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Apolipoprotein E

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527370/atherosclerotic-dyslipidemia-revealed-by-plasma-lipidomics-on-apoe-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#1
Yanyan Chen, Shiyuan Wen, Miaomiao Jiang, Yan Zhu, Liqin Ding, Hong Shi, Pengzhi Dong, Jing Yang, Yue Yang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The pathological process of atherosclerosis is closely related to lipid accumulation at arterial wall caused by lipoproteins transporting lipids through blood. In this study, we investigate the lipid composition in the plasma of apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice fed a high-fat diet to reveal atherosclerosis-induced dyslipidemia. METHODS: ApoE(-/-) and corresponding wild-type C57BL/6J mice were used as the pathology model and control, respectively, and were fed a high-fat or normal diet...
May 11, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527212/apolipoprotein-e4-gender-body-mass-index-inflammation-insulin-resistance-and-air-pollution-interactions-recipe-for-alzheimer-s-disease-development-in-mexico-city-young-females
#2
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Suzanne M de la Monte
Given the epidemiological trends of increasing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and growing evidence that exposure and lifestyle factors contribute to AD risk and pathogenesis, attention should be paid to variables such as air pollution, in order to reduce rates of cognitive decline and dementia. Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above the US EPA standards is associated with AD risk. Mexico City children experienced pre- and postnatal high exposures to PM2.5, O3, combustion-derived iron-rich nanoparticles, metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and endotoxins...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526683/autoreactivity-to-sulfatide-by-human-invariant-nkt-cells
#3
Annelein M Stax, Jessica Tuengel, Enrico Girardi, Naoki Kitano, Lenka L Allan, Victor Liu, Dongjun Zheng, William J Panenka, Joren Guillaume, Chi-Huey Wong, Serge van Calenbergh, Dirk M Zajonc, Peter van den Elzen
Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are innate-like lymphocytes that recognize lipid Ags presented by CD1d. The prototypical Ag, α-galactosylceramide, strongly activates human and mouse iNKT cells, leading to the assumption that iNKT cell physiology in human and mouse is similar. In this article, we report the surprising finding that human, but not mouse, iNKT cells directly recognize myelin-derived sulfatide presented by CD1d. We propose that sulfatide is recognized only by human iNKT cells because of the unique positioning of the 3-O-sulfated β-galactose headgroup...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522696/apolipoprotein-a-i-mimetic-peptides-discordance-between-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-properties
#4
Michael Ditiatkovski, Jonatan Palsson, Jaye Chin-Dusting, Alan T Remaley, Dmitri Sviridov
OBJECTIVE: Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides have antiatherogenic properties of high-density lipoprotein in vitro and have been shown to inhibit atherosclerosis in vivo. It is unclear, however, if each in vitro antiatherogenic property of these peptides translates to a corresponding activity in vivo, and if so, which of these contributes most to reduce atherosclerosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: The effect of 7 apoA-I mimetic peptides, which were developed to selectively reproduce a specific component of the antiatherogenic properties of apoA-I, on the development of atherosclerosis was investigated in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet for 4 or 12 weeks...
May 18, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522595/human-salivary-peptide-histatin-1-stimulates-epithelial-and-endothelial-cell-adhesion-and-barrier-function
#5
Irene A van Dijk, Maria Laura Ferrando, Anne-Eva van der Wijk, Ron A Hoebe, Kamran Nazmi, Wouter J de Jonge, Przemek M Krawczyk, Jan G M Bolscher, Enno C I Veerman, Jan Stap
Histatins are multifunctional histidine-rich peptides secreted by the salivary glands and exclusively present in the saliva of higher primates, where they play a fundamental role in the protection of the oral cavity. Our previously published results demonstrated that histatin-1 (Hst1) promotes cell-substrate adhesion in various cell types and hinted that it could also be involved in cell-cell adhesion, a process of fundamental importance to epithelial and endothelial barriers. Here we explore the effects of Hst1 on cellular barrier function...
May 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514904/effects-of-viola-mandshurica-on-atherosclerosis-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-apoe-formula-see-text-via-the-ampk-pathway
#6
Sun Haeng Park, Yoon-Young Sung, Kyoung Jin Nho, Dong Sun Kim, Ho Kyoung Kim
Atherosclerosis was previously thought to be a disease that primarily involves lipid accumulation in the arterial wall. In this report, we investigated the effect of Viola mandshurica W. Becker (V. mandshurica) water extract on atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE[Formula: see text]) mice. The administration of V. mandshurica to high-fat diet-fed mice reduced body weight, liver weight, and serum levels of lipids (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides), glucose, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514664/lack-of-mttp-activity-in-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-hepatocytes-and-cardiomyocytes-abolishes-apob-secretion-and-increases-cell-stress
#7
Ying Liu, Donna M Conlon, Xin Bi, Katherine J Slovik, Jianting Shi, Hailey I Edelstein, John S Millar, Ali Javaheri, Marina Cuchel, Evanthia E Pashos, Jahangir Iqbal, M Mahmood Hussain, Robert A Hegele, Wenli Yang, Stephen A Duncan, Daniel J Rader, Edward E Morrisey
Abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) is an inherited disorder of lipoprotein metabolism resulting from mutations in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP). In addition to expression in the liver and intestine, MTTP is expressed in cardiomyocytes, and cardiomyopathy has been reported in several ABL cases. Using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated from an ABL patient homozygous for a missense mutation (MTTP(R46G)), we show that human hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes exhibit defects associated with ABL disease, including loss of apolipoprotein B (apoB) secretion and intracellular accumulation of lipids...
May 16, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513806/increased-activity-of-vascular-adenosine-deaminase-in-atherosclerosis-and-therapeutic-potential-of-its-inhibition
#8
Barbara Kutryb-Zajac, Lukasz Mateuszuk, Paulina Zukowska, Agnieszka Jasztal, Magdalena A Zabielska, Marta Toczek, Patrycja Jablonska, Agnieszka Zakrzewska, Barbara Sitek, Jan Rogowski, Romuald Lango, Ewa M Slominska, Stefan Chlopicki, Ryszard T Smolenski
Aims: Extracellular nucleotides and adenosine that are formed or degraded by membrane-bound ecto-enzymes could affect atherosclerosis by regulating the inflammation and thrombosis. This study aimed to evaluate a relation between ecto-enzymes that convert extracellular adenosine triphosphate to adenine dinucleotide phosphate, adenosine monophosphate, adenosine, and inosine on the surface of the vessel wall with the severity or progression of experimental and clinical atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we tested whether the inhibition of adenosine deaminase will block the development of experimental atherosclerosis...
November 1, 2016: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511328/-effects-of-apolipoprotein-e-deficiency-on-sphingosine-1-phosphate-distribution-in-plasma-and-lipoproteins-of-mice
#9
X Q Yang, Y Yu, S D Guo, Y J Cui, G L Hu, L Feng, D X Wang, S C Qin
Objective: To investigate the effects of apolipoprotein E deficiency (Apo E(-/-)) on plasma and lipoprotein distribution of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in mice. Methods: Five male or female Apo E(-/-) or wild type (WT) mice were fed with chow diet and sacrificed at 32-week-age and plasma was collected. The constituents of lipoprotein(very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL)) were separated by ultracentrifuge. The protein concentration of constituents was detected by BCA protein quantitative kit, and the S1P concentration in plasma and various lipoprotein constituents was detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
May 24, 2017: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508969/five-year-follow-up-of-a-case-of-lipoprotein-glomerulopathy-with-apoe-kyoto-mutation
#10
Ryosuke Usui, Masaki Takahashi, Kosaku Nitta, Minako Koike
We report the case of a 34-year-old Japanese male with lipoprotein glomerulopathy (LPG). Renal biopsy showed LPG, and followed by a genetic analysis revealed a mutation in apolipoprotein E gene (APOE Kyoto; Arg25Cys). We started treatment with probucol, bezafibrate, losartan, and allopurinol. Urinary protein decreased in response to treatment but has remained at about 1.27 ± 0.71 g/gCr, and a repeat biopsy which was performed 1 year after the first biopsy showed no clear evidence of pathological remission and complication of other glomerular disease...
November 2016: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507298/protective-effects-of-apoe-e2-against-disease-progression-in-subcortical-vascular-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients-a-three-year-longitudinal-study
#11
Yeo Jin Kim, Sang Won Seo, Seong Beom Park, Jin Ju Yang, Jin San Lee, Juyoun Lee, Young Kyoung Jang, Sung Tae Kim, Kyung-Han Lee, Jong Min Lee, Jae-Hong Lee, Jae Seung Kim, Duk L Na, Hee Jin Kim
Although the association between apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and disease progression is well characterized in patients with Alzheimer's disease, such a relationship is unknown in patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment. We evaluated whether APOE genotype is associated with disease progression in subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI) patients. We prospectively recruited 72 svMCI patients (19 APOE4 carriers, 42 APOE3 homozygotes, and 11 APOE2 carriers). Patients were annually followed-up with brain MRI and neuropsychological tests for three years and underwent a second Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET at a mean interval of 32...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505977/hippocampal-and-clinical-trajectories-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-with-suspected-non-alzheimer-s-disease-pathology
#12
Jun Ku Chung, Eric Plitman, Shinichiro Nakajima, Fernando Caravaggio, Yusuke Iwata, Philip Gerretsen, Julia Kim, Hiroyoshi Takeuchi, Shunichiro Shinagawa, Raihaan Patel, M Mallar Chakravarty, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
Suspected non-Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology (SNAP) characterizes individuals showing neurodegeneration (e.g., hypometabolism) without amyloid-β (Aβ). Findings from previous studies regarding clinical and structural trajectories of SNAP are inconsistent. Using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were categorized into four groups: amyloid positive with hypometabolism (Aβ+ND+), amyloid only (Aβ+ND-), neither amyloid nor hypometabolism (Aβ-ND-), and SNAP (Aβ-ND+)...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502803/gene-co-expression-networks-identify-trem2-and-tyrobp-as-major-hubs-in-human-apoe-expressing-mice-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Emilie L Castranio, Anais Mounier, Cody M Wolfe, Kyong Nyon Nam, Nicholas F Fitz, Florent Letronne, Jonathan Schug, Radosveta Koldamova, Iliya Lefterov
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is strongly linked to an increased risk of developing dementia, including chronic traumatic encephalopathy and possibly Alzheimer's disease (AD). APOEε4 allele of human Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is the major genetic risk factor for late onset AD and has been associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy and unfavorable outcome following TBI. To determine if there is an APOE isoform-specific response to TBI we performed controlled cortical impact on 3-month-old mice expressing human APOE3 or APOE4 isoforms...
May 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502508/plasma-lipoprotein-a-levels-in-patients-with-homozygous-autosomal-dominant-hypercholesterolemia
#14
Barbara Sjouke, Reyhana Yahya, Michael W T Tanck, Joep C Defesche, Jacqueline de Graaf, Albert Wiegman, John J P Kastelein, Monique T Mulder, G Kees Hovingh, Jeanine E Roeters van Lennep
BACKGROUND: Patients with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH), caused by mutations in either low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (APOB), or proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) are characterized by high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and in some studies also high lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) levels were observed. The question remains whether this effect on Lp(a) levels is gene-dose-dependent in individuals with either 0, 1, or 2 LDLR or APOB mutations...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502501/apolipoprotein-b-vs-non-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-association-with-endothelial-hemostatic-markers-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness
#15
David Karasek, Helena Vaverkova, Lubica Cibickova, Jaromira Gajdova, Veronika Kubickova
BACKGROUND: Both apolipoprotein B (apoB) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) are accepted as alternative risk factors or targets for lipid-lowering therapy, which correlate more strongly with cardiovascular events than low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the differences in plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and of von Willebrand factor (vWF) as endothelial hemostatic markers and carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) as a morphologic marker for atherosclerotic vascular disease among dyslipidemic individuals with apoB levels higher, estimated or lower based on regression equation of apoB vs non-HDL-C...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501389/differential-proteome-profile-in-ischemic-heart-disease-prognostic-value-in-chronic-angina-versus-myocardial-infarction-a-proof-of-concept
#16
Francesca Scebba, Massimo Papale, Silvia Rocchiccioli, Nadia Ucciferri, Federico Bigazzi, Tiziana Sampietro, Clara Carpeggiani, Antonio L'Abbate, Flavio Coceani, Debora Angeloni
The initial clinical manifestation of ischemic heart disease (IHD) i.e. unheralded myocardial infarction (MI) versus chronic angina pectoris (AP) is statistically associated with adverse or mild disease progression respectively in the long-term follow-up. Here, we subjected AP and MI patients to blood proteomic analysis by Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) in order to investigate putative new prognostic biomarkers of IHD manifestation. We found several differentially expressed peaks but four of them (4176, 4475, 14,158m/z and 8922m/z for AP and MI, respectively) were most reliable...
May 10, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500604/a-primer-to-angiotensin-peptide-isolation-stability-and-analysis-by-nano-liquid-chromatography-with-mass-detection
#17
Mariola Olkowicz, Stefan Chlopicki, Ryszard T Smolenski
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important element of cardiovascular and renal physiology and targeting the RAS by renin inhibitors, angiotensin (Ang) converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and Ang II type 1 receptor antagonists is effective in the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, and atherosclerosis. Quantification of Ang peptides is critical to establish the status of the RAS, but it is challenging due to low Ang peptides concentrations (fmol/mL or fmol/g), abundance of interfering substances, post sampling conversions, and difficulties with the specificity of the assay...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500602/a-new-mouse-model-for-introduction-of-aortic-aneurysm-by-implantation-of-deoxycorticosterone-acetate-pellets-or-aldosterone-infusion-in-the-presence-of-high-salt
#18
Shu Liu, Ming C Gong, Zhenheng Guo
Dysfunction of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has been implicated in the etiologies of many cardiovascular diseases, including aortic aneurysm. In particular, the infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II) in the apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (apoE-/-) and low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice (LDLR-/-) to induce aortic aneurysm has been extensively used in the field. In contrast, whether aldosterone (Aldo), an essential component of RAAS and a downstream effector of Ang II, is involved in aortic aneurysm is largely unknown...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499696/fenofibrate-decreases-plasma-ceramide-in-type-2-diabetes-patients-a-novel-marker-of-cvd
#19
M Croyal, Z Kaabia, L León, S Ramin-Mangata, T Baty, F Fall, S Billon-Crossouard, A Aguesse, T Hollstein, D R Sullivan, E Nobecourt, G Lambert, M Krempf
AIM: The benefit of the lipid-lowering drug fenofibrate on cardiovascular outcomes is controversial. Our aim was to find new circulating markers to identify those patients most likely to benefit from fenofibrate prescription. METHODS: Analyses were conducted of plasma samples collected from 102 patients with type 2 diabetes, enrolled in the FIELD trial, before and after fenofibrate treatment (200mg/day). Non-targeted and targeted lipid analyses and apolipoprotein measurements were made using mass spectrometry methods...
May 9, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487499/updated-meta-analysis-of-the-role-of-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B52-%C3%AE%C2%B53-%C3%AE%C2%B54-alleles-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration
#20
Wen-Hua Su, Zhi-Hong Shi, Shu-Ling Liu, Xiao-Dan Wang, Shuai Liu, Yong Ji
We performed an updated meta-analysis to assess the role of the ε2/ε3/ε4 alleles of Apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). The relevant articles were retrieved from PubMed, CENTRAL, EMBASE and Web of Science databases, and 51 eligible case-control studies with 5123 cases and 20566 controls were selected after screening according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Our analysis demonstrated that APOE ε4 was associated with increased FTLD risk in all genetic models (ε4 vs...
April 21, 2017: Oncotarget
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