distinct diseases, diabetes has more recently recognized as a significant contributor to risk for developing dementia, and some studies make reference to type 3 diabetes, a condition resulting from insulin resistance in the brain. Alzheimer's disease, the most common form of dementia, and diabetes, interestingly, share underlying pathological processes, commonality in risk factors, and, importantly, pathways for intervention...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550261/effect-of-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-genotype-on-metabolic-biomarkers-in-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Jill Morris K, Roxanne Adeline Z Uy, Eric D Vidoni, Heather M Wilkins, Ashley E Archer, John P Thyfault, John M Miles, Jeffrey M Burns
Alzheimer's disease (AD) may have heterogeneous pathophysiological underpinnings, with risk factors including apolipoprotein rmvarep4 (APOE4) genotype and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that distinct phenotypes exist within AD. We examined APOE4 and metabolic biomarkers in 338 subjects (n = 213 nondemented (ND), n = 125 AD). We further characterized steady state free fatty acid (FFA) levels in a subset of 45 participants who had also participated in a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was elevated in AD versus ND (p = 0...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538088/effects-of-the-insulin-sensitizer-metformin-in-alzheimer-disease-pilot-data-from-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#5
Aaron M Koenig, Dawn Mechanic-Hamilton, Sharon X Xie, Martha F Combs, Anne R Cappola, Long Xie, John A Detre, David A Wolk, Steven E Arnold
Epidemiological studies have identified a robust association between type II diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer disease (AD), and neurobiological studies have suggested the presence of central nervous system insulin resistance in individuals with AD. Given this association, we hypothesized that the central nervous system-penetrant insulin-sensitizing medication metformin would be beneficial as a disease-modifying and/or symptomatic therapy for AD, and conducted a placebo-controlled crossover study of its effects on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), neuroimaging, and cognitive biomarkers...
April 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527212/apolipoprotein-e4-gender-body-mass-index-inflammation-insulin-resistance-and-air-pollution-interactions-recipe-for-alzheimer-s-disease-development-in-mexico-city-young-females
#6
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Suzanne M de la Monte
Given the epidemiological trends of increasing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and growing evidence that exposure and lifestyle factors contribute to AD risk and pathogenesis, attention should be paid to variables such as air pollution, in order to reduce rates of cognitive decline and dementia. Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above the US EPA standards is associated with AD risk. Mexico City children experienced pre- and postnatal high exposures to PM2.5, O3, combustion-derived iron-rich nanoparticles, metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and endotoxins...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482008/the-microcirculation-a-key-player-in-obesity-associated-cardiovascular-disease
#7
Oana Sorop, T Dylan Olver, Jens van de Wouw, Ilkka Heinonen, Richard W van Duin, Dirk J Duncker, Daphne Merkus
It is increasingly recognized that obesity is a risk factor for microvascular disease, i.e. results in structural and functional changes in the microvasculature. This review aims to describe how obesity impacts the microvasculature of visceral adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, heart, brain, kidneys and lungs. These changes involve endothelial dysfunction, which in turn impacts control of vascular tone, contributes to development of microvascular insulin resistance, alters secretion of paracrine factors like nitric oxide and endothelin, but also influences vascular structure and perivascular inflammation...
May 8, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462694/obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-affects-the-cholinergic-transmission-and-cognitive-functions
#8
Martinelli Ilenia, Tomassoni Daniele, Moruzzi Michele, Traini Enea, Seyed Khosrow Tayebati
Worldwide, at least 2.8 million people die each year as a result of being overweight or obese, that causes about 35.8 million (2.3%) of global Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALYs). Obesity leads to metabolic syndrome, a pathological condition characterized by adverse metabolic effects on blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin resistance. Population-based investigations have suggested that obesity and metabolic syndrome may be associated with poorer cognitive performance and could be considered a possible risk factor for vascular Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease...
April 28, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422298/bridging-type-2-diabetes-and-alzheimer-s-disease-assembling-the-puzzle-pieces-in-the-quest-for-the-molecules-with-therapeutic-and-preventive-potential
#9
REVIEW
Ana Marta de Matos, Maria Paula de Macedo, Amélia Pilar Rauter
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two age-related amyloid diseases that affect millions of people worldwide. Broadly supported by epidemiological data, the higher incidence of AD among type 2 diabetic patients led to the recognition of T2D as a tangible risk factor for the development of AD. Indeed, there is now growing evidence on brain structural and functional abnormalities arising from brain insulin resistance and deficiency, ultimately highlighting the need for new approaches capable of preventing the development of AD in type 2 diabetic patients...
April 19, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421328/association-of-adiponectin-leptin-and-resistin-with-inflammatory-markers-and-obesity-in-dementia
#10
Małgorzata Bednarska-Makaruk, Ałła Graban, Anna Wiśniewska, Wanda Łojkowska, Anna Bochyńska, Magdalena Gugała-Iwaniuk, Ksenia Sławińska, Agnieszka Ługowska, Danuta Ryglewicz, Hanna Wehr
The aim of the study was to determine the role of adiponectin, leptin and resistin in various types of dementia and to investigate their association with inflammatory markers, insulin resistance and abdominal obesity. In 205 patients with dementia [89 with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 47 with vascular dementia (VaD), 69 with mixed dementia (MD)], 113 persons with mild cognitive impairment and in 107 controls serum adiponectin, leptin and resistin levels, pro-inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and chitotriosidase] and anti-inflammatory (25-OH vitamin D, HDL-cholesterol and paraoxonase 1) markers, as well as glucose metabolism parameters (glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR) were determined...
April 18, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389469/metabolic-syndrome-insulin-resistance-and-cognitive-dysfunction-does-your-metabolic-profile-affect-your-brain
#11
Jesper S Neergaard, Katrine Dragsbæk, Claus Christiansen, Henning B Nielsen, Susanne Brix, Morten A Karsdal, Kim Henriksen
Dementia and type 2 diabetes are both characterized by long prodromal phases challenging the study of potential risk factors and their temporal relation. The progressive relation between metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and dementia has recently been questioned, wherefore the aim of this study was to assess the potential association between these precursors of type 2 diabetes and cognitive dysfunction. Using data from the Prospective Epidemiological Risk Factor study (n=2,103), a prospective study of elderly women in Denmark, we found that impaired fasting plasma glucose was associated with 44% (9%-91%) larger probability of developing cognitive dysfunction...
April 7, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386227/the-associations-among-insulin-resistance-hyperglycemia-physical-performance-diabetes-mellitus-and-cognitive-function-in-relatively-healthy-older-adults-with-subtle-cognitive-dysfunction
#12
Hiroyuki Umegaki, Taeko Makino, Kazuki Uemura, Hiroyuki Shimada, Takahiro Hayashi, Xian Wu Cheng, Masafumi Kuzuya
Insulin resistance (IR), diabetes mellitus (DM), sarcopenia, and cognitive dysfunction are thought to be mutually associated. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of the relationships among IR, gait speed, hyperglycemia, and DM by cross-sectionally analyzing the baseline data of an interventional study for cognitive preservation with physical exercise (the TOyota Preventional Intervention for Cognitive decline and Sarcopenia [TOPICS]). The participants (n = 444) were relatively healthy older individuals who had mild cognitive impairment without dementia, and 61 of the participants had DM...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322157/diabetes-related-neurological-implications-and-pharmacogenomics
#13
Rojas Carranza Camilo Andrés, Bustos Cruz Rosa Helena, Pino Pinzón Carmen Juliana, Ariza Marquez Yeimy Viviana, Gómez Bello Rosa Margarita, Cañadas Garre Marisa
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most commonly occurring cause of neuropathy around the world and is beginning to grow in countries where there is a risk of obesity. DM Type II, (T2DM) is a common age-related disease and is a major health concern, particularly in developed countries in Europe where the population is aging. T2DM is a chronic disease which is characterised by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, together with the body's inability to use glucose as energy. Such metabolic disorder produces a chronic inflammatory state, as well as changes in lipid metabolism leading to hypertriglyceridemia, thereby producing chronic deterioration of the organs and premature morbidity and mortality...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316001/associations-of-polymorphisms-in-the-candidate-genes-for-alzheimer-s-disease-bin1-clu-cr1-and-picalm-with-gestational-diabetes-and-impaired-glucose-tolerance
#14
Gabriela Vacínová, D Vejražková, P Lukášová, O Lischková, K Dvořáková, R Rusina, I Holmerová, H Vaňková, J Včelák, B Bendlová, M Vaňková
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia, with a prevalence that is rising every year. AD is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and insulin resistance, and is therefore sometimes called "type 3 diabetes mellitus". The aim of this study was to examine whether the variants of some candidate genes involved in the development of AD, namely BIN1 (rs744373), CLU (rs11136000), CR1 (rs3818361), and PICALM (rs3851179), are related to several disorders of glucose metabolism-gestational diabetes (GDM), T2DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)...
March 18, 2017: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304291/insulin-resistance-and-future-cognitive-performance-and-cognitive-decline-in%C3%A2-elderly-patients-with-cardiovascular-disease
#15
Miri Lutski, Galit Weinstein, Uri Goldbourt, David Tanne
BACKGROUND: The role of insulin resistance (IR) in the pathogenesis of cognitive performance is not yet clear. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between IR and cognitive performance and change in cognitive functions two decades later in individuals with cardiovascular disease with and without diabetes. METHODS: A subset of 489 surviving patients (mean age at baseline 57.7±6.5 y) with coronary heart disease who previously participated in the secondary prevention Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention (BIP trial; 1990-1997), were included in the current neurocognitive study...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276776/brain-injury-with-diabetes-mellitus-evidence-mechanisms-and-treatment-implications
#16
REVIEW
Sherifa A Hamed
Diabetes mellitus is a risk for brain injury. Brain injury is associated with acute and chronic hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hypoglycaemic events in diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia is a cause of cognitive deterioration, low intelligent quotient, neurodegeneration, brain aging, brain atrophy and dementia. Areas covered: The current review highlights the experimental, clinical, neuroimaging and neuropathological evidence of brain injury induced by diabetes and its associated metabolic derangements...
April 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274759/insulin-deficiency-a-possible-link-between-obesity-and-cognitive-function
#17
Ghazaleh Nameni, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Ghazaleh Hajiluian, Parviz Shahabi, Mehran Mesgari Abbasi
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies proposed a linear connection between developing dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and obesity. Adiposity, insulin resistance and dementia indicated probable mechanistic links in this process. Indeed, it has been known that optimum insulin action in the brain plays critical role in cognitive function; whereas, insulin resistance in obese individuals finally leads to insulin deficiency in central nervous system (CNS) and down regulation of the efficiency of insulin uptake from periphery into CSF...
June 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272510/apolipoprotein-e4-and-insulin-resistance-interact-to-impair-cognition-and-alter-the-epigenome-and-metabolome
#18
Lance A Johnson, Eileen Ruth S Torres, Soren Impey, Jan F Stevens, Jacob Raber
Apolipoprotein E4 (E4) and type 2 diabetes are major risk factors for cognitive decline and late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). E4-associated phenotypes and insulin resistance (IR) share several features and appear to interact in driving cognitive dysfunction. However, shared mechanisms that could explain their overlapping pathophysiology have yet to be found. We hypothesized that, compared to E3 mice, E4 mice would be more susceptible to the harmful cognitive effects of high fat diet (HFD)-induced IR due to apoE isoform-specific differences in brain metabolism...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229380/cognitive-impairment-is-correlated-with-insulin-resistance-degree-the-pa-nico-study
#19
Antonietta Fava, Carmen Colica, Massimiliano Plastino, Demetrio Messina, Dario Cristiano, Carlo Opipari, Antonio Vaccaro, Gaetano Gorgone, Francesca Bosco, Alessandra Fratto, Matteo De Bartolo, Domenico Bosco
Several epidemiological studies have shown that Diabetes Mellitus (DM) or Insulin Resistance (IR) increases the risk of dementia. Besides, some authors suggested that poor glucose control to be associated with worse cognitive function. We aimed to assess cognitive functions and IR-degree over time in diabetic. We also evaluated whether a greater magnitude of cognitive decline could be related with their IR degree. We enrolled 335 diabetic patients and 142 non-diabetic subjects; participants were subdivided into three groups in accordance with their IRdegree assessed by Homa-Index (HI): Normal-HI (non-diabetic NHI < 2,6), Moderate-HI (MHI > 2,6 < 10) and High-HI (HHI > 10)...
June 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162091/increased-dementia-risk-predominantly-in-diabetes-mellitus-rather-than-in-hypertension-or-hyperlipidemia-a-population-based-cohort-study
#20
Yen-Chun Fan, Jung-Lung Hsu, Hong-Yi Tung, Chia-Chi Chou, Chyi-Huey Bai
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of insulin resistance-induced hypertension and hyperlipidemia might entail differences in dementia risk in cases with hypertension and hyperlipidemia without prior diabetes mellitus (DM). This study investigated whether incident hypertension, incident hyperlipidemia, or both, increased the dementia risk in patients with and without DM. METHODS: A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted. The study sample was obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database...
February 6, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
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